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HEALTH

AGING Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the accumulation of changes in a person over time.[1] Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Some dimensions of ageing gro and e!pand over time, hile others decline. "eaction time, for e!ample, may slo ith age, hile #no ledge of orld events and isdom may e!pand. "esearch sho s that even late in life, potential e!ists for physical, mental, and social gro th and development.[$] Ageing is an important part of all human societies reflecting the %iological changes that occur, %ut also reflecting cultural and societal conventions. "oughly 1&&,&&& people orld ide die each day of age'related causes.[(] CHRONOLICAL AGE )he num%er of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against hich certain varia%les, such as %ehavior and intelligence, are measured. BIOLOGICAL AGE the closeness our tissues are to death. *f e define health as the %ody+s a%ility to adapt, then the less adaptive a tissue is, the older your %iological age is. ,e must reali-e that everything in our %odies or# together. *f the tissues of your immune system are struggling, hich can %e evidenced %y such things as regular viruses or adrenal fatigue, or your digestive system is having issues, such as regular heart%urn, these tissues are o%viously not as adapta%le as they once ere nor as adapta%le as they should %e. And hat e need to recogni-e is that hen our immune system (or other system) has increased in age, it ill cause other areas in our %ody to age more .uic#ly, li#e our cardiovascular system or our nervous system, %ecause everything or#s together. As soon as e notice signs of aging tissues in one system, e must address them %efore the rest of the %ody has a chance to age, as ell. )he earlier e can nip it in the %ud, the less e have to address disease and inflammation later on and the faster e can stop the process. SOCIAL AGE *t is divergent from the *nformation Age as it gives more prominence to social factors hen adopting and/or e!tending technology and information.[$] *t further %roadens the definition of Attention Age %ecause the Social Age focuses on many forms of societal interactions including online relationships, colla%oration and sharing. DEATH the cessation of all %iological functions that sustain a living organism. 0henomena hich commonly %ring a%out death include %iological aging (senescence), predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, murder and accidents or trauma resulting in terminal in1ury.[1] Bodies of living organisms %egin to decompose shortly after death. )here is no scientific evidence that suggests consciousness survives the death of an organism.[$][(] *n society, the nature of death and humanity2s a areness of its o n mortality has for millennia %een a concern of the orld2s religious traditions and of philosophical in.uiry. )his includes %elief in resurrection (associated ith A%rahamic religions), reincarnation or re%irth (associated ith 3harmic religions), or that consciousness permanently ceases to e!ist, #no n as eternal o%livion (often associated ith atheism).[4] 5ommemoration ceremonies after death may include various mourning or funeral practices. )he physical remains of a person, commonly #no n as a corpse or %ody, are usually interred hole or cremated, though among the orld2s cultures there are a variety of other methods of mortuary disposal. *n the English language, %lessings directed to ards a dead person include rest in peace, or its initialism "*0. )he most common cause of human deaths in the orld is heart disease, follo ed %y stro#e and other cere%rovascular diseases, and in the third place lo er respiratory infections.[6]

