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196 Aufrufe30 Seitenini adalah tutorial untuk building code perencanaan struktur baja dengan bantuan software SAP2000

Jan 28, 2014

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ini adalah tutorial untuk building code perencanaan struktur baja dengan bantuan software SAP2000

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

196 Aufrufe

ini adalah tutorial untuk building code perencanaan struktur baja dengan bantuan software SAP2000

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code (AISC 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table IV-1. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original LRFD code, a unique prefix LRFD is assigned. However, all references to the Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members carry the prefix of LRFD SAM. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.

45

A Ae Ag Av 2 , Av 3 Aw B1 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 , K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr M lt M nt M n33 , M n22 M ob M r 33 , M r 22 Mu M u 33 , M u 22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area, in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in2 Gross cross-sectional area, in2 2 Major and minor shear areas, in 2 Shear area, equal dt w per web, in Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant, in6 Outside diameter of pipes, in Modulus of elasticity, ksi Critical compressive stress, ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi Yield stress of material, ksi Shear modulus, ksi 4 Minor moment of inertia, in Major moment of inertia, in4 4 Torsional constant for the section, in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, in Elastic buckling moment, kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-in Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections, kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in Factored moment in member, kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in Euler buckling load, kips Nominal axial load strength, kip Factored axial force in member, kips A g F y , kips Reduction factor for slender section, = Qa Qs

46

Qa Qs S S 33 , S 22 S eff ,33 , S eff ,22 Sc Vn2 ,Vn3 Vu 2 ,Vu 3 Z Z 33 , Z 22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33 , l22 r r33 , r22 t tf tw

w

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus, in3 3 Major and minor section moduli, in 3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections, in 3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips Factored major and minor shear loads, kips 3 Plastic modulus, in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli, in Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in longer leg of angle sections, b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections, etc. Effective width of flange, in Flange width, in Overall depth of member, in Effective depth of web, in Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in assumed d 2k for rolled sections, and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in Parameter used for section classification, 4 h tw , kc Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths, in Radius of gyration, in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in Thickness, in Flange thickness, in Thickness of web, in Special section property for angles, in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 Resistance factor for shear, 0.9

c p r s

slender b c t v

47

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the AISC-LRFD93 code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following load combinations may have to be defined (LRFD A4.1): 1.4 DL 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL 0.9 DL 1.3 WL 1.2 DL 1.3 WL 1.2 DL + 0.5 LL 0.9 DL 1.0 EL 1.2 DL 1.0 EL 1.2 DL + 0.5 LL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4)

1.3 WL

1.0 EL

These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, if other types of loads are present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When using the AISC-LRFD93 code, SAP2000 design assumes that a P- analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is recommended that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.2 DL plus 0.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991).

Classification of Sections

The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact, Noncompact, Slender or Too Slender.

48

Classification of Sections

49

bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 640 Fy hc tw For Pu 191 Fy 253 Fy BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t 190 Fy 238 Fy No limit Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure

COMPACT ( p)

65 Fy Fy , Pu P b y

NONCOMPACT

r

SLENDER ( slender )

No limit

141

Fy - 10.0 Fy kc

65 P

162

No limit

b y

1P

I-SHAPE

b y

Pu bP y

970 Fy

Pu b P y

Fy Fy

As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable

CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

Fy

Table IV-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure based on AISC-LRFD

50

Classification of Sections

bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 520 Fy For Pu 191 Fy

52 52

b y

)

Fy Fy , Pu bP y

95 95 Fy Fy

I-SHAPE hc tw

1b y

253 Pu bP y 253 Fy

Fy

BOX

b hc bf hc bf d b b D

tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t t

Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact

238 253

Fy Fy

CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

Table IV-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) based on AISC-LRFD Classification of Sections

51

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table IV-2 and Table IV-3 (LRFD B5.1, A-G1, Table A-F1.1). The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure IV-1 and Table IV-1. Moreover, special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table IV-3. If the limits for Slender sections are not met, the section is classified as Too Slender. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes, Box, and Channel sections, it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated.

