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Kukais BENKENMITSUNIKYOURON: A Translation in Three Levels Jeritt Tucker RPH4370: Philosophical Approaches to Buddhism June 2008

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &2& 1 ! The "irst Ste#: $honeti% Trans%ri#tion Around the 'e(innin( o) the *ommon "ra+ ,hen Buddhism ,as )irst enterin( *hina )rom -ndia .ia the /ilk Road+ um0r01i.a and other Buddhist scholars utili2ed a method o) translation that occurred distinctl% as three steps3 The )irst ,as merel% a phonetic transcription: the sounds o) the /anskrit lan(ua(e ,ere maintained and repeated ,ithout conceptuali2ation o) their meanin( 4-n class+ 0560360873 8h% this emphasis on ,hat appears to 'e empt% recitation9 ,h% rituali2e sounds ,ithout sense o) their si(ni)icance: At the heart o) this ;uestion rests an essential assumption ,ithin Buddhist cosmolo(%+ and understandin( ,h% Buddhist intellectuals ,ould .enture do,n a road that appears as an unnecessar% detour )rom a 8estern perspecti.e< pro.ides deep insi(hts into ukai=s pro1ect in the te>t currentl% under anal%sis3 ?or ukai and Buddhism at lar(e+ the sound o) lan(ua(e is as much an aspect o) realit% as the realit% to ,hich it re)ers3 @All )i.e elements ha.e .i'rations@ 4/ound+ /i(n+ and Realit% A07 ukai states9 the )i.e elements composin( realit% are not to 'e mistaken as eternal+ 'ut are momentar% e>pressions o) a constant )lu>: ceaselessl% interactin(+ insepara'le and interdependent+ and e>pressed )oremost as .i'ration3 The 'asis o) this .i'ration is acoustics: sound is the operation o) .i'ration and is percepti'le '% the si> sense o'1ects 4A373 8hen a ,ord is uttered+ it thus 'rin(s into 'ein( as much as it re)ers to the essence o) 'ein(: a ,ord is in.aria'l% a collection o) sounds+ and thus an% speech is an action+ an% ,ord is a creation+ and sound and realit% are ine))a'l% linked32 As usalis states: @the circle is closed@440<79 realit% is .i'ration 4an e.er&chan(in( relation
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A)ter all+ ,h% )ocus on phonetics ,hen the purpose o) translation is a shared understandin( o) the meanin(s 'ehind our re)erent lan(ua(e: 2 ukai re)ers to this as the Bspeech&actC 4 usalis+ 3A873

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &3& o) dependent su'stances7+ the operation o) .i'rations is sound+ sounds come to(ether to )orm ,ords+ ,ords ha.e meanin( in that the% re)er to realit%+ and the 'asis o) realit% is .i'ration3 The patterned si(ns that compose lan(ua(e are not di.orcea'le )rom their readin(s+ and an% e))ort o) translation must also take into account the .oiced presence o) a te>t3 To silentl% read a sutra!s ,ords+ e>poundin( onl% its concepts+ ,ould 'e to rari)% the three m%steries o) the Dharma&Buddha3 $ookin( to the Diamond Peak /utra+ in ,hich the Tath0(ata responds to the spurious ;uestionin( o) the Bodhisatt.a '% askin( them to repeat a sin(le /anskrit sound 4?ickel+ 3477+ the Buddhist philosoph% o) lan(ua(e makes room )or a notion o) sound that has the po,er to 'rin( a'out the ne>t sta(e o) enli(htenment+ and must not (o silentl% i(nored 4-n *lass+ 0E63060873 Prior to continuin( an% )urther+ then+ one should take the time to e>amine the phonetics o) ukai!s Benkenmitsu9 to ,ander in its sounds and patterns prior to e>plicatin( it rationall%3 To&ar' the Se%on' Level Ha.in( )ound that the readin( o) a te>t re;uires sound and its necessaril% implied elements o) air+ atoms+ and kno,led(e+ the translator ma% 'e(in to look to,ard a literal translation o) the te>t!s patterned s%m'ols3 $ike the )irst le.el o) phonetic transcription+ a mere literal translation ,hich+ ,hile in the lan(ua(e o) the listener+ e>presses concepts completel% )orei(n+ ma% seem super)luous to the 8estern ,orld3 A(ain+ i) the (oal o) translation is to understand one another!s ideolo(%+ ,h% make detours ,hich onl% ser.e to dela% conceptual clarit%:

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &4& Ho,e.er+ like the phrasin( o) poetr%+ there is a certain aesthetic in ukai!s te>t that ,ould 'e lost i) one ,ere to take its lan(ua(e solel% as an e>actin( rationalit%3 -n the Benkenmitsu+ particularl% in its metaphorical third section+ the point is to (et a,a% )rom concepts ,hich ser.e onl% to misapprehend realit% as a set o) permanent constructions and to en(a(e the listener in a more intuiti.e sort o) kno,in(3 Thou(h Di(na(a ,as not himsel) a Buddhist+ he did much )or the tradition in terms o) the BdualismC in its philosoph% o) lan(ua(e+ and his theories are ;uite applica'le here3 All lan(ua(e necessaril% denotes an e>clusion+ Di(na(a states9 our concept o) co, immediatel% implies a concept o) non&co,: it is not de)ined '% some set o) central characteristics 'ut rather '% ,hich part o) the ,hole it e>cludes3 -) ,e thus )ocus on the ne(ation+ on the non&co,+ it 'ecomes apparent that neither co, nor non&co, are pinpointin( some actual+ permanent e>istence+ 'ut are rather t,o rare)ied perspecti.es o) the same ,hole3 This is not meant to point at a uni.ersal truth+ that all thin(s are one+ 'ut rather to emphasi2e that lan(ua(e is merel% a namin( (ame that detracts )rom (enuine+ insi(ht)ul+ immediate kno,led(e 4Blocker and /tarlin( 3473 This is the sort o) kno,led(e ukai is seekin( to e>pand in the third section o) the Benkenmitsu+ and it is thus necessar% to present his te>t in the closest "n(lish appro>imation possi'le: in order to depict the metaphors in such a ,a% as to preser.e the essence o) the master himsel) and the intuiti.e kno,led(e he attempts to inspire3 Thus+ The Literal Translation Fn the /eparation Bet,een the Accessi'le and Hidden Discourses B% ukai

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &E& The Buddha has three 'odies+ the teachin(s ha.e t,o seeds3 The e>planations o) the trans)ormati.e 'od% o) the Buddha are ,hat ,e call the Accessi'le Discourse3 Gsin( a simpli)ied lan(ua(e adapted to the needs o) the listener+ its teachin(s are recei.ed e))icientl%3 The e>planations o) the la,)ul+ true 'od% o) the Buddha are ,hat ,e call the Hidden Discourse9 usin( ,ords that place nothin( 'et,een listener and essence+ there is no di))erence 'et,een its ,ords and its e))ect3 The sacred te>ts o) the Accessi'le Discourse ha.e taken the )orm o) one 'illion units3 As )or the treasuries o) these te>ts+ ,e kno, that the% can 'e di.ided into one+ ten+ or )i)t%&one collections3 As )ar as the paths to,ard li'eration are concerned+ the traditions separate them into one+ t,o+ three+ )our+ or )i.e .ehicles3 -n terms o) spiritual practices+ si> is made the standard num'er3 As )ar as the time it takes )or the per)ectin( o) a,akenin(+ three eons is made the )i>ed unit o) time3 This has all 'een made clear '% the (reat sa(es o) the Buddhist tradition3 -) ,e look to the e>planations o) the Diamond Peak /utra o) the H%sterious *ollection+ the )amiliar and arisin( presence o) the most (eneral aspect o) the Buddha preaches the la,)ul teachin(s o) the three .ehicles )or those ,ho are ,orth% o) enli(htenment 'ut ha.e not %et reached the sta(e o) no re(ression+ )or the practitioners o) the t,o .ehicles+ and )or the lait%+ ,hile the em'odied&en1o%ment presence e>pounds the teachin(s (rouped in the apparent all&encompassin( .ehicle to those ,orth% o) enli(htenment and 'e%ond the sta(e o) no&re(ression3 These t,o presences taken to(ether constitute the Accessi'le Discourse3 The sel)&(enerated+ sel)&recei.ed presence Ia la,)ul 1o% e>perienced throu(h the s%mpathetic resonance o) communit%Ie>pounds the three m%sterious connections and is re)erred to as the Hidden Discourse3

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &5& Hetaphoricall%+ ,hat can 'e said a'out the interdependence o) the three m%stical connections is that it is 1ust like penetratin( the actual mental ,orld o) )orthri(htness and its innumera'le insi(hts3 Those ,orth% o) enli(htenment at the hi(hest sta(e o) a,akenin(+ as ,ell as those still in the ten li'eratin( sta(es+ are una'le to penetrate its sanctuar%3 -t (oes ,ithout sa%in( that the practitioners o) the t,o .ehicles and the lait% cannot clim' to its to,erin( mental acuit%3 This is ,h% the commentar% on the ten sta(es and the commentar% on Ha%ahana Buddhism concur that the capacit% )or enli(htenment is )ar remo.ed+ and the school re)lectin( on consciousness and the treatise on the middle ,a% deplore it )or lea.in( one speechless ,ithout the coura(e to continue3 Both a'o.e e>planations o) traumatic separation are e>planations )rom the perspecti.e o) those ,ho are still in the causal sta(es+ and not )rom the perspecti.e o) those ,ho ha.e attained enli(htenment3 8hile askin( on ,hat 'asis this can 'e kno,n+ clear e.idence is to 'e )ound in the treatises on the teachin(s o) the Buddha3 -n ,hat )ollo,s - ,ill line up these demonstrations+ and - hope those seekin( enli(htenment ,ill understand the truth o) their insi(hts3 -) ,e speak metaphoricall% a'out those entan(led in the net o) )i(urati.e thou(hts+ ,e can sa% that the% are like rams ,ith their horns entrapped a)ter 'uttin( a(ainst a 'am'oo )ence9 entan(led in the trend% ,orld o) the co2% e>planations+ the% are horsemen ,ho unharness their horses and (o no )urther3 $ike pil(rims ,ho make a .irtual cit% created solel% )or their recuperation their )inal destination+ or like cr%in( children ,ho re1oice at recei.in( %ello, lea.es thinkin( them to 'e shinin( (old9 ho, can the% hope to preser.e the su'lime+ ine>hausti'le insi(hts ,hich are countless like the sands o) the Jan(es Ri.er: 4Translated )rom the ori(inal *hinese script7

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &7& To&ar' the Thir' Level Translation cannot 'e le)t as mere transliteration+ ho,e.er+ it must also 'e the process o) 'rin(in( the teachin(s o) the Tath(0ta to the i(norant lait%+ ,ho ha.e no ,a% o) ascendin( to the enli(htened realit% on their o,n 4 ukai+ /ound+ /i(n+ and realit% 8E73 Ho, is this to 'e done: The particular needs o) the lait% depend upon their means o) con)i(urin( meanin(+ a point ,hich ,ill 'e touched upon later+ and thus a te>t addressed to them must 'e ,ritten in ,ords that are eas% to understand+ that en(a(e them rationall%3 8hat ukai mana(ed to learn )rom the Hah0.airocana+ or + /utra ,as that translation+ thou(h it ma% alter the lan(ua(e o) a te>t+ does not at all lose a te>t!s meanin( so lon( as it acts as a (ate9 so lon( as it is not an o'stacle on the road to enli(htenment3 ".en non&Buddhist te>ts ma% )ul)ill this role+ so lon( as the% are not en(a(ed in turnin( the ideas e>pressed therein into conceptual realities or indicators o) permanent truth3 As an entan(led 'ein( m%sel)+ - ine.ita'l% en(a(e ukai!s te>t throu(h a particular means o) con)i(urin( meanin(3 Hinorin( in neuroscience+ - am inclined to utili2e much o) this 'od% o) kno,led(e in m% o,n interpretation o) the conceptual presence o) ukai!s ,ritin(+ and thus ,ill e>pand On the Separation Between the Accessible and Hidden Discourses )rom the ideolo(ies em'odied in this tradition3 A Literar( Translation "ro) the $ers#e%tive o* +o,nitive S%ien%e "n(a(in( ukai!s te>t )rom the perspecti.e co(niti.e scienceIunderstandin( the t%pes o) consciousness spoken o) in the anal%tical )irst section+ e>plainin( the presences spoken o) in the Diamond Peak /utra in the te>tual stud% o) its second section+ and e>aminin( the ph%siolo(ical underpinnin(s o) the neurasthenia o) the traumatic separation spoken o) in the te>t!s metaphorical third sectionIallo,s us not onl% to

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &8& e>plain ,hat ukai is speakin( o) in terms o) underl%in( mental phenomenon+ 'ut also helps e>pound some o) his concepts9 (i.in( them meanin( surprisin(l% in line ,ith Buddhist thou(ht that is not made speci)ic mention o) in his e>plication3 -n order to summari2e these insi(hts ,ithout runnin( the risk o) no.eli2in( them Iturnin( them into a mere point '% point e>planation o) the neurolo(ical properties that ukai!s descriptions ma% ha.e 'een re)errin( toIit is necessar% to en(a(e his te>t ,ith the same intent ,ith ,hich it ,as ,ritten: to e>amine it in the three sections mentioned: )irst ukai!s decision to outline the present state o) the Buddhist discourse+ second in re.ie,in( ,hat the particular te>t o) the Diamond Peak /utra has to sa% a'out ukai!s current pro1ect+ and )inall% 'e(innin( to lead listeners into his teachin(s and to,ard a notion o) enli(htenment as accessi'le in the here and no,3 -n this )irst section+ ,e are immediatel% struck '% the concept o) the Three Bod% Theor% 4Trika%a7 o) the Buddha+ to ,hich apparentl% e.er%one ,ithin the Ha%ahana tradition a(rees 4this section o) ukai!s te>t ma% also 'e translated as Be.er%one kno,sC that the Buddha has three 'odies73 The )irst o) these 'odies is re)erred to as the Trans)ormati.e Bod%: that ,hich adapts itsel) to the particular consciousness o) the listener3 The second is that o) the -ntermediar% Bod%9 a 'od% that is encountered onl% in deep meditation a)ter the consciousness has 'een puri)ied3 The third 'od% is that o) the True Bod% o) the Buddha ,hich does not directl% e))ect us as entan(led 'ein(s3 Ho, mi(ht this 'e e>plained in a ,a% that makes sense to the )ollo,ers o) co(niti.e science: The )irst o) these 'odies can 'est spoken o) in terms o) neuroplasticit%3 The e(on /chool speaks o) si> methods o) con)i(urin( meanin( o) the Bon'K+ the lo,est le.el o) the lait% ,ho are su'1ect to multiple re'irths and ,ho the

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &A& trans)ormati.e 'od% caters to3 #eurolo(icall% speakin(+ these are indi.iduals ,ho e>hi'it all the tendencies o) addicti.e 'eha.ior3 ?or these indi.iduals moderation is impossi'le9 the% deri.e purpose )rom the ,orld onl% in terms o) their particular addictions3 Take+ )or e>ample+ the Bhun(r% spiritsC9 indi.iduals al,a%s eatin( and ne.er satis)ied9 or the Asuras9 those ,ho resort to .iolence in order to sol.e their pro'lems3 8hile the nutrients in )ood act as precursors to the production o) dopamine+ the re,ard neurotransmitter+ and en(a(in( in e>citin( 'eha.iors such as .iolence release endorphins+ each time these indi.iduals encounter the ,orld in a ,a% that seeks out meanin( in terms o) their addictionIthe more these re,ard centers )ire s%nchronousl% ,ith such ne(ati.e actions Ithe more the 'rain maps )or these actions compete )or space 4Doid(e <0873 The aspect o) the trans)ormati.e 'od% o) the Buddha is thus con)i(ured to addicted indi.iduals ,ho ha.e entrapped themsel.es in the entan(lin( 'eha.ior that 'ecomes pro(ressi.el% more di))icult to transcend the more it is en(a(ed in3 The second le.el is the intermediar% 'od%+ that element o) the Buddha ,hich is 'et,een the true+ impercepti'le 'od% and that 'od% presented to entan(led 'ein(s3 A(ain+ lookin( to the e(on /chool+ ,hich sin(ularl% de.eloped meditation methods )or ascendin( throu(h hi(her le.els o) consciousness+ ,e see this intermediar% position+ around that o) the )inal Ten /ta(es o) Herit Trans)erence+ as 'ein( li'erated )rom attachment and 'ein( no lon(er e))ected '% 'ad memories o) the past3 8e can understand this process 'est as the process o) unlearnin(9 remo.in( those ne(ati.e connections to the past that permanentl% entraps us in entan(lin( thou(hts3 8hen ,e )irst learn somethin(+ the chemical process o) lon(&term potentiation stren(thens the connections 'et,een our neurons3 -n order to unlearn these connections+ a separate

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<0& neurochemical process+ that o) lon(&term depression+ is en(a(ed in 4Rosen2,ei(+ 5&873 This unlearnin( is essential to mo.in( )rom one de.elopmental le.el to the ne>tImo.in( )rom adolescence to adulthoodI1ust as it is essential to ascendin( to percei.in( the intermediar% 'od% o) the Buddha3 The )inal 'od% o) the Buddha is perhaps the most di))icult to comprehend )rom the perspecti.e o) neuroscience: it is the most (eneral aspect o) the Buddha ,hich does not a))ect entan(led 'ein(s3 Takin( the time to understand it here+ ho,e.er+ is crucial (i.en ukai!s later re)erence to its .arious e>pressions ,ithin the Diamond Peak /utra3 $ookin( to the Diamond Peak /utra itsel)+ the most (eneral presence o) the Buddha can 'est 'e understood )rom our current entan(led perspecti.e as the 'ecomin( o) one ,ith the )ull moon presented in its mandala+ the kon(okai3 This is somethin( close to )eelin( a presence ,ith the cosmos+ somethin( in)inite and undi))erentiatin(3 This sort o) reali2ation o) enli(htenment+ this sudden conception o) the interdependence o) all thin(s+ is compara'le to one o) the most important disco.eries o) modern neuroscience9 that the 'rain is not in )act a locali2ed machine ,ith di))erent areas de.oted to speci)ic processes+ 'ut that the 'rain is pol%sensor%3 8hen Bach&%&Rita in <A5E )irst accidentall% disco.ered that processin( o) sensor% in)ormation sho,ed electrical dischar(e in areas o) the .isual corte>+ the notion o) one )unction )or one location ,as seriousl% challen(ed 443&4E73 The discipline+ ,hich at this point had desperatel% clun( to the idea the 'rain is an unchan(in( machine+ ,ent throu(h a serious rapid chan(es that opened it up to a much more inclusi.e ,a% o) percei.in( o) the human mind9 that the human 'rain cannot 'e classi)ied into independentl% )unctionin( units3 -) this disco.er% ,ere not to appl% 1ust to the

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<<& human mind+ 'ut to the interdependence o) all thin(s+ the True Bod% o) the Buddha ,ould 'e understanda'le ,ithin a neuroscienti)ic )rame,ork3 -mmediatel% )ollo,in( the presentation o) the Three Bodies+ ukai introduces the di.ision ,ithin Buddhism o) the Bt,o seed teachin(sC9 the di.ision 'et,een ,hat - ha.e translated as the Accessi'le and Hidden Discourses3 The distinction here can 'e e>plained in the same neurolo(ical terms noted a'o.e: the Accessi'le teachin( is that ,hich is catered to the practitioner ,hereas the Hidden teachin( is that ,hich speaks directl% )rom the true 'od% o) the Buddha3 8hile it is eas% to understand ho, a teachin( mi(ht cater to an indi.idual ,ho e>hi'its the addicti.e 'eha.ior o) the lait%Iit need simpl% appear to them in a manner in line ,ith their addictionIit is more di))icult to conceptuali2e3 ho, a teachin( could 'e the e>poundin( o) simple truth9 one that does not en(a(e their rational thinkin( processes 'ut speaks to them much more in line ,ith intuition3 8hile the realm o) intuition ,ould seem )ar di.orced )rom the hard sciences+ ,e can e>plain a teachin( that is not catered to the particular capa'ilities o) the listener as one ,hich does not percei.e the student as ha.in( a permanent set o) neurolo(ical resourcesIas ha.in( a 'rain that is )oremost non& plastic3 Rather than treatin( d%sle>ic children as thou(h the% ,ere incapa'le o) 'ein( educated+ as thou(h the possi'ilit% )or enli(htenment ,ere )ar remo.ed+ the hidden discourse ,ould treat each indi.idual the same in its presentation+ )ocusin( on more tantric practices3 #eurolo(icall%+ this means that despite these children!s ina'ilit% to inte(rate in)ormation at the 1unction ,here the three ma1or perceptual areas meet+ the%
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F) course it is di))icult to conceptuali2e this notion+ precisel% )or the e>planation (i.en a'o.e in ,hich this sort o) kno,led(e cannot 'e concei.ed o) )rom an unenli(htened perspecti.e3 Let co(niti.e science does not make re)erence to some state o) attainment in ,hich all is clarit%+ so ,e must a(ain attempt to e>plain as 'est as possi'le the concept o) enli(htenment throu(h its rationali2in( it9 a pro1ect ultimatel% doomed to )ail3

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<2& ,ould 'e (i.en the chance at cere'ral cross&learnin(+ a relati.el% ne, techni;ue used in the Fast ForWord pro(ram to educate children ,ith se.ere learnin( disa'ilities 4Barin(a 2773 /uch a teachin( sees an% action is )illed ,ith the potential )or enli(htenment+ that an% indi.idual has the possi'ilit% to learn in the here and no,3 The rest o) the 'e(innin( section constitutes ukai!s re.ie, o) the current di.isions o) the Buddhist tradition: <&<0 and <0&E< collections o) the 'illions o) sutras+ the classi)ication o) up to E .ehicles or paths to,ard enli(htenment+ and the si> spiritual practices3 The meanin( o) this portion o) the te>t is meant less to e>plain the importance o) such distinctions and more to demonstrate the a'surdit% o) such pro)use classi)ication s%stems3 The result o) these di.isions is summari2ed '% ukai!s parado>ical line Bas )or the time it takes )or the per)ectin( o) a,akenin(+ three eons is made the )i>ed unit o) timeC3 -) seekers o) enli(htenment are to )ormulate the tradition as one ,hich re;uires speci)ic classi)ication+ tr% and rationali2e their ,a% to enli(htenment+ enli(htenment itsel) 'ecomes unattaina'le3 Thus+ di.ision+ much like locali2ation o) 'rain )unction in the mechanistic 'iolo(% that once dominated the stud% o) the human 'rain+4 keeps one )rom trul% understandin( enli(htened realit%Ikeeps one )rom disco.erin( sensor% su'stitution or e>plainin( s%nesthesia3 -n order to )urther solidi)% this point+ ukai recalls the authorities o) the Buddhist tradition+ ,hich includes the Buddha+ himsel)+ and #a(ar1una3 -n the discipline o) neuroscience+ this ,ould 'e the e;ui.alent o) an appropriatel% chosen ;uote o) ?reud or Broca3 -n )act+ in <8A< ?reud ,rote a ,ork entitled On Aphasia in ,hich he ar(ued that comple> mental phenomenon could in no ,a% 'e e>plained throu(h the restriction o)
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/ince earl% nineteenth centur%+ scientists like Huller ar(ued that Beach ner.e seems to 'e capa'le o) one determinate kind o) sensation onl%C 4277+ despite the pro(ress made durin( this era+ such .ie,points seriousl% impaired the pro(ress o) the discipline3

