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Mechanical Characteristics of PBO Single Fiber

Y. Yamashita, S. Kawabata, S. Okada and A. Tanaka The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone 522-8533, Japan

ABSTRACT

Keywords PBO fiber, Longitudinal tensile modulus, Compression modulus, Transverse modulus, Shear modulus, Fatigue property Introduction The anisotropic mechanical property of the high-strength fiber has been studied by Kawabata. Recently, PBO (Poly p-phenylene-2,6-bezobisoxazole) is noticed as an organic high-strength fiber (Scheme 1). This is an aromatic polymer which contains the heterocycle instead of the amide bonding to obtain higher elastic modulus than the aramid fiber. On this PBO, theoretical calculation was carried out the tensile elasticity. However, its measured data are little. Especially, there are many unclear point on compressive modulus, shear (torsion) modulus and fatigue characteristics. To clarify these, we carried out the mechanical measurement of the PBO single fiber.
N N

Scheme 1 Experiment For the material design, there are four necessary elastic modulus in the axial symmetry anisotropy body like the fiber as showing in Figure 1. It is longitudinal tensile modulus, longitudinal compression modulus, transverse and shear modulus. The PBO fiber used for the measurement is ZYLON-HM (high modulus type and made by Toyobo Co., Ltd.).

Figure 1 Fiber symmetric anisotropy of fiber

Single fiber tensile testing machine (KES-G1), single fiber twisting tester (KES-GX), single fiber transverse testing machine, and twisting tester (KES-G7) for the axial compression were used for the measurement. The measurement was done at 25 in room temperature. The single fiber tensile measurement is 50mm in the length of the sample, and tensile speeds 0.5mm/sec (the 1%/sec strain rate). Strain (0.4%0.8%1.2%1.6%2.0%) was loaded 1000 times. The single fiber twist measurement was done at the 2.0mm sample length. The break of the fiber did not happen in the measured twist strain in this fibre length. Shear strain (2.2%4.4%8.8%13.2%17.6%22.0%) was taken to 1000 times. Modulus of transverse direction was measured with the single fiber transverse compression testing machine. The diameter of the fiber was measured also. The fiber axial compression sample was made as follows. The PBO fiber coiled up in the plastic round bar at 45 angle, and those were bonded together. The compression strain caused by the twist of the rod is loaded to the fiber. This technique is easy, and is the best for the measurement of the axial compression fatigue. Fatigue was repeatedly loaded 1000 times. Result and Discussion Longitudinal tensile characteristic ELT Table 1 shows the elastic constant which the PBO fiber measured. Tensile modulus of elasticity is 315Gpa, and this is almost corresponding to the value which has been reported. Figure 2(a) shows the tensile fatigue property. Figure 2(b) shows the result of the fatigue property standardized by the first cycled modulus. The decrease in modulus by the cyclic fatigue does not depend on the strain, and it has little fatigue in the tensile strain. Little the decrease in modulus of elasticity because of the tensile fatigue of the Kevlar fiber is understood by our measurement. Therefore, it has been understood that the PBO fiber and the Kevlar fiber show a similar tensile fatigue behavior. Table 1 Fiber PBO Carbon (T-300,PAN) Ceramic (Tiranno) Kevlar 49 HMPE Kevlar 29 Glass PET Acrylic Silk Cotton Wool Nylon 6 EL, ET, GLT of fibers ET (GPa) 0.91 6.03 26.5 2.49 1.21 2.59 67.9 1.37 4.96 0.57 0.93 1.09 1.37 GLT (GPa 1.02 18.2 45.8 2.01 1.90 2.17 42.5 1.03 1.69 0.33 0.11 1.47 0.55

EL (GPa) 315.2 234.6 159.7 113.4 89.3 79.8 77.4 14.5 11.0 4.86 3.49 3.33 2.76

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1 10 100 1000


=0.020 =0.016 =0.012 =0.008 =0.004

Number of Loading Cycles N

Figure 2(a)

Relationship between the tensile modulus and the frequency of the fatigue.
1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.9 1 10 100 1000
=0.020 =0.016 =0.012 =0.008 =0.004

Number of Loading Cycles N

Figure 2(b) fatigue.

Relationship between the tensile relative modulus and the frequency of the

Longitudinal compression characteristic ELC The measurement of the fiber axial compression by the single fiber is still difficult. However, the testing method which loaded compressive strain on the fiber was established by winding the fiber to plastic round bar at the angle of 45 degrees, and twisting it. As this measuring technique, the experiment and the fatigue measurement is easy. Figure 3 shows the relation between the axial compression stress and strain of the PBO fiber obtained by this technique. In the tension side, PBO fiber shows the tensile modulus over the double in comparison with Kevlar fiber. However, there are hardly the difference those fibers in the compression side. Moreover, axial compression modulus of PBO fiber is about a half of tensile modulus shown in Table 2. Meanwhile, the Kevlar fiber has the property in which compression modulus and tensile modulus are almost same. This cause will be considered 3

as follows. The fibril which consists of the rigid molecular chain of PBO shifts and slips very easily by compression. Therefore, the molecular chain cannot maintain the compression force in the fiber-axis direction. The yield phenomenon was observed in the compression. The fiber breaks on stress-strain curve in the tension side without causing the yield phenomenon. This feature is also the same as Kevlar fiber, and it is thought the buckling of a micro fibril by slipping of the molecular chain. Moreover, it was clarified that the compressive modulus decreased remarkably by fatigue.
8

