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Scilab Textbook Companion for Material Science by V.

Rajendran1
Created by Laxman Ghanasham Sole B.Tech Electronics Engineering Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune College Teacher Prof. Vijay Mane Cross-Checked by Lavitha Pereira November 2, 2013

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downloaded from the Textbook Companion Project section at the website http://scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Description
Title: Material Science Author: V. Rajendran Publisher: Tata Mcgraw Hill, New Delhi Edition: 1 Year: 2012 ISBN: 0-07-132897-1

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Exa Example (Solved example) Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book) AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Materials Properties and Requirements 2 Crystal Structure 3 Characterisation of material 4 Cohesion between atoms 5 Crystal Imperfections 6 Classication of solids 7 Elecron theory of Solids 5 11 13 29 33 34 36 38 45 56 74 77 83 85 87

8 Statics and Band theory of Solids 10 Transport Properties of Semiconductors 11 Mechanical Properties 12 Thermal Properties 14 Luminescence 15 Display Devices 16 Photoconductivity

18 Dielectric Materials 19 Magnetic Materials 20 Super Conducting Materials 23 Polymer Materials

89 101 107 109

List of Scilab Codes


Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa 1.1 1.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.13 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 20.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 Resistance of the wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extension of a wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice constant of Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avogadro Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Number of atoms in Al foil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . no of unit cells in 1 kg metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . percentage volume change during structural changes Copper Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atomic Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glancing angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plane Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interplanar spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing and deBroglie wavelength . . . . . . Lattice constant and atomic radius . . . . . . . . . energy of the neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . InterPlanar Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . . . Number of atoms in Al foil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . energy of the neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 24 24 25 25 26 26 27

Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa

2.35 2.36 2.38 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.1 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11

deBroglie wavelength of electrons . . . . . . . . . . Lattice spacing from Miller indices . . . . . . . . Plane Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wavelength and frequency of Xrays . . . . . . . . wavelength and velocity of electrons . . . . . . . . wavelength and angle for 2nd order bragg reection Grating spacing and glancing angle . . . . . . . . . wavelength of radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy of thermal neutron . . . . . . . . . . . . . temperature of thermal neutron . . . . . . . . . . . Coulomb interatomic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average distance between dislocations . . . . . . . Schottky defects per unit cell . . . . . . . . . . . . Wavelength of light emitted from LED . . . . . . . Band gap of given GaAsP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mobility of electrons in copper . . . . . . . . . . . resistivity of copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . resistivity of sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mobility of electrons in meatls . . . . . . . . . . . drift velocity of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mobility of electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lorentz Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lorentz Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . conductivity of copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drift velocity of electrons in silver piece . . . . . . resistivity of copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mobility and drift velocity of electrons . . . . . . . Fermi energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density of States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nordheims Coecient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conductivity of Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density of States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 36 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 50 50

Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa

8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.27 10.28 10.29

theorotical example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . theorotical example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energies for dierent probabilities . . . . . . . . . . Fermi distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi distribution Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . concentration of free electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . carrier density and fermi velocity . . . . . . . . . . . Intrinsic concentration conductivity and resistivity . Fermi Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resistance of Germanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . conductivity of Intrinsic semiconductor . . . . . . . Intrinsic Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . electrical conductivity of boron doped semiconductor Hole concentration conductivity and Resistance . . Band Gap of Ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carrier concentration of intrinsic semiconductor . . . Electrical conductivity of Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi energy of Silicon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eect of temperature on Fermi level . . . . . . . . . Conductivity of Ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fermi Energy level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conductivity of Ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intrinsic concentration of Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . average no of electron per Cu atom . . . . . . . . . . Mobility of Ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hall Potential Dierence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mobility of Si . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron concentration and Mobility . . . . . . . . . Hall voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relaxation time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility in Silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility and electric eld . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility and electric eld . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . 7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 69 70 70

Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa

10.30 10.31 10.32 10.33 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 14.1 14.2 15.1 15.2 16.1 16.2 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 18.10 18.11 18.12 18.13 18.14

Drift Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relaxation time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron mobility in Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drift and thermal velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress produced in an Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . perentage elongation and reduction . . . . . . . . . . . Brinell Hardness Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensile strength and fatigue limit of Steel plate . . . . Change in length due to heating . . . . . . . . . . . . Change in length due to heating . . . . . . . . . . . . Steady state heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compression Stress due to Heating . . . . . . . . . . . Heat ux transmitted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Youngs Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . temperature Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . compressive Sress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . limit to compression stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat energy Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Penetration depth of electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luminescent lifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wavelength of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Band Gap of GaAsP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pairs generated per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wavelength of emitted radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . Dilectric constant of KCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic polarisability of Se atom . . . . . . . . . . . ratio between electronic and ionic polarability . . . . Dielectric constant of Ne gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge on Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dielectric constant of Ar gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy stored in capacitor and polarising the capacitor ratio of internal eld to the applied eld . . . . . . . . Relative permittivity of NaCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisability of Ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisability of He atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisability of Ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . energy stored in dielectric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic polarisability of Sulphur . . . . . . . . . . . 8

71 71 72 72 74 74 75 75 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 83 83 85 85 87 87 89 89 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 93 93 94 94 94

Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa Exa

18.15 18.16 18.17 18.18 18.19 18.20 18.21 18.22 18.23 18.24 18.25 18.26 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.10 19.11 19.12 20.2 20.3 20.4 23.1 23.2

energy stored in capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisation produced in NaCl . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative permitivity of NaCl . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric eld strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisability of He atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric eld strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dilectric Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisation produced in NaCl . . . . . . . . . . . . Polarisation produced in NaCl . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage across Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge on Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dilectric Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative permiability and magnetic force . . . . . . . magnetisation and ux density . . . . . . . . . . . . Flux density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permiability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avrage magnetisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation Magnetic eld of Gd . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation Magnetisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturation Magnetisation and saturation ux density Saturation Magnetisationof Gadolinium . . . . . . . Magnetic Flux density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical eld through a wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Temperature for metal . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulphur required for nal rubber product . . . . . . Photon energy to break C C bond . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 96 96 96 97 97 98 98 99 99 99 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 105 106 106 107 107 108 109 109

List of Figures
2.1 2.2 Plane Drawing Plane Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 23

10

Chapter 1 Materials Properties and Requirements

Scilab code Exa 1.1 Resistance of the wire


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 . 1 , p a g e no 8 clear clc r =0.45*10^ -3 //m L =0.3 //m rho =17*10^ -9 //ohmm // C a l c u l a t i o n s R = rho *( L /( %pi * r ^2) ) printf ( The R e s i s t a n c e o f t h e w i r e i s %. 3 f ohm ,R )

Scilab code Exa 1.2 Extension of a wire


1 // Example 1 . 2 , p a g e no 8 2 clear 3 clc

11

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

r =1.25*10^ -3 //m L =3 //m F =4900 // Newton e =2.05*10^11 // Pa s = F /( %pi * r ^2* e ) printf ( s t r a i n = %. 3 f \ n T h e r e f o r e , e x t e n s i o n = %. 3 f , s , s *3)

12

Chapter 2 Crystal Structure

Scilab code Exa 2.2 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 // Example 2 . 2 , p a g e no 29 2 clear 3 clc 4 // I n t e r c e p t s a r e i n t h e r a t i o 3 a : 4 b a l o n g X, Y and 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

p a r a l l e l to Z a x i s // x i n t e r c e p t 3 , y i n t e r c e p t 4 and z i n t e r c e p t infinity a =2*10^ -10 // 2 Angstrom h =4 k =3 l =0 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( The l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e 430 i s %. 1 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.3 Lattice constant of Sodium


1

// Example 2 . 3 , p a g e no 31 13

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

clear clc d =9.6*10^2 // kg /m3 awt =23 n =2 avg =6.023*10^26 m = n * awt / avg a =( m / d ) ^(1/3) printf ( The l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t od sodium i s %. 1 f a *10^10)

A ,

Scilab code Exa 2.4 Avogadro Constant


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 2 . 4 , p a g e no 31 clear clc d =4*10^3 // kg /m3 awtcs =132.9 awtcl =35.5 a =4.12*10^ -10 m = d * a ^3 N =( awtcs + awtcl ) / m printf ( The v a l u e o f Avogadro C o n s t a n t %. 4 f 1 0 2 6 p e r kg mole ,N *10^ -26)

Scilab code Exa 2.5 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 // Example 2 . 5 , p a g e no 31 2 clear 3 clc 4 lam =1.5418*10^ -10 //m

14

5 6 7 8 9 10

theta =30 // i n d e g r e e s h =1 k =1 l =1 a = lam * sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) /(2* sin ( theta * %pi /180) ) printf ( The l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t i s %. 4 f 10 10 m ,a *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.6 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 2 . 6 , p a g e no 33 clear clc h =1 k =0 l =0 a =2.814*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( The l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 1 0 0 ) i s % . 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.7 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 2 . 7 , p a g e no 33 clear clc h =3 k =2 l =1 a =4.12*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( The l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 3 2 1 ) i s % . 4 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) 15

Scilab code Exa 2.8 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

// Example 2 . 8 , p a g e no 34 clear clc // / ( i ) h =1 k =0 l =1 a =4.2*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 1 0 1 ) i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) // / ( i i ) h =2 k =2 l =1 a =4.12*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 2 2 0 ) i s %. 1 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.13 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 . 1 3 , p a g e no 37 clear clc // ( i ) h =1 k =1 l =1 16

8 a =4.12*10^ -10 9 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) 10 printf ( \ nFor ( 1 1 1 ) p l a n e \ nThe l a t t i c e 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

spacing i s %

. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) // ( i i )

h =1 k =1 l =2 a =4.12*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ n \ nFor ( 1 1 2 ) p l a n e \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) 19 // ( i i i )
20 21 22 23 24 25 26

h =1 k =2 l =3 a =4.12*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ n \ nFor ( 1 2 3 ) p l a n e \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.15 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 2 . 1 5 , p a g e no 38 clear clc h =2 k =2 l =0 a =4.938*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r ( 2 2 0 ) p l a n e i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) 17

Scilab code Exa 2.16 Number of atoms in Al foil


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 2 . 1 6 , p a g e no 39 clear clc a =0.405*10^ -10 //m t =0.005 //m A =25*10^ -2 //m n = t * A / a ^3 printf ( The number o f atoms i n t h e Al f o i l 1 0 2 8 ,n *10^ -28)

i s %. 2 f

Scilab code Exa 2.17 no of unit cells in 1 kg metal


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 . 1 7 , p a g e no 39 clear clc a =2.88*10^ -10 // d =7200 // k /m3 n =1/( d * a ^3) printf ( The number o f u n i t c e l l p r e s e n t i n 1 kg m e t a l i s %. 4 f 1 0 2 4 ,n *10^ -24)

Scilab code Exa 2.18 percentage volume change during structural changes
1 // Example 2 . 1 8 , p a g e no 39 2 clear 3 clc 4 rbcc =0.1258*10^ -9

18

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

rfcc =0.1292*10^ -9 a =4* rbcc / sqrt (3) vbcc =( a ^3) /2 a1 =4* rfcc / sqrt (2) vfcc =( a1 ^3) /4 vp =( vbcc - vfcc ) vp = floor ( vp *10^32) vp = vp *10^ -32/ vbcc printf ( The volume c h a n g e i n %% d u r i n g g t h e s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e i s %. 4 f , vp *100)

Scilab code Exa 2.19 Copper Density


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 2 . 1 9 , p a g e no 40 clear clc awt =63.5*10^ -3 // g avg =6.023*10^26 r =1.273*10^ -10 n =4 a =4* r / sqrt (2) d = n * awt /( avg * a ^3) printf ( The d e n s i t y o f c o p p e r i s %. 4 f gm/m3 ,d )

Scilab code Exa 2.20 Atomic Radius


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 . 2 0 , p a g e no 41 clear clc d =7860 m =55.85 n =2 avg =6.023*10^26 19

8 a =( n * m *10^ -3/( avg * d ) ) ^(1/3) 9 r = a * sqrt (3) /4 10 printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t o f 11

a l f a i r o n i s %. 4 f

A ,a *10^10) printf ( \ nThe a t o m i c r a d i u s 10 10 m ,r *10^10)

o f a l f a i r o n i s %. 5 f

Scilab code Exa 20.21 Lattice constant


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 2 . 2 1 , p a g e no 42 clear clc d =8960 m =63.54 n =4 avg =6.023*10^26 a =( n * m *10^ -3/( avg * d ) ) ^(1/3) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t o f c o p p e r i s %. 4 f ,a *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.22 Glancing angle


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 2 . 2 2 , p a g e no 42 clear clc a =3.81*10^ -10 //m h =1 k =3 l =2 lam =0.58*10^ -10 n =2 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) theta = asin ( n * lam /(2* d ) ) 20

12

printf ( The a n g l e o f g l a n c i n g a t which 2 nd o r d e r d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f NaCl o c c u r s i s %. 2 f , theta *180/ %pi )

Scilab code Exa 2.23 Lattice constant // Example 2 . 2 3 , p a g e no 43 clear clc h =3 k =0 l =2 theta =35 // i n d e g r e e s lam =0.7*10^ -10 //m n =1 d = n * lam /(2* sin ( theta * %pi /180) ) printf ( \ nThe i n t e r p l a n a r d i s t a n c e f o r ( 3 0 2 ) p l a n e i s %. 3 f 10 11 m ,d *10^11) 12 a = d * sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) 13 printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e c o n s t a n c e i s %. 2 f 10 10 m ,a *10^10)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Scilab code Exa 2.24 Plane Drawing


1 // Example 2 . 2 4 , p a g e no 44 2 clear 3 clc 4 // / f o r p l a n e ( 0 , 0 , 1 ) 5 deff ( z=f ( x , y ) , z=x0 y 0 ) 6 x =0:0.2:3 ; y = x ; 7 // c l f ( ) ;

21

Figure 2.1: Plane Drawing


8 subplot (311) 9 fplot3d (x ,y ,f , alpha =5 , theta =31) 10 11 // / For p l a n e ( 1 , 0 , 1 ) 12 deff ( z=f ( x , y ) , z=x1 y 0 ) 13 x =0:0.2:3 ; y = x ; 14 // c l f ( ) ; 15 subplot (312) 16 fplot3d (x ,y ,f , alpha =5 , theta =31) 17 18 // / For p l a n e ( 1 , 1 , 1 ) 19 deff ( z=f ( x , y ) , z=x1 y 1 ) 20 x =0:0.2:3 ; y = x ; 21 // c l f ( ) ; 22 subplot (313) 23 fplot3d (x ,y ,f , alpha =5 , theta =31)

Scilab code Exa 2.25 Interplanar spacing

22

Figure 2.2: Plane Drawing

23

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 2 . 2 5 , p a g e no 45 clear clc theta =12 // i n d e g r e e s lam =2.82*10^ -10 //m n =1 d = n * lam /(2* sin ( theta * %pi /180) ) printf ( The i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.26 Lattice spacing and deBroglie wavelength // Example 2 . 2 6 , p a g e no 46 clear clc theta =27.5/2 // i n d e g r e e s a =0.563*10^ -9 n =1 h =1 k =1 l =1 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 1 1 1 ) i s %. 2 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) 12 lam =2* d * sin ( theta * %pi /180) / n 13 printf ( \ nThe d e B r o g l i e w a v e l e n g t h o f t h e n e u t r o n s i s %. 3 f 10 10 m , lam *10^10)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Scilab code Exa 2.27 Lattice constant and atomic radius


1 // Example 2 . 2 7 , p a g e no 46 2 clear 3 clc

24

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

h =1 k =1 l =0 d =2*10^ -10 //m a = d * sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) R = a /(2* sqrt (2) ) printf ( The l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t i s %. 3 f 10 10 m\ nThe a t o m i c r a d i u s o f t h e c r y s t a l i s %. 1 f 10 10 m ,a *10^10 , R *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.28 energy of the neutron


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 2 . 2 8 , p a g e no 47 clear clc theta =22 // i n d e g r e e s d =1.8*10^ -10 //m n =1 h =6.626*10^ -34 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C lam =2* d * sin ( theta * %pi /180) / n E =(1/(2* m ) ) *( h / lam ) ^(2) printf ( \ nThe d e B r o g l i e w a v e l e n g t h o f t h e n e u t r o n i s %. 3 f 10 10 \ n t h e e n e r g y o f t h e n e u t r o n i s %. 2 f eV , lam *10^10 , E / e )

Scilab code Exa 2.29 InterPlanar Spacing


1 // Example 2 . 2 9 , p a g e no 48 2 clear 3 clc 4

25

5 6 7 8 9 10

h =1 k =1 l =1 a =3*10^ -10 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 1 0 1 ) i s %. 3 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.30 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 2 . 3 0 , p a g e no 48 clear clc h =3 k =2 l =1 rfcc =0.1278*10^ -9 //m a =4* rfcc / sqrt (2) d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( \ nThe l a t t i c e c o n s t a n t = %. 3 f 106 10 \ nThe i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e ( 3 2 1 ) i s %. 3 f 10 11 m ,a *10^10 , d *10^11)

Scilab code Exa 2.31 Number of atoms in Al foil


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 . 3 1 , p a g e no 49 clear clc a =0.4049*10^ -10 //m t =0.005 //m A =25*10^ -2 //m n = t * A / a ^3 26

printf ( The number o f atoms i n t h e Al f o i l 1 0 2 8 ,n *10^ -28)

i s %. 2 f

Scilab code Exa 2.32 energy of the neutron


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 2 . 3 2 , p a g e no 49 clear clc theta =20 // i n d e g r e e s d =2*10^ -10 //m n =1 h =6.626*10^ -34 m =1.67*10^ -27 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C lam =2* d * sin ( theta * %pi /180) / n E =(1/(2* m ) ) *( h / lam ) ^(2) printf ( \ nThe d e B r o g l i e w a v e l e n g t h o f t h e n e u t r o n i s %. 3 f 10 10 \ n t h e e n e r g y o f t h e n e u t r o n i s %. 4 f eV , lam *10^10 , E / e )

Scilab code Exa 2.35 deBroglie wavelength of electrons


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 2 . 3 5 , p a g e no 51 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C h =6.626*10^ -34 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg ek =235.2* e n =1 theta =9.21 lam = h / sqrt (2* m * ek ) 27

12 d = n * lam /(2* sin ( theta * %pi /180) ) 13 printf ( \ nThe d e B r o g l i e w a v e l e n g t h o f

electron is % . 3 f 10 11 m\ nThe i n t e r p l a n a r s p a c i n g i s %. 3 f 10 10 m , lam *10^11 , d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.36 Lattice spacing from Miller indices


1 // Example 2 . 3 6 , p a g e no 52 2 clear 3 clc 4 // I n t e r c e p t s a r e i n t h e r a t i o 3 a : 4 b a l o n g X, Y and 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

p a r a l l e l to Z a x i s // x i n t e r c e p t 3 , y i n t e r c e p t 4 and z i n t e r c e p t infinity a =2*10^ -10 // 2 Angstrom h =4 k =3 l =0 d = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) printf ( The l a t t i c e s p a c i n g f o r t h e p l a n e 430 i s %. 1 f 10 10 m ,d *10^10)

Scilab code Exa 2.38 Plane Drawing


1 // Example 2 . 3 8 , p a g e no 53 2 clear 3 clc 4 printf ( Same a s e x a m p l e 2 . 2 4 o f t h e same c h a p t e r )

28

Chapter 3 Characterisation of material

Scilab code Exa 3.1 wavelength and frequency of Xrays


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 3 . 1 , p a g e no 89 clear clc h =6.626*10^ -34 // J s e =1.6*10^ -19 //C c =3*10^8 //m/ s v =10000 //V lam_min =( h * c ) /( e * v ) V = c / lam_min printf ( \ n ( i ) \ nThe w a v e l e n g t h o f X r a y s e m i t t e d Lamda min = %. 2 f A \ n ( i i ) \ nThe f r e q u e n c y o f X r a y beam e m i t t e d i s %. 1 f 1 0 1 8 Hz , lam_min *10^10 , V *10^ -18)

Scilab code Exa 3.2 wavelength and velocity of electrons


1 2

// Example 3 . 2 , p a g e no 89 clear 29

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

clc v =10000 //V i =2*10^ -3 //A e =1.6*10^ -19 //C t =1 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg // ( i ) n=i*t/e printf ( The no o f e l e c t r o n s s t r i k i n g t h e t a r g e t p e r s e c o n d =%. 2 f 1 0 1 6 ,n *10^ -16) // ( i i ) v1 = sqrt (2* e * v / m ) // ( i i i ) lam =12400/ v printf ( \ n ( i i ) \ nThe v e l o c i t y o f e l e c t r o n =%. 2 f 1 0 7 m/ s \ n ( i i i ) \ nWavelength o f x r a y s=%. 2 f A , v1 *10^ -7 , lam )

Scilab code Exa 3.3 wavelength and angle for 2nd order bragg reection
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 3 . 3 , p a g e no 90 clear clc d =5.6534*10^ -10 theta =13.6666 // i n d e g r e e s n =1 // ( i ) lam =2* d * sin ( theta * %pi /180) / n printf ( \ n ( i ) \ nLambda =%. 3 f 10 10 m , lam *10^10) // ( i i ) n =2 theta = asin ( n * lam /(2* d ) ) theta = theta *180/ %pi printf ( \ n ( i i ) \ n2nd o r d e r Bragg r e f l e c t i o n a t a n g l e Theta2 = % f , theta ) 30

Scilab code Exa 3.4 Grating spacing and glancing angle


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

// Example 3 . 4 , p a g e no 91 clear clc v =24800 n =1 lam =1.54*10^ -10 //m ga =15.8 // d e g r e e // ( i ) d = n * lam /(2* sin ( ga * %pi /180) ) printf ( \ n ( i ) \ n g r a t i n g s p a c i n f f o r NaCl c r y s t a l =%f 10 10 m ,d *10^10) // ( i i ) lam_min =12400/ v lam_min = lam_min *10^ -10 theta = asin ( n * lam_min /(2* d ) ) theta = theta *180/ %pi printf ( \ n ( i i ) \ n g l a n c i n g a n g l e f o r minimum w a v e l e n g t h = %f d e g r e e s , theta )

Scilab code Exa 3.5 wavelength of radiation


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 3 . 5 , p a g e no 92 clear clc lam =0.7078 *10^ -10 wt =42 wt1 =48 lam1 =( lam *( wt -1) ^2) /( wt1 -1) ^2 printf ( \ nWavelength o f cadmium r a d i a t i o n i s %. 4 f A , lam1 *10^10) 31

