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Ex Parte McCardle1869-Supreme Court decision that examines the extent of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court to review decisions

of lower courts under federal statutory law. Congress has the authority to withdraw appellate jurisdiction from the Supreme Court at any time Entitlementa provision made in accordance with legal framework. A guarantee of access sto benefits based on established rights or by legislation Muller v OregonCurt Muller was caught violating the Oregon labor law by making a female employee work more than 10 hours in a single day. landmark case that justifies sex discrimination and usage of labor laws. Supreme Court upheld Oregons law restricting working hours of women in the interest of protecting their health implied warranty of habitabilityin common law it is a contract law term for certain assurances presumed to be made in the sale of real estate. .warranty implied by law that by leasing or buying a residential property, the lessor or seller is promising that the property is suitable to be lived in. these do not have to be specifically mentioned, orally or in writing. West Coast Hotel v Parrish-- Washington's minimum wage law for women was a valid regulation of the right to contract freely because of the state's special interest in protecting their health and ability to support themselves. Supreme Court of Washington affirmed. Usually regarded as having ended the Lochner era. Mapp v Ohiolandmark case in criminal procedure that said states had to follow the exclusionary rule of illegally found evidence. Evidence was found in violation of the 4th amendment which protects against unreasonable searches and seizures and therefore couldnt be used in the prosecution plea bargainingagreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant where the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a less serious charge in return for dismissal of other charges and a more lenient sentence Adair v USemployee fired for not complying with the banned rule that forbade workers from joining labor unions. Supreme Court said section 10 of Erdman Act was unconstitutional because it infringed on the right to liberty of contract under the 5th amendment and exceeded Congress powers under the Commerce Clause Miranda and the Baby Boomers (NOT a rock group)definitely missed this class and not in Wikipedia Hepburn v Griswold and The Legal Tender CasesMrs. Hepburn attempted to pay a debt due to Griswold on a promissory note 5 days before the issuance of US notes that the case questioned. certain parts of the legal tender acts were declared unconstitutional. Included the issuance of greenbacks. Caesare Beccariaitalian jurist, philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments which condemned torture and the death penalty. Its principles influenced thinking on criminal justice and punishment of offenders Griswold v CT1965-landmark case where the Supreme Court ruled the Constitution protected a right to privacy. CT law that prohibited use of contraceptives. A vote of 7-2 invalidated the law saying that it violated the right to marital privacy

the Missouri Plan and the plaintiffs barMissouri Plan is a method for the selection of judges were a non-partisan commission reviews candidates for a judicial vacancy and sends the governor a list of candidates considered best qualified. The plaintiffs bar is where the prosecutor sits in the courtroom Jones v Alfred Mayer CoSupreme court said Congress could regulate the sale of private property in order to prevent racial discrimination. 1968. Escola v Coca-Cola Bottling Co1944. Bottle of Coke spontaneously exploded in a womans hand and she got a deep cut. Jury verdict based on res ipsa loquitur and Escola won. Important case in the development of the common law of product liability Nebbia v NY1934. Nebbia was fined $5 for violating the price regulations on milk. He challenged the conviction arguing that the statute violated the Equal Protection Clause and Due Process of 14th Amendment. Supreme Court said the due process clause doesnt prohibit a state from enacting economic policies to further the public good as long as the policy is not unreasonable or arbitrary Shelley v Kraemer1948. Shelley(Black) family bought a house in St. Louis and were unaware that a restrictive covenant had been in place on the property which barred blacks from occupying the property. A white neighbor sued. Supreme Court said 14th amendment prohibits a state from enforcing restrictive covenants that would prohibit a person from owning or occupying property based on race or color amicus curiaeliterally means friend of the court someone not involved in a case who volunteers to offer information to assist the court in a decision Caesare Lombrosoitalian criminologist & physician. Rejected the established Classical School which held that crime was a characteristic of human nature Munn v Illinois1877. The 14th amendment does not prevent the state of Illinois from regulating charges for use of a business grain elevators Civil Rights Act of 1866 Defined freedom as the right to contract and hold property. Made it a crime to deprive people of these rights under color of law, regulation, or custom under the 13th Amendment. Katzenbach v McClung (1965) Ollies Barbeque owner was denying blacks the right to dine in his restaurant. Congress used the commerce clause to ban racial discrimination because the restaurant got its food from out of state. J Skelley Wright and the tenants bill of rights In the late 1960s, the Tenants Bill of Rights said that when you move into an apartment and the landlord does not fix problems then you are free to organize a tenants association and not pay rent to the landlord until he fixes it. Contacts for rent have an understanding that the place will be habitable. The Switch in Time that Saved Nine - Roosevelt was frustrated because he had not been able to appoint a new justice by 1937 so he decided that once a judge reached seventy, he would be forced to retire after six months and if he did not then the president could appoint a new justice for up to six

