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First, one should explain to Professor Hogan the cycles and importance of sleep.

Each
person has their own biological rhythms. Biological rhythms are periodic physiological
fluctuations, and acts as a control for one’s biological clock. Our sleep follows these
biological rhythms and our biological clock is known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian
rhythm is the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle.
Humans typically rise in the morning, peak during the day, and dips for a time in early
afternoon. However, biological clocks can adjust with our bodies through time.
When we sleep we go through sleep stages. About every 90 or 100 minutes, we
pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Concerning Professor Hogan’s problem,
when one’s brain metabolism slows down, one tries to fight sleepiness and yawn to
increase their heart rate. When one is in this slow, relaxed state of sleep, alpha waves
show in one’s brain. Alpha waves are the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed,
awake state. As these sleep waves create a relaxed state, then one will slip into sleep.
Sleep is a periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from
unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. As you sleep
through stages 3 & 4, delta waves can be measured. Delta waves are large, slow brain
waves associated with deep sleep. After one enters into deep sleep, they will experience
the REM cycle. REM sleep is a rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage
during which vivid dreams commonly occur. In this stage, muscles are relaxed and only
other body systems are active.
It is important to also explain the effects of sleep deprivation to Professor Hogan. A
major effect of lessened sleep is not only sleepiness but a general malaise. Also, humans
create sleep debt. Sleep debt is the idea that as one gets less sleep each night; their
debt of deficient sleep grows and later becomes harder to recuperate. Deficiency of
sleep creates long term side effects; suppression of the immune system, chronic sleep
debt, altered metabolism, immature aging, and impaired concentration.
Sleep is vital to restoring our body and its defenses.
In advice to Professor Hogan, one should tell him to relax before sleeping instead
of jogging around the block. Perhaps meditating, or focusing on ones thoughts, will help
him relax into the sleep process. Also, one should advise Hogan to see if he has any
sleep disorders. There are many possibilities of sleep disorders that Professor Hogan may
have. Insomnia is recurring sleep problems in falling or staying asleep. Narcolepsy is a
sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks: The sufferer may lapse
directly into REM sleep, often at the inappropriate times (it is unlikely the the Professor
suffers from narcolepsy). Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by temporary
cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakening.
All states sleep disorders interrupt and create a lack of deep sleep, Professor
Hogan can be afflicted by one of these disorders.
Overall, the main idea that one needs to tell Professor Hogan is that we need REM
sleep. Deprived of REM sleep, people are more likely to return to REM sleep after a long
time of deprivation. REM Rebound is the tendency for REM sleep to increase following
REM sleep deprivation.
Hopefully, the correct diagnosis will help Hogan get the REM sleep he needs.