Stress (GPa)

PBO

Kevlar49

Compression
0 -2 -1.0

Extension

-0.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Strain (%)
Figure 3 Longitudinal property of PBO and Kevlar

Table .2

EL , EC of PBO and Kevlar

Fiber EL (GPa) EC (GPa) PBO 315.2 161.0 Kevlar 49 113.4 97.6

Transverse compression behavior ET Modulus of the transverse direction is extremely low compared with tensile modulus from Table 1. It is Figure 4 to summarize the relation between ET and ELT of various high strength fibers and natural fibers which Kawabata have been measuring earlier. Clearly PBO fiber belongs to the group of organic fibers and ET takes a quite different tendency in organic fibers and inorganic fibers. That is, it is understood that ET and EL are independent in the organic fiber group, and it is difficult to improve ET. The fiber intersection point receives the compression, when the force is perpendicularly applied for fabric plane made in the PBO fiber. Therefore, PBO fiber has easily broken down in the intersection point of the fiber. So, it is necessary to design so that the force of transverse is not loaded to the fiber. Torsional characteristic (Shear modulus) GL Table 1 shows shear modulus also. Shear modulus of the PBO fiber is the same as a general use organic fiber, and half of Kevlar and the ultra-high molecular weight

100

Inorganic fiber

10

Organic fibers

1 1 10 100 1000

PBO

0.1

EL , GPa
Figure 4 Relation between EL and ET.

polyethylene fibers. Figure 5(a) showed the relation between the shear modulus in a different twist strain and the repetition fatigue number. The shear modulus was standardized by initial modulus (first cycle modulus). By Kawabata, it has been proven that the equivalent conversion rule is established between fatigue life and strain in Kevlar fiber. It was clarified to approve the equivalent conversion rule of PBO fiber. Figure 5(b) arranged the result. The decrease in the shear modulus happens to the PBO fiber compared with Kevlar fiber by a small fatigue life. The shift factor of these fibers was summarized on Figure 5(c). It has been understood that the amount of the movement of the shift factor becomes almost the same inclination despite the type of the fiber. This fact guesses the mechanism of fatigue by the torsion is not molecular structure of the fiber but depends on the interaction between molecular chains. Summary The anisotropy mechanical property of the PBO fiber was clarified by the measurement. The PBO fiber has most excellently tensile modulus of elasticity in the organic fiber. However, the compression modulus and the shear modulus are lower than other high strength fibers. For the reason, attention is necessary for the handling. Moreover, many kink-band was observed by the PBO fiber after fatigue. It is thought that the fibril of the molecular chain bandle shifts easily, transforms, comes loose, and breaks. It was the forecast that transverse modulus of the PBO was lower than tensile modulus from the X-ray crystal analysis. But the experimental data were lower from it. This reason is possibly guessed that fibrillar's sliding force is smaller than intermolecular force. We will examine this fact more in detail later. 5

1. 2 1
Relative Modulus0 =0. m 022 m =0. 044 m =0. 088 m =0. 132 m =0. 176 m =0. 220

0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 1 10 100 1000
Num ber ofLoadi ng Cycl es N

Figure 5(a) Strain dependence of the shear modulus

2.0

Kevlar 49
1.5

1.0

0.5

PBO
-

1.E-03

1.E-01

1.E+01

1.E+03

1.E+05

1.E+07

Kevlar 49 m=0.025 m=0.031 m=0.037 m=0.075 m=0.112 m=0.154 PBO m=0.022 m=0.044 m=0.088 m=0.132 m=0.176 m=0.220

Number of Loading Cycles N

Figure 5(b) Superposition curve of the shear (torsion) fatigue. Solid line/filled mark show the PBO fiber Dotted line / open mark shows the Kevlar fiber

6 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 10 20 30 40 50

PBO ( ms=0.044) Tetoron Technora Kevlar 29 Kevlar 49

1/m
Figure 5(c) Shift factor of shear deformation for some fibers Summary The anisotropy mechanical property of the PBO fiber was clarified by the measurement. The PBO fiber has most excellently tensile modulus of elasticity in the organic fiber. However, the compression modulus and the shear modulus are lower than other high strength fibers. For the reason, attention is necessary for the handling. Moreover, many kink-band was observed by the PBO fiber after fatigue. It is thought that the fibril of the molecular chain bandle shifts easily, transforms, comes loose, and breaks. It was the forecast that transverse modulus of the PBO was lower than tensile modulus from the X-ray crystal analysis. But the experimental data were lower from it. This reason is possibly guessed that fibrillar's sliding force is smaller than intermolecular force. We will examine this fact more in detail later. Acknowledgements We are very thanked to TOYOBO Co. Ltd. for help this research. Reference Sueo Kawabata, Modern Textile Characterization Methods, edited by Mastura Raheel, 311-328, Marcel Dekker, New York (1996) S. Kawabata, Y. Yamashita, A. Kido and K. Ueda, Fatigue of Fiber Caused by Repeated Axial Compression, Proceeding of the 28th Textile Research Symposium at Mt. Fuji, 2-8 (1999) T. Nishino, K. Nakamura, K. Nakamae, Elastic Modulus of the Crystalline Regions of Poly (p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) in the Direction Perpendicular to the Chain Axis, Polymer Preprint, Japan Vol.49, No. 10, 3133-3134 (2000)