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&eca'se o( t"e do'#le-#lind re$iew% t"e a't"ors) in(ormation s"o'ld not #e incl'ded in t"is (ile* !lease p't a't"ors) in(ormation in t"e separated Title !age*

Abstract An a#stract is a #rie(% compre"ensi$e s'mmar+ o( t"e contents o( t"e article; it allows readers to s'r$e+ t"e contents o( an article ,'ic-l+ and% li-e a title% it ena#les persons interested in t"e doc'ment to retrie$e it (rom a#stracting and indexing data#ases* .ost sc"olarl+ /o'rnals re,'ire an a#stract* 0ons'lt t"e instr'ctions to a't"ors or we# page o( t"e /o'rnal to w"ic" +o' plan to s'#mit +o'r article (or an+ /o'rnal-speci(ic instr'ctions* A well-prepared a#stract can #e t"e most important single paragrap" in an article* .ost people "a$e t"eir (irst contact wit" an article #+ seeing /'st t"e a#stract% 's'all+ in comparison wit" se$eral ot"er a#stracts% as t"e+ are doing a literat're searc"* Readers (re,'entl+ decide on t"e #asis o( t"e a#stract w"et"er to read t"e entire article* T"e a#stract needs to #e dense wit" in(ormation* &+ em#edding -e+ words in +o'r a#stract% +o' en"ance t"e 'ser1s a#ilit+ to (ind it* 2o not exceed t"e a#stract word limit o( t"e /o'rnal to w"ic" +o' are s'#mitting +o'r article* 3ord limits $ar+ (rom /o'rnal to /o'rnal and t+picall+ range (rom 14 to 24 words* For in(ormation on "ow a#stracts are 'sed to retrie$e articles% cons'lt Record Str'ct're (or A!A 2ata#ases 5Sic-% 2 Keywords: low case% comma% paper template% a#stract% -e+words% introd'ction 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduce the Problem T"e #od+ o( a man'script opens wit" an introd'ction t"at presents t"e speci(ic pro#lem 'nder st'd+ and descri#es t"e researc" strateg+* &eca'se t"e introd'ction is clearl+ identi(ied #+ its position in t"e man'script% it does not carr+ a "eading la#eling it t"e introd'ction* &e(ore writing t"e introd'ction% consider t"e (ollowing ,'estions 5&ec- 8 Sales% 2 17: 17 3"+ is t"is pro#lem important9 27 :ow does t"e st'd+ relate to pre$io's wor- in t"e area9 ;( ot"er aspects o( t"is st'd+ "a$e #een reported pre$io'sl+% "ow does t"is report di((er (rom% and #'ild on% t"e earlier report9 <7 3"at are t"e primar+ and secondar+ "+pot"eses and o#/ecti$es o( t"e st'd+% and w"at% i( an+% are t"e lin-s to t"eor+9 =7 :ow do t"e "+pot"eses and researc" design relate to one anot"er9 47 3"at are t"e t"eoretical and practical implications o( t"e st'd+9 A good introd'ction answers t"ese ,'estions in /'st a (ew pages and% #+ s'mmarizing t"e rele$ant arg'ments and t"e past e$idence% gi$es t"e reader a (irm sense o( 3"at was done and w"+ 5&ec- 8 Sales% 2 1.2 Explore Importance of the Problem 17* 67*

