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INDEX Chapter !

@ L,terat7re Re1,e8 S(*o G G(+ G(+(G 1ontent Introduction ospitality Industry 1lassi%ication o% otels ospitality Industry in India "age *o E +. +/ +E G. G+ G, G; DD D/ D// /,G ,/ ,E HG HH E/ -G -E ;G ;,

G(+(+ &evelopment o% ospitality Industry in India G(+(D Recent Trends in Tourism and G(+(, G(+(H G(+(E G(+(; G(+(+. G(G

G(+(/ Signi%icance o% ospitality Industry "roblems o% ospitality Industry in India "rospectus o% ospitality Industry in India ospitality Industry in "une 6a5or &epartments in otel uman Resources in ospitality Industry

G(+(- Functioning o% ospitality !nits

Training "ractices and "rocess

G(G(+ Importance o% Training and &evelopment G(G(G Training "rocess 6odel G(G(D G(G(/ G(G(, Training *eed Identi%ication Training &esign Training Implementation

G(G(,(+ Types o% Training G(G(,(G 6ethods o% Training G(G(H ( :valuation o% Training G(G(E ( @ther Aspects Relating to Training G(G(G(G(; @rganising Training %unction Future o% Training

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(D 1onclusion %rom 8iterature Revie$

;E

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Hospitality is an art of making guests feel welcome


-Anonymous

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Chapter !@ L,terat7re Re1,e8


This 1hapter is the literature revie$ on t$o aspects o% the present study0 ospitality Industry Training "ractices and "rocesses

It is generally observed that literature highlighted peculiarity o% the industry but does not ade3uately addresses the holistic training and development re3uirements in the hospitality industry units( For eg identi%ication o% needs4 training design4 types o% training4 methods o% training4 evaluation o% training( In order to maintain the balance in the literature revie$ /. F o% the revie$ is related to hospitality industry in general and its %unctioning and H.F is devoted to$ards training practices and processes in general and speci%ic to ospitality Industry(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+( #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9


?lobal Investments in hospitality Sector has sho$n an increasing trends over last %e$ years( A4,a ,4 V,e8e3 a4 Top G0o<a0 Pro4pe5t >or #o4p,ta0,t9 I-1e4t2e-t. :merging mar2ets in Asia are unseating :urope as the epicenter o% ne$ hospitality investment and development $hile investors in the !nited States are s$itching their %ocus %rom the ac3uisition o% e'isting hotels to developing ne$ properties( 6 According to the :rnst M Poung ospitality Investment Survey4 $hich

surveyed more than D.. investors and industry e'ecutives $orld$ide4 capitaliBation rates %or hotel properties are e'pected to stabiliBe and possibly even increase over the shortAtoAmidAterm in the !S( :ven $ith the dramatic shi%t in the debt mar2ets over the last %e$ months4 hotel industry sector %undamentals continue to be strong( 1 #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 ,- I-3,a The history o% the hotel industry is as old as the history o% tourism and travel industry( In %act4 both are t$o sides o% the same coin( Both are complementary to each other( otel is an establishment $hich provides %ood4 shelter and otel is a commercial establishment and other amenities %or com%ort and convenience o% the visitors $ith a vie$ to ma2e pro%it )1ha2ravarti4 B(>)( intends to provide visitors $ith lodging4 %ood and related services $ith a vie$ to please them so as to build good$ill and to let them carry happy memories(

:rnst M Poung survey reveals li2ely targets %or hospitality investment in

G..-(
1

Brian Tress o% :rnst M PoungLs

ospitality Advisory Services ?roup

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

In general4 a NhotelN is de%ined as a public establishment o%%ering visitors against payment t$o basic services i(e( accommodation and catering )?hosh4 Bis$anath)( o$ever4 during the last %e$ years great changes have ta2en place in the scope o% hotel industry( &uring Hth century B14 hotels $ere 2no$n as NinnsN or NdharamshalasN and $ere providing only %ood and overnight stay %acilities( At that point o% time the standard o% an inn $as 3uite normal $ith earth or stone %loor4 common bedroom and simple %ood( As travel became easier4 inns gre$ in siBe and number( The spirit o% competition raised the standard o% inns( Industrial revolution and trade e'pansion resulted into increase in the number o% visitors crossing international border( In this era4 room %urnishing and catering received greater attention( :mphasis $as made on accommodation $ith spacious assembly hall and dinning hall %or organising %unctions and parties etc( But the real gro$th o% the modern hotels started in the last decade o% the eighteenth century $ith the establishment o% 1ity otel in *e$ Por2( A%ter that a large number o% hotels o% various types and grades came into e'istence in di%%erent countries to meet the re3uirements o% di%%erent categories o% visitors( 6odern hotels provide a number o% services to the visitors( The services vary according to the aim4 location4 type4 siBe and grade o% the hotel( As per *egi 9agmohan4 ?enerally4 the important activities o% a hotel include = )+) &irection )G) Reception )D) "rovision o% accommodation roomsJ%loors )/) 1uisine 6eals and Re%reshments ),) Restaurant )H) Bar )E) Bell to provide in%ormation to the guests )-) :ntertainment and Recreation );) Sight seeing )+.) Transport %acilities )++) "ar2ing space)+G) S$imming pool)+D) Bathroom %acilities )+/) 8ounge %acilities )+,) ?arden )+H) Shopping %acilities )+E) *e$s stand )+-) Tobacco and 1igarettes )+;) Telephone )G.) Television )G+) Radio )GG) 8aundry and 1leaning )GD) Tele' service )G/) Sporting installations4 Tennis court4 ?ol% and S3uash )G,) Installation %or children )GH) Ban3uet hall )GE) 1on%erence %acilities )G-) 1onvention %acilities )G;) :'hibition areas )D.) ealth club )D+) Business centre etc( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

A%ter Gnd $orld $ar4 there $ere several distinct trends in the hotel industry( First4 hotel industry became highly pro%itable mainly because o% au'iliary services( Another %eature $as the gro$th o% hotel chains( In most chain operations4 some hotels are o$ned by the corporation $hile others are leased %or operation to the group having e'perience in hotel business( The high cost o% land in the heart o% the city o%ten %orced a success%ul hotel to maintain au'iliary shops such as drug stores4 %lo$er shops4 haberdashery and dress shops4 beauty saloons and ne$s stands to serve both hotel guests and the city residents $ho live or $or2 near the hotel( Although such shops may be sta%%ed and operated by the hotel but usually these are leased out to outside concerns )American "eople :ncyclopaedia)( !.1.1 De1e0op2e-t o> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 ,- I-3,a The concept o% travel and halting %acilities is 3uite old in India( In ancient times4 people used to travel %or pilgrimage or business purposes( For ages4 India has been 2no$n %or its hospitality( :ndo$ed $ith rich historic heritage4 cultural diversity4 natural resources and geographical advantage4 India remained a big attraction %or %oreigners( In ancient times4 the need o% travellers %or %ood and accommodation $as met mainly by hospitable householders $hich are still in e'istence in interior areas o% the country( &omestic tourists $ere loo2ed a%ter by the pandas or priests( They used to accommodate their clients in dharamshalas or in their o$n houses at places o% pilgrimage li2e Banaras4 arid$ar4 "uri and 6athura etc( In general4 the attitude o% the ancient Indians to$ards visitors $as in%luenced by the LAtithi &evo BhavahL( It means guest is li2e ?od and should be treated accordingly )R(*( >aul)( These %e$ lines amply indicate the importance $hich $as given to guests in olden times( Improvements in the transport and communication %acilities resulted in the establishment o% inns and taverns in main cities o% the country( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

In the eighteenth century4 there $ere plenty o% taverns in the country )a tavern mean an archaic or literary inn) $here travellers %rom long distances too2 shelter and %ood( &uring this period4 a number o% dharamshalas $ere built by >ings %or encouraging travel all over the country( Apart %rom dharamshalas4 NSaraisN $ere introduced by the 6uslim rulers $hich provided the best possible %acilities li2e %ood4 accommodation etc( to travellers )R(*( >aul)( A%ter this4 the British came to India and Sarais too2 the %orm o% $estern style hotels in the important cities o% India li2e 6umbai and >ol2ata( &uring this period4 on one hand4 $e %ind $estern style hotels %or %oreigners and on the other4 Indian style hotels %or the people belonging to upper and middle class income groups( The old type dharamshalas $ere still having their importance to serve the needs and re3uirements o% the poor classes )*egi 9agmohan)( In the nineteenth century4 $estern style residential hotels $ere developed in India by British and S$iss %amilies mainly %or their o$n use or %or %oreign visitors( 6r( "allon5ee "eston5ee is called as the pioneer o% the $estern style hotel in India $ho opened the %irst = $estern style hotel under the name o% British otel in 6umbai in +-/.( By the end o% the nineteenth century4 many $estern style hotels $ere established in India( These hotels $ere very much popular %or their e%%icient management4 unsurpassed cuisine and the e'cellence o% beers and $ines )*egi 9agmohan)( The t$entieth century may be called as the beginning o% star hotels in India( In this century4 big and modern hotels came into e'istence on account o% the advent o% big businessmen and ne$ entrepreneurs )*egi 9agmohan)( A%%luent tourists also contributed a lot to the development o% star culture( The ma5or star hotels in India are in private sector( The high pro%ile hotels include The Indian otels 1ompany 8td(4 :ast India otels 8td(4 otels 8td(4 IT1 otels 8td(4 Bharat otels otels 8td(4 Asian otel 8eela venture 8td( and 9ay "ee

8td( etc( The only public sector enterprise is India Tourism &evelopment 1orporation 8td( $hich runs countrys largest accommodation chain4 The Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Asho2a ?roup o%

otels( The hotel industry in India is ma2ing a remar2able

progress in private sector( The hotels have sho$n distinct improvement in operating techni3ues4 catering and service( "rior to the +;-.s the Indian hotel industry $as a nascent and slo$ gro$ing industry primarily consisting o% relatively static4 single hotel companies( o$ever4 the Asian games in +;-G and the subse3uent partial liberaliBation o% the Indian economy generated tourism interest in India $ith signi%icant bene%its accruing to the hotel and tourism sector in terms o% improved demand patterns4 The %ortunes o% the hotel industry are tied to the %ortunes o% tourism and the general business climate in the country $hich is $hy the economic liberaliBation initiatives implemented since +;;+4 led to a soaring demand and supply gap in the hotel industry( This enabled Indian hotel companies to increase their average room realiBations )ARR) by almost ,.F bet$een April +;;/ and April +;;E and still en5oy e'tremely high occupancies o% above -.F %or most o% this period( &uring this time the ARRs o% Indian , Star hotels $ere comparable to those prevailing in Singapore and the region( otel Industry in India has $itnessed tremendous boom in recent years( otel ong >ong and $ere among the highest in

Industry is ine'tricably lin2ed to the tourism industry and the gro$th in the Indian tourism industry has %uelled the gro$th o% Indian hotel industry( The thriving economy and increased business opportunities in India have acted as a boon %or Indian hotel industry( The arrival o% lo$ cost airlines and the associated price $ars have given domestic tourists a host o% options( The LIncredible IndiaL destination campaign and the recently launched LAtithi &evo BhavahL )A&B) campaign have also helped in the gro$th o% domestic and international tourism and conse3uently the hotel industry( @ver recent years government has ta2en several steps to boost travel M tourism $hich have bene%ited hotel industry in India( These include the abolishment o% the inland air travel ta' o% +,FC reduction in e'cise duty on Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

aviation turbine %uel to -FC and removal o% a number o% restrictions on outbound chartered %lights4 including those relating to %re3uency and siBe o% aircra%t( The governmentLs recent decision to treat convention centres as part o% core in%rastructure4 allo$ing the government to provide critical %unding %or the large capital investment that may be re3uired has also %uelled the demand %or hotel rooms(

The opening up o% the aviation industry in India has e'citing opportunities %or hotel industry as it relies on airlines to transport -.F o% international arrivals( The governmentLs decision to substantially upgrade G- regional airports in smaller to$ns and privatiBation M e'pansion o% &elhi and 6umbai airport $ill improve the business prospects o% hotel industry in India( Substantial investments in tourism in%rastructure are essential %or Indian hotel industry to achieve its potential( The upgrading o% national high$ays connecting various parts o% India has opened ne$ avenues %or the development o% budget hotels in India( Ta2ing advantage o% this opportunity Tata group and another hotel chain called L omotelL have entered this business segment( @nline report on a $ebsite reveals
/

otel Industry in India currently has

supply o% ++.4... rooms and there is a shortage o% +,.4... rooms %uelling hotel room rates across India( According to estimates demand is going to e'ceed supply by at least +..F over the ne't G years )by G.+G)( FiveAstar hotels in metro cities allot same room4 more than once a day to di%%erent guests4 receiving almost G/Ahour rates %rom both guests against HA- hours usage( Kith demandAsupply disparity4 hotel rates in India are li2ely to rise by G,F annually and occupancy by -.F4 over the ne't t$o years( This $ill a%%ect the competitiveness o% India as a costAe%%ective tourist destination( To overcome4 this shortage Indian hotel industry is adding about H.4... 3uality rooms4 currently in di%%erent stages o% planning and development4 $hich should be ready by G.+G( otel Industry in India also set to got a %illip $ith &elhi hosting G.+. 1ommon$ealth ?ames( ?overnment has approved D..
/

http0JJ$$$(iloveindia(comJeconomyAo%AindiaJhotelAindustry(htm Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

hotel pro5ects4 nearly hal% o% $hich are in the lu'ury range( The %uture scenario o% Indian hotel industry loo2s e'tremely rosy( It is e'pected that the budget and midAmar2et hotel segment $ill $itness huge gro$th and e'pansion $hile the lu'ury segment $ill continue to per%orm e'tremely $ell over the ne't %e$ years( The hospitality industry is a D(, trillion dollar service sector $ithin the global economy( It is e'pected to gro$ at the rate o% -F bet$een G..- and G.+H( 6any international hotel brands including Sheraton4 yatt4 Radisson4 6eridien4 Four Seasons Regent4 and 6arriott International are already established in the Indian mar2ets and are still e'panding( Increase in average room rent %or the entire hotel industry over the previous year $as D, F( Chara5ter,4t,54 O> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9@ FC. Bhatta5her=ee !(()G Per,4ha<,0,t90 I% the %ull capacity o% the services is not utiliBed the services becomes perishable( Var,a<,0,t9@ The 3uality o% service varies to great e'tent( I-4epera<,0,t90 Service is inseperable %orm the provider( I-ta-g,<,0,t9@ ospitality is intangible but hotel industry in tangible you can touch4 taste and %eel the product( In Indian conte't there is 3uite a lot o% interdependence o% To7r,42 Se5tor a-3 #o4p,ta0,t9 Se5tor !.1.! C0a44,>,5at,o-4 o> #ote040 A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging4 usually on a shortAterm basis( A>asavana4 6 8 and Broo2s4 R 6 )+;;,) Indias hotel industry comprises the %ollo$ing %our main categories( ) 1ha2ravarti4 B(>()

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Star hote040 This category is based on the standards o% location4 %acilities4 in%rastructure and amenities provided( Star rating is given by RA11 )The otel $ Restaurant Approval M 1lassi%ication 1ommittee o% 6inistry o% tourism4 India)( They %orm D.F o% the industry siBe( The star ratings are Five Star &elu'e4 Five Star4 Four Star4 Three Star4 T$o Star and @ne Star( The %irst G types are usually located in business areas o% metro cities and cater to %oreign tourists4 business travellers4 top government o%%icials and political brass4 o%%ering lu'ury at a high price( The ne't G types are in tier II cities and tourist destinations pre%erred by midA level e'ecutives and leisure tourists( The last G types are %ound in smaller cities and around tourist spots4 pre%erred by domestic tourists( Reputed Indian veterans include IT14 Indian )@beroi group)4 otels 1ompany )Ta5 group)4 :ast India otels otel 8eela 7enture and IT&1 hotels( Foreign hospitality yatt4 Four Seasons

players include 6arriott4 Radisson4 Sheraton4 6eriden4 lu'ury hotels4

Regent4 1arlson group4 9umeirah and 6andarin @riental and &ubais Istithmar

#er,tage hote040 This category is on the basis o% the nature( They operate %rom %orts4 palaces4 castles4 5ungle and river lodges and heritage buildings( These are ideally suited %or vacations4 relatively a%%ordable and %un places( The classi%ication includes +;D,4 eritage 1lassic4 constructed bet$een +;G. and eritage4 set up around eritage eritage ?rand4 e'isting be%ore +;G.4 and

+;D, to +;,.( 6ost Indian hotel groups mentioned above operate beach resorts4 $ildli%e resorts(

hotels at historical sites across India( The other types in this category includes

B73get hote040 Theyre usually pre%erred by domestic travellers see2ing economical accommodation( These are reasonably priced4 o%%er limited lu'ury4 seasonal discounts and decent services( Some ne$ global entrants include !>s &a$nay &ay and Khitbread "remier Travel Inn4 ShangriAla4 Aman resorts4 ?olden Tulip budget hotels4 Fair%ield inn4 1ountry inns and suites4 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

