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Troubleshooting the Cisco UCS Compute Deployment

BRKCOM-3001

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Agenda
Overview
Physical Setup Software Setup Configuration Path Trace

Maintenance
Key Takeaways

Q&A
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Overview

UCS Building Blocks


UCS Manager
Embedded manages entire system

UCS Fabric Interconnect


Nexus Switch

UCS Fabric Extender


Remote line card

UCS Blade Server Chassis


Flexible bay configurations

UCS Blade Server


Industry-standard architecture

UCS Virtual Adapters


Choice of multiple adapters
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UCS Manager 2.0 Release


Hardware
UCS 6248UP Fabric Interconnect UCS 2208XP IOM UCS 1280 VIC

Features
Unified Ports 80 Gb Host connectivity Fabric port-channeling L2 disjoint upstream in EHM VM-FEX for Red Hat KVM iSCSI Boot
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Physical Setup

UCS Fabric Interconnect


Standalone or Clustered
Primary / Subordinate Data Management Engine (DME)
Virtual IP
Management Network

IP #A

IP #B

DB

DB

FI-A# Cluster links


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FI-B#

IO Module HIF to NIF Pinning (2104XP)


HIF
slot 1 slot 2 slot 3 slot 4 slot 5 slot 6 slot 7 slot 8

NIF

Server slots pinned to uplink

F E X F E X F E X
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1 link

Fabric Interconnect

Uplink: slots 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

slot 1 slot 2 slot 3 slot 4 slot 5 slot 6 slot 7 slot 8

2 links

Fabric Interconnect
NIF 4 links

Uplink 1: slots 1,3,5,7 Uplink 2: slots 2,4,6,8

slot 1 slot 2 slot 3 slot 4 slot 5 slot 6 slot 7 slot 8

Fabric Interconnect
NIF
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Uplink 1: slots 1,5 Uplink 2: slots 2,6 Uplink 3: slots 3,7 Uplink 4: slots 4,8
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IO Module HIF to NIF Pinning (2208XP)


Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 5 Slot 6 Slot 7 Slot 8

1-4

FEX

5-8
9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28

Fabric Interconnect

29-32
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IO Module HIF to NIF Pinning (2208XP)


Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 5 Slot 6 Slot 7 Slot 8

1-4

FEX

5-8
9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28

Fabric Interconnect

29-32
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IO Module HIF to NIF Pinning (2208XP)


Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 5 Slot 6 Slot 7 Slot 8

1-4

FEX

5-8
9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24 25-28

Fabric Interconnect

29-32
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IO Module HIF to NIF Pinning (2208XP)


Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 Slot 4 Slot 5 Slot 6 Slot 7 Slot 8

1-4

FEX

5-8
9-12

Fabric Interconnect

13-16
17-20 21-24 25-28

29-32
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13

IO Module and Failover


Lose IOM link 1

FI
4 links active

IOM 1
Blade1 Blade2 Blade3 Blade4 Blade5 Blade6 Blade7 Blade8

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Lose connectivity on mezzanine port mapped to IOM 1 for blades 1 and 5


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If you re-acknowledge theuse chassis, Blades Note: Only 2,3,4,6,7,8 1 and a re-ack 5 links willwill still is Which of the 2 to we will fallto back aout continue have required, not use ato chassis all 3 of theconnectivity remaining 32 islink a topology, and blades 1,3,5,7 will links the discover mezzanine policy port change random decision. use one uplink, and blades 2,4,6,8 connected to IOM 2 will use a different uplink

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Port-Channel Pinning
No slot based pinning No invalid link count for NIF ports
VIC1280 adaptor with DCE links in Port-Channel

IOM
Pinned to Po

Gen-1 adaptor with single 10G link


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Chassis Discovery Policy


Discovery policy only defines the minimum number of links necessary before a chassis can be discovered and NOT how many links will be utilised

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Software Setup

Upgrade

Upgrade Considerations
Release Notes will cover pre-requisites and concerns in the upgrade process Schedule an outage window
FI and IOM will reboot during upgrade Make sure network and storage fabric are redundant

Highly recommended to backup UCSM configuration Upgrade process is not quick so be patient Follow the upgrade procedure for each version
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Upgrade Process
Backup UCS Config (Full & All Config) Download firmware

Update components (adapters, CIMC, IOMs)


Activate components in order of:
Adapter cards Set Startup Only

CIMC
UCSM IOM Set Startup Only Fabric Interconnect BIOS/Storage Controller/etc (through firmware package)
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Fabric Interconnect Modes

FI Ethernet Modes: End Host


Spanning Tree LAN

No Spanning Tree Protocol


MAC Learning

6x00 A vEth 3 Fabric A


VLAN 10

Maintains MAC table for Servers only


Allows Multiple Active Uplinks per VLAN Prevents Loops by preventing Uplink-toUplink switching
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vEth 1
L2 Switching

