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1-4 Chemistry

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM

Scientific Method Hypothesisa tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations After formulating hypothesis, scientists conduct experiments to confirm or invalidate. Quantitative and qualitative information is collected. o Quantitativeis numerical data, such as the temperature at which chemical substance melts or its mass. o Qualitativeconsists of nonnumeric observations, such as the color of a substance or its physical appearance. After numerous experiments by many scientists over an extended period of time a hypothesis may become a lawa concise verbal or mathematical statement of a behavior or a relation that seems always to be the same under the same conditions. o We base much of what we do in science on laws b/c they help us predict what may occur under a new set of circumstances. Once enough reproducible experiments have been conducted and experimental results have been generalized as a law or general rule, it may be possible to conceive a theory to explain the observation. A theory is a well-tested, unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them. It is capable of suggesting new hypotheses that can be tested experimentally. o A theory is based on carefully determined and reproducible evidence. Experimental results should be reproducible. The results should be reported in the scientific literature in sufficient detail that they can be used or reproduced by others. Conclusions should be reasonable and unbiased Credit should be given where it is due.

Green chemistry?!?! Matterphysical material that has mass and occupies space. An easily observed property of mater is its state, whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.

Solidsrigid shape and fixed volume Liquidsfixed volume, but is fluid, takes on shape of its container and has no def shape of its own. Gasesfluid as well, but volume is determined by size of container. Varies by changes in temp/pressure Kinetic molecular theory of materhelps us interpret the properties of solids, liquids, and gases. All matter consists of tiny particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) that are in constant motion. In solids, particles are packed closely together, usually in a regular array. Particles vibrate back and forth, but seldom do they squeeze past their neighbor. In liquids, particles are arranged randomly rather than in regular patterns found in solids. Liquids/gases are fluid b/c the particles are not confined to specific locations and can move past one another. Under normal conditions, the particles in gas are far apart. Molecules move extremely fast and arent constrained by neighbors. Collide with one another and with walls of container. **The higher the temperature, the faster the particles move** The energy of motion of the particles, their KE, acts to overcome the forces of attraction b/w particles. Increasing temperature corresponds to faster and faster motions of atoms and molecules. Macroscopicobserved by unaided human senses. Determined using samples of matter large enough to be seen, measured, and handled. Submicroscopic or particulateworld of atoms and molecules Atoms, molecules, and ions cannot be seen in the same way that one views the macroscopic world, but they are no less real. Pure substancehas a set of unique properties. Cannot be separated into 2 or more diff species by any physical technique at ordinary temperatures. If it could be separated, it would be classified as a mixture. Melting point and boiling point Mixtureconsists of two or more pure substances that can be separated by physical techniques.

Heterogenous mixturesand on the beach (solids&liquids); unseen texture of the material can be detected. Homogenous mixtureuniform composition throughout. Two or more substances in the same phase. Often called solutions. Ex: air, soft drink Substances like hydrogen and oxygen that are composed of only one type of atom are classified as elements. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element. Chemical compoundpure substance like sugar, salt, or H2O, is composed of two or more different elements held together by chemical bonds. A compound has distinctly different characteristics from its parent elements, and it has a definite percentage composition (by mass) of its combining elements. Some compounds are composed of ions, which are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Other compoundssuch as water and sugarconsist of molecules, the smallest discrete units that retain the composition and chemical characteristics of the compound. Physical propertiescan be observed and measured without changing the composition of a substance. Ex: color, state of matter, melting/boiling point, density, solubility, etc. Densityratio of the mass of an object to its volume. Temperatureoften affects the numerical values of its properties. Extensive properties-depend on the amount of substance present. Intensive propertiesdo not depend on the amount. Ex: mass/volume of an object. Useful in identifying an object. Physical changes are changes in physical properties. The identity of a substance is preserved even though it may have changed its physical state or the size/shape of its pieces. The substance present before and after the change are the same. Ex: ice melting, molecules present both before and after the change are H2O molecules.

Chemical changeone or more substances (reactants) are transformed into one or more different substances (products). Ex: H & O molecules create H2O. Energy Basics Classified as kinetic or potential. o Kineticassociated with motion of atoms, molecules, or ions at the submicroscopic level (thermal energy). All matter has thermal energy. Motion of macrosopic objects such as a moving tennis ball (mechanical energy) Movement of electrons in a conductor (electrical energy) Compression and expansion of the spaces b/w molecules in the transmission of sound (acoustic) o Potential Results from objects position Energy possessed by a ball held above the floor and by water at the top of a water wheel (gravitational energy) Energy stored in an extended spring Energy stored in fuels (chemical) Energy associated with the separation of 2 electrical charges (electrostatic energy) o Potential energy and kinetic can be interconverted. Law of Conservation of Energyenergy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total energy of the universe is constant. When expressing energy quantities, most use the joule (J), the SI unit. The joule is related to the units used for mechanical energy: 1 J = 1 kg * m2/s2 Precision of a measurement indicates how well several determinations of the same quantity agree. Accuracy is the agreement of a measurement with the accepted value of the quantity.