DYING process results to death. LOW-GRIEF DEATH death caused %y prolonger sic#ness or anticipated death sho ing little emotion after death due to e!perienced grief prior to death. HIGH-GRIEF DEATH an une!pected death here grieving process may%e more emotional and longer %ecause no preparation for death as done. STAGES OF GRIEVING STAGE ONE 3E7*A8,S9:5; A73 3*SBE8*E< STAGE TWO 3ES0A*",7=>B7ESS A73 A0A)9? STAGE THREE "E5:@E"? A73 "ES:8=)*:7 STAGES OF DEATH AND DYING DENIAL, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true.[1] )he same ord, and also a%negation, is used for a psychological defense mechanism postulated %y Sigmund <reud, in hich a person is faced ith a fact that is too uncomforta%le to accept and re1ects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite hat may %e over helming evidence. ANGER an emotion related to one2s psychological interpretation of having %een offended, ronged, or denied and a tendency to react through retaliation. Sheila @ide%ec# descri%es anger as a normal emotion that involves a strong uncomforta%le and emotional response to a perceived provocation.[1] "aymond 7ovaco of =5 *rvine, ho since 1AB6 has pu%lished a plethora of literature on the su%1ect, stratified anger into three modalitiesC cognitive (appraisals), somatic' affective (tension and agitations), and %ehavioral ( ithdra al and antagonism).[$] ,illiam 3e<oore, an anger'management riter, descri%ed anger as a pressure coo#erC e can only apply pressure against our anger for a certain amount of time until it e!plodes.[(] BARGAINING promise or agreement of %et een t o persons,family,physicins and god. DEPRESSION sadness and depression is over hellming ACCEPTANCE individuals accepts his/her death. ho can someone close help a dying individual 1.spend more time ith them $.share loving feeling memories (.encourage tal# a%out dying individual 4.listen carefully to toughts and feelings balanced diet means choosing a ide variety of foods and drin#s from all the food groups. *t also means eating certain things in moderation, namely saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and alcohol. )he goal is to ta#e in nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels. Nut iti!n is the process of %rea#ing do n food and su%stances ta#en in %y the mouth to use for energy in the %ody or it is the process of o%taining and consuming food. By practicing a healthy diet, many of the #no n health issues can %e avoided.[1] )he diet of an organism is hat it eats, hich is largely determined %y the perceived palata%ility of

foods. 3ietitians are health professionals ho speciali-e in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. )hey are trained to provide safe, evidence'%ased dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as ell as to institutions. 5linical nutritionists are health professionals ho focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possi%le prevention or remediation %y addressing nutritional deficiencies %efore resorting to drugs. ,hile government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for DdieticianD, the field is supported %y many high'level academic programs, up to and including the 3octoral level, and has its o n voluntary certification %oard,[$] professional associations, and peer'revie ed 1ournals, e.g. the American Society for 7utrition, 7utrition Society of *ndia, <ood Scientists and 7utritionists Association *ndia, *ndian 3ietetic Association and the American Eournal of 5linical 7utrition. P !tein" are large %iological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. 0roteins perform a vast array of functions ithin living organisms, including cataly-ing meta%olic reactions, replicating 37A, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. 0roteins differ from one another primarily in their se.uence of amino acids, hich is dictated %y the nucleotide se.uence of their genes, and hich usually results in folding of the protein into a specific three'dimensional structure that determines its activity. ca b!#$d ate is a large %iological molecule, or macromolecule, consisting of car%on (5), hydrogen (9), and o!ygen (:) atoms, usually ith a hydrogenCo!ygen atom ratio of $C1 (as in ater)F in other ords, ith the empirical formula 5m(9$:)n ( here m could %e different from n). [1] Some e!ceptions e!istF for e!ample, deo!yri%ose, a sugar component of 37A,[$] has the empirical formula 5691&:4.[(] 5ar%ohydrates are technically hydrates of car%onF[4] structurally it is more accurate to vie them as polyhydro!y aldehydes and #etones.[6] )he term is most common in %iochemistry, here it is a synonym of saccharide. )he car%ohydrates (saccharides) are divided into four chemical groupsC monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. *n general, the monosaccharides and disaccharides, hich are smaller (lo er molecular eight) car%ohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars.[G] )he ord saccharide comes from the Hree# ord IJKLMNOP (sQ##haron), meaning Dsugar.D ,hile the scientific nomenclature of car%ohydrates is comple!, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffi! 'ose. <or e!ample, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and mil# sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see illustration). 5ar%ohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. 0olysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen), and as structural components (e.g., cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods). )he 6'car%on monosaccharide ri%ose is an important component of coen-ymes (e.g., A)0, <A3, and 7A3) and the %ac#%one of the genetic molecule #no n as "7A. )he related deo!yri%ose is a component of 37A. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important %iomolecules that play #ey roles in the immune system, fertili-ation, preventing pathogenesis, %lood clotting, and development.[B] *n food science and in many informal conte!ts, the term car%ohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the comple! car%ohydrate starch (such as cereals, %read, and pasta) or simple car%ohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, 1ams, and desserts).