MAC Learning

VNIC 0

VNIC 0

Server 2
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Server 1
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End Host Mode Unicast Forwarding


LAN
Server to server traffic on the same VLAN is locally switched Each server link is pinned to an uplink port / port-channel
Server 2

Uplink Ports
6x00 vEth 1

Deja-Vu

RPF

Network to server unicast traffic is forwarded to server only if it arrives on pinned uplink port. This is termed as the Reverse Path Forwarding(RPF) check Packet with source MAC belonging to a server received on an uplink port is dropped (Deja-Vu Check)
Unknown unicast traffic is dropped
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VLAN 10

vEth 3

VNIC 0

VNIC 0

Server 2
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Server 1
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End Host Mode Broadcast/Multicast Forwarding


LAN

Pre 2.0 - Broadcast traffic is pinned on exactly one uplink port (or port-channel) i.e., it is dropped when received on other uplinks All multicast groups are pinned to same uplink port Server to server multicast traffic is locally switched RPF and deja-vu check also applies for multicast traffic
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B
Broadcast Listener All VLANs

Uplink Ports

6x00 vEth 1 vEth 3

VNIC 0

VNIC 0

Server 2
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Server 1
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FI Ethernet Modes: Switch


Root

LAN

FI acts as L2 switch Server vNIC traffic follows VLAN forwarding

6x00 A vEth 3 Fabric A


VLAN 10

MAC Learning

Rapid PVST+ is used Configuration of STP parameters (bridge priority, Hello Timers etc) or VTP is not supported MAC learning/aging happens on both the server and uplink ports like in a typical Layer 2 switch

vEth 1
L2 Switching

VNIC 0

VNIC 0

Server 2
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Server 1
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Hybrid Topology with direct-attach and SAN


SAN Fabric
Fabric A Direct Attach Storage Arrays Fibre Channel Fabric B Ethernet Unified I/O FCoE

Core

FC Storage FCoE Storage


SAN Edge A SAN Edge B

UCS Fabric Interconnect

UCS Fabric Interconnect

Security via Zoneset Merge and Security via LUN Masking


UCS B-Series
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Unsupported Storage Topologies


Direct connect without zoning (no upstream MDS/N5K)

Multi-Hop FCoE or FCoE northbound on Ethernet Uplinks


FC connections between the two Fabric Interconnects running in FC switch mode (ISL) Connecting any other L2 based object off of the Appliance Ports
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Disjoint Layer 2

End Host Mode Disjoint L2

SW1

SW2

SW3

SW4

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Disjoint L2 Pre 2.0 Workarounds


Switch Mode
Production VLAN 10-20 Backup VLAN 30-40 Production VLAN 10-20

End Host Mode


Backup VLAN 30-40

Prune VLANs

Prune VLANs

L2 Switch -A
Fabric Interconnect - A

L2 Switch -B
Fabric Interconnect - B

Fabric Interconnect - A

Fabric Interconnect - B

Eth 0

Eth 1

Eth 0

Eth 1

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Bare Metal OS

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Bare Metal OS

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EHM Disjoint L2 Upstream >= 2.0


Hardware independent: 6100 & 6200 support this feature with UCS 2.0 and above The ability to selectively assign VLANs to uplinks vNIC pinning decision based on - VLAN membership on uplink ports Allocating a designated broadcast/multicast receiver on a per VLAN rather than global basis
Fabric Interconnect - A Fabric Interconnect - B

Production VLAN 10-20

Backup VLAN 30-40

Eth 0

Eth 1

Bare Metal OS
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Disjoint L2 Do NOT
1. Configure different range of VLANs across uplinks of a disjoint network
10 -20 Production Production VLAN 10-20 10-20 VLAN Backup Backup VLAN 30-40 30-40 VLAN

2. Overlap VLANs across L2 networks


3. Configure vNIC with VLANs across multiple L2 networks. vNIC does not get pinned if the uplink vlan membership is partial, vNIC stays down
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1
Fabric Interconnect - A End Host Mode

11,13,15,17

20,30-40

Fabric Interconnect - B End Host Mode

IOM-A

IOM-B

VLAN 10,30

Adapter
vNIC-A vNIC-B

Half Width Blade

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VLAN Designated Receiver


1.4 = Connect nxos : show platform software enm internal info global | grep -A 6 'Global Params

2.0 = Connect nxos : show platform software enm internal info vlandb id <vlanID>

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Disjoint L2 Verification Overview


From UCSM CLI NXOS Context:
UCS-CiscoLive(NXOS)# show interface trunk

Should expect to see your associated VLANs on the assigned interfaces only.
Port Vlans Allowed on Trunk ---------------------------------------------------------Eth1/16 1,5-7,1000,3000 Only Eth1/16 allows VLAN 5 Eth1/17 1,6-7,1000,3000 <snip>
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Blade Issues