1ourtyard by 6arriott4

ometel4 Ibis and >am%otel among others( Budget

hotels are pre%erred by business travellers contributing to greater ARR )average room rate) than leisure travellers( Increased demand and healthy occupancy has %uelled the gro$th o% budget hotels in a short time( -50a44,>,e3 hote040 Theyre motels spread across the country( They %orm +;F o% the industry siBe( 8o$ price is their only !S" )uni3ue selling proposition)( Some other such categories include0 Airport Apartments4 Timeshare4 6odular ayurvedic4 6edi4 1hocloate etc) 1lassi%ication o% otel ) otel School o% ague 1lassi%ication) otels4 :cotels 4 Service

otel4 Forest Apartments4 Agriculture

destination resort4 condotel4 holiday homes4 Spas )residential4 urban4

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(D(Re5e-t Tre-34 ,- I-3,a- To7r,42 a-3 #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 The Asian games in +;-G provided an opportunity to travel agents and tour operators to mar2et India abroad and they grabbed it $ell( :ncouraged by some incentives announced by government4 %ive star hotels began gro$ing all over the India( All these helped a lot in the healthy gro$th o% tourism in our country( In %act4 tourism business and hotel business go side by side and both are complementary to each other( In India4 both approved and unapproved hotels are %ound but approved hotels have an edge over unapproved hotels in several respects( otels are granted approval %rom the department o% tourism4 ?overnment o% India at pro5ect stage and then are classi%ied in one o% the star categories( It is voluntary %or a hotel to get approved status %rom the government4 but only approved hotels can avail the various income ta' incentives4 import licences and other approvals( There $ere +D.. approved and /EE unapproved hotels o%%ering ;-,+, rooms in G../ as against +G-, approved and /,G unapproved hotels o%%ering ;,EGG rooms in G..D( The Indian hotel business is %ocused largely on %oreign tourists $ith almost E. percent business coming %rom this segment( The 2ey operating characteristics o% the hotel business are the occupancy rate and the average room rate( The room rates depend on the class4 location and the image o% the hotel( The occupancy rate is dependent primarily on the seasonal arrivals as $ell as the location o% the hotel( @ccupancy level o% E. to -. per cent is considered good by industry standards( Average occupancy in India $as ,;(E per cent in G../ as against ,/(- per cent in G..D and average room rate $as Rs(GH-; in G../ as against Rs(G../ in G..D )F MRA)( The position has been improving continuously(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Source 0 KTT14 "lanning 1ommission Business "ress4 TS6? Analysis The hotel industry and the ,Astar hotels in particular are concentrated in the %our metros4 especially in 6umbai and &elhi( As many as E, per cent o% the , star delu'e rooms4 /E per cent o% the , star ordinary rooms and appro' D, per cent o% all the registered rooms are in the %our metros( &ue to phenomenal increase in tourism activities4 the hotel business has gro$n beyond e'pectations( This is particularly true about international tourism and star hotel business( At present about E-; million tourists are crossing international boarder every year and they are spending nearly H-, billion !S &ollars( This %igure $as 5ust +.. million in +;H/( The %igure is li2ely to s$ell to + billion by G.+. and +(, billion by G.G. as per pro5ection by $orld tourism organisation( International tourists here in India $ere D(, million in G../ as against G(E- million tourists in G..D( Foreign e'change earnings %rom these tourists $ere about GD... crores o% rupees in G../ as against Rs(+H/G; crores in G..D( &uring the year G..,4 about / million %oreign tourists came here and India earned , billion !S &ollars %rom them( In the %irst H months o% the year G..H4 about G(+H million %oreign tourists visited India and %oreign e'change earnings %rom these $ere +D//+ crores o% rupees( It is e'pected that this gro$th $ill continue during the Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

ne't couple o% years i% no adverse incident happens in India or the South :ast Region( According to an estimate o% 1II4 the number o% %oreign tourists visiting India is li2ely to increase to ,. million by G.G.( As per estimates o% 6inistry o% Tourism4 +4,.4... hotel rooms o% di%%erent categories are re3uired to be added to the e'isting available rooms in the ne't couple o% years to accommodate all the %oreign tourists and this $ill involve an investment o% Rs( D,4... crores( @bviously4 there is a good scope %or hotel business all over the $orld including India and these estimates $ill boost hotel business in India( The 2ey %actors spa$ning Indias hospitality industry gro$th are a booming economy and steady political scene4 soaring service industry4 F&I in%lo$4 in%rastructure gro$th and a boost %or the tourism sector due to government %unding( An estimated /(/ million tourists are e'pected to visit India $ith an annual average gro$th rate o% +GF in the ne't %e$ years( The domestic tourist mar2et is also %lourishing( The common$ealth games in G.+. has also added to the demand %or 3uality accommodation( The hospitality and leisure industry comprises o% mostly chainsJmultiple business units4 $idely scattered across the globe( Kith the advent o% the Internet and the latest technologies4 the industry is %acing a constantly changing business environment re3uiring immediate and proactive adaptability in operations4 customer relationship management and bac2 o%%ice processes( "roducts and service o%%erings di%%erentiation has been diminishing leading to consumers demanding %ast and highly personaliBed services(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(/( S,g-,>,5a-5e o> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 Tourism and hospitality industry may help underdevelopedJdeveloping countries more in resolving their various problems as this industry today has emerged as one o% the %astest gro$ing industries in terms o% capital invested4 %oreign e'change earnings and providing 5obs( In India4 it is considered as highly labour intensive service industry4 $here the employmentAinvestment ratio is higher than any other industry( @ne o% the IndiaLs biggest problems is to %ind $ays to employ its everAgro$ing population( Travel and tourism directly creates employment opportunities in hotels4 restaurants4 airlines4 travel agencies4 passenger ships4 and as a result o% the spread e%%ect creates 5obs in industries li2e construction4 telecommunication4 manu%acturing and the retail trader( According to 6inistry o% Tourism4 an investment o% Rupees one million in the hotel and restaurant sector may create -; 5obs as against // 5obs in agriculture sector and +G(, 5obs in the manu%acturing sector( Investment re3uired to create one 5ob in manu%acturing sector is around Rupees(E;4... $here as in hospitality industry it is only Rupees++4G..( At present about G. million persons are directly or indirectly employed in tourism related industry and this %igure is li2ely to increase to /. million by G.G.( It amply proves the 5ob potential o% hospitality industry in India(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(,( Pro<0e24 o> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 ,- I-3,a &eveloping countries li2e India have %ailed to develop tourism and hotel industry to its potential due to one reason or the other( Indian share in tourism business at global level is %ar belo$ than its capacity to develop this industry( &ata available %rom the Korld Tourism @rganisation available till G..D sho$s France continued to maintain top slot $ith almost E, million international tourists in G..D( Spain and !SA consolidate the second and third position having ,G(, million and /.(/ million %oreign tourists respectively( :ven smaller countries li2e Singapore4 Indonesia and Thailand etc( are doing much better business than India %rom tourism( It is because o% the number o% problems %aced by tourism and hotel industry in India( The hotel industry in India is %acing a number o% problems such as lo$ occupancy rate4 increasing competition4 high ta'es4 increasing cost4 %uel shortage4 lo$ pro%itability and so %orth( Similarly4 on the one hand4 it is alleged that there is shortage o% rooms to meet the varied re3uirements o% di%%erent categories o% tourists and visitors $hile on the other hand room occupancy rate is very lo$ here in India( It $as ,;(E per cent in G../ as against ,/(- per cent in G..D( otels are compelled to give liberal discount to the potential customers particularly during the lean period( Further4 average e'penditure o% those $ho get commercial accommodation is comparatively lo$ due to one reason or the other( Similarly4 prevailing ta' rates such as service ta'4 e'cise duty and custom duty on imported lu'ury car4 beer4 li3uor etc( are very high( All these %actors adversely a%%ect the pro%itability o% the hotels( This is particularly true about ,Astar hotels in India( Thus4 on the one hand4 heavy investment is re3uired in hotel business $hile on the other hand pro%itability in this business is adversely a%%ected by the a%oresaid constraints(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

These problems can be discussed under the %ollo$ing heads0 1. Pro<0e2 o> Sea4o-a0,t9 otel is indeed a seasonal business( There is seldom +.. per cent occupancy e'cept in pea2 season( In India on an average4 it is ,;(E per cent( There%ore4 a hotel cannot use its property %ully and it accounts %or lo$ income( The problem is aggravated in case occupancy is adversely a%%ected o$ing to bad $eather or any other reason such as slump in business4 international crisis or disturbances etc( Food cannot be stored due to its perishable nature( Similarly4 hotel sta%% cannot be reduced temporarily at the time o% poor demand o% rooms( All these account %or poor earnings( G( #,gh Co-472er EBpe5tat,o-4 1onsumer satis%action is 2ey to success %or hotel industry( In these days4 consumers are $ell in%ormed and their e'pectations go on changing very %re3uently( There%ore4 satis%ying a consumer is a most challenging tas2 as it depends not only on tangible but on intangible %actors as $ell( The best o% room com%ort and the choicest products o% culinary art %ail to satis%y some people( Services have to be highly personalised in this industry( This ma2es the hotel industry the most di%%icult one %rom the mar2eting point o% vie$( D. Lo8 Pro>,ta<,0,t9 Revenue mainly comes %rom the rooms and sale o% %ood M beverage in the hotel industry( Average occupancy level and average room rate have been %ound very lo$ as indicated in table +(G( o$ever4 slight increase has been noted in both in G..DA./( But it is not su%%icient to increase the pro%itability level o% the hotel industry upto mar2( Further4 on one hand %ood M beverage revenue is lo$ $hile on the other hand %ood M beverage cost as $ell as labour cost is high as sho$n by belo$ table $hich a%%ect the pro%itability o% the hotel industry adversely(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Ta<0e@ I-3,a- #ote0 I-374tr9 Po4,t,oPear +;;/A;, +;;,A;H +;;HA;E +;;EA;+;;-A;; +;;;A G... G...A.+ G..+A.G G..GA.D G..DA./ A@8 )F) H.(, HG(D HG(; ,H(G ,G(/ ,+(E ,,(H ,D(G ,/(,;(E ARR )Rs() G/+. G,G. G,H. GDD. G,D. G+GD G./H G.,G../ GH-; RR )F) /;(-+ ,+(E. ,G(/+ ,.(-E /-(H/-(++ /E(HD /H(,, //(// /H(H. FMB )F) DE(G; D/(HD D/(DH D,(H/ DH(-, DH(G+ DH(;, D,(,D-(D/ D,(H, Rev( FMB 1ost)F) D,(; D/(HD,(;D DG(,+ DD(HDD(/D+(;, DD(.. DD(/E DH(GH 8abour 1ost)F) +-(EE +H(-+H(;E +-(,G+(G; GD(,H GD(+E G/(// GD(E; G+(-E

Source0 Annual Reports4 Iuestionnaire and F RAI A@80 Average @ccupancy 8evel ARR0 Average Room Rate RR0 Rooms Revenue FMB Rev0 Food M Beverage Revenue FMB 1ost0 Food M Beverage 1ost

otel Industry Survey G../A.,(

There are some other reasons $hich may be held responsible %or the lo$ pro%itability o% the hotel industry in India such as heightened competition4 global uncertainty4 changing technology4 lo$ e%%iciency4 high po$er and %uel cost4 poor sales and mar2eting programmes etc( /( #,gh D,re5t a-3 I-3,re5t TaBe4 The hotel industry is un%avourably treated %rom ta'ation point o% vie$( otels do not get ta' bene%its as en5oyed by other industrial enterprises( Rebates in corporate income ta'4 service ta'4 custom duty4 municipal ta'es etc( are o%%ered to other industries( The hotel industry does not get these bene%its

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

despite its Olo$ return on investment( There%ore4 the industry cannot 2eep pace $ith inevitable changes in mar2et trends( ,( Pro<0e24 o> Ra,4,-g +7-34 6ost o% the hotels are built in the heart o% to$ns $here land is very costly Further4 cost o% constructing a ne$ hotel building or renovating an e'isting %acility is also very high( There%ore4 huge capital is re3uired to complete construction or to renovate the e'isting one( It is indeed very di%%icult to mobilise huge %unds %rom various sources( The poor %inancial viability o% the hotel industry has %urther aggravated the position( The solution o% these problems needs a very high degree o% managerial s2ill and e'pertise( So2e Other Cha00e-ge4 o> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 ,- I-3,a are 0 Shortage o% s2illed employees Retaining 3uality $or2 %orce Shortage o% rooms Intense competition and creating brand India( 6anual bac2Aend uman resource development 8arge part o% the industry is in unorganiBed sector( 8ost locational advantage

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(H Pro4pe5t4 o> #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 ,- I-3,a The prospects o% an industry depend upon the economic4 social4 political4 scienti%ic and technological changes $hich are ta2ing place in the universe( The hotel industry is very much sensitive and change in any sphere o% the universe or in any branch o% human activity $ill immediately re%lect upon this industry( The techni3ues4 ideas4 modes and methods o% operation undergo continual alteration in hotel business( The emerging $orld$ide scenario is very conductive %or the gro$th o% tourism and hospitality industry( This is due to $orld$ide education and industrial development leading to greater enlightenment4 increased earnings o% individuals4 economic gro$th o% tourists producing nations4 medical sciences progress leading to longer li%e4 improved in%rastructure o% communications and improved transport means etc( Similarly increase in holidays4 vacations $ith pay policy o% the government and other employers4 increase in pay4 e'tra ordinary revolution in the means o% transportation including aeroplanes and steadily reduction in airlines %ares have given a boost to the domestic tourism and hotel business in India( The %uture o% Indian hospitality and tourism industry seems to be very positive due to increased %lo$ o% business and leisure travellers( Indias initiative in hosting 1ommon$ealth ?ames in G.+. and coAhosting the 1ric2et Korld 1up in G.++ and has multiple plans to promote yoga and meditation4 rural tourism4 sports tourism4 medical tourism4 adventure tourism etc( Thus4 Indian hoteliers should try to develop $orld class in%rastructure and %acilities %or games to ma2e India the &estination *e't#( India has unparalleled potential %or gro$th and development o% the tourism industry( :ndo$ed $ith rich historic heritage4 cultural diversity and geographical advantage4 it could be developed as a leading tourist destination( India can boast o% the imalayas %or mountain tourism4 the +,.. 2m( long coastline %or beach tourism4 temples4 %orts4 palaces4 monuments and ruins %or historical tourism4 over /.. national Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

par2s and sanctuaries %or $ild li%e tourism4 people $ith diverse languages4 %ine arts and tradition %or cultural tourism and Ra5asthan %or desert tourism( Foreign tourists have special attractions in India %or centuries and Indian hospitality is a legend by itsel%( Apart %rom ancient culture and civiliBation4 the diverse natural beauty o% India can hardly be seen else$here in the $orld( The traditional stereotyped image o% India as a cultural destination is being replaced $ith the image o% diversi%ied tourism products a%ter liberalisation and tourism has been declared as an industry( Both central and state governments have identi%ied tourism as a priority sector( There%ore in coming years4 tourism may emerge as a ma5or %oreign e'change earner and employment generating industry( o$ever4 the hotel and tourism industry has been declared a high priority industry %or %oreign investment( But4 to ma2e tourism industry globally competitive there is a need to create ade3uate in%rastructure( ?overnment should also provide this industry the in%rastructure status and income ta'4 custom duty4 sales ta' and e'cise duty bene%its( investment is re3uired to improve communication4 transport ugh and

accommodation %acilities %or various categories o% tourists( There%ore4 apart %rom government investment4 largeAscale private investment is also re3uired( In a nutshell4 It may be said that there is a lot o% potential %or the gro$th o% tourism industry in the country and this $ill boost hotel business too( The demand o% hotel rooms is e'pected to increase in %uture and the supply is e'pected to gro$ %aster to meet the increased demand( There%ore4 tourism and hospitality industry has a lot o% potential %or largeAscale investment4 employment and earnings( In recent times any discussion on the hotel industry only veers around the %alling occupancy rates and average room rates and the trying times that the Indian hotel industry is going through( It is e'pected that in the metro cities4 a%ter three to %our years4 the hotel industry is e'pected to %ace ma5or problems on the supply side( 6a5or hotel chains have unveiled plans to e'pand into the three to %our star segments in smaller to$ns( As the gro$th in metro cities