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<3& distinct cortical areas+ and a mention o) this ,ork in order to solidi)% the point that locali2ation is a )ailed doctrine ,ould 'e e;ui.alent to ukai!s mo.e here3 Ho.in( to ukai!s te>tual re.ie, o) the Diamond Peak /utra+ ,e once a(ain see e>pression o) the three 'od% .ie, o) the 'od% in the B)amiliar and arisin(C presence+ the Bem'odied&en1o%mentC presence+ and the Bsel)&(enerated+ sel)&recei.ed presenceC3 The )irst o) these is a(ain the caterin( o) a teachin( to the addictions o) those to ,hom it preaches3 The em'odied&en1o%ment presence is a ne, conceptuali2ation o) the -ntermediar% Bod%+ still ha.in( to do ,ith the sta(es o) Bodhisatt.ahood 'ut mentionin( ho, the practitioners 'e(in more and more to resem'le the Buddha as the% remo.e some o) the links o) causation3 This presence in some ,a%s represents the 'od% o) teachin( de.eloped recentl% '% J3H3 /ch,art2 in his treatment o) patients ,ith F*D3 F*D in.ol.es three 'rain areas: the or'ital )rontal corte>+ the cin(ulate (%rus+ and the caudate nucleus3 Frdinaril%+ mistake correction in.ol.es the reco(nition o) the mistake in the or'ital )rontal corte>+ the (eneration o) the dread)ul an>iet% that somethin( terri'le ,ill happen i) the mistake is not corrected occurs in the cin(ulated (%rus+ and the )reedom to mo.e on to the ne>t thou(ht once the mistake is corrected is allo,ed '% the caudate nucleus3 Ho,e.er+ )or patients ,ith F*D+ the caudate nucleus appears to 'e stuck+ una'le to allo, the person to (enerate the relie) )eelin( e.en once the mistake has 'een corrected3 -n order to o.ercome this+ /ch,art2 de.eloped a treatment in ,hich the patients rela'el ,hat is happenin( to them+ reali2in( that the su))erin( is caused '% an o.eracti.e caudate nucleus and not '% their percei.ed )ear 4/ch,art2 M Be%ette73 This allo,s them to (et some distance )rom the actual content o) their o'sessi.e tendenc%+ and

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<4& is reminiscent o) ho, the Bodhisatt.a .ie, su))erin( durin( intense meditation: the% o'ser.e its e))ects on them and thus are a'le to separate themsel.es )rom it3 The )inal presence ,ithin the Diamond Peak /utra+ that o) the Bsel)&(enerated+ sel)&recei.edC presence+ a 1o% recei.ed throu(h the resonatin( o) communit%+ can perhaps 'e understood as the pure 1o% emanatin( )rom the stud% o) co(niti.e science as a discipline3 The notion o) sel)&(eneration and sel)&reception is that nothin( is added or su'tracted in the e>pansion o) kno,led(e+ somethin( akin to the mind!s stud% o) its o,n nature3 #o third dimension is added+ no third space separate )rom the mind is implied '% a discipline ,hich )ocuses in,ard3 And the 1o%ous element recei.ed throu(h the interdependence o) communit% can perhaps 'e .ie,ed as the 'od% o) researchers ,orkin( in tandem across .arious colle(es+ )rom G*$A+ Har.ard+ and *olum'ia+ on the same ;uestions o) am%otrophic lateral sclerosis or Al2heimer!s disease3 ukai ne>t e>pounds the nature o) the three m%sterious connections and their link to this sel)&(enerated+ sel)&recei.ed 1o%+ comparin( it to penetratin( Bmental ,orld o) )orthri(htness and its innumera'le insi(htsC3 This sort o) e>perience+ o) reachin( a plane in ,hich nothin( is percei.ed as an o'stacle and nothin( is )rustratin(+ can perhaps 'e compared to the co(niti.e state o) (lo'ali2ation associated ,ith the po,er)ul emotions )ound in )allin( in lo.e+ (ettin( hi(h+ or 'ecomin( manic3 -n these states+ a person 'ecomes optimistic a'out e.er%thin( 'ecause the )irin( threshold )or the pleasure s%stems associated ,ith the anticipation o) somethin( desired 4the same rush the addict (ets 'e)ore indul(in(7 is lo,ered3 Thus+ the pleasure centers )ire )reel%+ and their 'rains e>perience a sur(e o) dopamine+ the catal%st )or plastic chan(e+ the possi'ilit% to make

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<E& ne, pleasura'le e>periences+ and a decreased likelihood to )eel displeasure or )rustration9 thin(s that ,ould ordinaril% present themsel.es as o'stacles do not 4$ie'o,it273 Ho,e.er+ this sort o) (lo'ali2in( desire+ in ,hich Binnumera'le insi(htsC are made possi'le throu(h e>treme plasticit% and the resultin( a'ilit% re,ork old hard,ired ha'its+ is cut o)) )rom those ,ho are in the s,in(s o) addictions and e.en those ,ho ha.e 'e(un to reco(ni2e the true co(niti.e 'asis o) their su))erin(3 This is true o) those ,ho do not ha.e a pure sort o) (lo'ali2ation+ the (enerous state o) mind associated ,ith (enuine lo.e3 8hen someone attempts to con)i(ure (lo'ali2ation throu(h a )i> such as cocaine+ the% )all 'ack into the addicti.e s%mptoms9 the% under(o hi(hs+ cra.in(s+ ,ithdra,al+ all impediments to an o.er,helmin( resonance and )lo,in(3 Let+ (lo'ali2ation e>perienced throu(h true lo.e can 'e a massi.e unlearnin(+ a complete 'rain reor(ani2ation made possi'le '% the release o) neuromodulators ,hich can enhance or diminish the o.erall e))ecti.eness o) s%napses and 'rin( a'out lon(&term chan(e 4?reeman73 The ina'ilit% o) addicted indi.iduals or e.en those ,ho ha.e 'e(un the path to,ard identi)%in( their su))erin( to e.er reach a permanent (lo'ali2ation o) unrestricted co(nition causes some to deplore the pursuit alto(ether )or its apparent impossi'ilit%3 8e should take care here not to e;uate too closel% ukai!s idea o) other,orldl% transcendence and the notion o) (lo'ali2ation+ as the latter o) these occurs ,ithin one mental landscape+ 'ut 'ecause ukai insists on the possi'ilit% o) transcendence throu(h ritual and practice in the here and no,+ it is possi'le to e;uate his Btraumatic separationC to the po,er)ul trauma o) )irst separation )rom the parents3 ?reud descri'ed this as circumcision )rom the maternal ,om' and the ina'ilit% o) the sel) to e.er return to that