State w"+ t"e pro#lem deser$es new researc"* For #asic researc"% t"e statement a#o't importance mig"t in$ol$e t"e need to resol$e an+ inconsistenc+ in res'lts o( past wor- and>or extend t"e reac" o( a t"eoretical (orm'lation* For applied researc"% t"is mig"t in$ol$e t"e need to sol$e a social pro#lem or treat a ps+c"ological disorder* 3"en researc" is dri$en #+ t"e desire to resol$e contro$ersial iss'es% all sides in t"e de#ate s"o'ld #e represented in #alanced meas're in t"e introd'ction* A$oid animosit+ and ad "ominem arg'ments in presenting t"e contro$ers+* 0oncl'de t"e statement o( t"e pro#lem in t"e introd'ction wit" a #rie( #'t (ormal statement o( t"e p'rpose o( t"e researc" t"at s'mmarizes t"e material preceding it* For literat're re$iews as well as t"eoretical and met"odological articles% also clearl+ state t"e reasons t"at t"e reported content is important and "ow t"e article (its into t"e c'm'lati$e 'nderstanding o( t"e (ield* 1.3 Describe Relevant Scholarship 2isc'ss t"e rele$ant related literat're% #'t do not (eel compelled to incl'de an ex"a'sti$e "istorical acco'nt* Ass'me t"at t"e reader is -nowledgea#le a#o't t"e #asic pro#lem and does not re,'ire a complete acco'nting o( its "istor+* A sc"olarl+ description o( earlier wor- in t"e introd'ction pro$ides a s'mmar+ o( t"e most recent directl+ related wor- and recognizes t"e priorit+ o( t"e wor- o( ot"ers* 0itation o( and speci(ic credit to rele$ant earlier wor-s are signs o( scienti(ic and sc"olarl+ responsi#ilit+ and are essential (or t"e growt" o( a c'm'lati$e science* ;n t"e description o( rele$ant sc"olars"ip% also in(orm readers w"et"er ot"er aspects o( t"is st'd+ "a$e #een reported on pre$io'sl+ and "ow t"e c'rrent 'se o( t"e e$idence di((ers (rom earlier 'ses* At t"e same time% cite and re(erence onl+ wor-s pertinent to t"e speci(ic iss'e and not t"ose t"at are o( onl+ tangential or general signi(icance* 3"en s'mmarizing earlier wor-s% a$oid nonessential details; instead% emp"asize pertinent (indings% rele$ant met"odological iss'es% and ma/or concl'sions* Re(er t"e reader to general s'r$e+s or researc" s+nt"eses o( t"e topic i( t"e+ are a$aila#le* 2emonstrate t"e logical contin'it+ #etween pre$io's and present wor-* 2e$elop t"e pro#lem wit" eno'g" #readt" and clarit+ to ma-e it generall+ 'nderstood #+ as wide a pro(essional a'dience as possi#le 5&ec- 8 Sales% 2 intelligi#le onl+ to t"e specialist* 1.4 State !potheses and "heir #orrespondence to Research Desi$n A(ter +o' "a$e introd'ced 1t"e pro#lem and "a$e de$eloped t"e #ac-gro'nd material% explain +o'r approac" to sol$ing t"e pro#lem* ;n empirical st'dies% t"is 's'all+ in$ol$es stating +o'r "+pot"eses or speci(ic ,'estion and descri#ing "ow t"ese were deri$ed (rom t"eor+ or are logicall+ connected to pre$io's data and arg'mentation* 0learl+ de$elop t"e rationale (or eac"* Also% i( +o' "a$e some "+pot"eses or ,'estions t"at are central to +o'r p'rpose and ot"ers t"at are secondar+ or explorator+% state t"is prioritization* ?xplain "ow t"e researc" design permits t"e in(erences needed to examine t"e "+pot"esis or pro$ide estimates in answer to t"e ,'estion* 2. Method T"e .et"od section descri#es in detail "ow t"e st'd+ was cond'cted% incl'ding concept'al and operational de(initions o( t"e $aria#les 'sed in t"e st'd+% 2i((erent t+pes o( st'dies will rel+ on di((erent met"odologies; "owe$er% a complete description o( t"e met"ods 'sed ena#les t"e reader to e$al'ate t"e appropriateness o( +o'r met"ods and t"e relia#ilit+ and t"e $alidit+ o( +o'r res'lts% ;t also permits experienced in$estigators to replicate t"e st'd+% ;( +o'r man'script is an 'pdate o( an ongoing or earlier st'd+ and t"e met"od "as #een p'#lis"ed in detail elsew"ere% +o' ma+ re(er t"e reader to t"at so'rce and simpl+ gi$e a #rie( s+nopsis o( t"e met"od in t"is section* 3. Results 17* 2o not let t"e goal o( #re$it+ lead +o' to write a statement

;n t"e Res'lts section% s'mmarize t"e collected data and t"e anal+sis per(ormed on t"ose data rele$ant to t"e disco'rse t"at is to (ollow* Report t"e data in s'((icient detail to /'sti(+ +o'r concl'sions* .ention all rele$ant res'lts% incl'ding t"ose t"at r'n co'nter to expectation; #e s're to incl'de small e((ect sizes 5or statisticall+ nonsigni(icant (indings7 w"en t"eor+ predicts large 5or statisticall+ signi(icant7 ones* 2o not "ide 'ncom(orta#le res'lts #+ omission* 2o not incl'de indi$id'al scores or raw data wit" t"e exception% (or example% o( single-case designs or ill'strati$e examples* ;n t"e spirit o( data s"aring 5enco'raged #+ A!A and ot"er pro(essional associations and sometimes re,'ired #+ ('nding agencies7% raw data% incl'ding st'd+ c"aracteristics and indi$ld'al e((ect sizes 'sed in a meta -anal+sis% can #e made a$aila#le on s'pplemental online arc"i$es* Ta#le 1* Ta#le title 5t"is is an example o( ta#le 17 Total capital stoc!'dong 2e$elopment &an&an- o( 0"ina <6*2 =46*= ;ncome o( main #'siness 21=*@ <<=4*@ Total assets 4@< *@ 46A@6*6