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

approaches stagnation4 hotel chains are loo2ing at the smaller to$ns segments %or %uture gro$th( Indias booming hospitality industry has trans%ormed into a veritable bas2et o% the choicest o% rooms4 %ood and beverage4 health and business %acilities4 travel pac2ages and everything that you can thin2 o%( *e$ global entrants are vying $ith e'isting local players to provide $orldAclass services at prices suited to every poc2et( The spurt in Indias tourism industry gro$th has had a ripple e%%ect on its hospitality sector( Rising income levels and spending po$er combined $ith the governments open s2y policy have provided a ma5or thrust( #o4p,ta0,t9@ A W,3e Arra9 o> Career Opt,o-4 ospitality and the hotel management industry o%%er a $ide array o% e'citing career options( Trainees in hospitality management have employment options in areas apart %rom hotels and restaurants li2e aviation4 travel agencies4 shipping4 public relations and corporate communication( The hospitality industry in India is pro5ected to gro$ at a rate o% -(-F %rom G..E to G.+H( This ma2es India the secondA%astest gro$ing tourism mar2et in the $orld( Kith India becoming a %avourite tourist destination4 it is estimated that the tourism sector $ill account %or nearly ,(DF o% ?&" and ,(/F o% total employment )source article in industan times)(

The statistics above highlight an enormous re3uirement %or people trained in the hospitality sector( Superior specialiBed training is the need o% the day( #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 E De2a-3 a-3 S7pp09

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

There are more than +..4... rooms )all categories put together) e'pected to be added up in the Indian ospitality 6ar2et by the year G.++( Average :mployee to Room ratio across lu'ury hotels is +(-0 +4 there%ore creating an additional re3uirement o% over ++-4... trained pro%essionals by the year G.+.( By G.++4 manpo$er re3uirement in &elhi alone $ill be around D+4D;compared to +G4D.D no$ )according to the leading *ational &ailies) Small and budget hotels have %lat organisation and need more multiAs2illed employees at associate level and %e$er managers( There%ore4 -.F o% the re3uired sta%% $ould be 2itchen sta%%4 %ood service associates4 %ront des2 assistants4 concierge sta%%4 bellboys4 room boys J room maids etc( The industry o%%ers more career options than most0 A *o matter $hat 2ind o% $or2 $e en5oy and $herever our aptitudes lie4 there is a segment o% the industry that can use ours talents(# says ospitality R(

The $or2 is varied0 A Because hotels and restaurants are complete production4 distribution and service units4 and managers are involved in a broad array o% activities( There are many opportunities to be creative0 A otels and restaurants managers might design ne$ products to meet the needs o% their guestsC produce training programs %or employeesC or implement challenging advertising4 sales promotions and mar2eting plans( Interesting hospitality openings encompass various %ields o% li2e0 otel M Restaurant 6anagement Airline 1atering and 1abin Services 1lub 6anagement 1ruise ospitality 6anagement ospital Administration and 1atering

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Institutional 6anagement )supervising canteens in college4 schools4 %actories4 company guest houses etc() 1atering departments o% rail$ays4 ban2s4 armed %orces4 shipping companies etc( otel and catering institutes Resorts and Spas &iplomatic business and "alaces Fitness and 1asinos Sports venues ospitality consulting companies Forest 8odges ?uest ouses ealth %acilities

!.1." #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 a-3 P7-e The Indian hospitality Industry4 over the last three years has been $itnessing a remar2able phase in per%ormance and has continue the same in the %ormer part o% the year G..- A.;( @ne o% the 2ey reasons %or the increase in demand %or hotel room in the country $as boom in the overall economy and substantial gro$th in sectors li2e in%ormation technology4 telecom ban2ing and %inance4 insurance construction4 retail and real estate( o$ever4 the global economic do$nturn and the 6umbai attac2s adversely a%%ected the increase in domestic travel and it is e'pected to be one o% the ma5or drivers o% gro$th in the short to medium term( Kith the economy o% the country improving and a simultaneous e%%ort by the government to upgrade and improve the e'isting road4 airport and other in%rastructure $e can e'pect India to recover %aster than most countries across the globe(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

All India occupancy $as HD(+F and average room rate o% rupees /4/-E vis a vis "une has H,(,F occupancy and average room Rate o% rupees /;,+JA %or the year G..-A;( 7( The same F MRA report also disclosed that "une %ive star delu'e4 %ive star and %our star properties have0 Average total *umber o% rooms Average @ccupancy per hotel per annum Average Rate per hotel Average *et Income per hotel per occupied room Average *et Income F o% total revenue Average *et Income per occupied room +.G HD(-F E4./D Rupees ,+,;ED Rupees GG(,F G(DE.

"une hospitality industry mar2et segment is almost -.F %rom business travellers %oreign and domestic( Foreign travellers are %rom across globe but :uropean4 ?ermany4 !>4 !S national dominate this percentage( 6onth $ise occupancy is by and large uni%orm %or "une e'cept %ebruary having high occupancy and &ecember having lo$est occupancy rate( The previous reports o% F MRA has predicted that "une mar2et $ould decline in both occupancies and average ratesC this trend has been very visible in the current year( The city has seen a large in%lu' o% ne$ hotels and many more are scheduled to enter the mar2et in coming %uture( The lac2luster per%ormance has been %urther accentuated by these hotels being built outside the city and in close pro'imity to speci%ic %eeder mar2ets $hich neither generate enough demand %or rooms to support these developments nor subsists such a high supply in a relatively short period o% time( The F MRA report e'pects the per%ormance o% this mar2et to remain dampened in the short to medium term(

F MRA Indian

otel Industry Survey G..-A.; Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

A1erage N72<er o> Tota0 E2p0o9ee4 Per #ote0 a4 per the C,t9 FPer2a-e-tC Co-tra5tC +700 T,2eC Part T,2eG 1omposition Bangalo re composition
%ive star Q /4D4 G star %ive %our star D4G star %ive star /4D star %ive %our star D4G star %ive /4D4 G star

1hennai

?oa

>ol2ata

6umbai

*e$ &elhi *1R


%ive %our star D4G star

"une

%ive %our star

D4G star

*o Response 6anagers

o% 6 F ,+ +/( / H/( H(H G/ ,(, GD( H /. ,(; G(G o%

G/ -(. +(G +.( D +(G EE( , ,(D +. D(, +(E

DG( D ,(D,( D -(; GD .(; GG( D DD ,(D G(+

G/ ++( / +(D +E( / +(+. .(H -(/ +/ +(. G(D

; /+( +.( D+( E -(H GG -(E DG( H D, /(. G(.

+H -(H G(-(; D(E -G( D +.( . ++ H(D +(E

H /,( D +G( . DE( E(D +; -(E GE( E DG -(G(.

G+ G(E .(E /(, .(E D+( E +(. /+( G +(G

+G DD( D +.( / ,-( D ++( D +; -(/ D+( E D/ D(D +(;

;; -(H G(. +D( H D(. +. .(E ,(; +D /(; G(;

+. G+( G /(. +H( G D(/ +, -(H G.( , GG D(; G(.

+/ E(/ +(/ -(G +(G ,E( D G(E E-( G +(H

, GE( H(G +E( . G(/ +D -(/ ;(H G. +(/ G(.

G; D(D .(, ,(. +(. D.( D G(, /G( H +(.

Supervisor s

6 F

Sta%%

6 F

Total Average *o per room :mployee

Q%ive star also includes %ive star delu'e properties( The above table is statistics presenting *umber o% employees at various levels in di%%erent cities(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

A1erage Per5e-tage o> Tra,-e3 E2p0o9ee4 Per #ote0 H


1omposition Bangalore 1hennai ?oa >ol2ata 6umbai *e$ &elhi *1R "une

compositio n
*o Response 6anagers Supervisors Sta%% Total Trained :mployees Q Total Avg( !n trained employees Avg( o%

%ive star Q -H( + E-( / ,G( , EG( D GE( E

/4D4G star +/ EH(/ H-(D HG(/ H;(.

%ive %our star E ;-(+ ;,(E -;(/ ;/(/

D4G star +;+( + EE( ; E+( G -.( +

%ive star EE(+ ,D(H H.(. HD(,

/4D star +G -/( . E/( , /;( D H;( D

%ive %our star H +.. -,( . EG( . -.( ; +;( G

D4G star ;H( ; -+( D ,+( D EE( , GG( ,

%ive

/4D4 G star /; --( E +/E (; ++G (H +// (G ,,( ;

%ive %our star ; ;.( E -+( E H;( , -.( H +;( /

D4G star E -/( + -;( / H-( / -.( H +;( /

%ive %our star , -D(+ -.(,G(/ EG(+

D4G star +/ ;,(E ;G(H E-(+ --(-

-D( G ;/( H ;.( , ;/( . H(.

D+(.

,(H

+;( ;

DH(,

D.( E

GE(;

++(G

Q Trained :mployees includes those $ith a minimum one year certi%icate course %rom a hotel management or e3uivalent institutionC ho$ever some hotels may have included those $ith short term )in house) training( QQ %ive star also includes %ive star delu'e properties(

The above table presents percentage o% trained and untrained employees city $ise( This ma2es it very clear that A%ter ?oa "une and Bangalore )GEF) are having ma'imum percentage o% untrained employees even in %ive star properties(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(- +7-5t,o-,-g o> #o4p,ta0,t9

-,t@

The resident manager has operational responsibility %or the entire hotel e'cept %or %ood and beverage( The Room manager has lesser responsibility( Khere there is a complete sta%%4 the Rooms manager is assisted by a 5unior manager andJ or a %ront o%%ice manager( The latter %ocuses chie%ly on the operational areas o% the physical %ront des2( The distinctions are less sharp today because %ront o%%ice sta%% $ere reduced dramatically as hotel organisations restructured during the dar2 days o% the early to mid +;;.s( *umerous middle management positions $ere cut as a result and many titles $ere collapsed into one( The ne$ structure that $as created has remained and $ith it the merger o% titles and responsibilities( otels o%%set the diminished management structure by enlarging the scope o% employee authority and responsibility( There $as ne$ empo$erment o% guest service agent( The %ront o%%ice organisation does not re%lect this loss o% supervisory sta%% because many positions are no$ being reinstated as the lodging industry enters a strong period o% recovery( The room department is not an independent unit but is one heavily dependent on other departments $ithin the hotel( *ot$ithstanding that interdependence4 the %ront o%%ice is the most important unit o% the hotel( 7arious hotels can and do %unction $ithout %ood and beverage %acilities( 6ar2eting is o%ten ta2en on by the manager o% a small hotel( Some hotels get along $ithout departments o% human resources( @thers outsource their payrolls and accounting systems( *ot so $ith the %ront o%%ice( The very de%inition o% hotel as a purveyor o% rooms necessitates the presence o% the rooms division4 $hich is most evident in t$o %unctions0 The %ront des2 and house2eeping(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(;( Ma=or Depart2e-t4 8,th,- a B,g #ote0 The departments are classi%ied on accounts o% it %unction as 1ore or Support( These include0 Rooms &ivision or Accommodations Food M Beverage @perations 6ar2eting and Sales Front @%%iceJ Bell &es2 uman Resources and Training "roduction or >itchen Finance and "urchases Security and Sa%ety :ngineering and 6aintenance

+oo3 a-3 Be1erage4 F M B deals mainly $ith %ood and beverage service allied activities( &i%%erent divisions are there in F M B li2e Restaurants4 Speciality Restaurants4 1o%%ee Shop )G/ hrs()4 Bar4 Ban3uets4 Room service etc( Apart %rom that they have !tility services )1leaning)( +ro-t O>>,5e Depart2e-t@The %ront o%%ice is the command post %or processing reservations4 registering guests4 settling guest accounts )cashiering)4 and chec2ing out guests( Front des2 agents also handle the distribution o% guestroom 2eys and mail4 messages or other in%ormation %or guests( The most visible part o% the %ront o%%ice area is o% course the %ront des2( The %ront des2 can be a counter or4 in some lu'ury hotels4 an actual des2 $here a guest can sit do$n and register( #o74e.eep,-g Depart2e-t@A The house2eeping department is another important department in hospitality $orld( ouse2eeping is responsible %or cleaning the hotels guestrooms and public areas( This department has the largest sta%%4 consisting o% an assistant house2eeper4 room inspectors4 room attendants4 a houseperson cre$4 linen Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

room attendants and personnel in charge o% employee uni%orms( They may also have their o$n laundry and valet service( otels $ith laundry and valet e3uipment may use it only %or hotel linens and uni%orms and send guest clothing to an outside service $here it can be handled $ith specialiBed e3uipment( +oo3 Pro375t,o- Depart2e-t@A Food production deals $ith the preparations o% %ood items( It is basically engaged in preparing those dish4 $hich are ordered by the guest and a%ter$ards is catered by the FMB department( 1uisine li2e Indian4 1ontinental4 Thai4 Italian4 >on2ani )1oastal Sea Food)4 South Indian4 1hinese4 6e'ican4 etc( &i%%erent 1he%s are appointed %or the specialty cuisine( Mar.et,-g I Sa0e4 Depart2e-t@A Sales and mar2eting has become one o% the most vital %unctions o% the hotel business and an integral part o% modern hotel management( It includes pac2aging %or selling4 sales promotion4 advertising and public relations( The mar2eting division is charged $ith the responsibility o% 2eeping the rooms in the hotel occupied at the right price and $ith the right mi' o% guests( E-g,-eer,-g a-3 Ma,-te-a-5e Depart2e-t0A The energy crisis throughout the $orld has given a great importance to the engineering department o% a hotel( This department provides on the dayAtoA day basis the utility services4 electricity4 hot $ater4 steams4 airAconditioning and other services and is responsible %or repair and maintenance o% the e3uipment4 %urniture and %i'tures in the hotel( The engineering department has an important role in satis%ying the guestA demand and helping to maintain the pro%it level o% the hotel( The cleaning4 upA2eep4 repair4 replacement4 installation and maintenance o% property and its %urnishing4 machinery and e3uipment are the 5oint responsibilities o% :ngineeringJ6aintenance and the ouse2eeping &epartment(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

+,-a-5e/ A55o7-t,-g a-3 Co-tro0 Depart2e-t0A A hotels accounting department is responsible %or 2eeping trac2 o% the many business transactions that occur in the hotel( The accounting department does more than simply 2eep the boo2sA%inancial management is perhaps a more appropriate description o% $hat the accounting department does( Khereas the control department is concern $ith cost control guidelines by $ay o% reducing in investment4 reduction in operating cost4 control o% %ood service costs4 control o% beverage costs4 labour cost control4 etc( Sa>et9 a-3 Se57r,t9 Depart2e-t@A The security o% guests4 employees4 personal property and the hotel itsel% is an overriding concern %or todays hoteliers( In the past4 most security precautions concentrated on the prevention o% the%t %rom guests and the hotel( o$ever4 today such violent crimes as murder and rape have become a problem %or some hotels( !n%ortunately4 crime rates in most ma5ors cities are rising( ence today security department also concentrate on these additional criminal activities too( A32,-,4trat,o- Depart2e-t0A Top organisational members usually supervise the Administration &epartment in a hotel( This department is responsible %or all the $or2 connected $ith administration4 personnel4 manpo$er4 employees $el%are4 medical4 health and security( #72a- Re4o7r5e De1e0op2e-t@A This department started getting importance only %e$ decades be%ore in hotel industry and $ithin a short span o% time it has become a very important part o% the organisation( It plays the role o% %acilitator bet$een the bargainable cadre and nonAbargainable cadre( This department is the topic o% discussion( The practice4 $hich this department and their sta%% per%orm4 is going to be learned in the light o% present study( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Researcher can conclude %rom the revie$ o%

ospitality Industry4 its gro$th

and characteristics that this industry is very peculiar and driven mainly by the people $ho are serving %or the industry( The training o% such employees ma2es the di%%erence in the service o% the hospitality unit( This service is the only e'perience that a customer carries $ith himsel%( trained employees( ospitality is an intangible e'perience( The success o% this industry depends on capable and ence training in hospitality industry is an important aspect o% its success and gro$th( Training in hospitality industry is also a crucial %unction o% its managers( :The >a5tor that 5a74e3 g7e4t4 to <e 2o4t ,-1o01e3 ,- the p7r5ha4e 3e5,4,o- Fa-3 there>ore 2ore ,-tere4te3 ,- the hote0G 8a4 ,t4 e2p0o9ee4 = 1ornell Study(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(+(+. #72a- Re4o7r5e4 ,- #o4p,ta0,t9 I-374tr9 uman resources in hospitality industry4 5ust li2e in any other enterprise4 is one o% the single biggest cost( Furthermore4 it is the e%%icient $or2%orce in hospitality industry4 $hose timely and good services to customers have great bearing on the business o% hotel and restaurants( Bet$een the enterprise and customer4 human resource establishes %irst contact( There%ore e%%ective management o% human resource is o% vital importance %or the success o% enterprise( 1ommon perceptions o% management practices in the hotel industry typically include $or2 intensi%ication4 high labour turnover4 lac2 o% training and poor career prospects4 and casual terms and conditions o% employment( The present study is $ith due caution o% such perceptions( Some o% the global studies in this area $ere e'plored as part o% literature revie$( >usluvan )G..D) in his study on 6anaging employee attitudes and behaviours in the tourism and hospitality Industry# advised 0 :mployees are one o% the most 4 i% not most important resources or assets %or tourism and hospitality organisations in their endeavor to provide e'cellent service4 meet and e'ceed consumer e'pectations4 achieve competitive advantage and e'ceptional organisational per%ormance( >usluvan )G..D) also observed that normative R practices have largely not