Scilab code Exa 3.6 Energy of thermal neutron


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 3 . 6 , p a g e no 92 clear clc lam =10^ -10 //m h =6.626*10^ -34 m =1.675*10^ -27 e1 =1.602*10^ -19 // ev e =( h ^2) /(2* m * lam ^2) e = e / e1 printf ( \ nThe e n e r g y o f t h e r m a l n e u t r o n w i t h wavelength 1 A i s %f eV ,e )

Scilab code Exa 3.8 temperature of thermal neutron


1 // Example 3 . 8 , p a g e no 94 2 clear 3 clc 4 lam =0.1 //nm 5 T =(2.516^2) /( lam ) ^2 6 printf ( t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e r m a l n e u t r o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g

t o 1A i s %. 0 f K ,T )

32

Chapter 4 Cohesion between atoms

Scilab code Exa 4.1 Coulomb interatomic energy


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 4 . 1 , p a g e no 92 clear clc R =2.81*10^ -10 //m e =1.6*10^ -19 eps =8.854*10^ -12 U = -( e ^2) /(4* %pi * eps * R ) printf ( The Coulomb i n t e r a t o m i c e n e r g y i s %. 2 f eV ,U *10^19/1.6)

33

Chapter 5 Crystal Imperfections

Scilab code Exa 5.1 Average distance between dislocations


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 5 . 1 , p a g e no 130 clear clc a =3.615*10^ -10 //m t_ang =0.75 // i n d e g r e e h =1 k =1 l =0 d_110 = a / sqrt ( h ^2+ k ^2+ l ^2) D = d_110 / tan ( t_ang * %pi /(180*2) ) printf ( The a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e d i s l o c a t i o n s i s %. 3 f A ,D *10^6)

Scilab code Exa 5.2 Schottky defects per unit cell


1 2

// Example 5 . 2 , p a g e no 130 clear 34

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

clc lp =4.0185*10^ -10 //m dens =4285 // kg /m3 avg =6.022*10^26 wt_cs =132.9 wt_cl =35.5 N =( dens * avg * lp ^3) /( wt_cs + wt_cl ) sd =(1 - N ) *100/1 printf ( The number o f S c h o t t k y d e f e c t s p e r u n i t c e l l = %. 3 f%% , sd )

35

Chapter 6 Classication of solids

Scilab code Exa 6.1 Wavelength of light emitted from LED


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 6 . 1 , p a g e no 143 clear clc e =1.609*10^ -19 //C eg =1.8 // eV h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s E = e * eg lamda = h * c / E printf ( The w a v e l e n g t h o f l i g h t e m i t t e d from g i v e n LED i s %. 3 f m , lamda *10^7)

Scilab code Exa 6.2 Band gap of given GaAsP


1 // Example 6 . 2 , p a g e no 144 2 clear 3 clc 4 lam =6715*10^ -10 //m

36

5 6 7 8 9 10

h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s e =1.6*10^ -19 //C Eg = h * c / lam Eg = Eg / e printf ( The band gap o f t h e g i v e n GaAsP i s %. 2 f eV , Eg )

37

Chapter 7 Elecron theory of Solids

Scilab code Exa 7.1 mobility of electrons in copper


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

// Example 7 . 1 , p a g e no 160 clear clc rho =1.73*10^ -8 //Ohmm z =63.5 d =8.92*10^3 // kg /m3 avg =6.023*10^26 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg n = avg * d / z sig =1/ rho tau = sig * m /( n * e ^2) mu = sig /( n * e ) printf ( M o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n c o p p e r i s %. 2 f 10 3 m2/V s , mu *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 7.2 resistivity of copper 38

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 7 . 2 , p a g e no 161 clear clc r =1.85*10^ -10 //m t =3*10^ -14 // s m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C a = r *(4/ sqrt (3) ) ne =2/ a ^3 rho = m /( ne * t * e ^2) printf ( R e s i s t i v i t y o f c o p p e r i s %. 3 f 10 8 Ohmm , rho *10^8)

Scilab code Exa 7.3 resistivity of sodium


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 7 . 3 , p a g e no 161 clear clc r =1.85*10^ -10 //m t =3.1*10^14 // s m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =25.33*10^27 rho = m /( n * t * e ^2) printf ( The e l e c t r i c R e s i s t i v i t y o f sodium a t 0 C i s %. 3 f 10 36 Ohmm , rho *10^36)

Scilab code Exa 7.4 mobility of electrons in meatls


1 // Example 7 . 4 , p a g e no 162 2 clear 3 clc

39

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

r =1.85*10^ -10 //m t =3.4*10^ -14 // s m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =5.8*10^28 // p e r m3 rho = m /( n * t * e ^2) printf ( \ nThe e l e c t r i c r e s i s t i v i t y o f m a t e r i a l i s % . 3 f 10 8 Ohmm , rho *10^8) 12 mu = e * t / m 13 printf ( \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n i n a m e t a l i s %. 2 f 10 3 m2/ v s , mu *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 7.5 drift velocity of electrons


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 7 . 5 , p a g e no 163 clear clc rho =1.54*10^ -8 //ohmm E =100 //V/m n =5.8*10^28 //m 3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu =1/( rho * n * e ) vd = mu * E printf ( \ n M o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n i n s i l v e t r i s %. 4 f 10 3 m2/ v s \ n \ nThe d r i f t v e l o c i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n i n s i l v e r i s %. 5 f m/ s , mu *10^3 , vd )

Scilab code Exa 7.6 mobility of electrons


1 2

// Example 7 . 6 , p a g e no 163 clear 40

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

clc d =10.5*10^3 // kg /m3 sig =6.8*10^7 // p e r Ohmm wt =107.9 // kg /m3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C avg =6.023*10^26 // atoms /m3 n = avg * d / wt mu = sig /( n * e ) printf ( The m o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n i s %. 3 f 10 2 m 2 . V/ s , mu *10^2)

Scilab code Exa 7.7 Lorentz Number


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 7 . 7 , p a g e no 164 clear clc sig =5.87*10^7 k =390 //W/m k T =293 L = k /( sig * T ) printf ( The L o r e n t z number i s %. 3 f 10 8 W. Ohm/K2 ,L *10^8)

Scilab code Exa 7.8 Lorentz Number


1 // Example 7 . 8 , p a g e no 164 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 t =1*10^ -14 // s 6 T =300 //K

41

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =6*10^28 // p e r m3 sig =( n * t * e ^2) / m printf ( \ n t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i s %. 4 f 1 0 7 / ohmm , sig *10^ -7) k =1.38*10^ -23 k1 = n * %pi ^2* k ^2* T * t /(3* m ) printf ( \ n \ nThermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i s %. 2 f W/m k , k1 ) L = k1 /( sig * T ) printf ( \ n \ n t h e L o r e n t z number i s %. 4 f 10 8 W. Ohm/ k 2 ,L *10^8)

Scilab code Exa 7.9 conductivity of copper


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 7 . 9 , p a g e no 165 clear clc d =8900 // kg /m3 cu =63.5 t =10^ -14 // s avg =6.023*10^23 n = avg * d *1000/ cu m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 sig =( n * t * e ^2) / m printf ( The e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i s %. 3 f 1 0 7 / Ohmm , sig *10^ -7)

Scilab code Exa 7.10 drift velocity of electrons in silver piece 42

// Example 7 . 1 0 , p a g e no 166 clear clc rho =1.6*10^ -8 //Ohmm e =1.6*10^ -19 //C fe =5.5* e // J avg =6.023*10^23 d =1.05*10^4 // d e n s i t y wt =107.9*10^ -3 // a t o m i c w e i g h t m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg c =3*10^8 //m/ s sig =1/ rho n = avg * d / wt t = sig * m /( n * e ^2) printf ( \ nThe c o n d u c t i v i t y o f s i l v e r p i e c e i s %. 2 f 1 0 7 p e r Ohmm\ n \ nThe r e l a x a t i o n t i m e i s %. 2 f 10 14 s , sig *10^ -7 , t *10^14) 16 lam = c * t 17 vd = sig *100/( n * e ) 18 printf ( \ n \ nThe d r i f t t v e l o c i t y y o f e l e c t r o n s i n t h e s i l v e r p i e c e i s %. 2 f m/ s , vd )
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Scilab code Exa 7.11 resistivity of copper


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 7 . 1 1 , p a g e no 167 clear clc r1 =1.7*10^ -8 t2 =300 t1 =700+273 r2 = r1 * sqrt (( t1 / t2 ) ) printf ( The r e s i s t i v i t y y o f t h e c o p p e r w i r e i s %. 4 f 10 8 Ohmm , r2 *10^8)

43

Scilab code Exa 7.12 mobility and drift velocity of electrons


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 7 . 1 2 , p a g e no 168 clear clc rho =1.54*10^ -8 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =5.5* e // J n =5.8*10^28 // / p e r c u b i c m e t e r m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg // ( i ) t = m /( rho * n * e ^2) mu = e * t / m printf ( \ n ( i ) \ nThe r e l a x a t i o n t i m e i s %. 2 f 10 14 s \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n s i s %. 4 f 10 3 m 2/V s ,t *10^14 , mu *10^3)

15 16 // ( i i ) 17 vd = e * t *100/ m 18 printf ( \ n \ n ( i i ) \ n t h e

drift

velocity of elctron is %

. 5 f m/ s , vd )
19 20 // ( i i i ) 21 vf = sqrt (2* ef / m ) 22 printf ( \ n \ n ( i i i ) \ nFermi v e l o c i t y

i s %. 2 f 1 0 6 m/ s ,

vf *10^ -6)
23 24 // ( i v ) 25 lam = vf * t 26 printf ( \ n \ n ( i v ) \ nThe mean f r e e p a t h i s %. 3 f 10 8 m

, lam *10^8)

44

Chapter 8 Statics and Band theory of Solids

Scilab code Exa 8.1 Fermi energy


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

// Example 8 . 1 , p a g e no 208 clear clc d_cu =8.96*10^3 // d e n s i t y o f cu a_cu =63.55 // Atomic w e i g h t o f cu d_z =7100 a_z =65.38 d_al =2700 a_al =27 avg =6.023*10^26 h =6.626*10^ -34 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C // ( i ) n_cu = d_cu * avg / a_cu e_cu =( h ^2/(8* m ) ) *(3* n_cu / %pi ) ^(2/3) e_cu = e_cu / e printf ( \ n ( i ) For Cu \ nThe e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n 45

Cu i s %. 4 f 1 0 2 8 p e r m3 \ nFermi e n e r g y a t 0 k =% . 4 f eV , n_cu *10^ -28 , e_cu )


20 21 // ( i i ) 22 n_z = d_z * avg *2/ a_z 23 e_z =( h ^2/(8* m ) ) *(3* n_z / %pi ) ^(2/3) 24 e_z = e_z / e 25 printf ( \ n ( i ) For Zn \ nThe e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n

in Zn i s %. 4 f 1 0 2 8 p e r m3 \ nFermi e n e r g y a t 0 k =% . 4 f eV , n_z *10^ -28 , e_z )

26 27 28 29 30 31

// ( i ) n_al = d_al * avg *3/ a_al e_al =( h ^2/(8* m ) ) *(3* n_al / %pi ) ^(2/3) e_al = e_al / e printf ( \ n ( i ) For Al \ nThe e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n Al i s %. 4 f 1 0 2 8 p e r m3 \ nFermi e n e r g y a t 0 k =% . 4 f eV , n_al *10^ -28 , e_al )

Scilab code Exa 8.2 Density of States


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 8 . 2 , p a g e no 210 clear clc avg =6.023*10^26 h =6.626*10^ -34 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =8.4905*10^28 ef =( h ^2/(8* m ) ) *(3* n / %pi ) ^(2/3) ef = ef / e gam =6.82*10^27 x =( gam * sqrt ( ef ) ) /2 printf ( The d e n s i t y o f s t a t e s f o r Cu a t t h e Fermi 46

l e v e l f o r T = 0 K i s %. 0 f 1 0 2 7 m 3 ,x *10^ -27)

Scilab code Exa 8.3 Nordheims Coecient


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 8 . 3 , p a g e no 210 clear clc rni =63 // n Ohm .m rcr =129 k =1120 c =( k *10^ -9) /(0.8*(1 -0.8) ) printf ( The Nordheims c o e e f i c i e n t m ,c *10^6)

i s %. 0 f 10 6 Ohm

Scilab code Exa 8.4 Conductivity of Al


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 8 . 4 , p a g e no 211 clear clc d =2700 // kh /m3 awt =27 t =10^ -14 // s e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg avg =6.023*10^26 n = avg * d *3/ awt sig =( n * t * e ^2) / m printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f Al i s %. 4 f 1 0 7 ohmm. , sig *10^ -7)

47

Scilab code Exa 8.5 Fermi distribution Function


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 8 . 5 , p a g e no 211 clear clc e1 =0.01 // eV e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ed = e * e1 T =200 //K E =1/(1+ %e ^( ed /( T *1.38*10^ -23) ) ) printf ( The Fermy d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r e n e r g y E i s %. 4 f ,E )

Scilab code Exa 8.6 Fermi temperature


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 8 . 6 , p a g e no 212 clear clc v =0.86*10^6 //m/ s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C k =1.38*10^ -23 // J /K E =( m * v ^2) /2 T=E/k printf ( \ nThe f e r m i e n e r g y i s %. 3 f 10 19 J \ nThe Fermi T e m p e r a t u r e Tf i s %. 2 f 1 0 4 K ,E *10^19 , T *10^ -4)

Scilab code Exa 8.7 Density of States


1 2

// Example 8 . 7 , p a g e no 212 clear 48

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

clc m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg dE =0.01 // eV h =6.63*10^ -34 // / J s eF =3 // eV e =1.6*10^ -19 //C E1 = eF * e E2 = E1 + e * dE n =(4* %pi *(2* m ) ^(1.5) ) / h ^3 k =((2*0.3523/3) *(( E2 ^(1.5) -( E1 ^(1.5) ) ) ) ) n=n*k printf ( The number o f s t a t e s l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e e n e r g y l e v e l i s %. 2 f 1 0 2 5 ,n *10^ -25)

Scilab code Exa 8.8 Fermi Velocity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 8 . 8 , p a g e no 214 clear clc Tf =24600 //K m =9.11*10^ -31 //Kg k =1.38*10^ -23 vf = sqrt (2* k * Tf / m ) printf ( The Fermi V e l o c i t y i s %. 4 f 1 0 6 m/ s , vf *10^ -6)

Scilab code Exa 8.9 Fermi Energy


1 // Example 8 . 9 , p a g e no 214 2 clear 3 clc

49

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

n =18.1*10^28 // p e r c u b i c m h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =((3* n /(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) ef = ef / e printf ( The Fermi e n e r g y a t 0 K i s %. 2 f eV , ef )

Scilab code Exa 8.10 Fermi Energy


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 8 . 1 0 , p a g e no 215 clear clc n =18.1*10^28 // p e r c u b i c m h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =((3* n /(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) ef = ef / e printf ( The Fermi e n e r g y a t 0 K i s %. 2 f eV , ef )

Scilab code Exa 8.11 Fermi distribution Function


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 8 . 1 1 , p a g e no 215 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C Ed =0.5* e k =1.38*10^ -23 x =0.01 T = Ed /( k * log ((1/ x ) -1) )

50

10

printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a t which t h e r e i s 1%% p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a s t a t e w i t h 0 . 5 eV e n e r g y o c c u p i e d a b o v e t h e Fermi e n e r g y l e v e l i s %. 1 f K , T)

Scilab code Exa 8.12 theorotical example


1 // Example 8 . 1 2 , p a g e no 216 2 clear 3 clc 4 printf ( T h e o r o t i c a l Exam [ p l e )

Scilab code Exa 8.13 theorotical example


1 // Example 8 . 1 , p a g e no 217 2 clear 3 clc 4 printf ( T h e o r o t i c a l Exam [ p l e )

Scilab code Exa 8.14 Energies for dierent probabilities


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 8 . 1 4 , p a g e no 218 clear clc ef =2.1 k =1.38*10^ -23 T =300 //K e =1.6*10^ -19 // c // ( i ) p1 =0.99 51

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

E1 = ef +( k * T * log ( -1+1/ p1 ) ) / e // ( i i ) p2 =0.01 E2 = ef +( k * T * log ( -1+1/ p2 ) ) / e // ( i i i ) p3 =0.5 E3 = ef +( k * T * log ( -1+1/ p3 ) ) / e printf ( \ nThe e n e r g i e s f o r t h e o c c u p y i n g o f d e l e c t r o n s a t %d K f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f %. 2 f i s %. 2 f ,T , p1 , E1 ) printf ( \ nThe e n e r g i e s f o r t h e o c c u p y i n g o f d e l e c t r o n s a t %d K f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f %. 2 f i s %. 2 f ,T , p2 , E2 ) printf ( \ nThe e n e r g i e s f o r t h e o c c u p y i n g o f d e l e c t r o n s a t %d K f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f %. 2 f i s %. 2 f ,T , p3 , E3 )

21 22

23 24

Scilab code Exa 8.15 Fermi distribution Function


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 8 . 1 5 , p a g e no 219 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ed =0.02* e T1 =200 T2 =400 k =1.38*10^ -23 fe1 =1/(1+ %e ^( ed /( k * T1 ) ) ) fe2 =1/(1+ %e ^( ed /( k * T2 ) ) ) printf ( \ nThe Fermi d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r t h e 52

g i v e n e n e r g y a t %d K i s %. 4 f ,T1 , fe1 ) 12 printf ( \ nThe Fermi d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r t h e g i v e n e n e r g y a t %d K i s %. 4 f ,T2 , fe2 )

Scilab code Exa 8.16 Fermi Energy


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

// Example 8 . 1 6 , p a g e no 220 clear clc d =10500 // d e n s i t y avg =6.022*10^26 awt =107.9 n = d * avg / awt // p e r c u b i c m h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =((3* n /(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) ef = ef / e printf ( The Fermi e n e r g y f o r g i v e n m e t a l i s %. 2 f eV , ef )

Scilab code Exa 8.17 Fermi distribution Function


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 8 . 1 7 , p a g e no 221 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ed =0.2* e T1 =300 T2 =1000 k =1.38*10^ -23 fe1 =1/(1+ %e ^( ed /( k * T1 ) ) ) fe2 =1/(1+ %e ^( ed /( k * T2 ) ) ) 53

printf ( \ nThe Fermi d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r t h e g i v e n e n e r g y a t %d K i s %. 6 f ,T1 , fe1 ) 12 printf ( \ nThe Fermi d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n f o r t h e g i v e n e n e r g y a t %d K i s %. 4 f ,T2 , fe2 )
11

Scilab code Exa 8.18 Electron density


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 8 . 1 8 , p a g e no 221 clear clc h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =3* e k =((3/(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) k = ef / k n = k ^(1.5) printf ( The number o f f r e e e l e c t r o n s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n m e t a l i s %. 2 f 1 0 2 8 p e r c u b i c m e t e r ,n *10^ -28)

Scilab code Exa 8.19 concentration of free electrons


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 8 . 1 8 , p a g e no 221 clear clc h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =5.5* e k =((3/(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) 54

10 k = ef / k 11 n = k ^(1.5) 12 printf ( The number o f

free electrons concentration i n m e t a l i s %. 3 f 1 0 2 8 p e r c u b i c m e t e r ,n *10^ -28)

Scilab code Exa 8.20 carrier density and fermi velocity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 8 . 1 8 , p a g e no 221 clear clc

h =6.62*10^ -34 // J s m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ef =7* e k =((3/(8* %pi ) ) ^(2/3) ) *(( h ^2) /(2* m ) ) k = ef / k n = k ^(1.5) printf ( The number o f f r e e e l e c t r o n s c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n m e t a l i s %. 2 f 1 0 2 8 p e r c u b i c m e t e r ,n *10^ -28) 13 vth = sqrt (2* ef / m ) 14 printf ( \ nThe t e r m a l v e l o c i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n c o p p e r i s %. 3 f 1 0 6 m/ s , vth *10^ -6)

55

Chapter 10 Transport Properties of Semiconductors

Scilab code Exa 10.1 Intrinsic concentration conductivity and resistivity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

// Example 1 0 . 1 , p a g e no 267 clear clc T =300 //K mue =0.4 //m2/V s muh =0.2 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C eg =0.7* e // J m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg me =0.55 mh =0.37 h =6.626*10^ -34 k =1.38*10^ -23 ni =2*(2* %pi * k * T /( h ^2) ) ^(1.5) ni = ni *( m ^1.5) *( mh * me ) ^(3/4) ni = ni * %e ^( - eg /( k * T ) ) printf ( \ nThe i n t r i n s i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n n i=%. 3 f 1 0 1 3 /m3 , ni *10^ -13)

56

19 sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) 20 rho =1/ sig 21 printf ( \ n I n t r i n s i c

C o n d u c t i v i t y , Sigma =%. 3 f 10 6 p e r m3 \ n I n t r i n s i c R e s i s t i v i t y , r h o = %. 2 f 1 0 6 Ohmm , sig *10^6 , rho *10^ -6)

Scilab code Exa 10.2 Fermi Energy


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 0 . 2 , p a g e no 268 clear clc ni =1.45*10^10 //cm 3 nd =10^16 //cm 3 k =1.38*10^ -23 T =300 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C Ef = k * T * log ( nd / ni ) Ef = Ef / e printf ( The Fermi e n e r g y y w i t h r e s p e c t t o Ef i n i n t r i n s i c S i = %. 3 f eV , Ef )

Scilab code Exa 10.3 Resistance of Germanium


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 3 , p a g e no 269 clear clc ni =2.5*10^19 //m 3 mue =0.39 //m2/V s muh =0.19 l =10^ -2 //m e =1.6*10^ -19 //C sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) R = l /( sig *10^ -6) 57

11

printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i n t r i n s i c Ge i s %. 2 f / ohmm\ nThe R e s i s t a n c e i s %. 0 f ,sig , R )

Scilab code Exa 10.4 conductivity of Intrinsic semiconductor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 0 . 4 , p a g e no 269 clear clc ni =1.5*10^16 //m 3 mue =0.13 //m2/V s muh =0.05 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i n t r i n s i c Ge i s %. 2 f 10 4 /ohmm , sig *10^4)

Scilab code Exa 10.5 Intrinsic Resistivity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 0 . 5 , p a g e no 270 clear clc ni =2.15*10^13 //cm 3 mue =3900 //cm2/V s muh =1900 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) r =1/ sig printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i n t r i n s i c Ge i s %. 2 f 10 2 /ohmcm \ n The i n t r i n s i c r e s i s t i v i t y i s %. 0 f Ohmcm , sig *10^2 , r ) // a n s w e r s n o t m a t c h i n g w i t h book s a n s . 58

Scilab code Exa 10.6 electrical conductivity of boron doped semiconductor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 0 . 6 , p a g e no 270 clear clc ni =2.1*10^19 //m 3 mue =0.4 //m2/V s muh =0.2 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C p =4.5*10^23 //m 3 sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) r = p * e * muh printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i n t r i n s i c Ge i s %. 3 f 10 2 /ohmcm \ nThe i n t r i n s i c r e s i s t i v i t y i s %. 2 f 1 0 4 ,sig , r *10^ -4)

Scilab code Exa 10.7 Hole concentration conductivity and Resistance


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 0 . 7 , p a g e no 271 clear clc n =5*10^28 //m 3 ni =1.45*10^13 //m 3 mue =1.35 //m2/V s muh =0.45 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C p =4.5*10^23 //m 3 sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) rho =1/ sig // r h o=r h o 1 0 1 2 59

13 r = rho *10^12 14 nd = n /10^9 15 p =( ni ^2) / nd 16 sig2 = nd * e * mue 17 18 printf ( \ nThe i n t r i n s i c

c o n d u c t i v i t y i s %. 2 f 10 6 /ohmcm \ n \ nThe i n t r i n s i c r e s i s t i v i t y i s %. 2 f 10 5Ohmm\ n \ n R e s i s t a n c e = %. 2 f 1 0 7 Ohm\ n \ nDonar c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s %. 0 f 1 0 1 9 \ n \ n C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f h o l e i s %. 1 f 1 0 6 m 3 \ n \ n C o n d u c t i v i t y = %. 1 f p e r ohmm , sig *10^6 , rho *10^ -5 , r *10^ -17 , nd *10^ -19 , p *10^ -6 , sig2 )

Scilab code Exa 10.8 Band Gap of Ge


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 1 0 . 8 , p a g e no 272 clear clc T =300 //K rho =2.12 //ohmm mue =0.36 //m2/V s muh =0.17 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg h =6.626*10^ -34 sig =1/ rho ni = sig /( e *( muh + mue ) ) printf ( \ n C o n d u c t i v i t y = %. 6 f p e r Ohmm\ n I n t r i n s i c c a r r i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , n i=%. 5 f 1 0 1 8 ,sig , ni *10^ -18)

15 16 k =1.38*10^ -23 17 Nc =2*(2* %pi * k * T / h ^(2) ) ^(1.5) 18 Nc = Nc *(0.5* m ) ^(1.5)

60

19 Nv =2*(2* %pi * k * T / h ^(2) ) ^(1.5) 20 Nv = Nv *(0.37* m ) ^(1.5) 21 printf ( \ nNc=%. 3 f 1 0 2 4 \ nNv=%. 3 f 1 0 2 4 , Nc *10^ -24 , Nv

*10^ -24)
22 eg =2* k * T * log ( sqrt ( Nc * Nv ) / ni ) 23 eg = eg / e 24 printf ( \ nThe band gap o f Ge i s %. 3 f eV , eg )

Scilab code Exa 10.9 carrier concentration of intrinsic semiconductor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 0 . 9 , p a g e no 273 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg h =6.626*10^ -34 k =1.38*10^ -23 eg =0.7* e T =300 //K ni =2*(2* %pi * m * k * T /( h ^(2) ) ) ^(1.5) ni = ni * %e ^( - eg /(2* k * T ) ) printf ( The c a r r i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f an i n t r i n s i c s e m i c o n d u c t o r i s = %. 2 f 1 0 1 8 p e r m3 , ni *10^ -18)

Scilab code Exa 10.10 Electrical conductivity of Si


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 1 0 . 9 , p a g e no 273 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg h =6.626*10^ -34 k =1.38*10^ -23 61

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

eg =1.1* e mue =0.48 //m2/V . s muh =0.013 //m2/V . s T =300 //K ni =2*(2* %pi * m * k * T /( h ^(2) ) ) ^(1.5) ni = ni * %e ^( - eg /(2* k * T ) ) sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) printf ( \ nThe c a r r i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f an i n t r i n s i c s e m i c o n d u c t o r i s = %. 2 f 1 0 1 6 p e r m3 \ n t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i i v i t y od S i i s %. 3 f 10 3 p e r Ohmm , ni *10^ -16 , sig *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 10.11 Fermi energy of Silicon


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 0 . 1 1 , p a g e no 275 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C eg =1.12 me =0.12 mh =0.28 T =300 k =1.38*10^ -23 ef =( eg /2) +(3* k * T /4) * log ( mh / me ) printf ( The Fermi e n e r g y o f S i a t 300 K i s %. 3 f eV , ef )

Scilab code Exa 10.12 eect of temperature on Fermi level


1 2

// Example 1 0 . 1 2 , p a g e no 275 clear 62

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

clc e =1.60*10^ -19 //C eg =1* e k =1.38*10^ -23 m =4 T =0.1* e *4/(3* k * log ( m ) ) printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a t which Fermi l e v e l 10%% i s %. f K ,T )

is shifted

Scilab code Exa 10.13 Conductivity of Ge


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 1 3 , p a g e no 276 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ni =2.4*10^19 //m 3 mue =0.39 //m2/V s muh =0.19 //m2/V s sig = ni * e *( mue + muh ) printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f Ge a t 300 K i s %. 2 f p e r Ohmm , sig )

Scilab code Exa 10.14 Fermi Energy level


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 1 0 . 1 4 , p a g e no 277 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C T1 =300 //K T2 =330 //K 63

8 eg =0.3 9 eg2 = eg * T2 / T1 10 printf ( E c E f 3 3 0=%. 2 f eV \ n \ nAt 330 K,

t h e Fermi e n e r g y l e v e l l i e s %. 2 f eV , b e l l o w t h e c o n d u c t i o n band . ,eg2 , eg2 )

Scilab code Exa 10.15 Conductivity of Ge


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 0 . 1 5 , p a g e no 277 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C eg =0.72* e // eV t1 =293 //K t2 =313 //K k =1.38*10^ -23 sig1 =2 n =( t2 / t1 ) * %e ^(( eg /(2* k ) ) *((1/ t1 ) -(1/ t2 ) ) ) sig2 = sig1 * n printf ( The c o n d u c t i v i t y o f Ge a t 40 C i s %. 3 f p e r Ohmm , sig2 )

Scilab code Exa 10.16 Intrinsic concentration of Si


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 0 . 1 6 , p a g e no 278 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg mm =0.31* m // kg h =6.626*10^ -34 k =1.38*10^ -23 eg =1.1* e 64

10 T =300 //K 11 ni =2*(2* %pi * mm * k * T /( h ^(2) ) ) ^(1.5) 12 ni = ni * %e ^( - eg /(2* k * T ) ) 13 printf ( The i n t r i n s i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n

o f S i a t %d K i s %. 4 f 1 0 1 5 e l e c t r o n s p e r m3 ,T , ni *10^ -15)

Scilab code Exa 10.17 Drift Velocity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 0 . 1 7 , p a g e no 279 clear clc hc =0.55*10^ -10 //m 3 / /A s cc =5.9*10^7 // p e r Ohmm T =300 //K dm = hc * cc printf ( The d r i f t m o b i l i t y i s g i v e n by mu d = %. 1 f 10 3 m2/V s , dm *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 10.18 average no of electron per Cu atom


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

// Example 1 0 . 1 8 , p a g e no 279 clear clc sig =5.9*10^7 // p e r Ohmm e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu =3.2*10^ -3 //m2/V s d =8900 // d e n s i t y avg =6.022*10^23 ni = sig /( e * mu ) awt =63.5 n = avg * d *1000/ awt k = ni / n 65

14

printf ( C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f f r e e e l e c t r o n i n p u r e Cu i s %. 2 f 1 0 2 8 \ nThe a v e r a g e number o f e l e c t r o n s c o n t r i b u t e d p e r Cu atom i s %. 2 f i . e . %. 0 f ,n *10^ -28 , k , k )

Scilab code Exa 10.19 Mobility of Ge


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

// Example 1 0 . 1 9 , p a g e no 280 clear clc i =5*10^ -3 //A v =1.35 // v l =0.01 //m b =5*10^ -3 t =10^ -3 //m a =5*10^ -6 //m2 vy =20*10^ -3 H =0.45 //Wb/m2 rho = v * a /( l * i ) Ey = vy / t j=i/a k = Ey /( H * j ) Rh =3* %pi * k /8 mu = Rh / rho printf ( The m o b i l i t y o f t h e Ge s a m p l e i s %. 2 f m2/V s , mu )

Scilab code Exa 10.20 Hall Potential Dierence


1 // Example 1 0 . 2 0 , p a g e no 282 2 clear 3 clc

66

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

I =200 //A H =1.5 //Wb/m2 n =8.4*10^28 // e l e c t r o n s p e r m3 d =1.0*10^ -3 //m e =1.6*10^ -19 //C v = I * H /( n * d * e ) printf ( The H a l l p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e a p p e a r a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s h i p i s %. 0 f v ,v *10^6)

Scilab code Exa 10.21 Mobility of Si


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 0 . 2 1 , p a g e no 283 clear clc rh =3.66*10^ -4 //m3/C rho =8.93*10^ -3 //Ohmm e =1.6*10^ -19 //C ni =1/( rh * e ) muh = rh / rho printf ( t h e c a r r i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f S i doped s p e c i m e n i s %. 3 f 1 0 2 2 m 3 \ n The m o b i l i t y o f S i doped s p e c i m e n i s %. 5 f m2/V s , ni *10^ -22 , muh )

Scilab code Exa 10.22 Electron concentration and Mobility


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 0 . 2 2 , p a g e no 283 clear clc Rh =3.66*10^ -11 //m 2 / /A s sig =112*10^7 //ohmm e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =3* %pi /(8* Rh * e ) mu = sig /( n * e ) 67

printf ( \ nThe c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e l e c t r o n s i s %. 0 f 1 0 2 9 m 3 \ n t h e e l e c t r o n m o b i l i t y a t room t e m p e r a t u r e = %. 3 f m2/V s ,n *10^ -29 , mu )

Scilab code Exa 10.23 Hall voltage


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 0 . 2 3 , p a g e no 284 clear clc I =50 //A B =1.5 //T t =0.5*10^ -2 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C d =2*10^ -2 N =8.4*10^28 //m 3 v = B * I /( N * e * d ) printf ( The H a l l v o l t a g e i s %. 2 f 10 7 V ,v *10^7)

Scilab code Exa 10.24 Relaxation time


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 0 . 2 4 , p a g e no 284 clear clc rho =1.54*10^ -8 //Ohmm ni =5.8*10^28 // p e r m3 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C tau = m /( rho * ni *( e ^2) ) printf ( The r e l a x a t i o n t i m e o f e l e c t r o n s i n m e t a l i s %. 2 f 10 14 s , tau *10^14)

68

Scilab code Exa 10.25 Electron mobility in Silver


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 0 . 2 5 , p a g e no 285 clear clc sig =6.22*10^7 // p e r ohmm n =5.9*10^28 //m3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu = sig /( n * e ) printf ( The m o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n S i i s %. 2 f 10 3 m2/V s , mu *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 10.26 Electron mobility and electric eld


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 2 6 , p a g e no 285 clear clc rho =0.1 //Ohmm ni =10^20 // p e r m3 vd =1 //m/ s e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu =1/( rho * ni * e ) E = vd / mu printf ( \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n s i n m a t e r i a l i s %. 3 f m2/V s \ nThe e l e c t r i c f i e l d i s %. 1 f V/m , mu , E )

Scilab code Exa 10.27 Electron mobility


1 // Example 1 0 . 2 7 , p a g e no 286 2 clear 3 clc 4 sig =6.22*10^7 // p e r Ohm m