Finite State Machine (FSM)


FSM runs as a workflow (FSM-Stages) Workflows are predefined -stages can be skipped if
not needed (in HA if remote is down, no vHBA configuration) FSM Flags (shallow checkpoint vs deep checkpoint)

Each Stage is an interaction between DME Application Gateway -> End Point

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FSM Details

Error Description for that stage


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Operation (workflow)
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Stage Description 37

Blade Issues
Server Blade discovery failed KVM connectivity

Hardware problems
Adapter issues

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Configuration

Configuration Validation & Errors

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Configuration Boot issues

Boot from SAN

SAN Boot in UCS


Must be defined in the boot policy applied to the service profile

SAN boot and Local HDD are mutually exclusive in the boot policy
During SAN boot, the local HDDs are disabled Some O/S will not install if more than one path to LUN is seen check O/S installation guide

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SAN Boot Checklist


Verify the following
Zoning and zoneset active Target Login LunID masked to host NPV/NPIV configuration FC uplinks SAN Admin

SAN+UCS Admin

FC VSAN membership
UCS FC module login into FC switch Service profile configuration Boot policy configuration
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UCS Admin
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SAN Boot Failure Checklist


SAN configuration errors Zoning
Host and Target WWPNs Service Profile fc0/fc1

SAN boot order configuration


Zones and zonesets Matching VSANs

Lun Masking
Check that the access control configuration allows the host WWPN to access the array WWPN

LunID value is correct


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SAN Boot Policy

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SAN Failures Unable to locate LunID


Both adapters (0 and 1) cant find the configured LunID
ROM BIOS fails and reports to setup there is no SAN device to boot from

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SAN Failures Unable to locate LunID


In Option ROM confirm that adapter was enabled by boot policy

In Option ROM confirm that adapter Boot was enabled and check target + LunID

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SAN Failures Unable to locate LunID


In Option ROM scan the fabric for visible LUNs Notice how the LunID configured is not seen, but another is

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iSCSI Boot

iSCSI Boot Support


iSCSI boot configuration is added to UCSM 2.0(1) Allows stateless model with no FC or FCoE in the environment Limited adapter support
Cisco VIC and VIC-1280 (iBFT only, no iSCSI offloads) Broadcom 57711 M51KR-B (full offload, iSCSI HBA)

Operating System support


ESXi 4.1U1, 4.1U2, 5.0 Windows 2008 R2 and R2 SP1 RHEL 5.6, 6.0 and 6.1

iSCSI Hardware Offload is not a requirement to support booting, only supporting iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) in the option ROM
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iSCSI Setup Flow


Create iSCSI vNICs and iSCSI Boot policy
Provide UCSM with iSCSI boot information
Target IP, IQN

Initiator IP/Mask/Gateway, IQN

Broadcom only Modify adapter policy for install vMedia map the OS and drivers if required Adapter successfully initialises Install OS and Drivers (if required)

Broadcom only Modify adapter policy for boot


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iSCSI Boot Service Policy iSCSI vNIC


Overlay vNIC iSCSI adapter policy Identify native VLAN MAC address:
M81KR none (do not set) M51KR-B must be set (manual or pool)

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iSCSI Boot Service Policy Boot Policy


Set the iSCSI parameters Select the first iSCSI boot devices (you can have multiple iSCSI initiators)

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iSCSI Boot Service Policy Boot Parameters


Initiator name (EUI or IQN formats). Initiator IP Address Target name (Query your array for the correct name, usually IQN format)

Target Port, IP and LUN ID


Initiator Auth

CHAP Authentication
Initiator Auth to iSCSI array Target Auth from iSCSI array
Target Auth
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Cisco M81KR VIC Verification

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M51KR-B Verification

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Path Trace

Ethernet troubleshooting and tracing

UCS Networking
Blade cannot talk to outside network
Is vethernet & uplink interface up?

Is vlan tagging correct?