been implemented in industry4 although some improvements have begun to be noted4 once again in larger organisations4 For e'ample recruitment and selection is largely conducted intuitively and unpro%essionally4 orientation and training has largely been neglected %or both management and the employees4 although this is starting to improve some $hat in larger organisations in $hich service 3uality and consumer satis%action have been recogniBed as importantC there continues to be lac2 o% opportunity %or promotion and career development although evidence o% the use o% internal labour mar2ets has Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

begun to be %ound4 the industry continues to be notorious %or its lo$ $ages and lac2 o% bene%its4 particularly at lo$er organisational levelsC results o% empo$erment and employee participation are mi'ed = $ith some studies %inding increasing relates and others suggesting managers are becoming increasingly hierarchical and autocratic and the industry can be characteriBed by a poor leadership style $ith managers largely being described as poorly e3uipped to manage pro%essionally and as e'hibiting unbridled individualism4 although a more consultative approach has begun to be observed in some chain hotels( In comparison to employees in other industries4 hospitality industry employees $ere much more content $ith their lot( She reported that they sho$ a stronger level o% endorsement %or the $ay they are managed( are more li2ely to be proud to tell people to tell people $ho they $or2 %or and display an impression o% overall 5ob satis%action( There is also evolving role o% R managers in hospitality Industry4 there are more personnel specialist $ith %ormal human resource 3uali%ications in the hospitality industry compared to other industries( o$ever this has been attributed in part to the industries high turnover rate4 $hich in turn has been associated $ith a number o% the industry characteristics previously described including poor $or2ing conditions and poor R6 practices and %ocusing on labor as a cost to be minimiBed( Khat is not clear is $hy hospitality employees are more li2ely to endorse the $ay they are managed than their non hospitality counterparts( 6ore %ocus is also needed $ith respect to the implications o% organisational demographics4 internationalism and cross culturalism o% R6 research and practice( The impact o% training and development has also come under revie$( 8ashley )G..G) conducted a study on the cost and bene%its o% training at one organisation in order to test the utility o% a model %or helping identity such outcomes( e noted that despite the %act that a signi%icant proportion o% the literature advocates investing in training and development activities4 there had been little empirical evidence that doing so $ill actually lead to increased Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

organisational e%%ectiveness( Further he ac2no$ledged that generating such evidence is di%%icult( It is di%%icult to isolate training as the 2ey independent variable in managing a business unit $hich leads to speci%ic gains in business per%ormance( Is it training $hich is leading to improvements in productivity4 %or e'ample4 or are changes the result o% improved employee motivation because the employee values trainingR Khat e%%ect does the employment environment ma2eR 8ashley )G..G) concluded that it $as not possible to measure precisely any resultant %inancial bene%its associated $ith e'penditure on training but that bene%its such as improvement in service 3uality4 sta%% satis%action4 and %unctional %le'ibility along $ith improvements in turnover and productivity4 could be identi%ied through 3ualitative means( I-tro375t,o- to #72a- Re4o7r5e Depart2e-t o> hote0 ,-374tr9 In hotel industry the 5ob o% R manager can be compare $ith the 5ob o%

conductor4 $hose 5ob is to instruct and direct all o% the various musicians so that they can per%orm $ell together( But be%ore a conductor can direct a beauti%ul per%ormance4 all o% the individual musicians must be able to play their instruments $ell( Khat 2ind o% per%ormance could one e'pect i% the violinists did not 2no$ ho$ to play their instruments or the %lutists could not read musicR So it is in the hospitality industry4 be%ore a manager can direct and shape employees individual contributions into an e%%icient $hole4 he or she must %irst turn employees into competent $or2ers $ho 2no$ ho$ to do their 5obs( :mployees are the musicians o% the orchestra that the members o% the audienceAtheAguestsAhave come to $atch per%ormance( I% employees are not s2illed at their 5obs4 then the per%ormance they give $ill get bad revie$s( 9ust as an orchestra can have a %ine musical score %rom a great composer and still per%orm poorly because o% incompetent musicians4 so a hotel can have a Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

%inest standard recipes4 service procedures and 3uality standards and still have dissatis%ied guests because o% poor employee per%ormance( That is $hy properly managing human resources is so important( *o other industry provides so much contact bet$een employees and customers and so many opportunities to either rein%orce a positive e'perience or create a negative one( The %iveAstar hotels hires and involves number o% employees in di%%erent 5obs and in di%%erent %ields there is dire need to loo2 and control on them( *o doubt di%%erent departments heads are present to loo2 their department employee4 but R& is a place4 $hich supervise and e%%ectively communicate $ith these departments head and communicate $ith the top management( Thus there %unction is very large and diverse as compared $ith respect to di%%erent departments heads( In most o% the hotels the uman Resource policies are put in $riting( These R& revie$ these policies(

policies are distributed to 2ey and responsible e'ecutive to provide guidance and ensure consistent application( "eriodically the

For :'ample0 I- Ra2a3a international the %ollo$ing policies are put on the notice board as $ell as each employee bear a tag starting :I a2; $hich generate a sense o% motivation as $ell as sense o% personal %eeling to$ards the organisation( Po0,5,e4 o> Ra2a3a I-ter-at,o-a0 I a2 pro73 I a2 EB5,te3 I a2 E2po8ere3 I a2 Ra2a3a I-ter-at,o-a0 Area4 o> #72a- Re4o7r5e po0,5,e4 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

The

uman Resource policies are concerned $ith each o% the %ollo$ing :mployment Recruitment Intervie$ "sychological and Aptitude tests Selection 6edical :'amination Administration and Trans%ers "romotions and Termination Responsibilities %or adherence to indiscrimination la$s :ducation and Training @rientation o% ne$ employees :ducational needs %or employees Training programmes &evelopment @pportunities 1ommunications ealth and Sa%ety @ccupational health :mergency medical care Sa%ety programme "reventive 6edicine :mployees Services 1a%eteria 7ending 6achine :mployees 8ounge 8oc2ers 1ounselling Suggestion Scheme

areas0A

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Kages and Salary Administration Salary structure "er%ormance standards and 9ob evaluation Salary survey Bene%its ?roup Insurance Sic2Apay plan ospitaliBation 6a5or medical coverage >ey man Insurance "ension planJscheme 8abourJIndustrial relations "resentation :lections 1ollective Bargaining ?rievance "rocedures Administration "ersonnel records Security olidays and 7acations @%%ice 8ayout and Services Kor2 Rules

F ARI Annual Report G..;A G.+.) revealed the average sta%% turnover in , star delu'e hotels in India is G/(+/ per cent( The Indian hospitality Industry is characteriBed by a $ea2 internal labour mar2et( There is a stream o% +.4... hospitality students graduating every year )6inistry o% India) %rom various public and private institutions( R&4 ?overnment o% o$ever4 the management

trainee positions are merely restricted to about +..A+,.( 6ost graduates 5oin as operations trainees and then $ait %or another %e$ years to become management trainees( The $or2ing condition in most hotels in India apart %rom top lu'ury brands leaves a lot to be desired( The attrition rates are high( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

8ong $or2 hours $ith lo$ compensation4 motivates employee to loo2 %or greener pastures( 6any o% the multinational brands act as a training ground %or interns $ho later ta2e up more lucrative assignments else$here( The reason %or shi%ting 5obs are slight increments in salary4 the $or2 environment lac2s openness and sharing o% concerns by employees is seldom the norm( The employee to room ratio is e'tremely high( rather than investing in a multiAs2illed tas2 %orce( otels deploy more people

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(G Tra,-,-g Pro5e44 a-3 Pra5t,5e4


:La5. o> tra,-e3 2a-po8er ,4 the 4,-g0e 2o4t 0,2,t,-g >a5tor >or gro8th o> the ho4p,ta0,t9 ,-374tr9.; Training re%ers to the planned e%%ort by a company to %acilitate employees learning o% 5obArelated competencies4 $hich include 2no$ledge4 s2ills4 or behaviours that are critical %or success%ul 5ob per%ormance( NTraining is the systematic modi%ication o% behaviour through learning $hich occurs as a result o% education4 instruction4 development and planned e'perienceN )Armstrong +;;;) NA planned process to modi%y attitude4 2no$ledge or s2ill behaviour through learning e'perience to achieve e%%ective per%ormance in an activity or range o% activities( Its purpose4 on the $or2 situation4 is to develop the abilities o% the individual and to satis%y the current and %uture manpo$er needs o% the organisationN( )!> 6anpo$er services commission4 +;-+) Khile Armstrongs de%inition is concise4 the de%inition given by the !> manpo$er services commission gives a better insight to training by not only e'plaining $hat training is but also giving the reason %or training practices to be implemented( Sometimes there is con%usion bet$een the terms N:ducationN M NTrainingN because there is a degree o% interArelationship( This relationship can be best understood by considering :ducation as dealing $ith the imparting o% 2no$ledge $hereas Training is directed to$ards changing o% behaviour and attitude( Armstrong states that the %undamental aim o% training is to help organisations achieve their purpose by adding to their 2ey resources i(e( the people they employee( Investing in training means that employees $ill be able to per%orm better and empo$er themselves to ma2e use o% their natural abilities( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

>no$ledge4 S2ills and Attitude 8

ndividual Per&ormance

9no2ledg e S#ill Attitude

Training means the planned and organiBed activity to impart s2ills4 techni3ues and methodologies to employers and their employees to assist them in establishing and maintaining employment and a place o% employment that is sa%e and health%ul( E375at,ois concerned $ith increasing general 2no$ledge and

understanding o% an employees total environment( A course on hospitality management4 human relations4 Bar tending4 Retail management is education(

9no2ledge $ S#ills and Attitude$ Training and Development concept and practice$ S.9. 'hatia $ Page

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Lear-,-g is broad one $hich includes both training and education( 8earning is observable modi%ication o% behaviour as a result o% some e'perience( De1e0op2e-t has a broader meaning( Its aim is to gro$ or improve the overall personality o% an individual( It is continuous process and is on the initiative %rom individual( &evelopment is to meet an individuals %uture needs( :%%orts to$ards development o%ten depend on personal drive and ambition( It helps individuals in progress to$ards maturity and actualisation o% their potential capacities( Any training and development programme must contain inputs $hich enable the participants to gain s2ills4 learn theoretical concepts and help ac3uire vision to loo2 into the distant %uture( In addition to these4 there is a need to give ethical orientation4 emphasise on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision ma2ing and problem solving abilities( &evelopment is $hole process by $hich employee learns4 gro$s4 improves his abilities to per%orm variety o% roles $ithin and outside the organisation( ac3uires socially desirable attitudes and values( Ma-age2e-t E375at,o- and 6anagement development is aimed at improving ones abilities to per%orm pro%essional management tas2s( It involves learning on the 5ob through e'perience4 %ormal training programmes and several other approaches including sel% development( Kell trained4 2no$ledgeable employees are a valuable resource %or any business( Training is one element corporate consider $hen loo2ing to advance people and o%%er promotions( Although many employees recogniBe the high value those in management place on training and development4 some employees are still reluctant to be trained( Training and &evelopment o%%ers more than 5ust increased 2no$ledge( It o%%ers the added advantage o% net$or2ing and dra$ing %rom others e'periences( Training is valuable to both Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV e

the employer and employees( Increased 2no$ledge and s2ill ma2es the employee more productive in the $or2place and thus more valuable( In todays economy4 i% business isnt learning4 then it is going to %all behind( And a business learns as its people learn( :mployees are the ones that produce4 re%ine4 protect4 deliver and manage products or service every day4 year in4 year out( Kith the rapid pace and international reach o% the G+ st century mar2etplace4 continual learning is critical to businesss continued success( There%ore the business organsations should pay utmost importance to ho$ the training activity is carried out4 right %rom the need identi%ication )at the organisational4 %unctional4 and individual level) along $ith a proper established system o% evaluation that evaluated the e%%ectiveness o% training needs at an immediate level4 5ob level and out come level( The goal o% training is %or employees to master the 2no$ledge4 s2ills M behaviours emphasiBed in training programs M to apply them to their dayAtoA day activities( Sthere can be no single statement o% $hat the role o% a training specialist should be( It is conditioned by a combination o% the ob5ective necessities in his %irm4 sub5ective and personal elements brought out by the attitudes o% managers4 and his o$n conception o% his role and personal s2ills = he and the 5ob help to ma2e each other( !. %educhowic& Khen employee is placed on the 5ob4 he or she needs training to per%orm his or her duties e%%ectively( :mployees must be trained to operate machines4 reduce scraps and avoid accidents( Supervisors4 managers and e'ecutives also need to be developed in order to enable them ac3uire gro$th and maturity in thin2ing and actions( Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organisation(

Tra,-,-g O<=e5t,1e4 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

The principal ob5ective o% training and development division is to ma2e sure the availability o% a s2illed and $illing $or2%orce to an organisation( The main ob5ectives o% training are to )Armstrong4 +;;;)0

&evelop competencies o% employees to improve their per%ormance( elp people to gro$ $ithin the organisation in order that as %ar as possible4 its %uture uman resources can be met %rom $ithin( Reduce the learning time %or employees starting in ne$ 5obs on appointment4 trans%er or promotion4 and ensure that they become %ully competent as 3uic2ly and economically as possible(

!.!.1 I2porta-5e o> Tra,-,-g a-3 De1e0op2e-t0 Training and development programme4 helps remove per%ormance

de%iciencies in employees( This is particularly true $hen +) the de%iciency is caused by a lac2 o% ability rather than a lac2 o% motivation to per%orm4 G) the individuals involved have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn ho$ to do the 5ob better4 and D) supervisors and peers are supportive o% the desired behaviours( There is a greater stability4 %le'ibility and capacity %or gro$th in an organisation and training contributes to employee stability in at least t$o $ays( :mployees become e%%icient a%ter undergoing training( :%%icient employees contribute to the gro$th o% the organisation( ?ro$th renders stability to the $or2%orce( Further4 trained employees tend to stay $ith the organisation( They seldom leave the company( Training ma2es the employee versatile in operations( AllArounder can be trans%erred to any ne$ 5obs( Fle'ibility is4 there%ore4 ensured( ?ro$th indicates prosperity4 $hich is re%lected in increased pro%its %rom year to year( Kho else but $ellAtrained employees can contribute to the prosperity o% the enterpriseR

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Accidents4 scrap and damage to machinery and e3uipment can be avoided or minimised through training( :ven dissatis%action4 complaints4 absenteeism4 and turnover can be reduced i% employees are trained $ell( Future needs %or employees $ill be met through training and development programmes( @rganisations ta2e %resh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees( They are absorbed a%ter course completion( Training serves as an e%%ective source o% recruitment( Training is an investment in human resources $ith a promise o% better returns in %uture( A companys training and development pays dividends to the employees and the organisation( Though no single training programme yields all the bene%its discussed above4 the organisation4 $hich devotes itsel% to training and development4 enhances its human capabilities and strengthen its competitive edge( At the same time4 the employees personal and career goals are %urthered4 generally adding to his or her abilities and value o% the employer( !ltimately4 the ob5ectives o% the human resource department are also %urthered( Training o%%ers %ollo$ing bene%it to hospitality unit( Be-e>,t4 to Tra,-ee o Prepares employees to do their :obs o o o mproves sel&;con&idence mproves motivation mproves morale

o Prepares &or promotion o Reduces tension and stress o Provides an opportunity to succeed Benefits to the Property o ncreases productivity Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

o Reduces costs o 'uilds a strong employee team o Decreases sa&ety ha<ards o =reates a better image o 'uilds repeat business o ncreases re&errals

o Attracts potential employees o Decreases absenteeism o Reduces turnover Benefits to Guests o Provides high;>uality products o Provides high;>uality services o Ma#es their visit more pleasant o Ma#es them &eel they are getting their money?s 2orth o Provides a sa&er visit It $ould be unreal to assume that everything is positive %or organisations that invest in training programmes %or their employees( They can %all prey to other organisations that have no training policy and depend on poaching( As a direct result o% a no training policy the latter can o%%er attractive remuneration to poach sta%% resulting in in%lationary sta%% costs( The reason companies are able to entice sta%% a$ay may be due to the %act that many employed $ithin the ospitality industry are very employable otels4 !> employs $or2ers $ho $ill be because they are multiAs2illed $hich means that they are 3uali%ied %or a number o% positions( )For :(g( 9urys able to $or2 $ithin %ood M beverage and accommodation departments etc)( It must also be remembered that absence o% employees %rom the $or2place $hile on training can adversely a%%ect productivity levels in the short term( In a recent survey 8oo2 Khos Training no$ )G...) NThe main reasons %or not Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

training beyond induction $ere0 lac2 o% timeC di%%iculty in providing cover %or sta%% and sta%% not staying long enough to be trainedN The importance o% training to the hospitality industry has been highlighted by "eterson M achieve ic2s )+;;H)( According to "eterson M progress success%ul ic2s )+;;H) training is $ill reprogram vital because o% the unavoidable changes that occur in organisations( To continuing organisations themselves and retrain their employees accordingly4 e(g( to gain a competitive edge over their competitors by improving service 3uality in their hotel etc( "eterson M ic2s )+;;H) are also adamant that those organisations that are success%ul at present but continue unchanged and become complacent $ill be in %or a big shoc2( They argue that training is a continuous process and that peoples s2ills need to be continually updated to avoid becoming obsolete 5ust li2e technologies $hich become outdated i% development is not ongoing( To conclude4 training can be a valuable tool %or the organisation and the manager4 provided it is the right tool to solve the problem or address the identi%ied issues( Right support must be provided by the management %or the training to be e%%ective(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(G(G Tra,-,-g Pro5e44@ Training "rocess is an integral part o% human resource management and organisation( The %igure belo$ outlines inter related steps in training process( 6odel %or Training "rocess )S( > Bhatia) 1. Organisation Vision and perspective Plans Mission Strategies Objectives Divisional Business Plan