The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu , M u 33 , M u 22 , V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load, the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force, respectively. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member, the factored moment M u ( M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: M u = B1 M nt + B 2 M lt , where B1 = B2 = M nt = M lt = (LRFD C1-1, SAM 6)

Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments, Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments, Factored moments not causing sidesway, and Factored moments causing sidesway.

The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = 1 Cm Pu Pe , where Ag F y

2

Kl r

), and

52

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length.

Cm

Ma , Mb

(LRFD C1-3)

M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member, M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. For tension members C m is assumed as 1.0. For compression members with transverse load on the member, C m is assumed as 1.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0.85 for members with two unrestrained ends. When M b is zero, C m is taken as 1.0. The program defaults C m to 1.0 if the unbraced length factor, l, of the member is redefined by either the user or the program, i.e., if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. C m assumes two values, C m 22 and C m 33 , associated with the major and minor directions. The magnification factor B1 , must be a positive number. Therefore Pu must be less than Pe . If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe , a failure condition is declared. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P- effects, therefore B 2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.2 DL plus 0.5 LL (LRFD C2.2). See also White and Hajjar (1991). For single angles, where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3), the program conservatively uses the maximum of K 22 l 22 and K 33 l 33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member, the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B 2 for any member.

53

The nominal strengths in compression, tension, bending, and shear are computed for Compact, Noncompact, and Slender sections according to the following subsections. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular, I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, and Double-angle sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. For Single-angle sections, the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principle axes. The strength reduction factor, , is taken as follows (LRFD A5.3):

t c c b v

= Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 (LRFD D1, H1, SAM 2, 6) = Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 (LRFD E2, E3, H1) = Resistance factor for compression in angles, 0.90 (LRFD SAM 4, 6) = Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 (LRFD F1, H1, A-F1, A-G2, SAM 5) = Resistance factor for shear, 0.9 (LRFD F2, A-F2, A-G3, SAM 3)

If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the Redefine Element Design Data form, these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. The specified nominal strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending.

Compression Capacity

The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling, torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. For members in compression, if Kl r is greater than 200, a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7, SAM 4). For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r z , is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r .

Flexural Buckling

The nominal axial compressive strength, Pn , depends on the slenderness ratio, Kl r, and its critical value, c , where

54

max

, and

Kl r

For single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r z , is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr , where Fcr = Fcr =

2 c

Fy , Fy ,

Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr , where Fcr = Q Fcr =

2 c

(LRFD A-B3d, SAM 4) Q Q , and (LRFD A-B5-15, SAM 4-1) . (LRFD A-B5-16, SAM 4-2)

F y , for for

Fy ,

The reduction factor, Q, for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. For slender sections, Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a , where (LRFD A-B5-17, SAM 4)

Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements, and (LRFD A-B5.3a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (LRFD A-B5.3c)

The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table IV-4 (LRFD A-B5.3a). The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-B5.3c). Qa Ae Ag (LRFD A-B5-14)

55

Section Type

if Qs b f 2t f b f 2t f

2

Equation Reference

b f 2t f Fy b f 2t f b f 2t f

Fy , Fy , Fy .

Fy , if if

Fy ,

I-SHAPE

Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f

2

(rolled) if Fy k c Fy if if (welded) Fy k c b f 2t f bf 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c , Fy k c , Fy k c .

BOX

Qs

LRFD A-B5.3d LRFD A-B5-5, LRFD A-B5-6, LRFD A-B5-7, LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5-5, LRFD A-B5-6, LRFD A-B5-7, LRFD A-B5-8, LRFD A-B5-9, LRFDA-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3, LRFD A-B5-4

CHANNEL

For flanges, as for flanges in I-shapes. For web see below. T-SHAPE

if Qs d tw

2

d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t b t Fy E b t b t Fy , Fy , Fy .

Fy , Fy , Fy .

Fy , if if if

d t w Fy ,

DOUBLEANGLE (Separated)

Qs

b t

2

Fy , if if if

b t Fy ,

Fy E , Fy E , Fy E .