Is the mac address being learnt on the FI and upstream switches? Can it reach other devices in the same L2? Can it reach its default gateway?
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UCS Frame Flow Decisions


Northbound
LAN
FI A FI B

Which port in the port channel? Port Channeling Algorithm (2-8 choices)

Which uplink/border port or port channel? (many Border choices) Port Pinning
Local or remote destination? L2 Switching in FIs (2 choices) Which Fabric Port? Fabric Port (4 choices)

FEX

UCS Blade Chassis

Blade Server

CNA

CNA Port 1 Eth0 MAC A

CNA Port 2 Eth1 MAC B OS NIC Teaming

FEX

Pinning

Which UCS CNA Port? Fabric (2 choices)

Failover

OS Routing Table or Which PCIe Interface? OS Ethernet NIC Teaming (1-58 choices depending on CNA)
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OS

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UCS Frame Flow Decisions


Southbound
LAN
FI A FI B

Which downlinkSwitch or port channel? (Upstream Decides) Allow the frame inbound? Dj vu, RPF, border port (decision depends on switch mode vs. end host mode) pinning Which Fabric Extender Port? Fabric Port Pinning

FEX

UCS Blade Chassis

FEX

Blade Server

CNA

CNA Port 1 Eth0 MAC A

CNA Port 2 Eth1 MAC B OS NIC Teaming

Which Server Bay Port?on (MAC Learning (8 choices)

VNTag + Offset FIs)

OS

Which PCIe Device (vNIC)? VNTag Identifier (1-58 choices depending on CNA)

Dest. MAC and Pass frame to OS?


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Ethertype binding
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Service Profile Interfaces


show service-profile circuit server <chassis#>/<slot#>

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VIF Identities
Show host-eth-if

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Port Information M81KR Adapter


MCP level : vnic

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Port Information M81KR Adapter


If too many vNICs, can find correct interface with vnicfind

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Port Information M81KR Adapter


MCP level : lifstats <lifid>

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FEX Port Information


Connect nxos : show fex <chassis#> detail

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FEX Ports Information


2.0 = show system internal fex info satport ethernet <chassis#>/<adapter#>/<slot#>

1.4 = show platform software fex info satport ethernet <chassis#>/<adapter#>/<slot#>


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IOM Ports Information


Connect iom <chassis #> show platform software <redwood|woodside> sts

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IOM Ports Information


show platform software <redwood|woodside> rate

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IOM Ports Information


show platform software <redwood|woodside> rmon 0 <interface>

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VIF Information
Connect nxos : show interface brief

Show interface vethernet <id>

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MAC Information
show mac address-table

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VIF Pinning
show pinning border-interface

show pinning server-interfaces

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Port Channel Information


show port-channel summary

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Port Channel Information


show port-channel load-balance forwarding-path interface port-channel <#> ...

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VLAN Designated Receiver


2.0 = show platform software enm internal info vlandb id <vlanID>

1.4 = show platform software enm internal info global | grep -A 6 'Global Params
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SAN troubleshooting and tracing

Service Profile Interfaces


show service-profile circuit server <chassis#>/<slot#>

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VIF Identities
Show host-fc-if

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FC Interfaces M81KR
Attaching to the fls of the adapter provides the ability to view information related to SAN boot attributes The vnic command provides us with numbering associated with vNIC interfaces

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FC Login Information M81KR


Login information (Target PWWN and FCID) for each port can be obtained with the login <vnicID> command:

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FC Login Information M81KR


The lunmap command will confirm if the interfaces have logged into the target or not

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UCS 2.0: FC Login Information M81KR


Lunlist <vnic ID>

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FC Statistics

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VIF Information
Connect nxos : show interface brief
Show interface vfc <id>

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VFC Membership and Login


show vsan membership

show npv flogi-table

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FC Switch Northbound
Show flogi database

Show zoneset active

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Maintenance

System Event Logs


Chassis

Server

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SEL Configuration
Users can define rules (policies) for backing up and clearing SEL across all servers in the UCS system,

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UCSM Faults and Events Lifecycle


Faults Lifecycle
Clear Condition

Events Lifecycle

Raise Fault

Clear Fault Create Event

Delete Fault

Delete Retention Interval or Acknowledged

Clear Action Delete Event


Retain

Log Full

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Data Gathering for SupportUCSM

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Core Dumps

Once TFTP core Exporter is configured and enabled, dumps will be transferred Once transferred, select and move to trash can

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O/S Troubleshooting Tools


Ping, mping, arping Arp

Esxcfg-nics, esxcfg-vmknic, ifconfig, ipconfig


Ethtool or lsmod or lspci or vmkload_mod or modinfo Esxtop, htop Tcpdump, Wireshark O/S Logs (/var/log/messages or event viewer) O/S Core Files (BSOD or PSOD)
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Key Takeaways

Narrowing Down the Problem


Define the problem
From which point to what other point is the problem? Do we see the problem in one direction or both?

Eliminate variables
Is the problem seen between traffic traversing the same fabric? Is the problem only happening on a specific fabric path?

List all the ports in the traffic path


VIFs, HIFs, NIFs, Server ports and Uplink ports
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What to do next?
Ask questions on Cisco Support Community Review documents at the links provided in the appendix section Raise TAC cases if you encounter issues If interested, speak with your Account Team about participating in Beta programs. Alternatively, come speak to me afterwards or email me: mipetrin@cisco.com
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Q&A

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