Standard deviation of a series of measurements is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the deviations for each measurement from the average, divided by one less than the number of measurements. Significant figures are the digits in a measured quantity that were observed with the measuring device. Rules: When adding/subtracting, the # of decimal places in the answer is equal to the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest digits after the decimal. In multiplication or division, the number of sig figs in the answer is determined by the quantity with the fewest sig figs When a number is rounded off, the last digits to be retained is increased by one only if the following digit is 5 or greater

Atomic structure All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. Atomic number = protons We use relative masses with the standard today being Carbon. A carbon atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and is assigned a value of 12. Masses of fundamental atomic particles are often expressed in atomic mass units. One AMU, is 1/12the the mass of an atom of carbon with 6 p and 6 n. This carbon atom has a mass of exactly 12. Sum of the number of protons and neutrons for an atom is called its mass number = protons + electrons Atoms with the same atomic number but diff mass numbers are called isotopes. Different numbers of neutrons. % abundance - # of atoms of a given isotope X100% total atoms of all isotopes of that element The masses of isotopes and their abundances are determined experimentally using a mass spectrometer. A gaseous sample of an element is introduced into the evacuated chamber of the

spectrometer, and the atoms or molecules of the sample are converted to positively charged particles called ions. The atomic weight of an element is always closer to the mass of the most abundant isotope or isotopes.

Atomic weight = (% abundance isotope 1/100) (mass of isotope 1) + (same thing) The SI Base Unites Mass-Kg Length-meter Timesecond TemperatureKelvin Amount of substancemole Electric currentampere Luminous intensitycandela 273.15K=0C The Milliliter and cubic centimeter are interchangeable 125mL=125Cm3 Elements are arranged so that those w/similar chemical and physical properties lie in vertical columns called groups or families. Group 1Aalkali metals Group 2Aalkaline earth metals Group 3Ametals; Al(most abundant) B(metalloid) Group 4Anonmetals included with metalloids Group 5Ahas Nitrogen Group 6Acontains Oxygen Calcogens Group 7AFl, Cl, Br, I, are nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules; most reactive of all elements and combine with alkali metals to form salts like NaCl; known as halogens Group 8Agases; He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Ra, least reactive; noble gases Groups 1B-8B are transition elements

Lanthanides/actinides Allotropesone aspect of chemistry of the nonmetals is that a particular element can often exist in several different and distinct forms Ex: Carbon; Graphite, Diamond, Buckyballsbuckministerfullerenes Ethanol Molecular FormulaC2H6O Condensed FormulaCH3CH2OHindicates how certain atoms are grouped together Structural Formulagives higher level of structural detail, showing how atoms are attached within a molecule Molecular model Ball-and-stick model Space-filling modelsoffer a better rep of relative sizes of atoms and their proximity to each other when in a molecule. Disadvantage: atoms can often be hidden from view Molecular Compoundsconsist of discrete molecules at the particulate level Ionic Compoundsconstitute another major class of compounds b/c they consist of ions, atoms, or groups of atoms that bear a positive or negative electric charge Cationpositively charged ion Anionnegatively charged ion Monatomic Ions Metals typically lose electrons to form monatomic cations, and nonmetals typically gain electrons to form monatomic anions. Metals from Groups 1A-3A form + ions having a charge equal to the group number of the metal. Transition metals also form cations. Nonmetals often form ions having a negative charge equal to the group number of the element minus 8.

Polyatomic Ions

Made up of two or more atoms, and the collection has an electric charge. The symbol of the cation is given first, followed by the anion symbol Common Polyatomic Ions

Naming Positive Ions (cations) For a monatomic positive ion (a metal cation) the name is that of the metal plus the word cation Some cases occur, especially in the transition series, in which a metal can form more than one type of positive ion. In these cases the charge of the ion is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the ions name.

o Ex: Co2+ --cobalt (II) cation and Co3+ --cobalt (III) cation Naming Negative Ions(anions) A monatomic negative ion is named by adding ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetal element from which the ion is derived. The anions of the Group 7A elements, the halogens, are known as the fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide ions and as a group are called halide ions. Polyatomic negative ions are common, esp those containing oxygen (called oxoanions). o The oxoanion having the greater number of oxygen atoms is given the suffix ate, and the oxoanion having the smaller number of oxygen atoms has the suffix ite. o ClO4-perchlorate ion o ClO3-chlorate ion o ClO2-chlorite ion o ClO-hypochlorite ion When a particle having a negative electric charge is brought near another particle having a positive electric charge, there is a force of attraction b/w them. o There is a repulsive force when two particles with the same chargeboth positive or both negativeare brought together. These forces are called electrostatic forces and the force of attraction (or repulsion) b/w ions is given by Coulombs law. o As the ion charges (n+ and n-) increase. Thus, the attraction b/w ions having charges of 2+ and 2= is greater than that b/w ions having 1+ and 1= charges o As the distance b/w the ions becomes smaller o Ionic solid consists of millions upon millions of ions arranged in an extended 3-dimensional network called a crystal lattice. o Ions such as Li+ and F- are held together by an electrostatic force. Here a lithium ion is attracted to a fluoride ion, and the distance b/w the nuclei of the two ions is d.

o Forces of attraction b/w ions of opposite charge increase w/increasing ion charge and decrease with increasing distance (d). Ion charge increases, force of attraction increases; distance increases, force of attraction decreases o Ionic compounds have characteristic properties that can be understood in terms of the charges of the ions and their arrangement in the lattice o A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities. o 1 mole = 6.0221415 x 10^23Avogadros number o The mass in grams of one mole of any element (6.0221415 x 10^23) is the molar mass of that element. An elements molar mass is the amount in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight. Empirical Formula Molecular formula Percent Composition Law of Conservation of Mattermatter can neither be created nor destroyed

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM