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Cooling tower

TABLE OF CONTENT

.................................................................................................2

Summery

..................................................................................................3

Introduction
Theory

.........................................................................................4

Experimental Procedure.........................................................................................6
.........................................................................................7

Schematic diagram

.................................................................................................9

Results

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Discussion

...............................................................................18

Conclusion

............................................................................... 19

Appindex

Cooling tower

:Summary .1
Cooling tower is the name of experiment that doing in the lab. mass and energy
balance was performed over a cooling tower also

the mean driving force was

determined the number of transfer unit and the over all mass transfer coefficient. In
this experiment warm water is contact with dry air and the heat transfer from water to
air and the out water be come cold. We use two heat source one at 1 kw and other at
1.5 kw

: Experiment objective
perform mass and energy balance (1
.Determine the mean driving force (2
.Determine the number of transfer unit (3
.Determine the over all mass transfer coefficient (4

Image (1) Cooling Tower

Cooling tower

: Introduction .2
Open pond or by the spray pond technique in which it is dispersed in spray form and
then collected in a large, open pond. Cooling takes place both by the transference of
sensible Heat and by evaporative cooling as a result of which sensible heat in the
water provides the latent heat of vaporization.
On the large scale, air and water arc brought into countercurrent contact in a
cooling tower which may employ either natural draught or mechanical draught. The
water flows down over a series of wooden slats which give a large interfacial area
and promote turbulence in the liquid. The air is humidified and heated as it rises,
while the water is cooled mainly by evaporation.
The natural draught cooling tower depends. on the chimney effect produced by the
presence in the tower of air and vapor of higher temperature. and therefore of lower
density than the surround. atmosphere. The atmospheric conditions and the
temperature and quantity of the water will exert a very Important effect on the
operation of the tower. Not only will these factors influence the quantity of air drawn
through the tower, but they will also affect the velocities and flow patterns and hence
the transfer coefficients between and liquid.

Cooling tower

:Theory .3
:Over all mass balance *
Input = output
L2 L1 = G 2 G1

Where L2 water inlet , L1 water outlet ,G1 air inlet G2 air outlet

:Water mass balance *


L2 L1 = G 2 * H 2 G1 * H 1

G 2 = G1 = G

L2 L1 = G * ( H 2 H 1 )

Where H2 humidity of outlet air , H1 humidity of inlet air

: Energy balance *
H Y = C S * (T T ) + H *
C S = 1.005 + 1.88 * H

Q = G * (H Y 2 H Y1 )

Is latent heat

Is enthalpy of air , cs is heat capacity of air H Y


Where

Cooling tower

: Determination of number of transfer unite *


HY 2

dH Y

HY 2

H HY

N OG =

*
Y

(Where NOG is number of transfer unit (dimensionless


: To calculate mean driving force *
H lom =

H Y 2 H Y1
ln( H Y 2 H Y 1 )

: To calculate over all mass transfer coefficient *


Z = NOG *HOG
H OG =

G
M B * P * KGa

Where is HOG is height of transfer unit (m) ,MB is molecular weight , P is the pressure
. , and KGa is mass transfer coefficient
Temperature and concentration profiles at interface

Figure 1: Temperature and concentration profile in upper part of cooling tower

Cooling tower

:Experimental procedure .4
.Introduce water and record its flow rate -1
.Put the heaters on so that water is heated to the required temperature -2
.Introduce air and record its flow rate -3
Wait for steady state then record steady state dry and wet bulb -4
.temperature of air at the entrance and exit
Record the inlet and outlet temperature and flow rate of water also record
.temperature at different stages
.Change the air flow rate and repeat step 3 on -6

-5

Cooling tower

:Schematic Apparatus .5

.Image 2 : cooling tower in the lab

Cooling tower

Dry bulb T3

Wet bulb T4

packing

T5

Dry bulb T1
Wet bulb T2
Fan

Flow meter

Pump

Heater
Manometer
Make up tank
Figure 2. setup of experiment

Cooling tower

Results and calculation .6


A. Heater load =1 kw
Time min
0
5
10
15
20

T1 C
21
21
21
22
22

Table 1. air water temperatures at 1kw


T2 C 0
T3 C 0
T4 C 0
19
31
29
20
25
24
20
22
23
20
23
23
20
23
23

Initial pressure (P0)=31 mm h2o


Final pressure (P) =38 mm h2o
Water flow rate=40 g/sec
Total of water used= 1000ml
Water evaporated = 800 ml
: From humidity chart
H2 = 0.017 kg water/kg air ,
G1 = 0.0137(

H1 = 0.013 kg water/kg air

X
)
(1 + H ) * v H

X = 38 31 = 7 mm H2O
H = 0.013 kg water/kg air & T= 273 + 22
v H = (H)(T*10-3*4.56 + 10-3*2.38)
v H = 0.719 m3/kg air

G1 = 0.0424 kg/sec
L2 = 40 (g/sec)/1000(g/kg) L2 = 0.04 kg/sec

T5 C 0
39
39
28
28
28

T6 C 0
26
22
22
22
22

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* : Water mass balance


) L 2 L1 =G * ( H 2 H 1

(L1 = 0.04 - (0.0424)*(0.017 0.013


L2 = 0.03983 kg water /sec

* : Energy balance
) Q = G * (HY 2 HY1

H Y 1 = (1.005 + 1.88 * H 1 ) * (T1 ) + 2501.4 * H 1

HY1 = (1.005 + 1.88*0.013)*(22) + 2501.4*0.013


HY1 = 55.165 KJ/kg air
H Y 2 = (1.005 + 1.88 * H 2 ) * (T2 ) + 2501.4 * H 2

(HY2 =(1.005+0.017*1.88)*(23) + (2501.4*0.017


HY2 = 66.3738 kJ/kg air
Q = 1.71613 kJ/sec

)Q = 0.0424*(66.3738 25.899

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: (Calculate number of transfer unite (NTU


We neglible resistance to heat transfer in the liquid phase and we use correction factor
: method
TL2 = 28 oC HY2 = 66.3738
TL1 = 22 oC HY1 = 55.165
TLm = (28+22)/2

kJ/kg
kJ/kg

TLm = 25oC

HLm = 60.77 kJ/kg

HY1 = (HYi HY)TL1 = ( 88.14 - 55.165 ) = 32.89 kJ/kg


HY2 = (HYi HY)TL2 = (123 66.3738 ) = 56.63 kJ/kg
HYm =(HYi - HY)TLm = (104.89 60.77 ) = 44.12 kJ/kg
Hm/HY1 = 44.12/32.89

Hm/HY1 = 1.34

Hm/HY2 = 44.12/56.63

Hm/HY2 = 0.79

After using chart :


f =1
(NTU = (HY2 HY1)/(f*Hm) NTU = (66.37 55.165)/(1*44.12
NTU = 0.255

Cooling tower

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Calculate over all mass transfer coefficient (KGa) :


Z = NOG *HOG HOG = Z / NOG
Z = 0.48 m , NOG = NTU = 0.255
HOG = 0.48/0.255
HOG = 1.88 m

H OG =

G
M B * P * KGa

G = 0.0424 kg/sec , A = L2 = (150/1000)2


A = 0.0225 m2 MB = 29 kg/kgmol P = 1 atm
1.88 m = (0.0424/0.0225)(kg/s*m2)/(1 atm * 29 kg/kgmol*KGa)
KGa = 0.0344 kgmol/atm *m2*s
(Calculate mean driving force

5
H lom =

H Y 2 H Y1
ln( H Y 2 H Y 1 )

(Hlom = (66.37 55.165)/ln(66.37/55.165

Hlom = 60.594 kJ/kg

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B. Heater load =1.5 kw


Time min
0
5
10
15
20

Table 3. air water temperatures at 1kw


C T1
C 0 T2
C 0 T3
C 0 T4
23
20
29
26
22
20
27
27
22
20
27
27
22
20
27
27
22
20
27
27
0

Initial pressure (P0)=31mm h2o


Final pressure (P) =38 mm h2o
Water flow rate=40 g/sec
Total of water used= 1000ml
Water evaporated = 850 ml
: From humidity chart
H2 = 0.022 kg water/kg air ,
G1 = 0.0137(

H1 = 0.013 kg water/kg air

X
)
(1 + H ) * v H

X = 38 31 = 7 mm H2O
H = 0.013 kg water/kg air
v H = (H)(T*10-3*4.56 + 10-3*2.83)
v H = 0.852 m3/kg air

G1 = 0.0390 kg/sec
L2 = 40 (g/sec)/1000(g/kg) L2 = 0.04 kg/sec

C 0 T5

38
35
34
34
34

C 0 T6

25
24
24
24
24

Cooling tower

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* : Water mass balance


) L2 L1 = G * ( H 2 H 1

(L1 = 0.04 - (0.039)*(0.022 0.013


L2 = 0.0396 kg water /sec

* : Energy balance
) Q = G * (HY 2 HY1

H Y 1 = (1.005 + 1.88 * H 1 ) * (T1 ) + 2501.4 * H 1

HY1 = (1.005 + 1.88*0.013)*(22) + 2501.4*0.013


HY1 = 55.165 KJ/kg air
H Y 2 = (1.005 + 1.88 * H 2 ) * (T2 ) + 2501.4 * H 2

(HY2 =(1.005+1.88*0.022)*(27) + (2501.4*0.022


HY2 = 83.282 kJ/kg air
Q = 1.0965 kJ/sec

)Q = 0.039*(83.282 55.165

Cooling tower

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: (Calculate number of transfer unite (NTU


We neglible resistance to heat transfer in the liquid phase and we use correction factor
: method
TL2 = 34 oC HY2 =83.282

kJ/kg

TL1 = 24 oC HY1 =55.165

kJ/kg

TLm = (34+24)/2

TLm = 29oC

HLm = 69.22 kJ/kg

HY1 = (HYi HY)TL1 = ( 100.7 - 55.165 ) = 45.54 kJ/kg


HY2 = (HYi HY)TL2 = (140.59 83.28 ) = 57.31 kJ/kg
HYm =(HYi - HY)TLm = (123.6 69.22 ) = 54.38 kJ/kg
Hm/HY1 = 54.38/45.54
Hm/HY1 = 1.19
Hm/HY2 = 54.38/57.31
Hm/HY2 = 0.95
After using chart :
f = 0.98
(NTU = (HY2 HY1)/(f*Hm)

NTU = (83.28 55.165)/(0.97*54.38


NTU = 0.51

Cooling tower

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Calculate over all mass transfer coefficient (KGa) :


Z = NOG *HOG HOG = Z / NOG
Z = 0.48 m , NOG = NTU = 0.51
HOG = 0.48/0.51
HOG = 0.95 m

H OG =

G
M B * P * KGa

G = 0.0390 kg/sec , A = L2 = (150/1000)2


A = 0.0225 m2 MB = 29 kg/kgmol P = 1 atm
0.95 m = (0.0390/0.0225)(kg/s*m2)/(1 atm * 29 kg/kgmol*KGa)
KGa = 0.0598 kgmol/atm *m2*s
Calculate mean driving force
H lom =

H Y 2 H Y1
ln( H Y 2 H Y 1 )

(Hlom =(83.28 55.165) /ln(83.28/55.165

Hlom = 68.260 kJ/kg

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:Discussion .7
1)

In this experiment There are tow level of heat source first we use 1 kw then
we use 1.5 kw .

2)

The amount of water transfer to the air is very low.

3)

The air humidity inlet in second case is more than first case that mean the air
there is error coming from water evaporation from tower in side laboratory .

4)

the amount of heat transfer from liquid to the gas in second case less than
first case.

5)

The number of transfer unit in second case is larger than the first case.

6)

The mass transfer coefficient approximately constant.

7)

In this experiment no resistance to heat transfer in liquid phase was assumed.

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8. Conclusions :
The mass transfer and heat transfer is decreased with increase inlet air humidity and,
the objective of use packing is to increase area of contact between water and air. The
cooling tower does not use in the place which the air have high humidity.

19

Cooling tower

Appendix

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21

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:B.Variable Listing
(NOG = number of transfer unit(dimensionless
(HOG = height of transfer unit (m
(L

= water flow (kg/s*m2

(G

= dry air flow (kg/s*m2

(H

= humidity of air (kg water/kg air

(Hy = enthalpy of air water mixture (J/kg air

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C. Reference:
1) Colunson , J.M and Rechardson , j.F Chemical Engineering vol 1 , 3 th edition ,
BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN , 1999 .
2) Christie john geankoplis," transport processes and separation process principles",4 th
edition, prentice hall (2003) .
3) "Chemical Engineering Laboratory 2",Dep. of Chemical engineering .