69

5 n =5.9*10^28 6 e =1.6*10^ -19 7 mu = sig /( n * e ) 8 printf ( The m o b i l i t y

of electrons in s i l v e r 10 3 m2/V s , mu *10^3)

i s %. 2 f

Scilab code Exa 10.28 Electron mobility and electric eld


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 2 8 , p a g e no 286 clear clc rho =0.1 //Ohmm ni =10^20 // p e r m3 vd =1 //m/ s e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu =1/( rho * ni * e ) E = vd / mu printf ( \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n s i n m a t e r i a l i s %. 3 f m2/V s \ nThe e l e c t r i c f i e l d i s %. 1 f V/m , mu , E )

Scilab code Exa 10.29 Electron mobility and conductivity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 2 9 , p a g e no 287 clear clc avg =6.023*10^23 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg e =1.6*10^ -19 //C d =8.92*10^3 // kg /m3 rho =1.73*10^ -8 //Ohmm z =63.5 70

11 12 13 14 15 16

n = avg * d / z sig =1/ rho tau = sig * m /( n *( e ^2) ) mu = sig /( e * n ) printf ( \ nThe r e l a x a t i o n t i m e i s %. 2 f 10 11 s \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n c o p p e r i s %. 2 f m2/V s \ nThe c o n d u c t i v i t y o f c o p p p e r i s %. 2 f 1 0 7 p e r Ohmm\ n , tau *10^11 , mu , sig *10^ -7)

Scilab code Exa 10.30 Drift Velocity


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 0 . 3 0 , p a g e no 288 clear clc rho =1.54*10^ -8 //ohmm E =100 //V/m ni =5.8*10^28 //m3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C mu =1/( rho * ni * e ) vd = mu * E printf ( The m o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n s i l v e r i s %. 4 f 10 3 m2/V s \ nThe d r i f t v e l o c i t y i d %. 5 f m/ s , mu *10^3 , vd )

Scilab code Exa 10.31 Relaxation time


1 2 3 4 5 6

// Example 1 0 . 3 1 , p a g e no 288 clear clc rho =1.43*10^ -8 //Ohmm ni =6.5*10^28 // p e r m3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C 71

7 m =9.1*10^ -31 //Kg 8 tau = m /( rho * ni * e ^2) 9 printf ( The r e l a x a t i o n t i m e f o r

e l e c t r o n s in the m e t a l i s %. 2 f 10 14 s , tau *10^14)

Scilab code Exa 10.32 Electron mobility in Al


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

// Example 1 0 . 3 2 , p a g e no 289 clear clc R =60 rho =2.7*10^ -8 //Ohmm i =15 //A . l =5 //m m =3 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C d =2.7*10^3 // kg /m3 awt =26.98 avg =6.023*10^23 n = m * avg *1000* d / awt printf ( F r e e e l e c t r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s %. 3 f 1 0 2 9 ,n *10^ -29) mu =1/( rho * n * e ) printf ( \ nThe m o b i l i t y o f e l e c t r o n i n aluminium i s % . 4 f 10 3 m2/ v s , mu *10^3) vd = mu * i * R *10^ -3/ l printf ( \ nThe d r i f t v e l o c i t y o f t h e e l e c t r o n i n Al i s %. 1 f 10 4 m/ s , vd *10^4)

Scilab code Exa 10.33 drift and thermal velocity


1

// Example 1 0 . 3 3 , p a g e no 290 72

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

clear clc R =0.02 //Ohmm i =15 //A mu =4.3*10^ -3 //m2/V s l =2 //m k =1.38*10^ -23 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg T =300 //K v=i*R E=v/l vd = E * mu vth = sqrt (3* k * T / m ) printf ( \ nThe t h e r m a l v e l o c i t y o f t h e f r e e e l e c t r o n s i n c o p p e r i s %. 3 f mm/ s \ nThe d r i f t v e l o c i t y o f e l e c t r o n s i n c o p p e r i s %. 3 f mm/ s , vth *10^ -5 , vd *10^3)

73

Chapter 11 Mechanical Properties

Scilab code Exa 11.1 Stress produced in an Al


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 1 . 1 , p a g e no 332 clear clc ld =2000 // kg g =9.8 //m/ s 2 r =0.005 force = ld * g stress = force /( %pi * r ^2) printf ( The s t r e s s p r o d u c e i n an aluminium a l l o y i s %. 1 f MPa , stress *10^ -6)

Scilab code Exa 11.2 perentage elongation and reduction


1 // Example 1 1 . 2 , p a g e no 332 2 clear 3 clc 4 lf =53.75*10^ -3

74

5 6 7 8 9 10

l0 =50*10^ -3 df =9.4*10^ -3 d0 =8.8*10^ -3 pl =( lf - l0 ) *100/ l0 pa =(( %pi * df ^2) -( %pi * d0 ^2) ) *100/( %pi * df ^2) printf ( \ nThe %% e l o n g a t i o n i s %. 1 f%% and \ n t h e %% r e d u c t i o n i n a r e a i s %. 3 f%% ,pl , pa )

Scilab code Exa 11.3 Brinell Hardness Number


1 // Example 1 1 . 3 , p a g e no 332 2 clear 3 clc 4 ts =937 //MPa 5 bhn = ts /3.45 6 printf ( The B r i n e l l H a r d n e s s Number i s %. 2 f , bhn )

Scilab code Exa 11.4 Tensile strength and fatigue limit of Steel plate // Example 1 1 . 4 , p a g e no 333 clear clc p =3000 D =10 d =2.2 Hb =2* p /( %pi * D *( D - sqrt ( D ^2 - d ^2) ) ) printf ( \ n B r i n e l l H a r d n e s s Number o f s t e e l P l a t e , Hb =%. 1 f \ n , Hb ) 9 ts =3.45* Hb 10 fl =0.5* ts 11 printf ( \ nThe T e n s i l e s t r e n g t h o f s t e e l p l a t e i s %. 3 f MPa\ n , ts )
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

75

12

printf ( \ nThe F a t i g u e l i m i t o f s t e e l p l a t e i s %. 4 f MPa , fl )

76

Chapter 12 Thermal Properties

Scilab code Exa 12.1 Change in length due to heating


1 // Example 1 2 . 1 , p a g e no 350 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 alfe =8.8*10^ -6 // p e r k 6 lo =0.1 //m 7 delT =973 //K 8 delL = alfe * lo * delT 9 printf ( The c h a n g e i n l e n g t h p r o d u c e d by h e a t i n g

is

%. 3 f mm , delL *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 12.2 Change in length due to heating


1 // Example 1 2 . 2 , p a g e no 350 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 alfe =5.3*10^ -6 // p e r k

77

6 lo =0.1 //m 7 delT =973 //K 8 delL = alfe * lo * delT 9 printf ( The c h a n g e i n l e n g t h p r o d u c e d by h e a t i n g

is

%. 3 f mm , delL *10^3)

Scilab code Exa 12.3 Steady state heat Transfer


1 // Example 1 2 . 3 , p a g e no 351 2 clear 3 clc 4 k =371 // J /msk 5 delT =50 // i n d e g r e e s 6 delx =10*10^ -3 7 ht = k * delT / delx 8 printf ( The s t e a d y s t a t e h e a t

t r a n s f e r o f 10 mm c o p p e r s h e e t i s %. 3 f 1 0 6 J .m 2. s 1 , ht *10^ -6)

Scilab code Exa 12.4 Compression Stress due to Heating


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 2 . 4 , p a g e no 351 clear clc alfe =8.8*10^ -6 // p e r K t1 =1300 //K t2 =327 //K delT = t1 - t2 E =370 //GPa ep = alfe * delT sig = ep * E printf ( \ nThe u n c o n s t r a i n e d t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n p r o d u c e d by t h e h e a t i n g i s %. 4 f 10 3 , ep *10^3) 78

12

printf ( \ n t h e c o m p r e s s i o n s t r e s s p r o d u c e d by h e a t i n g i s %. 3 f GPa , sig )

Scilab code Exa 12.5 Heat ux transmitted


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

// Example 1 2 . 5 , p a g e no 352 clear clc K =120 //W/m. K t2 =423 t1 =323 delT = t2 - t1 delx =7.5*10^ -3 //m A =0.5 //m2 Q = K * A *( delT / delx ) hph = Q *3600 printf ( The h e a t f l u x t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h a s h e e t p e r h o u r i s %. 2 f 1 0 9 J . h 1 , hph *10^ -9)

Scilab code Exa 12.6 Youngs Modulus


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 2 . 6 , p a g e no 353 clear clc alfe =17*10^ -6 // / p e r K t2 =293 //K t1 =233 //K delT = t2 - t1 st =119 //MPa k = alfe * delT 79

11

printf ( \ nThe s t r a i n p r o d u c e d i n t e r o d i s %. 2 f 10 3 ,k *10^3) 12 E =( st *10^6) / k 13 printf ( \ nThe Youngs Modulus o f t h e r o d i s %. 1 f GPa ,E *10^ -9)

Scilab code Exa 12.7 temperature Change


1 // Example 1 2 . 7 , p a g e no 353 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 lo =11.6 //m 6 delx =5.4*10^ -3 //m 7 alfL =12*10^ -6 // p e r K 8 delT = delx /( lo * alfL ) 9 printf ( The maximum t e m p e r a t u r e c a n g e can w i t h s t a n d

w i t h o u t any t h e r m a l s t r e s s

i s %. 2 f K , delT )

Scilab code Exa 12.8 compressive Sress


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 2 . 7 , p a g e no 354 clear clc lo =0.35 //m alfe =23.6*10^ -6 // / p e r K t2 =358 //K t1 =288 //K delT = t2 - t1 ym =69 //GPa k = alfe * delT 80

12

printf ( \ nThe s t r a i n p r o d u c e d i n t e r o d i s %. 3 f 10 3 ,k *10^3) 13 E = ym * k *10^9 14 printf ( \ nThe c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e s s p r o d u c e d i n Al r o d i s %. 3 f GPa ,E *10^ -9)

Scilab code Exa 12.9 limit to compression stress


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 2 . 9 , p a g e no 355 clear clc alfe =20*10^ -6 // p e r K t1 =293 //K sig =172 // /MPa E =100 //GPa delT =( sig *10^6) /( E * alfe *10^9) printf ( \ nTf Ti=%. 0 f , delT ) printf ( \ n \ n t h e maximum t e m p e r a t u r e a t which t h e r o d may be h e a t e d w i t h o u t \ n e x c e e d i n g a c o m p r e s s s i v e s t r e s s o f %. 0 f MPa i s %. 0 f K ,sig , delT + t1 )

Scilab code Exa 12.10 Heat energy Requirement


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 2 . 1 0 , p a g e no 356 clear clc h_ir =444 // J . kg 1.K 1 h_gr =711 // J . kg 1.K 1 h_pl =1880 // J . kg 1.K 1 t2 =373 //K t1 =300 //K delT = t2 - t1 W =2 //Kg 81

11 12 // ( a ) For I r o n 13 q = W * h_ir * delT 14 15 // ( b ) f o r G r a p h i t e 16 q1 = W * h_gr * delT 17 18 // ( b ) f o r p o l y p r o p y l e n e 19 q2 = W * h_pl * delT 20 21 printf ( The h e a t e n e r g y r e q u i r e d t o

raise t e m p e r a t u r e %. 0 f K from i t s t e m p e r a t u r e o f \ n i r o n , g r a p h i t e and p o l y p r o p y l e n e i s %. 0 f ,%. 0 f ,%. 0 f J r e s p e c t i v e l y , delT ,q , q1 , q2 )

