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SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY THIRUVALLUR, TIRUPACHUR 631203 SERIES TEST I TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Year/Branch:

IV/ECE Date:22/08/2013 PART A (5*2=10) 1.Define TQM Ans : Total Quality Management is a management approach that tries to achieve and sustain long term organizational success by encouraging employee feedback and participation, satisfying customer needs and expectations, respecting societal values and beliefs, and obeying governmental statutes and regulations. 2. What are quality statements? Ans: The quality statement include the Vision Statement Mission statement and Quality statement. Time: 3hrs Max Marks: 100

3. Define strategic planning? Ans: The process of deciding on objectives of the organization, on changes, on these objective on the resource used to attain these objectives and on the policies that to govern the acquisition, use and disposition of these of these resources. 4. Define quality cost? Ans: Many companies summarize quality costs into four broad categories. They are, a) Internal failure costs - The cost associated with defects that are found prior to transfer of the product to the customer. b) The cost associated with defects that are found after product is shipped to the customer. c) Appraisal costs - The cost incurred in determining the to degree of conformance quality requirement.

d) Prevention costs - The cost incurred in keeping failure and appraisal costs to a mini mum. Sometimes we can also include the hidden costs i.e., implicit costs. 5. What are the three elements of Juran Trilogy? Ans: Quality Planning. Quality Control Quality Improvement 6. Explain kaizen? Ans: Kaizen is a Japanese term which means continuous improvement. It is based on the belief that virtually any aspect of an operation or process can be improved and the people most closely associated with it are in the best position to identify the changes to be made. 7. What are the barriers in team progress? Ans: 1 Insufficient Training 2 Incompatible reward and compensation 3 Lack of planning 4 Lack of management support 5Team is too large. 8. What are the benefits of 5s? Ans: 1. Seiri (Sort) 2. Seiton (Arrange) 3. Seiso (Clean up) 4. Seiketsu (Systematize, Standardize) 5. Shitsuke (Self-Discipline) 9. Define customer satisfaction? Meeting or exceeding customer expectations in the use of a product/service. 10. Define quality? Quality is fitness for use Juran

PART B (2*15=30) 11 a) Explain the 14 principles of Deming approach towards TQM? 14 Points on route of quality 1. Create and publish the aim and purpose of the organization 2. Learn the new philosophy Understand the purpose of inspection 4. Stop awarding business based on price along. Improve constantly and forever the system. 6. Institute training. 7. Teach an institute leadership. Dry out fear, create trust and create climate for innovation. 9. Optimize the efforts of teams, group and staff areas. 10. Eliminate exhortations for the work force. 11. Eliminate management by objective (MOB). 12. Remove barriers that rob people of workmanship. 13. Encourage education and self improvement for everyone. 14. Take action to accomplish transformation. b) Discuss in detail the dimensions of manufacturing and service quality? Various Dimensions of Quality? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Performance Features Conformance Reliability Durability Service Response Aesthetics Reputation

10) Safety 11) Usability 12) Maintainability 13) Uniformity 14) Compatibility Service 1) Tangibles 2) Reliability 3) Responsiveness 4) Assurance 5) Empathy

12a) What is a team? Explain the function and the characteristics of a successful team? Ans The Characteristics of Effective Team? Clear goal and objective Results-driven structure Competent team members Unified commitment A collaborative climate High standards that are understood by all Receive external support and encouragement Principled leadership Cohesiveness Balanced participation Open communication Account ability b) Explain the following i) PDSA cycle ii) Maslows theory? I Seven Steps of PDSA 1. Identify the opportunity 2. Analyze the current process 3. Develop the optimal solution 4. Implement changes 5. Study the results 6. Standardize the solution 7. Plan for the future. 1. Plan: Define the problem Define the performance indicators Collected and analyze process data Generate possible solution 2. Do: Implement the plan on a limited scale or conduct an experiment to the test the proposed improvement. 8 Marks

Train all involved employee in the use of quality improvement methods and techniques. 3. Check: Evaluate the trial project with the performance indicators. Verify whether the improvement has been successful or not. 4. Act: Act to implement proven improvements. The improvements are documented in standard procedures. Usually the cycle will be repeated under the different circumstances ii. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs He believed that a persons motivational needs can be arranged in a hierarchical manner. Once a level of hierarch is reached by an a individual it no longer serves as motivation. The next higher level of need has to be activated in order to motivate on a individual. 13 a. Describe the barriers in the implementation of TQM? Barriers in TQM Implementing Lack of Top Management Commitment and vision Inability to change Organization culture and management style Misunderstanding about the concept of TQM Improper planning Lack of employees commitment Lack of effective communication. Lack of interest or in competence of leaders Non-application of proper tools and techniques Inadequate use of empowerment and team work Deciding how to start. Content with certifications or Awards Inadequate attention to internal and external customers. Fail to understand relationship Gaining the involvement of non-manufacturing departments.

b) Explain in detail the Juran view towards TQM? 1 Internal Customer: Juran realized that the customer was not just the end customer and that each person along the chain has an internal customer that is supplier and a customer. 2 Cost of Quality: Juran classified the cost of quality into 3 classes as 8 Marks

Prevention Cost : Training ,Preventive auditing and Process improvement implementation. Appraisal Cost : Inspection, Compliance auditing and Investigations. External Failure Costs: Repair , Travel and lodging expenses ,replacement cost etc. Internal Failure Costs: Scrap, Reworks, Corrective actions, Warranty claims Customer Complaints, Loss of cost.