2.

ssess!ent o" Training #eeds

3. Setting up Training objectives and developing training policy and plan

$. Designing training Progra!!es

%. &!ple!entation o" Training Progra!!es

'. (valuation o" results and "eedbac) "or action The systematic approach to training $ill %ollo$ the above process( These stages in model are %urther discussed in detail $ith other steps involved in implementing the model(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Pro5e44 o> Tra,-,-g

denti&ying the training -eeds

@rganising Training Programme

=onduct @& Training Pograme

Presentation o& @peration A Training

Bvaluation @& training Programme. Critten or @ral Test

%ollo2 up

Tas# Description

Determining Training -eeds denti&y speci&ic Problems Preperation o& Trainees

Eob Discription

Per&ormance Test

%orecasting Recommendations Eob Speci&ication ntervie2ing and Personal @bservations

Preperation o& Trainers =ontent o& Training Programme

Bvaluation Sheets

Structured ntervie2 Duestionaire

Per&ormance Bvaluation Duestionaires

Training period Pre Training and Post training periods comparison

Preperation o& supporting Materials

=hec# Fist Morale Survey Test o& nterpersonal S#ills

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(G(D Step IG Tra,-,-g Nee34 I3e-t,>,5at,o-

Training is an integral part o% any organisation( Training is about 2no$ing $here you stand )no matter ho$ good or bad the current situation loo2s) at present4 and $here you $ill be a%ter some point o% time( Training is about the ac3uisition o% 2no$ledge4 s2ills4 and abilities )>SA) through pro%essional development( The %irst phase o% training is needs evaluations or needs assessment( All trainings should only be conducted to meet speci%ic identi%ied training needs( There is a cost associated $ith the trainings( That ma2es needs assessments critical to developing relevant and e%%ective training programs( A training need e'ists $hen there is a gap bet$een $hat is re3uired o% an employee to per%orm their $or2 competently and $hat they actually 2no$( There is no single method %or identi%ying training need( There are number o% procedures in general use as $ell as systems uni3ue to organisations( :ach method has its o$n advantages and disadvantages( The idea is to %ind out the best in every organisation and ta2e it %or$ard to be more e%%ective in training( The results o% training needs analysis $ill highlight the sub5ect matter needed to be covered during the training course( The 2no$ledge and s2ills gained during the training $ill increase abilities and allo$ our employees to per%orm their 5obs at an acceptable level( The needs assessment is 3uite simple and obvious( For e'ample4 $hen a ne$ in%ormation system is introduced4 it is assumed that no one has the 2no$ledge to operate it and the training need is noted( o$ever i% the organisation $as s$itching systems4 the need may not be so obvious( By conducting training needs analysis $e target the group that needs to be trained as $ell as hone in on e'actly $hat training is re3uired( The conditions under $hich R& activity $ill occur or In other $ords reasons %or doing training needs assessment are0 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

To determine gap in S>A0 S>A ?ap 2no$ T T S2ills4 >no$ledge M Attitude Khat they 2no$ minus Khat they need to

To determine $hether training is needed To determine causes o% poor per%ormance To determine content and scope o% training To determine desired training outcomes To provide a basis o% measurement To determine conditions under $hich To gain management support R& activity $ill ta2e place

Step4 ,- the Nee34 A44e442e-t Pro5e44 Training *eed Assessment also %ollo$s a step $ise process( Step O-e@ I3e-t,>9 Pro<0e2 Nee34 Deter2,-e orga-,4at,o-a0 5o-teBt Per>or2 gap a-a094,4 Set o<=e5t,1e4 Step T8o@ Deter2,-e De4,g- o> Nee34 A-a094,4 Metho3 4e0e5t,o- 5r,ter,a Step Three@ Co00e5t Data Co-375t ,-ter1,e84 J7e4t,o--a,re4 a-3 S7r1e94 O<4er1e peop0e at 8or. Step +o7r@ A-a09Ae Data I-,t,a0 A-a094,4 Deter2,-e 4o07t,o-4Cre5o22e-3at,o-4

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Step +,1e@ Pro1,3e +ee3<a5. Wr,te report a-3 2a.e ora0 pre4e-tat,oDeter2,-e -eBt 4tep E Tra,-,-g -ee3e3K Step S,B@ De1e0op A5t,o- P0a@nce this %ormal needs assessment process is completed the in%ormation is used as the basis %or training design4 development and evaluation( o$ever managers continue to assess attitudes4 2no$ledge and s2ill level o% participants prior to each session( &i%%erent employees may have di%%erent re3uirements( The *eed assessment process can be as detailed and involved as needed( Factors to consider $hen considering the level o% detail are time4 money4 number o% people involved4 criticalness o% s2ill4 anticipated return on investment4 resources available4 etc( A comparison o% some o% the %actors bet$een inAdepth and a mini assessment %ollo$s( InAdepth Iuantitative 6ultiAtiered approach Surveys @bservation Intervie$s Focus groups Scope &ocument revie$s Kidespread organisational Fe$er people involved involvement 8ength 1ost Focus :'posureJ7isibility Broad ranging ob5ectives Several months to a year :'pensive 8in2ed o de%ined outputs igh pro%ile and ris2 Short term %ocus Fe$ days to a $ee2 Ine'pensive Immediate4 3uic2 results 8o$er ris2 6ini Iualitative Intervie$s Focus groups

Type o% In%ormation 6ethods

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

!.!.&. Step IIG Tra,-,-g De4,gTraining &esign is an art as $ell as a science( As a science 4 it ta2es into account the purpose the organisation $ants the training to achieve4 appropriate principles %rom learning theory4 and pragmatic considerations4 such as cost and organisational sponsorship( As an art the instructional designer provides creative solutions %or learning needs( ADDIE Mo3e0 ADDIE provides a structure or %rame$or2 %or Instructional design o% a training program( 8ater many practictionerJ researchers have made changes in the version to suit the instruction system design(

The A&&I: model re%ers to AnalyBe4 &esign4 &evelop4 Implement and :valuate( Furthermore4 provides a stepAbyAstep process that helps instructional designers plan and create training programs $ith a %rame$or2 in order to ma2e sure that their instructional products are e%%ective and that their processes are as e%%icient as they can possibly be(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

+( AnalyBe
o o o o o o

Kho is the audience and $hat are their characteristicsR &id $e identi%y the ne$ behavioral outcomeR Khat types o% learning constraints e'istR Khat are the delivery optionsR Khat are the online pedagogical considerationsR Khat is the timeline %or pro5ect completionR &ocumentation o% the pro5ectLs instructional4 visual and technical design strategy Apply instructional strategies by according to the intended a%%ective4

G( &esign
o

behavioral

outcomes

domain

)cognitive4

psychomotor)(
o o o o

1reate storyboards &esign the user inter%ace and user e'perience "rototype creation Apply visual design )graphic design) 8ist activities that $ill help the students learn the tas2( Select the delivery method such as tapes4 handouts4 etc( Revie$ e'isting material so that you do not reinvent the $heel( &evelop the instructional course$are( SynthesiBe the course$are into a viable training program( 7alidate the instruction to ensure it accomplishes all goals and ob5ectives(

D( &evelopment
o o o o o o

/( Implement
o

&uring the implementation phase4 a procedure %or training the %acilitators and the learners is developed( The %acilitators training should cover the course curriculum4 learning outcomes4 method o% delivery4 and testing procedures( "reparation o% the learners include training them on ne$ tools )so%t$are or hard$are)4student registration( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

This is also the phase $here the pro5ect manager ensures that the boo2s4 hands on e3uipment4 tools4 1&AR@6s and so%t$are are in place4 and that the learning application or $ebsite is %unctional(

,( :valuation
o

Revie$ and evaluate each phase )analyBe4 design4 develop4 implement) to ensure it is accomplishing $hat it is supposed to( "er%orm e'ternal evaluations4 e(g( observe that the learner on the 5ob can actually per%orm the tas2s that $ere trained( Revise training system to ma2e it better(

The design o% the training program can be underta2en only $hen a clear training ob5ective has been produced( The training ob5ective clears $hat goal has to be achieved by the end o% training program i(e( $hat the trainees are e'pected to be able to do at the end o% their training( Training ob5ectives assist trainers to design the training program( Spe5,>,5 Lear-,-g O<=e5t,1e4 The courseJintervention learning ob5ectives are dra$n %rom the results o% training needs investigation (Its critical to 2eep these ob5ectives in our minds as $ell as in the %ront o% the training plan( 6ost o% the training programs are not e%%ective because o% %ailure to carry the precise intent o% the learning ob5ectives agreed $ith line managers into the training design( O<=e5t,1e4 Sho703 Be@ SMART Speci%ic4 State desired results in detail Measurable )observable)4 !se verbs that describe $hat trainees $ill Action4 &escribe an action that the trainee $ill per%orm Realistic4 Achievable Time %rame4 o$ long $ill it ta2e the trainees to learn the s2illR

learn

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Other Co-4,3erat,o-4 8h,0e 3e4,g-,-g tra,-,-g@ The Tra,-er = Be%ore starting a training program4 a trainer analyBes his technical4 interpersonal4 5udgmental s2ills in order to deliver 3uality content to trainers( The Tra,-ee4 = A good training design re3uires close scrutiny o% the trainees and their pro%iles( Age4 e'perience4 needs and e'pectations o% the trainees are some o% the important %actors that a%%ect training design( Co4t o> Tra,-,-g = It is one o% the most important considerations in designing a training programme( A training programme involves cost o% di%%erent types( These may be in the %orm o% direct e'penses incurred in training4 cost o% training material to be provided4 arrangement o% physical %acilities and re%reshment4 etc( Besides these e'penses the organisation has to bear indirect cost in the %orm o% loss o% production during training period( Ideally4 a training programme must be able to generate more revenues than the cost involved( Tra,-,-g C0,2ate = A good training climate comprises o% ambience4 tone4 %eelings4 positive perception %or training program4 etc( There%ore4 $hen the climate is %avourable nothing goes $rong but $hen the climate is un%avourable4 almost everything goes $rong( Tra,-ee46 Lear-,-g St90e = the learning style4 age4 e'perience4 educational bac2ground o% trainees must be 2ept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design o% the program( Tra,-,-g Strateg,e4 = @nce the training ob5ective has been identi%ied4 the trainer translates it into speci%ic training areas and modules( The trainer prepares the priority list o% about $hat must be included4 $hat could be included( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Tra,-,-g Top,54 = A%ter %ormulating a strategy4 trainer decides upon the content to be delivered( Trainers brea2 the content into headings4 topics4 and modules( These topics and modules are then classi%ied into in%ormation4 2no$ledge4 s2ills4 and attitudes( Se?7e-5e the 5o-te-t4 = 1ontents are then se3uenced in a %ollo$ing manner0 U From simple to comple' U Topics are arranged in terms o% their relative importance U From 2no$n to un2no$n U From speci%ic to general U &ependent relationship Tra,-,-g Ta5t,54 = @nce the ob5ectives and the strategy o% the training program becomes clear4 trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techni3ues( The method selection depends on the %ollo$ing %actors0 U Trainees bac2ground U Time allocated U Style pre%erence o% trainer U 8evel o% competence o% trainer U Availability o% %acilities and resources4 etc S7pport +a5,0,t,e4 = It can be segregated into printed and audio visual( The various re3uirements in a training program are $hite boards4 %lip charts4 mar2ers4 etc( Co-4tra,-t4 = The various constraints %or the training are0 U Time U Accommodation4 %acilities and their availability U Furnishings and e3uipments U Budget Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

U &esign o% the training4 etc

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

!.!.) Step IIIG Tra,-,-g I2p0e2e-tat,oTo put training program into e%%ect according to de%inite plan or procedure is called training implementation( Training implementation is the hardest part o% the system because one $rong step can lead to the %ailure o% $hole training program( :ven the best training program $ill %ail due to one $rong action( Training implementation can be segregated into0 U "ractical administrative arrangements U 1arrying out o% the training @nce the sta%%4 course4 content4 e3uipments4 topics are ready4 the training is implemented( 1ompleting training design does not mean that the $or2 is done because implementation phase re3uires continual ad5usting4 redesigning4 and re%ining( "reparation is the most important %actor to taste the success( There%ore4 %ollo$ing are the %actors that are 2ept in mind $hile implementing training program0 The Tra,-er = The trainer need to be prepared mentally be%ore the delivery o% content( Trainer prepares materials and activities $ell in advance( The trainer also set grounds be%ore meeting $ith participants by ma2ing sure that he is com%ortable $ith course content and is %le'ible in his approach( Ro0e o> Tra,-er a-3 Lear-,-g St90e40 Andragogy and pedagogy re%er to teaching styles used to e'pose individuals to ne$ s2ills4 2no$ledge and attitudes( :ach style di%%ers in assumptions about the learners and about the instructor( An understanding o% learning theories is critical to the success o% training and provides guidance in the assessment4 development4 implementation and evaluation o% training activity( Individuals di%%er mar2edly in the $ays they learn( These di%%erences include individuals learning styles that may be behavioural4 cognitive or humanistic or some combination o% all three( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

:Lear-,-g ho8 to 0ear-; is essential %or organisational success as $e move %urther into the G+st century and as ne$ in%ormation ma2es previously ac3uired 2no$ledge obsolete4 it is critical that trainers be e3uipped $ith the s2ills4 2no$ledge and attitudes to cope $ith the pressures these demands $ill certainly bring( >no$ing the trainees learning style4 understanding learning theories and the conte'ts $ithin $hich each are most e%%ective and evaluating training results are all hall mar2s o% the e%%ective trainers( Belo$ %igure summariBes these 8earning styles Lear-,-g Or,e-tat,o- S722ar9 FO6Co--or Bro--er De0a-e9 E >,g7re )-"G :lements 8earning "rocess 7ie$ 8earning locus :ducations purpose Role instructor Adult learning Behavioural ob5ectives4 competency based training Finally4 Individuals respond in accordance $ith their per5ept,o- a-3 rea5t,o-4 to 2ot,1at,o-( The individual may be driven by e'ternal %actors such as direct leadership4 coercion and threats4 $hich may prove e%%ective %or one $ho is e'ternally motivated( o$ever4 to an inner directed person4 this same type o% motivation may result in 5ust the opposite reaction and thus4 be counter productive( 8i2e$ise4 those $ho are inner directed and respond $ell Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV Behaviourist Behavioural 1hanges :'ternal Behaviour 1ognitivist Internal umanist mental "ersonal potential %ul%ilment A%%ective and

process action Internal 1apacity to learn

cognitive Sel% actualisations

change and autonomous o% Sets environment Structures content Facilitates $hole o% learning 1ognitive development4 memory ho$ person development Andragogy4 mentoring4 locus and o% control and sel% to directed learning

connection

training4 learning

s2ill development learn

to encouragement and higher levels o% responsibility $ould blossom in corporate environment o% a sharing and caring nature( Khat serves to motivate one person is not necessarily the same thing that $ill also be able to assess individual learning needs4 as $ell as the learning style o% the trainee( *o one theory $ill %it every training e'perience due to the comple'ity o% human nature the content and the conte't o% the tas2s to be learned4 and the environment $ithin $hich training occurs and is to be applied( It is critical %or the trainer to be a$are o% these theories and issues in order to ma2e the most e%%ective bridge bet$een trainer and trainee( 8earning in its most e%%ective conte't may never be completely identi%ied and isolated( Ke do 2no$ ho$ever that %or e%%ective learning to occur the %it bet$een learner 4 the content o% the material to be ac3uired 4 the environment and the instructor or trainer must be as congruent as possible( 8earning and motivation theories provide this guidance( Ph94,5a0 4et-7p = ?ood physical set up is preAre3uisite %or e%%ective and success%ul training program because it ma2es the %irst impression on participants( 1lassrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly s3uare as possible( This $ill bring people together both physically and psychologically( Also4 right amount o% space should be allocated to every participant( E4ta<0,4h,-g rapport 8,th part,5,pa-t4 = There are various $ays by $hich a trainer can establish good rapport $ith trainees by0 U ?reeting participants = simple $ay to ease those initial tense moments U :ncouraging in%ormal conversation U Remembering their %irst name U "airing up the learners and have them %amiliariBed $ith one another U 8istening care%ully to trainees comments and opinions U Telling the learners by $hat name the trainer $ants to be addressed U ?etting to class be%ore the arrival o% learners U Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