ANGLE

Qs bt

b t

2

Fy E , if , if

LRFD SAM4-3

Fy E

Qs Qs Qs Qs

1 1 1 1

56

Section Type

h,

Equation Reference

if tw 1 , if

I-SHAPE

he f h, he f

h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b tf h tw h tw

f f

, (compression only, f . P ) Ag

LRFD A-B5-12

(h tw ) f

if tw 1 , if

f f

, (compression only, f . P ) Ag

LRFD A-B5-12

(h tw ) f

BOX

b, be f h, tf 1 , if if

f f

, (compr. or flexure, f . Fy )

LRFD A-B5-11

(b t f ) f

if tw 1 , if

CHANNEL

he f

f f

, (compression only, f . P ) Ag

LRFD A-B5-12

(h tw ) f

1, if , if D t D t Fy Fy

be be be

,

b b b

PIPE

Qa D t Fy

(compression only) .

LRFD A-B5-13

Not applicable be b

LRFD A-B5.3b

Not applicable

Table IV-5 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Nominal Strengths

57

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t

b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b, and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table IV-5 (LRFD A-B5.3b). For webs in I, box, and Channel sections, h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation.

Flexural-Torsional Buckling

Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r is given by Pn = Ag Fcrft , where Fcrft = Fcrz Fcr 2 Fcrz 2H GJ , Ar02

2 x0 2 y0

2

, where

(LRFD E3-1)

H 1

r02

r0 = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center, x 0 , y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid, x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry), Fcr 2 is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Kl F y . buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for c r22 E

The strength of a compression member, Pn , determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr , where (LRFD A-E3-1)

58

2 e

F y , for for

Q Q

, and .

Fy ,

2

Fe

EC w

2

GJ

1 I 22 I 33

(LRFD A-E3-5)

K z lz

2

(LRFD A-E3-6)

2

(LRFD A-E3-6)

2

(LRFD A-E3-6)

For Single-angle sections with unequal legs, Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where,

2 x0

r02

Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 )

2 y0

r02

0,

59

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual x 0 , y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid, x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry), r0

2 x0 2 y0

I 22 Ag

2 y0

I 33

H 1

2 x0

r02

2

(LRFD A-E3-9)

Fe 33

E

2

(LRFD A-E3-10)

K 33 l 33 r33

2

Fe 22

E

2

(LRFD A-E3-11)

K 22 l 22 r22

2

Fez

EC w

2

GJ

K z lz

1 , Ar02

(LRFD A-E3-12)

K 22 , K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions, K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling, and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000, l 22 , l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions, l z is the effective length for torsional buckling, and it is taken equal to l 22 . For angle sections, the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe . Also, the maximum value of Kl, i.e, max( K 22 l 22 , K 33 l 33 ), is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case.

Tension Capacity

The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. Pn Ag F y (LRFD D1-1)

It should be noted that no net section checks are made. For members in tension, if l r is greater than 300, a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7, SAM 2). For

60

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 single angles, the minimum radius of gyration, r z , is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r .

The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section, the axis of bending, the compactness of the section, and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For the Rectangular, I, Box, Channel, Circular, Pipe, T, and Double-angle sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For the Single Angle sections, the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding, lateral-torsional buckling, flange local buckling, and web local buckling, as follows:

Yielding

The flexural design strength of beams, determined by the limit state of yielding is: Mp Z Fy S Fy (LRFD F1-1)

Lateral-Torsional Buckling

Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I, Channel, Box, and Rectangular shaped members bent about the major axis, the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): M p 33 , Lb - L p Lr - L p if Lb Lp ,

M n 33 = C b M p 33 - M p 33 - M r 33

M p 33 , if

Lp

Lb

Lr ,

M cr 33

M p 33 ,

if

Lb

Lr .