justices. Having nine justices was only customary law but Congress decided against it and kept the court out of the power of the president. Christopher Columbus Langdell He was hired by Harvard Law School in 1870 to transform the way law was taught and he wanted to teach law through actual examples of cases instead of theory. His Harvard Casebook method of instruction spread and by 1900 was the primary teaching method. The Brandeis Brief and Sociological Jurisprudence Sociological jurisprudence was a trend in law that examined the effects of multiple aspects of society, like economics, psychology and medicine. Brandeis wrote the Brandeis Briefs on behalf of reform groups and began a trend in which judges took into account other factors as well as considering the law. Macpherson v Buick Motor Company Macpherson was injured when wooden spokes from his Buicks wheels deteriorated. Buick thinks that he should sue the manufacturers but courts come up with idea of foreseeability that means the company should have tested the wheels are foreseen that an accident could happen. Schecter Poultry v US Schecter Poultry Company violated the National Industrial Recovery Act but the courts decided that this law was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power and Congress could not regulate manufacturing activities under the Commerce Clause. This ended the era of New Deal centralized industrial regulation. Wabash RR v Illinois The court declared unconstitutional the Illinois law prohibiting clauses in transportation contracts as an infringement on Congress powers granted by the commerce clause. This resulted in states being unable to regulate interstate rates for railroads and created the Interstate Commerce Commission. Swift v US Meat packers in Chicago tried to form a trust to control prices and Congress believed it had the right to regulate this under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. The courts decided that Congress could regulate this under the Commerce Clause Wyatt v Stickney Wyatt was a patient at Bryce Hospital and believed he was being mistreated. Along with other patients he made a class action lawsuit regarding the conditions of the hospitals and the decision led to national standards for patient care. Brown v Board of Education Brown plaintiffs in a class action suit argued that separate but equal was not equal and separation brought about worse conditions for Blacks. The courts overturned Plessy v Ferguson determining that separate but equal was inherently unequal, but it did not end segregation. The Missouri Plan Method of choosing judges where a non-partisan commission reviews candidate for judicial vacancy then the governor picks from the list. After one year, there is a retention election and everyone votes again and if the majority vote against he is removed from office. The Pennsylvania Plan This is a system of controlling admission into the legal profession. Prospective law school students must arrange a 6-month praeceptorship with an attorney of at least five years experience and produce letters from three sponsors as well as an interview before board examiners.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act Federal statute on competition law passed by Congress in 1890 under Theodore Roosevelt that prohibits certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace. It also requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts to limit cartels and monopolies. Lochner v New York - The Bakeshop Act was a New York state labor law which prohibited bakery employees from working for more than sixty hours per week or ten hours per day and Lochner permitted an employee to work in his bakery for more than sixty hours in one week and was convicted of his second offense and fined. Courts declared a law that limits freedom of contract is unconstitutional if it is not protecting public health. Chief Justice Earl Warren Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1954 to 1969 and believed court had responsibility to intervene on behalf of social justice. Left a legacy of civil rights in Brown v Board of Education and separation of church and state. West Coast Hotel v Parrish Elsie Parrish, an employee of the West Coast Hotel Company, received subminimum wage compensation for her work and Parrish brought a suit to recover the difference between the wages paid to her and the minimum wage fixed by state law. In a 5-to-4 decision, the Court held that the establishment of minimum wages for women was constitutionally legitimate and noted that the Constitution did not speak of the freedom of contract and that liberty was subject to the restraints of due process