%ine al is a naturally occurring su%stance that is solid and sta%le at room temperature, representa%le %y a chemical formula, usually a%iogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure. *t is different from a roc#, hich can %e an aggregate of minerals or non'minerals and does not have a specific chemical composition. )he e!act definition of a mineral is under de%ate, especially ith respect to the re.uirement a valid species %e a%iogenic, and to a lesser e!tent ith regards to it having an ordered atomic structure. )he study of minerals is called mineralogy. )here are over 4,A&& #no n mineral speciesF over 4,GG& of these have %een approved %y the *nternational >ineralogical Association (*>A). )he silicate minerals compose over A&R of the

Earth2s crust. )he diversity and a%undance of mineral species is controlled %y the Earth2s chemistry. Silicon and o!ygen constitute appro!imately B6R of the Earth2s crust, hich translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals. >inerals are distinguished %y various chemical and physical properties. 3ifferences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish various species, and these properties in turn are influenced %y the mineral2s geological environment of formation. 5hanges in the temperature, pressure, and %ul# composition of a roc# mass cause changes in its mineralogyF ho ever, a roc# can maintain its %ul# composition, %ut as long as temperature and pressure change, its mineralogy can change as ell. >inerals can %e descri%ed %y various physical properties hich relate to their chemical structure and composition. 5ommon distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and ha%it, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, strea#, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, and specific gravity. >ore specific tests for minerals include reaction to acid, magnetism, taste or smell, and radioactivity. >inerals are classified %y #ey chemical constituentsF the t o dominant systems are the 3ana classification and the Strun- classification. )he silicate class of minerals is su%divided into si! su%classes %y the degree of polymeri-ation in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a %ase unit of a [Si:4]4' silica tetrahedraSthat is, a silicon cation coordinated %y four o!ygen anions, hich gives the shape of a tetrahedron. )hese tetrahedra can %e polymeri-ed to give the su%classesC orthosilicates (no polymeri-ation, thus single tetrahedra), disilicates (t o tetrahedra %onded together), cyclosilicates (rings of tetrahedra), inosilicates (chains of tetrahedra), phyllosilicates (sheets of tetrahedra), and tectosilicates (three'dimensional net or# of tetrahedra). :ther important mineral groups include the native elements, sulfides, o!ides, halides, car%onates, sulfates, and phosphates. I !n is a chemical element ith the sym%ol <e (from 8atinC ferrum) and atomic num%er $G. *t is a metal in the first transition series. *t %y mass is the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth2s outer and inner core. *t is the fourth most common element in the Earth2s crust. *ron2s very common presence in roc#y planets li#e Earth is due to its a%undant production as a result of fusion in high'mass stars, herein the production of nic#el'6G ( hich decays to the most common isotope of iron) is the last nuclear fusion reaction that is e!othermic. )herefore, radioactive nic#el is the last element to %e produced, %efore collapse of a supernova causes the e!plosion that a%undantly scatters this precursor radionuclide into space. Calciu% is the chemical element ith sym%ol 5a and atomic num%er $&. 5alcium is a soft gray al#aline earth metal, and is the fifth'most'a%undant element %y mass in the Earth2s crust. 5alcium is also the fifth'most'a%undant dissolved ion in sea ater %y %oth molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.[$] 5alcium is essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology, here movement of the calcium ion 5a$T into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a ma1or material used in minerali-ation of %one, teeth and shells, calcium is the most a%undant metal %y mass in many animals. S!diu% is a chemical element ith the sym%ol 7a (from 8atinC natrium) and atomic num%er 11. *t is a soft, silver' hite, highly reactive metal and is a mem%er of the al#ali metalsF its only sta%le isotope is $(7a. )he free metal does not occur in nature, %ut instead must %e prepared from its compoundsF it as first isolated %y 9umphry 3avy in 1U&B %y the electrolysis of sodium hydro!ide. Sodium is the si!th most a%undant element in the Earth2s crust, and e!ists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite and roc# salt (7a5l). >any salts of sodium are highly ater'solu%le, and their sodium has %een leached %y the action of ater so that sodium and chlorine (5l) are the most common dissolved elements %y eight in the Earth2s %odies of oceanic ater. &inc' in commerce also spelter, is a metallic chemical elementF it has the sym%ol Vn and atomic num%er (&. *t is the first element of group 1$ of the periodic ta%le. Vinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, %ecause its ion is of similar si-e and its only common o!idation