(LRFD F1-1, F1-2, F1-12) where, M n 33 M p 33 = = Nominal major bending strength, Major plastic moment, Z 33 F y S 33 F y , (LRFD F1.1)

61

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 = Major limiting buckling moment, ( F y Fr )S 33 for I-shapes and channels, and F y S eff , 33 for rectangular bars and boxes, Critical elastic moment, Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb

2

M cr 33 =

for I-shapes and channels, and 57 000 C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars, Lb r22 Lb Lp = = Laterally unbraced length, l 22 ,

Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, 300 r22 for I-shapes and channels, and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for boxes and rectangular bars, (LRFD F1-5)

Lr

Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, r22 X 1 1 + X 2 F y - Fr F y Fr for I-shapes and channels, and 57 000 r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars, M r 33 (LRFD F1-6) (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) (LRFD F1-3)

X1 X2 Cb

= = =

S 33 4 Cw I 22 M

EGJA , 2 S 33 GJ

2

M , and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC

M , M A , M B ,and M C are absolute values of maximum moment, 1/4 point, center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively, in the member. C b should be taken as 1.0 for cantilevers. However, the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. The user should overwrite C b for cantilevers. The program also defaults C b to 1.0 if the minor unbraced length, l 22 , of the member is re-

62

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 defined by the user (i.e. it is not equal to the length of the member). The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. For I, Channel, Box, and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis, the moment capacity is given by the following equation: M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y S 22 F y (LRFD F1)

For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis, M n = M p = Z Fy S Fy . (LRFD F1)

T-sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles the nominal major bending strength is given as, M n 33 = M n 33 M n 33 B EI 22 GJ Lb B + 1 + B 2 , where (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1.2c)

The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). For T-shapes and double angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as, M n 22 = S 22 F y . Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.1.3):

63

M ob M y , major

M y , major ,

if M ob

M y , major ,

M y , major , if M ob M y , major ,

yield moment about the major principal axis of bending, considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips, elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below.

M ob

The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment, M ob , for equal-leg angles is taken as M ob Cb E b2t2 , l (LRFD SAM 5-5)

w

EC b

I l

2

2 w

( lt r

)2

min t w , t f , max l 22 , l 33 , = minor principal axis moment of inertia, = major principal axis moment of inertia, = radius of gyration for minor principal axis, 1 I

A

z( w 2

z 2 )dA

2z 0 ,

z = coordinate along the major principal axis, w = coordinate along the minor principal axis, and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid.

64

w is a special section property for angles. It is positive for short leg in compression, negative for long leg in compression, and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5.3.2). However, for conservative design in SAP2000, it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles.

General Sections For General sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as, M n = S Fy .

The flexural design strength, M n , of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending, M p 33 ,

p r p

if

M n 33 =

M p 33

M p 33

M r 33

, if

, (A-F1-3)

M cr 33

M p 33 ,

if

p r p

if

M n 22 =

M p 22

M p 22

M r 22

, if

, (A-F1-3)

M cr 22 where, M n 33 M n 22 M p 33 M p 22 = = = =

M p 22 ,

if

Nominal major bending strength, Nominal minor bending strength, Major plastic moment, Z 33 F y S 33 F y , Minor plastic moment, Z 22 F y S 22 F y , Calculation of Nominal Strengths

65

p r

= = = = = = =

Major limiting buckling moment, Minor limiting buckling moment, Major buckling moment, Minor buckling moment, Controlling slenderness parameter, Largest value of for which M n M p , and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic.

The parameters , p , r , M r 33 , M r 22 , M cr 33 , and M cr 22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes, Channels bf 2t f bf tf , (for I sections) (LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1)

, Fy , Fy Fr , Fy Fr kc

M r 33 M r 22

(Fy

Fr )S 33 ,

F y S 22 ,

2

S 33 , kc

2

M cr 33

M cr 22

S 22 , kc

2

66

Fr

(LRFD A-F1)

Boxes bf tf bf tf

p

3 tw 2 tw

(LRFD B5.1, Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) (LRFD A-F1)

M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 Fr

S eff , 33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness, and S eff , 22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness. T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T sections and Double angles in SAP2000. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.1.1):

67

Fy S c ,

if

Fy

M n= F y S c Fy Fy S c ,

, if

Fy

b t b t

Fy

if

Fy

where, S c = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg, t = thickness of the leg under consideration, b = length of the leg under consideration, and Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling. In calculating the bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling, the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. The minimum capacities are considered. Pipe Sections t

p

, Fy ,

Fy D t + Fy S ,

M r 33 = M r 22 =

M cr 33 = M cr 22 =

S,

68

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes, rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately.

The flexural design strengths are considered in SAP2000 for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1.1). I Shapes, Channels, and Boxes The flexural design strength for the major axis bending, M n , of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1, A-F1-3, A-G2-2): M p 33 ,

p r p

if

M n 33 =

M p 33

M p 33 M r 33

, if

,(A-F1,A-G1)

S 33 R PG R e Fcr , where, M n 33 M p 33 M r 33

p r

if

R PG Re Fcr

= = = = = = = = =

Nominal major bending strength, Major plastic moment, Z 33 F y (LRFD F1.1) S 33 F y , Major limiting buckling moment,R e S 33 F y ,(LRFD TableA-F1.1) Web slenderness parameter, Largest value of for which M n M p , Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic, Plate girder bending strength reduction factor, Hybrid girder factor, and Critical compression flange stress, ksi.

The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows, where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension: hc , tw Calculation of Nominal Strengths

69

1Fy

p

The parameters R PG , R e , and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in SAP2000 as follows: R PG ar ar ar m m3 ar , (for hybrid sections), (LRFD A-G2) hc tw , Fcr (LRFD A-G2-3)

Re Re ar

min( Fcr , F y )

, taken as 1.0.

(LRFD A-G2)

In the above expressions, R e is taken as 1, because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. The critical compression flange stress, Fcr , for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter in SAP2000 as follows:

70

p r p

if

Fcr =

C b Fy 1 C PG

2

F y , if

(LRFD A-G2-4, 5, 6)

if

The parameters , p , r , and C PG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I, Channel and Box sections are given below: Lb , rT

p

C PG

rT = radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web, and it is taken as b f 12 in SAP2000. C b = a factor which depends on span moment. It is calculated using the equation given in page 62. The parameters , p , r , and C PG for flange local buckling for slender web I, Channel and Box sections are given below: b , t

p

(LRFD A-G2-11) , Fy , Fy kc k c , and (LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15) (LRFD A-G2-13) (LRFD A-G2-12)

C PG Cb 1.

71

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in SAP2000. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze this separately. Single Angles The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5.1.1). No additional check is considered in SAP2000. Pipe Sections The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No additional check is considered in SAP2000. Circular, Rectangular, and General Sections No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1.1). No web local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular, rectangular, and general shapes. If special consideration is required, the user is expected to analyze them separately.

Shear Capacities

The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. For I, Box, Channel, T, Double angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes. Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength, V n 2 , for major direction shears in I-shapes, boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h tw V n2 = for Fy < , Fy F y Aw , h tw , Fy (LRFD F2-1)

72

Fy , Aw

for Fy V n2 =

<

h tw

The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 .

Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3

In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios, first, for each station along the length of the member, the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Then, the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained, along with the associated station and load combination. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. During the design, the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Also, the joints are not designed.

Pu . If Pu is tensile, Pn is the Pn nominal axial tensile strength and ; and if Pu is compressive, Pn is t , except for angle secthe nominal axial compressive strength and c (LRFD SAM 6). In addition, the resistance factor for bendtions c ing, b . The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Calculation of Capacity Ratios

73

For

For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. For Single-angle sections, the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5.3, 6). For I, Box, Channel, T, Double angle, Pipe, Circular and Rectangular sections, the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections, principal axes are determined in SAP2000. For general sections it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of the principal directions.

Shear Stresses

Similarly to the normal stresses, from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations, shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: V u2 , and vV n 2 V u3 , vV n 3 where

v

For Single-angle sections, the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes.

74

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