82

Chapter 14 Luminescence

Scilab code Exa 14.1 Penetration depth of electron


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 4 . 1 , p a g e no 385 clear clc eb =10000 // eV k =1.2*10^ -4 b =0.151 e =1.6*10^ -19 rc = k *( eb * e ) ^ b printf ( The p e n e t r a t i o n d e p t h o f t h e e l e c t r o n i s %. 4 f m , rc *10^6)

Scilab code Exa 14.2 Luminescent lifetime


1 // Example 1 4 . 2 , p a g e no 386 2 clear 3 clc 4 ed =0.4 // eV 5 e =1.6*10^ -19 //C

83

6 kT =0.025 // eV 7 q =10^8 8 r = q * %e ^( -( ed / kT ) ) 9 printf ( The e s c a p e

r a t e p e r u n i t t i m e = %2 . 1 f p e r s e c \n T h e r e f o r e , the l u m i n e s c e n t l i f e t i m e i s n e a r l y %. 0 f s e c ,r , r )

84

Chapter 15 Display Devices

Scilab code Exa 15.1 wavelength of light


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 5 . 1 , p a g e no 406 clear clc e =1.6*10^ -19 //C eg =1.8 // eV E = e * eg h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s lam = h * c / E printf ( The w a v e l e n t h o f l i g h t e m i t t e d from g i v e n LED i s %. 4 f m , lam *10^6)

Scilab code Exa 15.2 Band Gap of GaAsP


1 // Example 1 5 . 2 , p a g e no 406 2 clear 3 clc

85

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

e =1.6*10^ -19 //C h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s lam =6751*10^ -10 //m E = h * c / lam E=E/e printf ( The band gap o f t h e g i v e n GaAsP i s %. 1 f eV , E)

86

Chapter 16 Photoconductivity

Scilab code Exa 16.1 Pairs generated per second


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 6 . 1 , p a g e no 416 clear clc lam =0.4*10^ -6 //m A =4*10^ -6 //m2 in =200 //W/m2 h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s N = in * A * lam /( h * c ) printf ( The number o f p a i r s g e n e r a t e d p e r s e c o n d i s %. 3 f 1 0 1 4 ,N *10^ -14)

Scilab code Exa 16.2 Wavelength of emitted radiation


1 // Example 1 6 . 2 , p a g e no 417 2 clear 3 clc

87

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

e =1.6*10^ -19 //C eg =1.43 // eV E = e * eg h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s lam = h * c / E printf ( The w a v e l e n g t h o f e m i t t e d r a d i a t i o n i s %. 2 f m , lam *10^6)

88

Chapter 18 Dielectric Materials

Scilab code Exa 18.1 Dilectric constant of KCl // Example 1 8 . 1 , p a g e no 460 clear clc atom =4 kci =0.629*10^ -9 //m alfk =1.264*10^ -40 //m2 alfCl =3.408*10^ -40 //m2 eps0 =8.854*10^ -12 pol = alfk + alfCl N = atom / kci ^3 epsr =( N * pol / eps0 ) +1 printf ( \ nThe e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y f o r KCL = % . 3 f 10 40 F m2 \ n , pol *10^40) 13 printf ( \ nThe no o f D i p o l e s p e r m3 = %. 3 f 1 0 2 8 atoms m 3 \ n ,N /10^28) 14 printf ( \ nThe d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t o f KCL i s %. 3 f , epsr )
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Scilab code Exa 18.2 Electronic polarisability of Se atom 89

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 1 8 . 2 , p a g e no 460 clear clc r =0.12*10^ -9 //m eps =8.854*10^ -12 alf =4* %pi * eps * r ^3 printf ( The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y o f an i s o l a t e d Se i s %. 4 f 10 40 F m2 , alf *10^40)

Scilab code Exa 18.3 ratio between electronic and ionic polarability
1 // Example 1 8 . 3 , p a g e no 461 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 n =2.69 6 er =4.94 7 alfi_by_alfe =((( n +2) *( er -1) ) /(( er +2) *( n -1) ) ) -1 8 printf ( The r a t i o o f t h e e l e c t r o n i c t o i o n i c

polariability

i s %. 4 f ,1/ alfi_by_alfe )

Scilab code Exa 18.4 Dielectric constant of Ne gas


1 // Example 1 8 . 4 , p a g e no 462 2 clear 3 clc 4 N = 2.7*10^25 // atoms m 3 5 alfe =0.35*10^ -40 //F m2 6 eps =8.854*10^ -12 7 epsr =(1+(2* N * alfe ) /(3* eps ) ) /(1 -( N * alfe ) /(3* eps ) ) 8 printf ( The d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t o f Ne g a s i s %. 8 f ,

epsr ) 90

Scilab code Exa 18.5 Charge on Capacitor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 8 . 5 , p a g e no 462 clear clc eps =8.85*10^ -12 //F m 1 epsr =6 A =5*10^ -4 //m2 d =1.5*10^ -3 v =100 Q = eps * epsr * A * v / d printf ( The c h a r g e on t h e c a p a c i t o r i s %. 2 f 10 9 C ,Q *10^9)

Scilab code Exa 18.6 Dielectric constant of Ar gas


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 8 . 6 , p a g e no 463 clear clc N =2.7*10^25 //m 3 d =0.384*10^ -9 //m eps =8.854*10^ -12 alfe =4* %pi * eps * d ^3 epsr =(1+(2* N * alfe ) /(3* eps ) ) /(1 -( N * alfe ) /(3* eps ) ) printf ( The d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t o f Ar i s %. 8 f , epsr )

Scilab code Exa 18.7 Energy stored in capacitor and polarising the capacitor 91

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 8 . 7 , p a g e no 464 clear clc c =2*10^ -6 //F epsr =80 v =1000 // v E1 =( c * v ^2) /2 c0 = c / epsr E2 =( c0 * v ^2) /2 E = E1 - E2 printf ( \ nThe Energy s t o r e d i n c a p a c i t o r =%. 0 f J , E1 ) 12 printf ( \ nThe e n e r g y s t o r e d i n p o l a r i s i n g t h e c a p a c i t o r = %. 4 f J ,E )

Scilab code Exa 18.8 ratio of internal eld to the applied eld
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 8 . 8 , p a g e no 464 clear clc N =5*10^28 //m 3 alfe =2*10^ -40 //F m2 eps =8.854*10^ -12 P = N * alfe E_ratio =1/(1 -( P /(3* eps ) ) ) printf ( The r a t i o o f t h e i n t e r n a l a p p l i e d f i e l d = %. 4 f , E_ratio )

f i e l d to the

Scilab code Exa 18.9 Relative permittivity of NaCl


1 // Example 1 8 . 9 , p a g e no 465 2 clear 3 clc

92

4 E =1000 //V .m 1 5 P =4.3*10^ -8 //C .m 2 6 eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F .m 1 7 epsr =1+ P /( eps * E ) 8 printf ( The r e l a t i v e p e r m i t t i v i t y

o f NaCl i s %. 2 f ,

epsr )

Scilab code Exa 18.10 Polarisability of Ar


1 // Example 1 8 . 1 0 , p a g e no 466 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 epsr =1.0024 6 N =2.7*10^25 // atoms .m 3 7 eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F .m 1 8 alfe = eps *( epsr -1) / N 9 printf ( The p o l a r i s a b i l i t y o f a r g o n atom i s %. 1 f

10 40 F m2 , alfe *10^40)

Scilab code Exa 18.11 Polarisability of He atom


1 // Example 1 8 . 1 1 , p a g e no 466 2 clear 3 clc 4 5 epsr =1.0000684 6 N =2.7*10^25 // atoms .m 3 7 eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F .m 1 8 alfe = eps *( epsr -1) / N 9 printf ( The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y

o f He atom a t NTP i s %. 3 f 10 41 F m2 , alfe *10^41) 93

Scilab code Exa 18.12 Polarisability of Ar


1 // Example 1 8 . 1 2 , p a g e no 467 2 clear 3 clc 4 epsr =12 5 N =5*10^28 // atoms .m 3 6 eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F .m 1 7 alfe = eps *( epsr -1) / N 8 printf ( The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y

of given e l e m e n t i s %. 3 f 10 39 F m2 , alfe *10^39)

Scilab code Exa 18.13 energy stored in dielectric


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

// Example 1 8 . 1 3 , p a g e no 467 clear clc c =2*10^ -6 //F v =1000 //V epsr =100 E =( c * v ^2) /2 c0 = c / epsr e2 =( c0 * v ^2) /2 E1 =E - e2 printf ( The e n e r g y s t o r e d i n d i e l e c t r i c E1 )

i s %. 2 f J ,

Scilab code Exa 18.14 Electronic polarisability of Sulphur 94

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 8 . 1 4 , p a g e no 468 clear clc epsr =4.94 eps =8.854*10^ -12 d =2.07*10^3 // kg .m 3 w =32.07 N =6.023*10^23*10^3* d / w alfe =3* eps *( epsr -1) /( N *( epsr +2) ) printf ( The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y o f s u l p h u r i s %f 10 40 F .m2 , alfe *10^40)

Scilab code Exa 18.15 energy stored in capacitor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

// Example 1 8 . 1 5 , p a g e no 469 clear clc A =6.45*10^ -4 //m2 d =2*10^ -3 //m epsr =6 v =10 // v eps =8.85*10^ -12 //F/m c = eps * epsr * A / d printf ( C a p a c c i t a n c e o f C a p a c i t o r = %. 3 f pF ,c *10^12) q=c*v E=v/d p = eps *( epsr -1) * E printf ( \ n c h a r g e s t o r e d on t h e p l a t e i s %. 3 f 10 11 C ,q *10^11) printf ( \ n P o l a r i s a t i o n p r o d u c e i n t h e p l a t e i s %. 3 f 10 7 Cm 2 ,p *10^7)

95

Scilab code Exa 18.16 Polarisation produced in NaCl


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 8 . 1 6 , p a g e no 470 clear clc E =600*10^3 //V/m eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F/m epsr =6 p = eps *( epsr -1) * E printf ( P o l a r i s a t i o n p r o d u c e d i n NaCl i s %. 3 f 10 5 C .m 2 ,p *10^5)

Scilab code Exa 18.17 Relative permitivity of NaCl


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 8 . 1 7 , p a g e no 470 clear clc E =1000 //V/m p =4.3*10^ -8 eps =8.854*10^ -12 epsr =1+ p /( eps * E ) printf ( R e l a t i v e p e r m i t i v i t y o f NaCl i s %. 2 f , epsr )

Scilab code Exa 18.18 Electric eld strength


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 1 8 . 1 8 , p a g e no 471 clear clc A =1000*10^ -6 //m2 d =5*10^ -3 epsr =4 Q =3*10^ -10 eps =8.854*10^ -12 96

9 c =( eps * epsr * A ) / d 10 v = Q / c 11 E = v / d 12 printf ( The v o l t a g e

electric

a c r o s s c a p a c i t o r i s %. 2 f V\ nThe f i e l d s t r e n g t h i s %. 2 f V/m ,v , E )

Scilab code Exa 18.19 Polarisability of He atom


1 // Example 1 8 . 1 9 , p a g e no 472 2 clear 3 clc 4 epsr =1.0000684 5 N =2.7*10^25 //m 3 6 eps =8.854*10^ -12 7 alfe = eps *( epsr -1) / N 8 printf ( The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i s a b i l i t y

o f He atoms a t NTP i s %. 3 f 10 41 F .m2 , alfe *10^41)