state is T$. Vinc is the $4th most a%undant element in the Earth2s crust and has five sta%le isotopes. )he most common -inc ore is sphalerite (-inc %lende), a -inc sulfide mineral. )he largest minea%le amounts are found in Australia, Asia, and the =nited States. Vinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final e!traction using electricity (electro inning). Brass, hich is an alloy of copper and -inc, has %een used since at least the 1&th century B5 in Eudea[1] and %y the Bth century B5 in Ancient Hreece.[$] Vinc metal as not produced in large scale until the 1$th century in *ndia, hile the metal as un#no n to Europe until the end of the 1Gth century. )he mines of "a1asthan have given definite evidence of -inc production going %ac# to Gth 5entury B5.[(] )o date the oldest evidence of pure -inc comes from Va ar, "a1asthan as early as Ath century A3, hen distillation process as employed to ma#e pure -inc.[4] Alchemists %urned -inc in air to form hat they called Dphilosopher2s oolD or D hite sno .D Wate is a chemical compound ith the chemical formula 9 $:. A ater molecule contains one o!ygen and t o hydrogen atoms that are connected %y covalent %onds. ,ater is a li.uid at standard am%ient temperature and pressure, %ut it often co' e!ists on Earth ith its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, steam ( ater vapor). ,ater covers B1R of the Earth2s surface,[1] and is vital for all #no n forms of life.[$] :n Earth, AG.6R of the planet2s ater is found in seas and oceans, 1.BR in ground ater, 1.BR in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Hreenland, a small fraction in other large ater %odies, and &.&&1R in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and li.uid ater particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[(][4] :nly $.6R of the Earth2s ater is fresh ater, and AU.UR of that ater is in ice and ground ater. 8ess than &.(R of all fresh ater is in rivers, la#es, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth2s fresh ater (&.&&(R) is contained ithin %iological %odies and manufactured products.[(] ,ater on Earth moves continually through the ater cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contri%ute to the precipitation over land. Safe drin#ing ater is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drin#ing ater has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the orld, %ut appro!imately one %illion people still lac# access to safe ater and over $.6 %illion lac# access to ade.uate sanitation.[6] )here is a clear correlation %et een access to safe ater and H30 per capita.[G] 9o ever, some o%servers have estimated that %y $&$6 more than half of the orld population ill %e facing ater'%ased vulnera%ility.[B] A report, issued in 7ovem%er $&&A, suggests that %y $&(&, in some developing regions of the orld, ater demand ill e!ceed supply %y 6&R.[U] ,ater plays an important role in the orld economy, as it functions as a solvent for a ide variety of chemical su%stances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Appro!imately B&R of the fresh ater used %y humans goes to agriculture.[A] (alnut iti!n is any condition in hich a persons nutrients is inade.uate or un%alanced. 9o ill you recogni-e eating disorderW 1. 9ave negative %ody image $. 9ave lo self'esteem (. >oody 4. >ay %e depressed 6. <eel inade.uate G. 9ave difficulty in social situations DIFFERENT TYPES OF EATING DISORDER )ANORE*IA NERVOSA 'is an eating disorder characteri-ed %y starving oneself,having a lo %ody eight and %eing 16R more %elo desira%le eight. )B+LI(IA 'sometimes called %ulimia nervosa is an eating disorder %y stuffing oneself and trying to get rid

the food in the %ody. )BINGE-EATING DISORDER 'is an eating disorder in hich a person fre.uently stuffs oneself ith food,cannot control eating and eats too much amount of food. )OBESITY '%inge'eating disorder is a common cause of o%esity.:BES*)? is e!cessive fat accumulation in the %ody. *t is onenof the ris# factors for a num%er of chronic diseases, including dia%etes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.