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<5& in)antile state+ a ri)t in the sel) that is ne.er )ull% 'rid(ed and remains a (ap 'et,een one and the li'erated )ul)illment o) the sel) 4?reud+ *i.ili2ation73 The )inal metaphorical section+ in ,hich ukai at last presents his method o) reachin( a,akenin( to those ,ho ha.e s,orn themsel.es to accept him as their master+ consists not o) conceptual )ormulation+ )or this ,ould merel% rari)% the three (ates+ 'ut rather o) a series o) 'eauti)ul ima(es ,hich are )amiliar to and particularl% po,er)ul )or the reader3 Thus+ rather than attemptin( to e>plain to ,hat these metaphors re)er+ it is 'etter to e>plain ho, these metaphors are a po,er)ul means o) e>planation )rom a co(niti.e standpoint3 $ookin( to the phenomenon o) therapeutic illusion and the mental processes in.ol.ed in ima(ination+ it ,ould 'e a mistake to think that the sort o) kno,led(e to 'e (ained )rom o.ertl% non&rational teachin(s9 ,hen one lets the authorit% o) the mind (o to a much less complicated use o) s%m'olism and metaphor+ does not )ind e>pression in co(niti.e science3 Phantom pain is the phenomenon o) a chronic+ a(oni2in( )eelin( o) pain in a part o) the 'od% that a person no lon(er has3 -t torments soldiers ,ith amputations and people ,ho lose lim's in accidents+ and it has 'een the source o) con)usion )or the medical communit% )or decades3 -t characteri2es a t%pe o) neuropathic pain ,hich ser.es no acute+ )unctional purpose+ de.elopin( an a)terli)e lon( a)ter the ,ound has healed3 The truth is that the pain is ,ithin the dama(ed 'rain map rather than in the 'od% part in ,hich it is )elt+ 'ut this does not stop su))erers )rom )eelin( a pain as po,er)ul as the ori(inal se.erin( o) the lim' ,ith no ,a% o) )reein( themsel.es )rom it3 The solution to this a(e old pro'lem ,as disco.ered '% an -ndian neurolo(ist+ Ramachandran+ usin( simple techni;ues ,hich rel% solel% on the ima(ination o) the

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<7& patient3 Gsin( a 'o> ,ith a re)lecti.e mirror on one side+ patients ,ere instructed to place their phantom lim' into the 'o> and their (ood lim' on the outside+ re)lectin( their (ood lim' onto 'oth sides o) their 'od%3 The% ,ere then instructed to )reel% mo.e their (ood arm+ and ma(icall% the pain su'sided 4Ramachandran73 This e>ercise ena'led the 'rain to disconnect the neuronal link 'et,een the motor command to mo.e the arm and the pain s%stem+ 'ut o) (reater si(ni)icance is that the end to su))erin(+ perhaps some o) the ,orst su))erin( ima(ina'le )rom a source that cannot 'e identi)ied+ is cura'le not throu(h complicated sta(es o) neurolo(ical dia(nosis+ throu(h transcendin( throu(h di))icult steps to,ard e.entual enli(htenment+ 'ut throu(h simple+ po,er)ul practices that )ocus on the po,er o) ima(ination to end su))erin( in the here and no,3 +on%lusion The traditional Buddhist approach to translation turns our 8estern concept on its head: the most po,er)ul stepIthat ,ith (reatest in)luence in mo.in( practitioners )rom a neurasthenic ,orr% o) their separation )rom enli(htenmentIis that ,hich recei.es the least conceptuali2ation3 The sounds o) a te>t+ like the rituali2ed esoteric practices o) meditation on mandalas+ (et us to the sort o) intuiti.e kno,led(e that results )rom the reali2ation o) the emptiness o) our concepts3 Thou(h the )unnel o) 8estern thou(ht ends ,ith the most ;uickl% understanda'le+ )or Buddhist translators such as um0r01i.a+ this is merel% the 'e(innin(3 Fnce our rational processes ha.e 'een set onto the teachin(s o) the Buddha+ once our entan(led minds ha.e )ound the desire to push )or,ard+ ,e ha.e onl% 1ust 'e(un our 1ourne% to,ard enli(htenment3