U !sing %amiliar e'amples U 7arying his instructional techni3ues U !sing the alternate approach i% one seems to bog do$n I- ge-era0 progra22e ,2p0e2e-tat,o- ,-1o01e4 a5t,o- o- the >o00o8,-g 0,-e4@ &eciding the location and organiBing training and other %acilities( Scheduling the training programme( 1onducting the programme( 6onitoring the progress o% the trainees(

Tra,-,-g progra24 are 747a009 <a4e3 o- Gag-eD4 N,-e E1e-t4 o> I-4tr75t,o-@ ?ain attention In%orm learners o% ob5ectives Stimulate recall o% prior learning "resent the content "rovide Nlearning guidance :licit per%ormance )practice) "rovide %eedbac2 Assess per%ormance :nhance retention and trans%er to the 5ob

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(G(,(+ T9pe4 o> Tra,-,-g There are many approaches to categorise types o% training( The %ocus here is on the types o% training that are commonly used in presentAday organisations4 in speci%ic to the hospitality industry( 1. S.,004 tra,-,-g@ A 4.,00 is the learned capacity to carry out preAdetermined results o%ten $ith the minimum outlay o% time4 energy4 or both( This type o% training is most common in organisations( The process here is %airly simple( The need %or training in basic s2ills )such as reading4 $riting4 computing4 spea2ing4 listening4 problem solving4 managing onesel%4 2no$ing ho$ to learn4 $or2ing as part o% a team4 leading others) is identi%ied through assessment( Speci%ic training ob5ectives are set and training content is developed to meet those ob5ectives( Several methods are available %or imparting these basic s2ills in modern organisations )such as lectures4 apprenticeship4 onAtheA5ob4 coaching etc()( Be%ore employing these methods4 managers should0 :'plain ho$ the training $ill help the trainees in their 5obs( Relate the training to the traineesL goals( Respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource( :ncourage trainees to learn by doing( ?ive %eedbac2 on progress to$ard meeting learning ob5ectives(

!. I-375t,o- tra,-,-g Induction training is important as it enables a ne$ recruit to become productive as 3uic2ly as possible( It can avoid costly mista2es by recruits not 2no$ing the procedures or techni3ues o% their ne$ 5obs( The length o% induction training $ill vary %rom 5ob to 5ob and $ill depend on the comple'ity o% the 5ob4 the siBe o% the business and the level or position o% the 5ob $ithin the business( The %ollo$ing areas may be included in induction training0 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

8earning about the duties o% the 5ob 6eeting ne$ colleagues Seeing the layout the premises 8earning the values and aims o% the business 8earning about the internal $or2ings and policies o% the business

The main purpose o% induction is to relieve the ne$ employee %rom possible an'iety and ma2e him or her %eel at home on the 5ob( These orientation programmes are carried out %ormally as $ell as individuallyJcollectively in the hotels( These programmes are carried %rom + $ee2 = G $ea2( The topics4 $hich are covered in induction programme are given in the %ollo$ing table0 Orga-,4at,o-a0 I447e4 istory o% employer @rganisation o% employer *ames M titles o% 2ey e'ecutives :mployees title M department 8ayout o% physical %acilities "robationary period E2p0o9ee Be-e>,t4 "ay scales and pay days 7acations and holidays Rest brea2s Training M education bene%its 1ounseling I-tro375t,oTo supervisor To trainers Lo< D7t,e4 9ob location 9ob tas2s 9ob sa%ety re3uirements

"roduct line or services provided @vervie$ o% production process 1ompany policies M rules &isciplinary regulations :mployee handboo2 Sa%ety procedure M en%orcement

Insurance bene%its Retirement programme :mployerAprovided services employees Rehabilitation programmes

to

To coA$or2ers To employee counsellor

@vervie$ o% 5ob 9ob ob5ectives Relationship to other 5obs

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

A%ter orientation comes placement( "lacement re%ers to the assignment o% a ne$ employee to his or her 5ob( The 5ob o% R is simple $here the 5ob is R specialists use independent4 but $here the 5obs are se3uential or pooled4

assessment classi%ication model %or placing ne$ly hired employees( For e'ample the 5ob o% placing a $aiter to its position is 3uite simpler as compared $ith that o% the placing the employee at managerial level( The 5ob o% placing a $aiter to its position is called an independent 5ob but the 5ob o% placing employee at managerial level can be considered as se3uential or pooled 5ob( '. Appre-t,5e Sh,p Tra,-,-g 6ost cra%t $or2ers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through %ormal apprenticeship programmes( Apprentices are trainees $ho spend a prescribed amount o% time $or2ing $ith an e'perienced guide4 coach or trainer( Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high levels o% participation %rom the trainee( An internship is a 2ind o% onAtheA5ob training that usually combines 5ob training $ith classroom instruction in trade schools4 colleges or universities( 1oaching4 as e'plained above4 is similar to apprenticeship because the coach attempts to provide a model %or the trainee to copy( @ne important disadvantage o% the apprenticeship methods is the uni%orm period o% training o%%ered to trainees( "eople have di%%erent abilities and learn at varied rates( Those $ho learn %ast may 3uit the programme in %rustration( Slo$ learners may need additional training time( It is also li2ely that in these days o% rapid changes in technology4 old s2ills may get outdated 3uic2ly( Trainees $ho spend years learning speci%ic s2ills may %ind4 upon completion o% their programmes4 that the 5ob s2ills they ac3uired are no longer appropriate( Apprenticeship training programme tends to$ards more education than onAthe =5ob training or vestibule schools4 in that 2no$ledge and s2ill in doing a cra%t or a series o% related 5obs are involved( The governments o% various countries

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

have passed la$s and made it obligatory on the part o% employer to provide apprenticeship training Apprentice training is one o% the 2inds o% training ta2ing place in an organisation( This actually is an onAtheA5ob training( The apprentices get stipend during training period( Sometimes they are o%%ered 5obs a%ter the completion o% training( 6ost o% the otels have internship trainees %or H months duration( These trainees are %inal year student o% hotel management institutes( The training provides hands on e'perience to the trainees and to hoteliers seasonal supply o% manpo$er re3uirements( ?ood hotels also pay some amount o% stipend to internship trainees during this durationC in %e$ cases they are also provided to %ood and accommodation %rom hotels Go1er-2e-t o> Mahara4htra E2p0o92e-t Pro2ot,o- Progra22e >or E375ate3 -e2p0o9e3 Tra,-,-g S5he2e !nemployment among the educated youths in the state is o% great concern %or the state government( The problem as you 2no$ is a gigantic one( The state government hopes to solve this problem $ith publicJ corporate cooperation( For this it has %ormulated a scheme $hich on one hand helps you to dra$ your $or2ers %rom among the relatively more educated 5ob see2ers and mould them as you $ould by giving them suitable training on the 5ob and on the other4 it helps the educated unemployed to stand on their o$n %eet( The uni3ue %eature o% this scheme is that the monthly stipend to trainees is paid by the ?overnment( The main ob5ective o% the programme is that educated unemployed person should be given on the 5ob training or such other practical training so as to ma2e it possible %or them to stand on their o$n %eet and that they may be assisted through stipends during this period and therea%ter enabled to obtain gain%ul employment in organiBed sector( The employment promotion programme aims at changing the attitude o% the young people instead o% Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

carrying on a %rustrating search %or the $hite collar or other 5obs4 they $ill have to be encouraged to ta2e up 5obs such as operatives or shop %loor 5obs( The present programme aims at helping by0 Training %or ac3uisition and up gradation o% s2ills( Training $ill be imparted to educated unemployed %or ac3uisitions and up gradation o% s2ills in the %ollo$ing areas0 "roduction4 andicra%t Accounts4 typing4 stenography4 store2eeping4 time 2eeping4 tele' and telephone operating4 data processing on computers( These are not e'haustive but indicative( assemble designing 3uality control4 planning and maintenance any manu%acturing concern or a service industry(

D7rat,o- o> Tra,-,-g@ The duration o% training is restricted to a period o% si' months only in the course o% $hich the candidate $ill receive a stipend ranging bet$een Rs D.. to Rs +... per month according to level o% education( Mo3e o> re5r7,t2e-t@ The recruitment o% the scheme %or ac3uisition and up gradation o% s2ills should be done e'clusively %rom candidates submitted by :mployment :'changes( The programme restricted to only local persons4 i(e( those $ho have been residing in 6aharashtra %or a period o% +, years or more similarly this bene%it $ill be available only once4 under this scheme( Orga-,4at,o-a0 Arra-ge2e-t4@ The employers $ho participate in the training programme should pay monthly stipend to the trainees4 initially and then submit their claims %or reimbursement to the appropriate employment o%%icer %rom their district( 4e o> >or24@

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Kith a vie$ to have uni%ormity in the procedure to be %ollo$ed by the employer %or noti%ication o% training slots and %or claiming the stipend standard %orms have been prescribed( Any la$ $ith respect to labour shall not apply to or in relation to such apprentices( &. Re>re4her Tra,-,-g0 Rapid changes in technology may %orce companies to go in %or this 2ind o% training( By organising shortAterm courses $hich incorporate the latest developments in a particular %ield4 the company may 2eep its employees upAtoAdate and ready to ta2e on emerging challenges( It is conducted at regular intervals by ta2ing the help o% outside consultants $ho specialise in a particular descriptive( ). Cro44->7-5t,o-a0 Tra,-,-g0 1rossA%unctional Training involves training employees to per%orm operations in areas other than their assigned 5ob( This is also re%erred as 6ulti s2ills training or 6ulti tas2ing( There are many approaches to cross %unctional training( 9ob rotation can be used to provide a 6anager in one %unctional area $ith a broader perspective than he $ould other$ise have( &epartments can e'change personnel %or a certain period so that each employee understands ho$ other departments are %unctioning( igh per%orming $or2ers can act as peer trainers and help employees develop s2ills in another area o% operation( 1ross %unctional training provides the %ollo$ing bene%its to an organisation )and the $or2ers as $ell) )+) Kor2ers gain rich e'perience in handling diverse 5obsC they become more adaptable and versatile )G) They can better engineer their o$n career paths )D) They not only 2no$ their 5ob $ell but also understand ho$ others are able to per%orm under a di%%erent set o% constraints )/) A broader perspective increases $or2ersL understanding o% the business and reduces the need %or supervision Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

),) $hen $or2ers can %ill in %or other $or2ers $ho are absent4 it is easier to use %le'ible scheduling4 $hich is increasingly in demand as more employees $ant to spend more time $ith their %amilies( 6any otels are practising 1ross %unctional training( *. Tea2 Tra,-,-g@ Team training generally covers t$o areasC content tas2s and group processes( 1ontent tas2s speci%y the teamLs goals such as cost control and problem solving( ?roup processes re%lect the $ay members %unction as a team A %or e'ample ho$ they interact $ith each other4 ho$ they sort out di%%erences4 ho$ they participate etc( 1ompanies are investing heavy amounts4 no$ days4 in training ne$ employees to listen to each other and to cooperate( They are using outdoor e'periential training techni3ues to develop team$or2 and team spirit among their employees )such as scaling a mountain4 preparing recipes %or colleagues at a restaurant4 sailing through uncharted $aters4 crossing a 5ungle etc()( The training basically thro$s light on )i) ho$ members should communicate $ith each other )ii) ho$ they have to cooperate and get ahead )iii) ho$ they should deal $ith con%lictA%ull situations )iv) ho$ they should %ind their $ay4 using collective $isdom and e'perience to good advantage( ". D,1er4,t9 Tra,-,-g@ &iversity training considers all o% the diverse dimensions in the $or2place Vrace4 gender4 age4 disabilities4 li%estyles4 culture4 education4 ideas and bac2grounds A $hile designing a training programme( It aims to create better crossAcultural sensitivity $ith the aim o% %ostering more harmonious and %ruit%ul $or2ing relationships among a %irmLs employees( The programme covers t$o things0 )i) a$areness building4 $hich helps employees appreciate the 2ey bene%its o% diversity4 and )ii) s2ill building4 $hich o%%ers the 2no$ledge4 s2ills and abilities re3uired %or $or2ing $ith people having varied bac2grounds(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

%. L,tera59 Tra,-,-g@ Inability to $rite4 spea2 and $or2 $ell $ith others could o%ten come in the $ay o% discharging duties4 especially at the lo$er levels( Kor2ers4 in such situations4 may %ail to understand sa%ety messages4 appreciate the importance o% stic2ing to rules4 and commit avoidable mista2es( Functional illiteracy )lo$ s2ill level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a %irmLs productivity and competitiveness( Functional literacy programmes %ocus on the basic s2ills re3uired to per%orm a 5ob ade3uately and capitalise on most $or2ersL motivation to get help in a particular area( Tutorial programmes4 home assignments4 reading and $riting e'ercises4 simple mathematical tests4 etc(4 are generally used in all company inAhouse programmes meant to improve the literacy levels o% employees $ith $ea2 reading4 $riting or arithmetic s2ills( There are many customised and tailor made training programmes suiting to the re3uirements o% the company as creativity training4 consumer behaviours4 selling s2ills etc(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(G(,(G Metho34 o> Tra,-,-g 7arious training methods are used to train employees( As days go by4 ne$er methods gain entry into the %ield( The methods no$ being used are either onA theA5ob or o%%AtheA5ob methods( @nAthe =5ob methods re%er to those that are applied in the $or2place4 $hile the employees are actually $or2ing( @%%AtheA 5ob methods are used a$ay %rom the $or2places( There are various methods o% training( The choice o% the methods depends upon several %actors li2e cost o% training4 number o% $or2ers4 depth o% 2no$ledge re3uired4 bac2ground o% the trainees4 and purpose o% training and so on( Training methods are usually classi%ied by the location o% instruction( @n the 5ob training is provided $hen the $or2ers are taught relevant 2no$ledge4 s2ills and abilities at the actual $or2placeC o%%AtheA5ob training4 on the other hand4 re3uires that trainees learn at a location other than the real $or2 spot( Armstrong )+;;;)4 Boella )+;;H) and ?o4 6onachello and Baum )+;;H) are in agreement that there are three main places $ere training can ta2e place( In company on the 5ob4 in 1ompany o%% the 5ob4 and e'ternal training4 each having its advantages and disadvantages that merit discussion and interpretation 1. O- the Lo< Tra,-,-g FOLTG @nAthe 5ob training is an important $ay in $hich people ac3uire relevant 2no$ledge and s2ills at $or2( ere it is important to ma2e the distinction ospitality Industry %or bet$een training and learning = this is critical to the e%%ective design and delivery o% training in organisations( In relation to the the best part4 sta%% $or2 is carried out in direct contact $ith customers( NFor this reason much o% the training o% ne$ sta%% has to be per%ormed Non the 5obN so that the e'perience o% dealing $ith its customers can be obtained( @n Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

the 5ob training there%ore plays a vital part in the industries approach to trainingN )Boella4 +;;H) For :'ample &omino "iBBa $here appro'imately -,F o% training is @9T delivered by store managers using standardise module developed by corporate training o%%ice( @9T is used e'tensively by Ramada Inn4 $hich has developed an @9T training aid( This training aid helps trainees by ma2ing them a$are o% the training ob5ectives the bene%its to themselves and the bene%its to the company and the customer in per%orming the tas2( It also provides trainee $ith the se3uence o% steps that should be %ollo$ed to per%orm the tas2 correctly as $ell as a list o% tools4 materials and e3uipment re3uired to do the tas2( Finally the training aid provides an evaluation %orm %or providing %eedbac2 to the trainee( ):'amples adopted %rom ?o et al +;;H) !sed right @9T can %orm an important component in s2ills training as $ell as in orientation or induction training %or ne$ employees( In a recent survey 8oo2 Khos Training *o$ )G...) stated that NThe most common route at over one third o% all training incidents $as on the 5ob training provided by an internal provider and leading to no 3uali%icationN Training is an instructorAled4 content based intervention4 leading to desired changes in behaviour( 8earning is a sel%Adirected4 $or2Abased process4 leading to increased adaptive potential o% the learners( o$ever4 using the $ellAestablished term4 onAtheA5ob training )@9T) can be de%ined as an activity underta2en at the $or2place $hich is designed to improve an individuals s2ills or 2no$ledge( @9T is a $ellAestablished and $ellAused intervention designed to enhance individual s2ills and capabilities $ith the characteristics o%0 being delivered on a oneAtoAone basis and ta2ing place at the trainees place o% $or2