2iscription: !lace ta#le caption in (ront o( ta#le #od+ and description #elow t"e ta#le #od+* A$oid $ertical r'les* &e sparing in t"e 'se o( ta#les and ens're t"at t"e data presented in ta#les do not d'plicate res'lts descri#ed elsew"ere in t"e article*

4. Discussion A(ter presenting t"e res'lts% +o' are in a position to e$al'ate and interpret t"eir implications% especiall+ wit" respect to +o'r original "+pot"eses* :ere +o' will examine% interpret% and ,'ali(+ t"e res'lts and draw in(erences and concl'sions (rom t"em* ?mp"asize an+ t"eoretical or practical conse,'ences o( t"e res'lts* 53"en t"e disc'ssion is relati$el+ #rie( and straig"t(orward% some a't"ors pre(er to com#ine it wit" t"e Res'lts section% creating a section called Res'lts and 2isc'ssion*7 Bpen t"e 2isc'ssion section wit" a clear statement o( t"e s'pport or nons'pport (or +o'r original "+pot"eses% disting'is"ed #+ primar+ and secondar+ "+pot"eses* ;( "+pot"eses were not s'pported% o((er post "oc explanations* Similarities and di((erences #etween +o'r res'lts and t"e wor- o( ot"ers s"o'ld #e 'sed to context'alize% con(irm% and clari(+ +o'r concl'sions* 2o not simpl+ re(orm'late and repeat points alread+ made; eac" new statement s"o'ld contri#'te to +o'r interpretation and to t"e reader1s 'nderstanding o( t"e pro#lem* Co'r interpretation o( t"e res'lts s"o'ld ta-e into acco'nt 5a7 so'rces o( potential #ias and ot"er t"reats to internal $alidit+% 5#7 t"e imprecision o( meas'res% 5c7 t"e o$erall n'm#er o( tests or o$erlap among tests% 5d7 t"e e((ect sizes o#ser$ed% and 5e7 ot"er limitations or wea-nesses o( t"e st'd+* ;( an inter$ention is in$ol$ed% disc'ss w"et"er it was s'ccess('l and t"e mec"anism #+ w"ic" it was intended to wor- 5ca'sal pat"wa+s7 and>or alternati$e mec"anisms* Also% disc'ss #arriers to implementing t"e inter$ention or manip'lation as well as t"e (idelit+ wit" w"ic" t"e inter$ention or manip 'lation was implemented in t"e st'd+% t"at is% an+ di((erences #etween t"e manip'lation as planned and as implemented* ?nd t"e 2isc'ssion section wit" a reasoned and /'sti(ia#le commentar+ on t"e importance o( +o'r (indings* T"is concl'ding section ma+ #e #rie( or extensi$e pro$ided t"at it is tig"tl+ reasoned% sel(-contained% and not o$erstated* ;n t"is section% +o' mig"t #rie(l+ ret'rn to a disc'ssion o( w"+ t"e pro#lem is important 5as stated in t"e introd'ction7; w"at larger iss'es% t"ose t"at transcend t"e partic'lars o( t"e s'#(ield% mig"t "inge on t"e (indings; and w"at propositions are con(irmed or discon(irmed #+ t"e extrapolation o( t"ese (indings to s'c" o$erarc"ing iss'es*

Co' ma+ also consider t"e (ollowing iss'es: 3"at is t"e t"eoretical% clinical% or practical signi(icance o( t"e o'tcomes% and w"at is t"e #asis (or t"ese interpretations9 ;( t"e (indings are $alid and replica#le% w"at real-li(e ps+c"ological p"enomena mig"t #e explained or modeled #+ t"e res'lts9 Are applications warranted on t"e #asis o( t"is researc"9

Fig're 1* Fig're title 5T"is is an example o( (ig're 17 2escription: N'm#er (ig'res consec'ti$el+ in accordance wit" t"eir appearance in t"e text* !lace (ig'res caption and description #elow t"e (ig're #od+* 5Resol'tion: < dpi7*

References American !s+c"ological Association* 516@27* Ethical standards of ps!cholo$ists* 3as"ington% 20: American !s+c"ological Association* Anderson% 0* A*% Dentile% 2* A*% 8 &'c-le+% E* ?* 52 adolescents& "heor!' research 1* 1 "ttp:>>dx*doi*org>1 *1 6<>acpro(:oso>6@A 164< 6A<6* &ec-% 0* A* F*% 8 Sales% &* 2* 52 @7* %iolent video $ame effects on children and and public polic!.