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<8& The more ,e attempt to conceptuali2e ukai=s te>t: the more ,e attempt to put it into a lan(ua(e that is curtailed to our current thinkin(+ the less ,e ha.e con)ronted our o,n&mind hearts: the more ,e ha.e )ailed to reali2e that the real ,ork o) translation must 'e the openin( up o) oursel.es to the other+ resonatin( ,ith the 1o%ous aspect o) communit%+ and includin( oursel.es in it '% not rationali2in( a,a% the non&e>istence o) the sel)3 There are t,o ,a%s+ as 8esterners+ ,ith ,hich ,e can deal ,ith this issue3 ?irst+ ,e can 'e(in to ,ork '% (oin( in an apparentl% 'ack,ard direction9 'e(innin( )irst )rom ,hat is understanda'le and translata'le into our o,n lan(ua(e and e.entuall% leadin( to the hidden teachin(s o) the m%sterious plane o) the Buddha3 8e ma% 'e(in+ step '% step+ like the 'odhisatt.a+ to slo,l% remo.e the links o) causation3 Fr perhaps+ in order to )ollo, ,ith the teachin(s o) the te>t under current translation+ ,e can reali2e that e.en this pro1ect ,ill not (uarantee our e.entual enli(htenment: e.en those practitioners ,ho train themsel.es to slo,l% to pass throu(h the le.els o) consciousness cannot reach the penetratin( ,orld and its innumera'le insi(hts3 -nstead+ ,e must reco(ni2e that enli(htenment can 'e reached in the here and no,+ that e.er% moment and action contains elements o) the enli(htened realit%3 #othin( is an o'stacle+ as ukai )inds9 e.er% desirin( ener(% is another chance at li'eration3 The true meanin( 'ehind ukai=s te>t is thus not the addition o) some ne, hidden teachin(9 an unkno,n trick to attainin( enli(htenment that has 'een o.erlooked '% the millions o) sutras3 Rather it is the proo)+ throu(h metaphor and allusion+ that the mundane itsel) is sacred3 8e can reach enli(htenment in the here and no, 'ecause enli(htenment is none other than the here and no,3 And ultimatel%+ this means that true

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &<A& a,akenin( is not some concept that can 'e understood and translated '% a slo, transcendence throu(h three la%ers3

ukai!s B"# "#: a Translation in Three $a%ers &20& -orks +ite' Bach&%&Rita+ Paul and *ramer Hurata3 <A5E3 #euronal con.er(ence o) no>ious+ acoustic and .isual stimuli in the .isual corte> o) the cat3 Journal of Neurophysiology+ 28457: <223&3A3 Barin(a+ H3 <AA53 Ji.in( $an(ua(e /kills a Boost3 Science+ 27<4E24E73 Blocker+ Jene and *hristopher /tarlin(3 200<3 Japanese Philosoph%3 Al'an%: /tate Gni.ersit% o) #e, Lork Press3 Doroth% H3 ?ickle3 <AA43 The Bodhisatt.a ,ith a Hask+ Artibus Asiae+ Nol3 E4+ #o3 O+ pp3 347&37E3 Doid(e+ #orman3 20073 The Brain that *han(es -tsel)3 #e, Lork: Pen(uin Jroup3 ?reeman+ 83 J3 <AAE3 Societies of Brains: A Study in the Neuroscience of o!e and Hate3 Hillsdale+ #J: $a,rence "rl'aum Associates+ <22&233 ?reud+ /i(mund3 <8A<3 On Aphasia: A "ritical Study3 #e, Lork: -nternational Gni.ersit% Press3 ?reud+ /i(mund3 <A5<3 "i!ili#ation and $ts Discontents3 Trans3 James /trache%3 #e, Lork: 83 83 #orton3 usalis+ T3P3 <A823 Re)erence and /%m'ol in Plato!s B*rat%lusC and ukai!s B/o1i1isso(iC+ %hilosophy &ast and West+ Nol3 32+ #o3 4+ pp3 3A3&40E3 ukai3 The Heanin(s o) /ound+ /i(n+ and Realit%3 Trans3 Rol) 83 Jie'el3 Berkel%: #umata *enter )or Buddhist Translation and Research3 2004 $ie'o,it2+ H3 <A833 'he "he(istry of o!e3 Boston: $ittle+ Bro,n M *o3 Huller+ J3 <8383 Hand'uch der ph%siolo(ie des Henschen+ 'k E+ *o'len2+ repreinted in RJ3 Herrnstein and "3J3 Borin(+ eds3 <A5E3 A source boo) in the history of psychology3 *am'rid(e+ HA: Har.ard Gni.ersit% Press+ 25&333 Ramachandran+ N3 /3 20033 'he &(erging *ind: 'he +eith Pro)ile Books+ <8&203 ectures ,--. 3 $ondonC

Rosen2,ei(+ *3 A3 Barnes+ and B3 $3 Hc#au(hton3 20023 Hakin( Room )or #e, Hemories3 Nature Neuroscience+ E4<73 /ch,art2 J3 H3 and B Be%ette3 <AA53 Brain oc)/ Free 0ourself Fro( Obsessi!e1 co(pulsi!e Beha!ior3 #e, Lork: Re(anBooks6Harper*ollins3