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

re3uiring time to ta2e place4 including potential periods $hen there is little or no use%ul output o% products or services being speci%ied4 planned and structured activity(

@9T used to be collo3uially called sitting ne't to *ellie = learning through $atching and observing someone $ith more e'perience per%orming a tas2( o$ever4 the largest survey ever underta2en in the !> indicated that about hal% o% the total training delivered across all industries and sectors consisted o% @9T( @ne o% the surveys on the theme Kho learns at $or2R sho$ed the value placed on @9T by learners( @9T $as the pre%erred method o% learning( /HF o% the respondents o% the most recent survey indicated being sho$n ho$ to do things then practising them as their best method( ardly anyone %ound @9T and learning %rom colleagues the least appealing method( ?enerally learners pre%er active rather than passive learning and %e$ people pre%er learning in isolation( @9T is dependent upon the trainer having su%%icient 2no$ledge and e'pertise to impart to the trainee( @9T is important and the 3uality o% @9T can be considerably improved through e%%ective design( The a31a-tage4 o> 74,-g o--the-=o< tra,-,-g Training can be delivered at the optimum time0 %or e'ample immediately be%ore a 5ob is to be per%ormed %or real in the $or2place( The trainee $ill have opportunities to practice immediately( The trainee $ill have immediate %eedbac2( Training is delivered by colleagues and can go some$ay to integrate the trainee into the team( The 3,4a31a-tage4 o> 74,-g o--the-=o< tra,-,-g Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

There is a tendency to %it @9T in $hen it is convenient %or o%%ice routine rather than at the optimum time %or learning( The training may be given piecemeal and not properly planned4 and the trainee gains a %ragmented picture o% the organisation( Too much training can be delivered in one session leading to in%ormation overload and trainee %atigue( The trainer may not have su%%icient 2no$ledge o% the process or e'pertise in instructional techni3ues )a train the trainer course may be appropriate)(

I% immediate practice is not accompanied by %eedbac2 the trainee can %eel abandoned a%ter the initial e'perience(

O- the =o< Tra,-,-g@ #o8 ,4 8or.4 K !nder this method4 the responsibility to import training to $or2ers is given to the immediate supervisor $ho 2no$s e'actly $hat is to be taught to the trainee %or better per%ormance or to some outside instructor $ho is specialist in the %ield( !nder this method %ollo$ing systems may be included0 Tra,-,-g <9 S7per1,4or@ Supervisor in charge is responsible %or training o% the operative sta%% under this system( The supervisor supervises and instructs the employee $hile on $or2( Sometimes4 he even demonstrates the system o% $or2ing to the employee( This enables the supervisor and the employee to understand each other better( -3er 4t739 494te2@ !nder this system4 a senior and e'perienced $or2man is assigned the 5ob o% teaching the ne$ employee as his underAstudy( The trainee under this system loses his motivation and morale i% the person under $hom he is $or2ing does not ta2e interest in him( A common version o% such training is the threeAposition plan( !nder this a man learns %rom the man above him and teaches the one belo$ him( This system is more suitable in the circumstances $here the trainer re3uires an assistant( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Po4,t,o- rotat,o-@ !nder this system4 the employee is periodically rotated %rom one 5ob to another instead o% stic2ing to one 5ob 5ust to ac3uire the general bac2ground and 2no$ledge o% the %unctioning o% 5ob( Its ma5or ob5ective is to broaden the bac2ground o% the trainee in various positions o% the 5ob( Fe$ types o% @nAsite TrainingJ A @nAtheA9ob Training A Apprentice Training A 1oachingJmentoring A 9ob Rotation A 9ob Instruction Training )9IT) A Syndicate 6ethod A 9ob :nlargement !. O>>-the-Lo< Metho34 !nder this method o% training4 the trainee is separated %rom the 5ob situation and his attention is %ocused upon learning the material related to his %uture 5ob per%ormance( Since the trainee is not distracted by 5ob re3uirements4 he can %ocus his entire concentration on learning the 5ob rather than spending his time in per%orming it( There is an opportunity %or %reedom o% e'pression %or the trainees( @%%AtheA5ob training methods are as %ollo$s0 ?o et al )+;;H) suggests that the distinguishing %actor o% In ouse @%% the 9ob

Training %rom other types o% o%% the 5ob training is that0 NIn house o%% the 5ob training is conducted a$ay %rom the physical location $ere the 5ob is actually carried out but still on company premisesN Armstrong )+;;;) also believes that this type o% training is the best $ay to ac3uire advanced manual4 o%%ice4 customer service or selling s2ills and to learn about company procedures and products( It also increases the trainees identi%ication $ith the organisation( The availability o% e3uipment and trained Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

trainers helps in that the basic s2ills are ac3uired much 3uic2er and o%ten more economically(

There are a number o% methods and techni3ues available $ith the choice depending on $hat is to be imparted( The main method)Adopted %rom Boella4 +;;H) guidelines are as %ollo$s4 +. !al's are best used %or imparting 2no$ledge such as company history and policies4 legal matters4 regulations4 recipes4 and an outline o% methods and procedures( In giving a tal24 progress must be chec2ed %re3uently by use o% 3uestions and ans$ers( ). Discussions are best used to elaborate on and to consolidate $hat has been imparted by other techni3ues( 6. %ectures o%ten mean little more than tal2ing at trainees and are there%ore to be avoided as there is usually little trainee participation( 1. Case studies( )ro*ects( business #ames are best used to illustrate and to consolidate principles o% management such as planning4 analytical techni3ues4 etc( /. +ole,)layin# is best used to develop social s2ills such as receiving guests4 handling customer complaints4 selling4 intervie$ing or instructional techni3ues( Ideally this should be supported by video tape recordings4 i% possible( 7. -ilms( charts( and other visual aids should not normally be used as instructional techni3ues by themselves4 but should support tal2s4 discussions4 case studies and roleAplaying( Films on a variety o% hotel and catering sub5ects are available %rom several training organisations( 8. Pro#rammed texts( .nteractive videos( . CD satis%y many o% the principles o% learning( In addition4 individuals can use them at any convenient time W not re3uiring the presence o% an instructor( They cannot4 o% course4 be used to teach some things such as manual s2ills and they can be very e'pensive to design(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

As $ith any system there are al$ays going to be disadvantages $hich Armstrong )+;;;) goes on to state( Trainees sometimes %ind it hard to trans%er the s2ills and 2no$ledge learned on courses to the $or2 place( Additionally managers and team leaders trans%erring %rom training situation to real li%e may %ind things more comple'( The problem here tends to be that their training deals $ith motivation and leadership theories4 $hich deal $ith the mind( This ma2es it much harder to get across4 as the connection bet$een $hat people learn say in the classroom may not al$ays be apparent( This is $hy Strenuous e%%orts have to be made to ensure that learners perceive the reality o% $hat they are learning and are e'pected to develop and implement action plans %or putting it into practiceN The action learning approachJconcept $as developed by Revans )+;-;) in order to overcome such problems( A31a-tage4 o> o>>-the-=o< tra,-,-g@ !se o% specialist trainers and accommodation :mployee can %ocus on the training A and not be distracted by $or2 @pportunity to mi' $ith employees %rom other businesses

D,4a31a-tage4 o> o>>-the-=o< tra,-,-g@ :mployee needs to be motivated to learn 6ay not be directly relevant to the employeeLs 5ob 1osts )transport4 course %ees4 e'amination %ees4 materials4 accommodation) EBter-a0 M O>> the =o< Tra,-,-g This %orm o% training may involve employees being released to attend a local college or university %or either short term or %ormal certi%ied programs i(e( *ational 7ocational Iuali%ications )*7IS) etc( ?o et al

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

)+;;H) suggests training can either be tailored to organisations speci%ic needs or it may %ocus on special disciplines related to both the ospitality M Tourism Industry( :'ternal training can also cover more technical or management topics $hich are bene%icial %or the development o% managers or team leaders4 technical and social 2no$ledge and s2ills as suggested by Armstrong )+;;;)( @ther %orms o% e'ternal training could be special courses M con%erences run by other organisations other than educational institutions( Another 3uite %avourable approach used by larger organisations4 $hich ?o et al )+;;H) suggested4 are $or2Abased placements and pro5ects at di%%erent locations $ithin the parent organisation or other organisations( For those people $ho have the opportunity to participate in e'ternal training courses it allo$s them to broaden their horiBons as they are e'posed to peers %rom di%%erent organisations( As $ith most %orms o% training the trans%er o% learning into practice is more di%%icult than the t$o previous types o% training mentioned( Another ma5or concern is that the e%%ectiveness o% e'ternal training $ill be determined by ho$ 3uic2ly the 2no$ledge and s2ills ac3uired are usedC Armstrong )+;;;) states i% not used immediately the learning ac3uired may evaporate 3uic2ly( Finally due to the $ide variety o% courses available it may be hard %or organisations to pic2 the most relevant to meet their ob5ectives( The methods are care%ully chosen 2eeping in mind $hat has to be learned i(e attitude4 s2ills and 2no$ledge and learning styles o% the participants(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

!.!.*. Step IVG E1a07at,o- o> Tra,-,-g Progra22e@ :A-9 th,-g that 5a--ot <e 2ea47re3 5a--ot <e ,2pro1e3.; Dr75.er To 5usti%y its e'istence training must be cost e%%ective0 the pay o%% must be related to the costs involved( The evaluation process is really a measure o% this e%%ectiveness( amblin )+;E/) de%ines evaluating training as NAny attempt to obtain in%ormation )%eedbac2) o% the e%%ects o% a training programme and to assess the value o% the training in the light o% that in%ormationN Training evaluation is de%ined as a systematic collection o% descriptive and 5udgemental in%ormation necessary to ma2e e%%ective training decisions related to selection4 adoption4 value and modi%ication various instructional activities( For evaluation !dai "aree2 )+;;E) proposed trevacube model that speci%ies three aspects %or evaluation dimensions0 ) evaluation o% conte'tual aspects inputs reactions and outputs)4 design ) longitudinal 4 e' post %acto4 matched group4 comparative surveys) and techni3ues )secondary source data4 measurement $ith instruments 4 reaction or response instruments and observations)( 7irmani( B(R4 and Seth " )+;;-) said that evaluation o% training must be consistent $ith the purpose4 ob5ectives and goal o% the training activity( They proposed three stages0 Pre Tra,-,-g E1a07at,o-@ This $ould not only help the management and the trainee in indenti%ying the training needs but also help the trainers become ac3uainted $ith the diverse training needs o% the participants( Co-teBt a-3 I-p7t E1a07at,o-@ This $ould help to assess $hether the training programmeJ 1ourse input are in con%ormity $ith the ob5ectives o% the programmes and have the desired e%%ect on the participant( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV Peter

Po4t Tra,-,-g E1a07at,o-0 1onsisted o% the reaction level4 learning evaluation4 5ob improvement plan4 on 5ob evaluation and %ollo$ up a%ter si' monthsJ one year( 6odels and Frame$or2 o% :valuation By evaluating the e%%ectiveness o% training Torrington M all )+;;-) and ?o et

al )+;;H) both believe that it is one o% the most unsatis%actory aspects o% training4 $ith many organisations believing that training ends once the delivery o% the training program is complete( The belie% that training ends once delivery is completed has t$o conse3uences0

It de%eats $hat has been stated earlier in the chapter that training is a continuous process throughout employees $or2ing li%e(

Secondly and more importantly it $ill result in the %ailure to measure $hether the training program has met the ob5ectives set out be%ore hand and $hether it has developedJ induced a positive behavioural change(

Both Torrington M

all )+;;-) and ?o et al )+;;H) believe that4 evaluation is

vital in determining ho$ success%ul the training program has been and %or the organisation it is vital to be able to demonstrate value %or money( The evaluation process is very straight%or$ard $hen the output o% training is clear as suggested by Torrington M all )+;;-)(

Armstrong )+;;;) states by implementing an evaluation process the organisation $ill have a degree o% control and that it is there%ore important that the entire training program is evaluated because0

It is important to assess $hether the training program has met the ob5ectives set out at the planning stage(

Finally it is important to indicate $here improvements or changes are re3uired in order to ensure that the training $ill be more e%%ective( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

1omplications arise $hen it comes to evaluating the success o% a managementAtraining programme o% social s2ills and development $here outputs are hard to measure( Torrington M di%%icult4 evaluation should still be carried out( E1a07at,o- o> Tra,-,-g Co4t4@ :valuation o% training costs compares the costs incurred in conducting an R& programme to the bene%its received by the organisation4 M can involve t$o categories o% activities0 cost bene%it evaluations M cost e%%ectiveness evaluation( 1ost bene%it analysis involves comparing the monetary costs o% training to the bene%its received in no monetary terms4 li2e improvement in attitudes4 sa%ety M health( 1ost e%%ectiveness analysis %ocuses on the %inancial bene%its accrued %rom training4 such as increases in 3uality M pro%its4 M reduction in $aste M processing time( E1a07at,-g Tra,-,-g a-3 Re470t4 In the evaluation o% training programs >ir2patric2 )+;;/) suggest there are %our levels o% evaluation0 all )+;;-) believe that $hile

+o7r Le1e04 o> Tra,-,-g 0 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Le1e0 1 E1a07at,o- E Rea5t,o-4@ :valuation at this level measures ho$ participants in a training program react to it( It attempts to ans$er 3uestions regarding the participantsL perceptions A &id they li2e itR Kas the material relevant to their $or2R This type o% evaluation is o%ten called a smile sheet(# According to >ir2patric24 every program should at least be evaluated at this level to provide %or the improvement o% a training program( In addition4 the participantsL reactions have important conse3uences %or learning )level t$o)( Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning4 a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility( Le1e0 ! E1a07at,o- E Lear-,-g @ eg.

To assess the amount o% learning that has occurred due to a training program4 level t$o evaluations o%ten use tests conducted be%ore training )pre test) and a%ter training )post test)( Le1e0 ' E1a07at,o- E Tra-4>er This level measures the trans%er that has occurred in learnersL behaviour due to the training program( :valuating at this level attempts to ans$er the 3uestion A Are the ne$ly ac3uired s2ills4 2no$ledge4 or attitude being used in the $or2 environment o% the learnerR Le1e0 & E1a07at,o-- Re470t4 (eg(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

This level measures the success o% the program in terms that managers and e'ecutives can understand Aincreased production4 improved 3uality4 decreased costs4 reduced %re3uency o% accidents4 increased sales4 and even higher pro%its or return on investment(

:valuating results is obviously easier $hen they can be 3uanti%ied(

o$ever4

it is not al$ays easy to prove the contribution to improved results made by training as distinct %rom other %actors and as >ir2patric2 says NBe satis%ied $ith evidence4 because proo% is usually impossible to getN :%%ective $ay o% evaluating the tangible returns o% a Training program is through calculation o% R@I )return on Investment)( The monetary bene%its o% the program are compared $ith the cost o% the program( The methods used to convert data should be reported( The R@I calculation %or a training program is identical to the R@I ratio %or any other business investment0 R@I may also be calculated by0 ROI FNG O FF<e-e>,t4 - 5o4t4PC5o4t4G B 1(( There are %our parties involved in evaluating the result o% any training0 Trainer4 Trainee4 Training and &evelopment department and 8ine 6anager( The Trainee gives a %eedAbac2 on $hether the course has met personal e'pectations and met the learning ob5ectives set at the beginning o% the "rogramme( The Trainers concern is to con%irm $hether the training program has been e%%ective or not( Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Training and &evelopment &epartment or the

R &epartment analyBes

$hether the course has made the best use o% the resources available( The 8ine manager chec2s $hether the time that trainee has spent in attending training had sho$n some positive results li2e4 improvement in his Jher 2no$ledge4 s2ills or attitude ( This e'plains the entire process o% training as practiced in most o% the organisations across industry across globe( !.!.". Other I447e4 Re0at,-g Tra,-,-g This part o% literature revie$ is %ocusing on some other issues involved in managing training %unction( +a5tor4 o> E>>e5t,1e Tra,-,-g Progra22e@ The training programme can be made e%%ective and success%ul i% the %ollo$ing points are considered( Co->or2,t9 8,th the o<=e5t,1e40 Training must be based on the need o% a particular department( It must be in accordance $ith the policy and aims o% the department4 $hich it serves4 on the basis o% 5ob re3uirements and audit o% personal needs compared $ith operational re3uirements $ill help to determine the speci%ic training needs o% individual employees( This evaluation should %orm a $ell de%ined set o% per%ormance standards to$ards $hich each trainee should be directed( K-o80e3ge a-3 att,t73e40 :very person should be ade3uately

