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“Basic Photography” Workshop

Kewal Gala
Aperture, IIM Indore
What Can A Camera Do?

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Capture Memories…

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Help save Time & Effort…

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Make a Change…

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Generate Global Attention…

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Pay your Bills…

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Make you an Artist…

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…or Destroy your Life!

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Yet a Camera by itself does nothing.

YOU DO!
Do you know what to do with this thing?

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Workshop Outline
• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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Choosing the Best Camera
• No longer a once-in-a-lifetime purchase
• Select one which can do the job you want
today + for the foreseeable future
• Some kinds of cameras do
some kinds of things better or more easily
e.g., Sports photography vs. Close-up portraits

• Price isn’t the best indicator


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CAMERA CATEGORIES

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Web Cameras & Phone Cameras

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Point-and-Shoot Cameras

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Advanced Consumer Models

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Prosumer dSLR Cameras

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Professional Cameras

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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Megapixels: How much do you need?
• Often, cameras are categorized by the no. of
Megapixels they can capture

• As if that resolution figure is the only measure


of the camera’s value

• This value can be quite misleading

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Optical vs. Digital Zoom
• An optical zoom uses the optics (lens) of the digital
camera to move you closer to your subject
• A digital zoom simply enlarges the existing image
digitally. It is not really zoom, in the strictest definition
of the term
• Enlarging the image digitally reduces picture quality,
and should therefore usually be avoided.
• Some manufacturers label their lenses with the "total
zoom" by multiplying the optical with the digital.
Ignore It.
• When comparing digital cameras:
Go for higher optical zoom. Digital zoom can always be
achieved later in an image editing software.
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Megapixels: What to keep in Mind
• What you plan to do with the photos you take:
8 x 10” Photo Prints vis. a vis. 20 x 30” Posters

• Do most of the photos you take end up as


your wallpaper or Facebook/Orkut photos?

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Resolution & their Print Sizes
Resolution Avg. quality Best quality Resolution

0.5 megapixels 3x5 in. N/A 800 x 600

2 megapixels 8x10 in. 3x5 in. 1600 x 1200

4 megapixels 11x14 in. 5x7 in. 2300 x 1700

6 megapixels 16x20 in. 8x10 in. 3000 x 2000

10+ megapixels 25x40 in. 13x17 in. 3888+ x 2592+

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Questions to Ask:
• Do you plan to manipulate your photos?

• Are you a photo hobbyist?

• How often do you plan to upgrade?

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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Anti-Blur
Anti-Shake
Image Stabilization
Vibration Reduction

• A technology that stabilizes the lens to


effectively reduce blur due to camera shake.

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Histogram

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Bokeh (BOH-KEH)

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Depth of Field
• The distance wherein objects are in focus. The
smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of
field achieved.

MORE ABOUT IT IN “APERTURE”

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Metering
How the camera measures the amount of light
available to expose a picture
• Centre-Weighted: Readings are taken at
various part of the picture, with a special
emphasis for the centre.
• Spot: Readings are taken at a specific point.
• Each camera manufacturer has its own
variations (Evaluative Metering)

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White Balance
• The ability to adjust colours based on white as
a reference colour to give as true a white as
possible
• All other colors are corrected accordingly
• Auto WB (AWB): the camera determines and
selects the correct colour temperature for
white.

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White Balance
• Some preset white balance settings are
daylight, cloudy, tungsten, or fluorescent.

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[ Ev +/-] Exposure-Compensation
• Also popularly known as Flash Compensation

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained

• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of


Field, Shutter Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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Aperture
• a hole or an opening
through which
light travels

• It causes variations in
the Depth of Field
within the image

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f16

vis. a vis.

f2.8
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Shutter Speed
• Amount of time the
picture is exposed

• Short/Fast shutter speed

• Long/Slow shutter speed

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1/8th

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1/30th

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1/60th

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1/500th

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Results of Varying Shutter Speeds

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USING THE TECHNIQUE OF….

PANNING
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Which shutter speed is the best?

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ISO
• the measure of a digital camera sensor’s
sensitivity to light
• a higher number indicates higher sensitivity
• This is usually expressed as a range,
e.g. ISO 100 - 1600.
• A higher sensitivity allows us to take pictures
in low light without using flash
• Higher ISO causes more "noise" than lower
ISO
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ISO 100

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ISO 1600

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital
Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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First off…

• Understand how your camera works

• Know some Photography fundamentals

• Find out how to use an image editor

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The Exposure Triangle

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Far from Perfect / Meant for Illustrative Purposes Only

METAPHORS

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Sun Bathing

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Open Window

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of Composition
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Pre-set exposure control (shutter/aperture combination, plus other
adjustments, such as white balance, exposure compensation, etc.)

SCENE MODES

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Shutter Priority
• Shutter Priority: Allows you to decide the
shutter speed (e.g. fast at 1/500 sec. for stop
action photography, or slow at 2 sec. for night
photography), and the camera decides the
best aperture.

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Aperture Priority
• Aperture Priority: Allows you to choose the
aperture (e.g. large at F1.8 for portrait, of
small at F16 for landscapes).

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Manual
• You have complete creative control in
selecting both the shutter and aperture.

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Auto

• All digital cameras usually have an Auto mode:


the camera decides for you the best shutter
speed/aperture settings.

AUTO
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Landscape Photography
• Primary function is to allow a large depth of
field
Landscape mode tells the camera to default to a:
• Large Depth of Field (Small Aperture) –f16

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Portrait Photography
• This mode is not well suited for full-length
portraits or groups of people

Portrait mode tells the camera to default to a:


• Small Depth of Field (Large Aperture) – f1.8

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Sports/Action Photography
• tells the camera to default its settings toward
capturing images faster

This is done by:


• Increasing Shutter Speed
• Increasing ISO

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Night Photography
• This preset slows down the shutter speed to
allow a lot of light into the camera
• Both the foreground and background of the
image are properly exposed.
• very useful in taking low-light
images where you do not want
the background to be black

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Macro Photography
• This setting works with your camera lens to
allow it to focus from a very short distance.
• Depth of Field becomes very Small
(Large Aperture) – f1.8

• Does not have


a lot of alternative uses

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• Basics of Equipment
• Busting the Megapixel Myth
• Photography Jargons Explained
• Concepts: Aperture, Depth of Field, Shutter
Speed, ISO, Noise
• Understanding Digital Photography
• Styles/Modes of Photography
• Tools & Techniques of
Composition
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About Composition
• Create the picture

• Decide what is in and what is left out

• “Convince” the eye to glance at it a moment


longer

• “Composition" means "Putting Together"


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Subject

Predicate

Background
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Rule

of

Thirds
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Rule of Thirds
• The theory is that your photo becomes more
balanced and will enable a viewer of the
image to interact with it more naturally

• People’s eyes usually go to one of the


intersection points most naturally rather than
the centre of the shot

• It works with this natural way of viewing an


image rather than working against it
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More of a suggestion than a rule?
• Important to experiment to overcome the natural
tendency to centre everything

• But, sometimes you may find situations where it's


difficult to follow the rule of thirds

• If you know why you're doing it -feel free!

• But when you're first starting out it's a good idea


to try to follow it whenever you can 
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Converging Composition

• leads the viewer’s


eye into the depth
of the photo

• Usually, centre it and create a symmetrical


composition leading to the centre.
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Shooting angles
• try new angles, POV

• When taking pictures of


live objects, try to be at
eye’s level with the
subject.

If we are higher – it
diminishes them, if we
are lower – it augments
them.
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What does the eye like?

This is the million-dollar question

• The eye is drawn to three things (A, B, C):

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A. Acutely sharp elements

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B. Bright elements

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C. Colourful elements

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Breaking the Rules
• Sometimes breaking the rules creates that unexpected
shot that the viewer doesn’t quite know how to take in
and this is what fascinates him/her even more.

• But my suggestion is, before you break the rules, learn


them well and then you’ll know how and when to
break them. Learn it before you Break it.

• One of the best tests for a good picture is how long the
viewer stalls to look at it. A fascinating subject helps, of
course, but a good composition will take it to a whole
other level.
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Your Photos

by Rajeev Verma
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Your Photos

by Rajeev Verma
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Your Photos

by Rajeev Verma
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Your Photos

by Ram Prasad
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Your Photos

by Arnav Mukherjee
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Your Photos

by Arnav Mukherjee
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Your Photos

by Arnav Mukherjee
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Your My Photo

by Kewal Gala
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Your Photos

by Aashish Mylapally
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Your Photos

by Aashish Mylapally
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Your Photos

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REMEMBER,

THIS WORKSHOP IS NOT AN END OF


PHOTOGRAPHY LEARNING!
BUT WE HOPE IT SURELY WAS ONE
WHERE YOUR JOURNEY BEGINS.....

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Happy Clicking!!

Kewal Gala
Club Aperture – The Photography Club
IIM Indore