3 Jurans Quality Trilogy: Juran divides quality Management into 3 parts. 1.Quality Planning : Objectives are to determine quality goals. 1. Determine internal and external customers 2. Their need are discovered 3. Develop product and services features 4. Develop the processes able to produce the product 5. Transfer plans to operations. 2.Quality Control : Objectives are to monitor performance to Compare objective with achievements and to act reduce the gap. 1. Determine item to be controlled 2. Set goals for the controls 3. Measure actual performance 4. Compare actual performance with goal 5. Act on the difference 3. Quality Improvement : Objectives are to reduce waste, to enhance logistics to improve employee morale. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Establishment of the quality council To Reduce Waste Provide the team with the resources To Enhance logistics To Improve employee morale To Improve Profitability To Satisfy Customers.

4 Explain Jurans 10 Steps to Quality Improvement. 1. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement. 2. Set goals for improvement. 3. Organize to reach the goals (establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators). 4. Provide training. 5. Carry out projects to solve problems. 6. Report progress. 7. Give recognition. 8. Communicate results. 9. Keep score. 10. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company. 5. The Breakthrough Concept: Jurans breakthrough concerns itself with the product /service Life cycle In essence, this splits it up into two areas. The Journey from Symptom to cause. The Journey from cause to remedy 14 a) Explain the steps in strategic planning process? What is meant by strategy planning? Explain the 7 step ? Strategic Planning Process-Seven Step In order to integrate quality with the strategic planning process, a systematic and sequential procedure has to be adopted. There are seven basic steps to strategic quality planning. a) Customer needs: The basic step is the identification of customer and their needs and wants An.Org must seek its customers requirement, expectations and assess future trends before developing ASP. b) Customer positioning Second step requires the planners to determine its customer, in order to become successful, the org should concentrate and consolidate its position in its areas of excellence. Eg: Colgate past. c) Predict the future Because it will effect product /services Tools as Demographic Technical assessments 8 Marks

d) Gap analysis Identify the gab between the current state and the future state of the org. This concept is also known as value stream mapping e) Closing the gap Now the planners should develop a specific plan to close the gaps. This process is also termed as process improvement. f) Alignment Now the revised plan should be aligned with the mission vision and core values and concepts of the org. g) Implementation Strategic planning can be performed by any organization. It can be highly effective, allowing organizations to do the right thing at the right time, every time. b) Explain the concept of supplier partnership in detail? PARTNERING Long Term Commitment Trust Shared Vision SOURCING Sole Multiple Single SUPPLIER SELECTION BASED ON Quality Philosophy of the Customer Stable Management High Technical Standards With Future Raw materials & Parts Meet Quality Std Delivery as per Schedule Effective Quality System Record of Customer Satisfaction Credibility in Industries Supplier Rating Quality On Time delivery Service Internal Structure Customer Satisfaction Review Reports 15 a) Explain the contributions made by Philip Crossby in TQM? CROBSY CONTRIBUTIONS 1. Four absolutes of quality 2. Fourteen steps to quality Management 3. Crosby quality Vaccine

1. What are the four Crosby Absolutes for quality Management? First Absolute Second Absolute Third Absolute Fourth Absolute Explain Crosbys 14 Steps to improve Quality. 1. Make it clear that management is committed to quality. : Performance : Features : Reliability : Conformance

2 Marks

2. Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department. 3. Determine where current and potential quality problems lie. 4. Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool. 5. Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees. 6. Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps. 7. Establish a committee for the zero-defects program. 8. Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program. 9. Hold a zero-defects day to let all employees realize that there has been a change. 10. Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups. 11. Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals. 12. Recognize and appreciate those who participate. 13. Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis. 14. Do it all over again to emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends. CROSBYS QUALITY VACCINE The Vaccine is explained as medicine for management to prevent poor quality. Five Sections of Crosbys quality Vaccine Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Section 5b)Explain kaizen techniques in detail? KAIZEN Integrity Systems Communication Operations Policies

* Kaizen, which is a Japanese word that means gradual and orderly continuous improvement, is a philosophy that covers all business activities and everyone in an organization. In the kaizen philosophy, improvement in all areas of business cost, meeting delivery schedules, employee safety and skill development, supplier relations, new product development, and productivity serve to improve the quality of the firm. Thus, any activity directed toward improvement falls under the kaizen umbrella. The 5Ss stand for five Japanese words: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, andShitsuke. The 5S is not only useful to improve the physical environment, but also the thinking processes.

1. Seiri (Sort): Separate out all unnecessary things and remove them, retaining only necessary things. Accumulation, mixing of unnecessary things and wastes with needed items leads to clutter, confusion and mess, thereby reducing the efficiency of working. Seiri also involves keeping the number of things as low as possible and at a convenient location. If the workplace is clean, there is greater motivation to carry out the job; but if the place is full of unwanted things, it will be difficult to work effectively. 2. Seiton (Arrange): Put required things in proper order so that they can be easily accessed for use and quickly put away in their proper locations after use. It prevents people from wasting their time searching for things. A place for everything and everything in its place. 3. Seiso (Clean up): Keep machinery and work environment clean. Employees should be responsible for cleaning their own workplaces. Workers should clean up the workplace first thing before they commence work and at the end of the day before they leave. They should also see that their workplace remains clean and tidy throughout the day. Any dirt, spillage, etc. should be attended to immediately. If cleanliness is not maintained, it can be harmful to the personnel [health hazards], machinery [can fail due to dust, dirt, etc.], and materials [due to contamination], thereby causing quality and productivity problems. 4. Seiketsu (Systematize, Standardize): Develop routine practices for orderly, systematic working. If the 5S processes are standardized, it becomes easier to continuously maintain the organizations neatness and cleanliness. An effective means of achieving Seiketsu is Visual management 5. Shitsuke (Self-Discipline): Impart systematic training and coaching to ensure discipline in 5S implementation. Discipline comes through repetition and practice. Self-discipline goes beyond discipline. It is essential for the successful implementation of the 5S principles.