2no$ledgeable about the man and materials o% the organisation concerned( o$ever4 it must be directed to create right attitudes to$ards the policies o% the management( In many training programmes4 the creation o% the right attitudes is very essential %or the development o% people( An attempt should Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

be made to determine $hether the trainee has the re3uired intelligence4 maturity and motivation to success%ully complete the training programme( Co-t,-7o74 part,5,pat,o-0 the training programme should be planned so that it is related to the trainees previous e'perience and bac2ground( This bac2ground should be used as %oundation %or ne$ developments and ne$ behaviour( This is only possible $hen training is considered as a neverAending process4 $hich never ceases in an organisation( Training must arouse active interest and $illingness to cooperate( Re8ar34 a-3 I-5e-t,1e40 In order to satis%y the needs o% social approval o% the trainee4 the management should give su%%icient in%ormation about the re$ard $hether monetary or nonAmonetary to the trainees( The trainees should be helped to see the need %or training by ma2ing them a$are o% the personal bene%its they can achieve through better per%ormance( They should be helped to discover the re$ards and satis%action that might be available to them through changes in behaviour( As the trainee ac3uires ne$ 2no$ledge and s2ills and applies them in 5ob situation4 he should be properly re$arded %or e%%orts ta2en by him( S7pport o> top 2a-age2e-t@ The %avourable attitude o% the top management to the routine process %or gro$th o% the managerial cadres as $ell operative level o% employees is o% paramount importance %or the success o% a training programme( Attempt should be made to create organisational conditions that are conducive to a good learning environment( The need %or the change should be clari%ied( Co2<,-at,o- o> tra,-,-g 2etho340 The various methods o% training have their relative merits and demerits( It is di%%icult to claim that a particular method is the best method( According to suitability o% the method and the trainees4 the appropriate method %or a speci%ic training programme should be selected( I%

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

necessary4 combination o% training methods should be selected so that variety is permitted and as many o% the senses as possible are utilised( +0eB,<,0,t9@ The trainer should observe the responses o% trainees as a result o% his stimuli( As2ing 3uestions or allo$ing him to the 5ob according to his direction can observe the responses o% the trainee( It should be remembered that all the trainees do not e'hibit their progress at same level( It is because o% individual di%%erences4 the %oundation stone o% industrial psychology( programme( I-1o01e2e-t o> tra,-ee40 Training programme are directed to$ards %ul%illment o% certain basic needs o% individuals in an organisations4 so that they can turn out to be better suited %or the discharge o% their present or %uture responsibilities( So4 the personal involvement or active participation or the trainee should be brought in to the training programme( e should be provided $ith the opportunity to practice the ne$ly learnt behaviour norms( It is only possible $hen involvement4 proper listening4 participation and rein%orcement o% principles is given prime importance( @ther %actors0 Regular constructive %eedbac2 "eriod o% training "ersonal assistance "roper selection o% trainees( ence4 %le'ibility should be allo$ed in 5udging o% the rate progress in the training

There are certain points4 i% implemented and %ollo$ed sincerely and honestly4 $ill prove the training programme to be a %ruit%ul 5ob( Thus it can be said that sincerity and devotion is needed %rom the trainees and the training department(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

The Lega0 A4pe5t4 o> Tra,-,-g @ne o% the most e'citing things about training is the opportunity to contribute to the development o% people and organisation( But neither the organisation not the trainer can %ocus only on $hat they $ant to do( As a 2ey player $ithin the human resource %unction4 The trainer has a particular responsibility to ensure that training and development opportunities are designed and delivered in accordance $ith the prevailing legal re3uirements and good pro%essional practice( The %ollo$ing situations can ma2e an employer vulnerable to legal actions and harm the companys reputation0 Failing to provide training Incurring employee In5ury during a training activity Incurring In5uries to employees or others outside a training session Incurring Breach o% con%identiality or de%amation Reproducing and !sing copyrighted material in training classes $ithout permission :'cluding $omen4 minorities and older employees %rom training programs *ot ensuring e3ual treatment o% all employees $hile in training Re3uiring employees to attend programs that might be o%%ensive Revealing discriminatory in%ormation during a training session *ot accommodating trainee $ith disabilities Incorrectly reporting training as an e'pense or %ailing to report training reimbursement as Income &ata protection and Right to In%ormation

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

The tra,-,-g B73get 1reating and controlling a budget %or training is a ma5or administrative responsibility %or the training manager( The budget covers all the phases o% the training cycle( The actual budget the %unds re3uest granted in response to this re3uest re%lects the organisations appetite %or training4 ho$ much o% its resources it is prepared to devote to training as the means %or its people to learn $hat they need( It is thus crucially important that training management $or2 hard and continuously to position training in the minds o% its internal customers as support %or learning not merely as the source o% classroom programsC not 5ust as the department $here teaching is done4 but as the management resource that helps employees learn $hat the organisation needs them to learn and helps that learning occur %aster4 cheaper4 easier and better( Khen budget cutbac2s occur4 the received4 cynical $isdom among trainers is that training money is the %irst thing to get cut( This is o%ten true( It is also o%ten only hal% the story( 1uts to the training budget are %re3uently %ollo$ed by another phenomenon( 8ater on a%ter the cutbac2s are over i% the organisation needs people to learn something i% there is clear need %or training the rupees %or it $ill someho$ be %ound( They may come %rom a managers discretionary %und4 but the rupees $ill be %oundX The unmista2able lesson in this is that $hen learning is clearly seen to be needed4 it $ill be %unded( *eedless to say the time %or training management to argue that its %unction is to enable and ma'imiBe learning is not $hen budget cuts are announced( The point should be made constantly on a non crisis basis4 and above all should be bac2ed up by a trac2 record that ma2es the argument more strongly than any $ords can( B73get 5ategor,e4@ Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

There are no hard and %ast rules concerning the proper budget categories %or training( @rganisations de%ine and set up categories in a $ide variety o% $ays( The %ollo$ing list o% budget categories are those used in a recent calendar year %or the annual budget o% a typical training department( training needs to provide %or in training department( Sample training budget categories0 Salaries Bene%its Sta%% &evelopment Recruiting 1onsultants Furniture and :3uipment @ccupancy 6ar2eting 1ommunications Supplies "ostages Travel :ntertainment o$ever the list that %ollo$s is a representative sample o% types o% e'penses a manager o%

!.!.% Orga-,A,-g the tra,-,-g >7-5t,oIt has been said that a training pro%essional must be both a priest and a prophet( The %ormer $ould provide good counsel to the individual employeeC the latter $ould be able to predict mar2et4 technological and organisational development( As a counsellor and a business strategist4 training pro%essional $or2s %rom inside the organisation to ensure that the organisation has a $ell trained and motivated $or2%orce( To do this it is important to have articulated

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

a training philosophy and mission on $hich to build an operating structure %or training organisation( A Tra,-,-g Ph,0o4oph9 a-3 M,44,oA philosophy is a system o% values( A mission is an activity that is to be carried out( A corporate philosophy %or the training department originates at the e'ecutive level( Training departments are typically based on one or more o% the %ollo$ing philosophies( According to Armstrong )+;;;) there are three broad approaches to training open to organisations( Some adopt a lassieA%aire approach believing that employees $ill %ind out $hat to do %or themselves or through others( ):(g( I% s2ill shortages $ere to be encountered4 they $ould recti%y the situation by poaching sta%% %rom other organisations that invest in training)( Secondly other organisations may invest in training in good times4 but in bad times training budgets $ill be the %irst to be cut( Thirdly organisations that adopt a positive training philosophy do so because they are convinced that they live in a $orld $here competitive advantage is achieved by having higher 3uality people than the opposition( This goal cannot be achieved i% managers do not invest in developing the s2ills and competencies o% their employees( It is important %or employees to also realise that organisations are sho$ing an act o% %aith by creating opportunities %or %urther education and enhancement o% their s2ills( This is the proactive approach rather than reactive approach designating training as a continuous and onAgoing process $ithin the organisation( +( To prepare employees to develop speci%ic s2ills necessary to per%orm e%%ectively in their current 5ob assignments( G( To build s2ills and impart 2no$ledge that $ill ma2e employees more e%%ective in a variety o% possible 5ob roles( D( To prepare employees to ta2e on broader or more demanding 5ob assignments in the %uture(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

/( To help employees recogniBe and realiBe their %ull potential as human beings( These philosophies are ordered %rom the most concrete to the most abstract under the %irst philosophy to prepare employees to develop speci%ic s2ills necessary to per%orm e%%ectively in their current 5ob assignmentC training resources $ould be directed at operational training activities that impact $or2er behaviour( Results $ould be measurable and $ould a%%ect the organisations outcome and pro%its( A training department ta2es on an in%ormational and strategic role $hen its philosophy is a2in to numbers t$o and three above( To build s2ills and impart 2no$ledge that $ill ma2e employees more e%%ective in a variety o% possible 5ob roles and to prepare employees to ta2e on broader or more demanding 5ob assignments in the %uture( Ideally training e%%orts $ithin these roles are re$arding to both the organisation and the employee( The most success%ul programs match $hat the organisation needs $ith $hat employees $ant to learn( An organisation primarily espousing solely the %ourth philosophy4 to help employees recogniBe and realiBe their %ull potential as human being4 $ould have a mission similar to the nations educational system( *o training department should base it sel% on employee education to the e'clusion o% operational4 in%ormational4 and strategic training( o$ever strategic training programs have added value to employees as those s2ills contribute to personal mastery and are trans%erable to any number o% di%%erent 5obs( A training departments mission statement is a much more concrete version o% its philosophy( The mission statement o%%ers an e'planation as to $hy a training department is organiBed in a certain $ay4 $hat the sta%% does4 and ho$ services are delivered( *ote that these speci%ic activities set the stage %or

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

$hat the training department actually does( The mission statement typically %alls under one or more o% the %ollo$ing descriptions0 +( To establish a basic curriculum o% programs and courses that management can access to ensure that employees can do their 5obs( G( To anticipate changing conditions )internal M e'ternal) and provide programs to help employees cope $ith those changes( D( To provide e'pertise in analyBing per%ormance problems and devise appropriate solutions( /( To provide programs that $ill improve productivity( ,( To respond to re3uest %rom individual managersJ supervisors %or employee training and development !.!.Q +7t7re o> Tra,-,-g0 There is shi%t in $orld economy %rom manu%acturing to service orientation ) o$ard4 Fullerton+;;;)( These 5obs are characteriBed by an increase in the clients rather than interacting primarily $ith co $or2ers and things )>lein M all +;--)( This is also having implications %or training( In service 5obs4 people to people interaction is critical and people need to be trained %or those s2ills( Ke are all discovering that teaching interpersonal s2ills creates the same 2inds o% challenges as teaching employees ho$ to $or2 $ith products coming o%% the assembly line( This is especially the case given the diversity o% the $or2%orce and the need %or people to $or2 $ith others $ho may come %rom bac2grounds $ith di%%erent value systems( "K1 survey on 6anaging Tomorro$s "eople4 The %uture o% $or2 to G.G.4 mentioned changes in people management characteristics including 8earning and development challenges in G.G.( The survey indicated three patterns in 8earning and development +( driven( Begins at school( Focus on s2ills %or the 5ob = metrics

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G( D( guilds(

olistic approach to learning = much provided inAhouse( 6inimal provision in house( S2ills training via ne$ cra%ts

But secondments and paid sabbaticals %or $orthy causes are common(

It is no$ appropriate to re%lect on the concepts involved in a training programme0

Training is holistic i(e( trainingC is an integral part o% all operational areas $ithin a business rather than a separate %unction(

Training occurs all o% the time and not 5ust during %ormal training periods( Through good supervision and management the correcting o% incorrect techni3ues or procedures should occur immediately to ensure the employee in 3uestion receives the necessary training(

Training must be systematic M consistent( I% not training becomes devalued and little used4 especially i% standards demanded are not being met in everyday activities(

"lanning o% training is vital and re3uires attention to detail and care%ul organisation(

Training is a vital developmental tool in developing the careers o% young people $ithin the ospitality Industry(

Today training is used as a motivator and can be used as a means o% countering labour turnover and attracting good 5ob candidates as more and more young people are no$ as2ing $hether organisations have a training policy in place( Finally Boella )+;;H) believes that training is a tool management should use to increase employees e%%iciency( It also enables the underlying goals to be achieved by e3uipping its personnel $ith the N1ompetencies4 2no$ledge4 Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

s2ills and attitudes necessary to achieve $hatever realistic aspirations they have in their $or2 by enabling them4 through increased competence and con%idence to earn more and i% desired promotionN

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

G(D Co-5074,o- >ro2 0,terat7re re1,e8@ Training and development programme has enabled the employees to do their 5ob more e%%iciently and e%%ectively( Training and development programme has helped an organisation to prepare employees %or a higherAlevel 5ob4 enable employee to use his s2ill4 2no$ledge4 ability to the %ullest e'tent4 to improve 2no$ledge s2ill4 e%%iciency o% an employee and to obtain the ma'imum individual development4 to prepare a $or2er to underta2e di%%erent 5obs i% another person is absent4 to secure the optimum contribution %rom employee( In a out( I-375t,o- tra,-,-g is treated as must and is crucial to ma2e employees a$are o% organisations culture4 services4 practices and customer inter%ace( @nce employee 5oins the company4 he has to undergo training4 $hich includes po4,t,o- rotat,o-( An organisation consists o% various departments li2e Front @%%ice4 Bell &es24 >itchen4 Room Service4 Foods and Beverages etc( !nder this system o% training employee has to ac3uire the general bac2ground and 2no$ledge o% the %unctioning o% each department( This 2ind o% training helps to introduce an employee to all departments and understand role o% each department( Sometimes employee $ho is going to abroad %or o%%ice $or2 has to undergo training to learn the 570t7re o% a particular country( Sa%ety managers undergo di%%erent training programmes and they then train the employees( Sa>et9 tra,-,-g is very essential in an organisation( Also %or managers and e'ecutives there are training and development programmes( Training in sa%ety4 health and hygiene 2eeps a special relevance in this ospitality Industry !nit di%%erent 2inds o% training programmes are carried

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

Industry(

aBard Analysis 1ritical 1ontrol "oint F#ACCPG training is must in

hotel industry( So>t S.,0044 1ommunication s2ills4 behavioural s2ills4 meeting J greetings and customer care also occupy a ma5or share in training activities in hospitality industry units( In depth literature revie$ %rom various sources as re%erence boo2s4 9ournals4 6agaBines4 online library4 internet has been done on training and development as $ell as ospitality Industry( 8imitation o% latest data and literature in the %ield o% training and development in hospitality industry $as realiBed during literature revie$( "resent study is an attempt to bring about status report on training activities in hospitality industry( It is very evident %rom the literature revie$ that hospitality industry is gro$ing very %ast( There are various %actors $hich reveal the %act as Recruitment Trends4 "artnership $ith 6anagement4 otel 6anagement Training Institute4 o$ever the gap in the literature Travel Trends4 Increasing number o% brands including international chains4 Investments by %oreign venture capitalist( reveals e'perimentation in the %ield o% training and development in the industry( This is a gro$ing phenomenon and there is no speci%ic model being %ollo$ed %or training and development in hospitality industry( Though some e%%orts are being carried out by large and medium siBe organisations( :'periments in the %ield o% training and development are made on ad hoc basis( It is evident that manpo$er turnover is 3uite high in this industry that may also be the reason $hy consistent e%%orts are not availableJ evident( The revie$ o% literature on training and development reveals that the training and development activities must go through at least three stages o% development0

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

InAdepth Induction training provided to ne$ 5oinees( Induction seems to be the only process by $hich training is imparted systematically In most o% the organisations(

Technical and %unctional training is usually o%%ered at %unctional level to improve productivity as training is treated as the only method to increase productivity and e%%iciency( o$ever it is more on on the 5ob# basis and %re3uently it is related to the events and daily brie%ing(

Training should be observed as integrated part o% %rom induction and ends $ith planning %or retirement(

R $hich begins

@bviously hospitality being young industry4 it has not yet reached the third stages(

The revie$ o% literature also reveals lac2 o% in%ormation on any standard process on training activities in hospitality industry( Such process and procedures speci%ic to particular siBe and type o% hospitality industry unit is not yet available( Though there is possibility that in advance countries big organisations depending only on the revenue %rom hospitality must be ma2ing e'periments in the area but in%ormation on paper is not available %or study and re%erence purpose( Thus it is clear that inAdepth study o% training in hospitality industry is re3uired considering the variety o% siBes hospitality units operate( Some standardise process and procedure $hich could be utilise %or %ive star hotel units( This has thro$n challenge on researcher to 2no$ $hat has been done and $hat needs to be done( The present study ma2es an attempt to understand the environment and practices o% training in %ive star hotels( The current research is an attempt to study the status o% training in hospitality industry as a contributory %actor %or the gro$th o% the industry in selected %ive star hospitality industry units in "une( It $as a challenge %or the researcher to ma2e an inAdepth study o% three selected %ive star hospitality units $ith re%erence to training and development Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV

activities( chapter(

o$ever the challenges are ade3uately met by observing the

appropriate research methodology $hich is %ully discussed in the ne't The ne't chapter outlines the research methodology %or completing the ob5ectives o% the research data collection(

Ph. D Thesis Suruchi Pandey submittd to TMV