17* (amil! mediation& (acts' m!ths' and future prospects* 3as"ington% 20:

American !s+c"ological Association* "ttp:>>dx*doi*org>1 *1 <@>1 = 1&ernstein% T* .* 516647* "he careful )riter& * modern $uide to En$lish usa$e 52nd ed*7* New Cor-% NC: At"ene'm* &/or-% R* A* 516A67* Retrie$al in"i#ition as an adapti$e mec"anism in "'man memor+* ;n :* L* Roediger ;;;% 8 F* ;* .* 0rai- 5?ds*7% %arieties of memor! + consciousness 5pp* < 6-<< 7* :illsdale% NF: ?rl#a'm* 0ress% 0* .* 52 Retrie$ed 67* #urricular strate$ies for student success and en$a$ed learnin$ G!ower!oint slidesH* (rom "ttp:>>www*$tcamp'scompact*org>2 6>T0LIpost>presenterIpowerpoints>0"ristine

J2 0ressJ2 -J2 0'rric'larJ2 Strategies*ppt 2riedger% S* 2* 5166A% April 2 7* A(ter di$orce* ,aclean-s' 1115167% <A-=<* Di##s% F* T*% 8 :'ang% L* N* 5?ds*7* 516617* #hildren of color& Ps!cholo$ical interventions )ith minorit! !outh * San Francisco% 0A: Fosse+-&ass* Dil#ert% 2* D*% .c0lernon% F* F*% Ra#ino$ic"% N* ?*% S'gai% 0*% !lat"% L* 0*% Asgaard% D*% *** &otros% N* 52 =7*

?((ects o( ,'itting smo-ing on ??D acti$ation and attention last (or more t"an <1 da+s and are more se$ere wit" stress% dependence% 2R22 A 1 allele% and depressi$e traits* .icotine and "obacco Research' /% 2=626@* "ttp:>>dx*doi*org>1 *1 A >1=6222 Doleman% 2* 52 =1 16@6< 4 arvard 67* 3"at ma-es a leader9 ;n 2* 2emers 5?d*7% * S# 230& Interpersonal communication and

relationships 5pp* =@-467* .ontreal% 0anada: 0oncordia Kni$ersit+ &oo-store* 5Reprinted (rom 1usiness Revie)' 2/567% pp*6<-1 2% 166A7*

D'ignon% 0* &* 5166A7* ?xistentialism* ;n ?* 0raig 5?d*7% Routled$e enc!clopedia of philosoph! 5Lol* <% pp* =6<4 27* London% ?ngland: Ro'tledge* Elimos-i% R*% 8 !almer% S* 5166<7* T"e A2A and t"e "iring process in organizations* #onsultin$ Ps!cholo$! 3ournal& Practice and Research' 44527% 1 -<6* "ttp:>>dx*doi*org>1 *1 <@>1 61-= A@*=4*2*1 E'#ric-% S* 52irector7* 516A 7* "he Shinin$ G.otion pict'reH* Knited States: 3arner &rot"ers* .ac;nt+re% L* 5Reporter7* 52 2% Fan'ar+ 2<7* Scandal o( t"e 0ent'r+ GTele$ision series episodeH* ;n :* 0as"ore 5!rod'cer7% "he fifth estate* Toronto% 0anada: 0anadian &roadcasting 0orporation* .cL'"an% .* 516@ a7* #ulture is our business* New Cor-% NC: .cDraw-:ill* .cL'"an% .* 516@ #7* (rom cliche to archet!pe* New Cor-% NC: Li-ing !ress* .ellers% &* A* 52 7* 0"oice and t"e relati$e pleas're o( conse,'ences* Ps!cholo$ical 1ulletin' 12/% 61 -62=* <<-26 6*126*6*61 "ttp:>>dx*doi*org>1 *1 <@>

!ostman% N* 516@67* "eachin$ as a conservin$ activit!* New Cor-% NC: 2elacorte !ress* !ostman% N* 516A47* *musin$ ourselves to death& Public discourse in the a$e of sho) business * New Cor-% NC: Li-ing* Semena-% S* 51664% 2ecem#er 2A7* Feeling rig"t at "ome: Do$ernment residence esc"ews traditional r'les* ,ontreal 5a6ette% p* A=*