Scilab code Exa 18.20 Electric eld strength


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 8 . 2 0 , p a g e no 472 clear clc A =3*10^ -3 //m2 d =1*10^ -3 //m epsr =3.5 Q =20*10^ -9 //C eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F .m 1 c = eps * epsr * A / d E = Q /( c * d ) printf ( The c a p a c i t a n c e o f c a p a c i t o r i s %. 2 f pF \ nThe e l e c t r i c f i e l d s t r e n g t h i s %. 2 f 1 0 3 V/m ,c *10^12 , E *10^ -3) 97

Scilab code Exa 18.21 Dilectric Displacement


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

// Example 1 8 . 2 1 , p a g e no 473 clear clc A =7.54*10^ -4 //m2 d =2.45*10^ -3 //m epsr =6 v =10 //V eps =8.854*10^ -12 //F/m c = eps * epsr * A / d printf ( \ nThe c a p a c i t a n c e o f t h e c a p a c i t o r i s %. 3 f pF ,c *10^12) Q=c*v E=v/d p = eps *( epsr -1) * E D = eps * epsr * E printf ( \ nCharge s t o r e d on c a p a c i t o r = %. 3 f 10 11 C\ nE=%. 2 f 1 0 3 V/m\ n P o l a r i s a t i o n=%. 3 f 10 7 Cm 2 \ n d i e l e c t r i c d i s p l a c e m e n t = %. 3 f 10 7 cm ,Q *10^11 , E *10^ -3 , p *10^7 , D *10^7)

Scilab code Exa 18.22 Polarisation produced in NaCl


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 1 8 . 2 2 , p a g e no 475 clear clc E =500 epsr =6 eps =8.854*10^ -12 p = eps *( epsr -1) * E 98

printf ( The p o l a r i s a t i o n p r o d u c e d i n NaCl i s %. 3 f 10 8 C .m 2 ,p *10^8)

Scilab code Exa 18.23 Polarisation produced in NaCl


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 8 . 2 3 , p a g e no 475 clear clc E =500 epsr =15 eps =8.854*10^ -12 p = eps *( epsr -1) * E printf ( The p o l a r i s a t i o n p r o d u c e d i n NaCl i s %. 3 f 10 8 C .m 2 ,p *10^8)

Scilab code Exa 18.24 Voltage across Capacitor


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 8 . 2 4 , p a g e no 475 clear clc A =650*10^ -6 //mm2 d =4 *10^ -3 //mm epsr =3.5 eps =8.854*10^ -12 q =2*10^ -10 //C v = q * d /( eps * epsr * A ) printf ( The v o l t a g e a c r o s s c a p a c i t o r i s %. 2 f V ,v )

Scilab code Exa 18.25 Charge on Capacitor 99

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 8 . 2 5 , p a g e no 476 clear clc A =5*10^ -4 //m2 d =1.5*10^ -3 //m epsr =6 v =100 eps =8.854*10^ -12 q = eps * epsr * A * v / d printf ( The c h a r g e on t h e c a p a c i t o r i s %. 2 f 10 9 C ,q *10^9)

Scilab code Exa 18.26 Dilectric Constant


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

// Example 1 8 . 2 6 , p a g e no 476 clear clc d =2.08*10^3 // kg m3 wt =32 ep =3.28*10^ -40 eps =8.854*10^ -15 k =(3*10^28*7*10^ -40) /(3* eps ) epsr =2.5812/(1 -0.7906) printf ( The d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t o f t h e g i v e n m a t e r i a l i s %. 3 f , epsr )

100

Chapter 19 Magnetic Materials

Scilab code Exa 19.1 Relative permiability and magnetic force


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 9 . 1 , p a g e no 541 clear clc M =2300 //A/m B =0.00314 // Wb/m2 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 H =( B / mu ) -M mur =( M / H ) +1 printf ( The m a g n e t i c f o r c e H i s %. 4 f A/m and t h e r e l a t i v e p e r m e a b i l i t y mu r i s %. 5 f ,H , mur )

Scilab code Exa 19.2 magnetisation and ux density


1 // Example 1 9 . 2 , p a g e no 542 2 clear 3 clc 4 H =10^4 //A/m 5 sus =3.7*10^ -3

101

6 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 7 M = sus * H 8 B = mu *( M + H ) 9 printf ( The m a g n e t i s a t i o n i n t h e m a t e r i a l

i s %. 0 f A/ m and f l u x d e n s i t y i n t h e m a t e r i a l i s %. 2 f 10 2 Wb.m 2 ,M , B *10^2)

Scilab code Exa 19.3 Flux density


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 9 . 3 , p a g e no 542 clear clc H =10^4 //A/m sus = -0.8*10^ -5 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 M = sus * H B = mu *( M + H ) printf ( The f l u x d e n s i t y i n t h e m a t e r i a l i s %. 2 f 10 2 Wb.m 2 ,B *10^2)

Scilab code Exa 19.4 Permiability


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 9 . 4 , p a g e no 543 clear clc H =1800 //A/m fi =3*10^ -5 //Wb A =0.2*10^ -4 //m2 B = fi / A mu = B / H 102

11

printf ( \ nThe m a g n e t i c f l u x i s %. 1 f Wb/m2 \ nThe p e r m e a b i l i t y i s %. 3 f 10 4 H/m ,B , mu *10^4)

Scilab code Exa 19.5 Magnetic Moment


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

// Example 1 9 . 5 , p a g e no 544 clear clc B =0.65 //Wb/m2 r =8906 // kg /m3 M =58.7 avg =6.023*10^26 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 k =9.27*10^ -24 //A .m2 N = r * avg / M mu_m = B /( N * mu ) mu_m = mu_m / k printf ( The m a g n e t i c moment o f n i c k e l atom i s %. 2 f Bohr magneton , mu_m )

Scilab code Exa 19.6 Avrage magnetisation


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 9 . 6 , p a g e no 545 clear clc a =2.5*10^ -10 //m M =1.8*10^6 //A/m e =1.6*10^ -19 //C n =2/ a ^3 m =9.1*10^ -31 // kg h =6.625*10^ -34 103

10 ma = M / n 11 beta1 = e * h /(4* %pi * m ) 12 printf ( The a v e r a g e m a g n e t i s a t i o n

contributed per atom = %. 3 f Bohr Magneton , ma / beta1 )

Scilab code Exa 19.7 System Temperature


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 9 . 7 , p a g e no 545 clear clc mu =9.4*10^ -24 H =2 k =1.38*10^ -23 T =2* mu * H /( k * log (2) ) printf ( The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s y s t e m T i s %. 1 f K ,T )

Scilab code Exa 19.8 Saturation Magnetic eld of Gd


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

// Example 1 9 . 8 , p a g e no 547 clear clc ba =7.1 // Bohr Magnetron aw =1.8*10^6 //A/m d =7.8*10^3 avg =6.023*10^26 M =157.26 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 k =9.27*10^ -24 // Bohr Magnetron N = d * avg / M mm = N * ba * k B = N * mu * k *7.1 104

14

printf ( \ nThe s a t u r a t i o n m a g n e t i c f i e l d o f Gd atom i s %f Wb/m2 ,B )

Scilab code Exa 19.9 Saturation Magnetisation


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 1 9 . 9 , p a g e no 547 clear clc bet =9.27*10^ -24 V =0.839*10^ -9 M =32* bet / V ^3 printf ( The s a t u r a t i o n m a g n e t i s a t i o n i s %. 3 f 1 0 5 A /m ,M *10^ -5)

Scilab code Exa 19.10 Saturation Magnetisation and saturation ux density


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Example 1 9 . 1 0 , p a g e no 548 clear clc d =8900 // kg /m3 wt =58.71 avg =6.022*10^26 bet =9.27*10^ -24 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 mm =0.6* bet N = d * avg / wt ms = mm * N bs = mu * ms printf ( \ nThe s a t u r a t i o n m a g n e t i s a t i o n i s %. 3 f 1 0 5 A/m\ nThe s a t u r a t i o n f l u x d e n s i t y i s %. 3 f Wb/m2 , ms *10^ -5 , bs ) 105

Scilab code Exa 19.11 Saturation Magnetisationof Gadolinium


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

// Example 1 9 . 1 1 , p a g e no 548 clear clc awt =157.25 // a t o m i c w e i g h t an =64 // a t o m i c number d =7860 // d e n s i t y k =9.27*10^ -24 avg =6.023*10^26 N = d *8* k * avg / awt printf ( The s a t u r a t i o n m a g n e t i s a t i o n o f g a d o l i n i u m i s %. 2 f 1 0 6 A/m ,N *10^ -6)

Scilab code Exa 19.12 Magnetic Flux density


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 1 9 . 1 2 , p a g e no 549 clear clc H =1000 //A/m sus = -0.3*10^ -5 mu =4* %pi *10^ -7 M = sus * H B = mu *( M + H ) printf ( The m a g n e t i c f l u x d e n s i t y i n s i d e t h e m a t e r i a l i s %. 3 f T o r Wb.m 2 ,B *10^3)

106

Chapter 20 Super Conducting Materials

Scilab code Exa 20.2 Critical Field


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// Example 2 0 . 1 , p a g e no 568 clear clc h0 =0.0306 t1 =2.0 t2 =3.7 he = h0 *(1 -(( t1 ^2) / t2 ^2) ) printf ( The c r i t i c a l f i e l d a t %d K i s %. 5 f T ,t1 , he )

Scilab code Exa 20.3 Critical eld through a wire


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 0 . 3 , p a g e no 569 clear clc t1 =4.2 t2 =7.18 h0 =6.5*10^4 //A/m 107

8 he = h0 *(1 -(( t1 ^2) / t2 ^2) ) 9 r =0.5*10^ -3 10 I =2* %pi * he * r 11 printf ( The c r i t i c a l c u r r e n t t h r o u g h a w i r e o f l e a d

i s %. 2 f A ,I )

Scilab code Exa 20.4 Critical Temperature for metal


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

// Example 2 0 . 4 , p a g e no 570 clear clc tc1 =4.185 m1 =199.5 m2 =203.4 tc2 = tc1 * sqrt ( m1 / m2 ) printf ( The c r i t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e f o r m e t a l w i t h i s o t o p i c mass o f %. 1 f i s %. 3 f K ,m2 , tc2 )

108

Chapter 23 Polymer Materials

Scilab code Exa 23.1 Sulphur required for nal rubber product
1 // Example 2 3 . 1 , p a g e no 625 2 clear 3 clc 4 p_wt =500 // kg 5 s_req =32/(32+54) 6 printf ( T h e r e f o r e , s u l p h u r r e q u i r e d

f o r %d 1 0 3 kg of f i n a l r u b b e r p r o d u c t = %d 10 3 kg , p_wt , s_req * p_wt )

Scilab code Exa 23.2 Photon energy to break C C bond


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Example 2 3 . 2 , p a g e no 625 clear clc E =370*10^3 // e n e r g y o f c c bond j / mol \ lam =3200*10^ -10 //m h =6.626*10^ -34 c =3*10^8 //m/ s 109

8 E1 = h * c / lam 9 Ec = E /(6.02*10^23) 10 printf ( \ nE=%. 2 f 10 19 J , E1 *10^19) 11 printf ( \ nThe Energy o f c c Bond = %. 1 f 10 19 , Ec

*10^19) 12 printf ( \ n \ nThe UV l i g h t p h o t o n e n e r g y i s s u f f i c i e n t t o b r e a k a CC bond . \ n T h e r e f o r e , t h e p o l y m e r d e t e r i o r a t e s u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f UV l i g h t )

110