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W HAN EREWO DBO L OK F

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First published in Australia in 2010 by Cameron House an imprint of The Scribo Group Equinox Centre 18 Rodborough Rd Frenchs Forest, NSW, 2086 National Library of Australia Cataloguing-inPublication entry Title: Werewolf handbook : the essential guide to werewolves and more importantly how to avoid them. ISBN: Subjects: 9781741730579 (hbk.) Werewolves--Handbooks, manuals, etc. Werewolves--Folklore. Werewolves--Safety measures. Tales. 398.2454

THE

WEREWOLF HANDBOOK
Dr. Robert Curran

Dewey Number: M WWF

Conceived, designed, and produced by Marshall Editions The Old Brewery 6 Blundell Street London N7 9BH www.marshalleditions.com Commissioning Editor: Laura Price Design: Tim Scrivens TJ Graphics Picture Manager: Veneta Bullen Production: Nikki Ingram Date of manufacture: August 2010 Manufactured by: 1010 Printing International Ltd. Color separation by: Modern Age Repro House Ltd., Hong Kong Printed in China 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

2627 The Laignach Faelad 2829 The Eigi Einhamr 3031 The Loup-Garou 3233 Benandanti Werewolves 3435 Other Were-Creatures 3637 WEREWOLF TALES 3841 Lycaon 4245 Romulus and Remus 4647 St. Christopher 4849 Gottskalk, Bishop of Hlar 5051 Peter Stubbe 5255 Gilles Garnier 5659 The Gandillion Family 6063 Pierre de Lancre and Henri Boguet 6467 Jean Grenier 6869 Suzanne Prevost 7071 The Burgomeister of Anspach 7273 Ossory 7475 Susanna Martin 7677 Werewolf Tests 78 Glossary 7980 Index/Acknowledgments

Contents
69 WHAT IS A WEREWOLF? 1011 Where Do They Live? 1213 10 Vital Ways to Spot a Werewolf 1415 How to Avoid a Werewolf 1617 The Three Golden Rules 1819 TYPES OF WEREWOLF 2021 Ancient Werewolves 2223 Witches and Werewolves 2425 Le Matre de Fort

What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?
A werewolf is a creature in legend and folklore (or so we are told) that can change its shape between that of a man and that of a wolf.

t is also extremely savage and often treats humans as its prey, hunting and devouring them. The name comes from the Old Saxon or the Viking word wehr, which means man, so it literally means man-wolf. In oldest times it was used to describe somebody who was strong or powerful some of the things that were admired about a wolf and was even used by some great nobles and churchmen. Later the meaning changed to describe someone who was ferocious in battle, such as Cu-Cuhullain the Hound or Wolf of Ulster in Irish mythology and then a savage man-beast. The name was usually

associated with black magic and those who changed were usually magicians or people under a spell. Witches are a common werewolf companion, revelling in the evil magic that turns a man to a beast.

This explains why so many modern werewolf tales involve those who are unwillingly changed by bite or curse and forced by the effects of the infection or sorcery to harm others. In movies, for example, werewolves are usually victims of some awful curse who are changed into a wolf-shape by the rays of the full moon, often against their will. In this form they are compelled to hunt and kill until destroyed by a silver bullet. Much of this is not true, but it makes for exciting drama. In older stories from folklore and mythology, there are a number of ways to become a

werewolf, depending on whether you are an evil magician or an innocent victim of the werewolf. One is by making and smearing yourself with awful ointments or by using a magic artifact, such as a belt given by the Devil to bring about the change. Another is by being bitten by an existing werewolf, which will pass on the curse to an innocent who will then be condemned to become a wolsh man-beast. In some other stories, a person simply becomes a werewolf by putting on the skin of a wolf or by drinking water from a wolfs pawprint. In all of these, the person will have no control as to when

Right Howling at a full moon is a sure sign that a werewolf is on the prowl. Unless of course its just an ordinary old wolf. Far Right Much easier to spot are the werewolves who retain some human form even after theyve changed. Hairy and houndlike, you can still tell theyre some part human.

What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

and in Scandinavia, where there are thick forests and large numbers of wolves, but similar tales also appear in Africa, Japan, Russia, and America. Wherever men are to be found, there are werewolves close by! And there are few cures for the werewolf curse. Some say it can be removed by a priest, others by a potion made from the herb wolfsbane, still others by the tears of a loved one. The only true method of release seems to be to kill the creature and to utterly destroy its body by re. Even

then, care must be taken to avoid the smoke in case the curse is passed on upon the breeze. There is little escape, it seems, from the shadow of the werewolf!
Below As man changes to wolf, the bones and muscles stretch and the body becomes covered in thick coarse hair. The change is often painful and terrifying to watch.

they become a beast; that is up to the dark forces that now control them. Finally, you can be a werewolf by an accident of birth. Babies born with a caul a thin membrane over their face or with a lot of hair run the risk of becoming werewolves. Children of priests, who were not supposed to have children because of their religious faith, will surely become werewolves, as they have been born in sinful circumstances. In some cultures, the seventh son of a seventh son is destined to suffer

ABOVE Where once they roamed the countryside and forests, modern werewolves have the added horror of living among dense populations, where the chance to do harm is greatest.

the werewolf curse. In Argentina, the president is godfather to every seventh son in case the parents abandon him at birth because of the werewolf curse. Tales about werewolves or people who can change themselves into the guise of animals (known as shape-shifters) are to be found in many countries of the world. They are to be found of course in Europe

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What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

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Where Do They Live?


Werewolves and shape-shifters are found all over the world and in almost all cultures.

In Finland, for instance, they can take the form of bears, while in some parts of Ireland it was believed, up until fairly recently, that witches would often transform themselves into hares in order to drink from the udders of grazing cattle. In Africa

and in South America, shamans and witch doctors can take on the forms of lions or jaguars. What you encounter depends on where you are in the world.
Below A classic wolfman retains some human form but takes on all the strength and power of the wolf.

owever, if we focus only on those people who can turn into wolves, then they are largely to be found in Northern and Western European countries such as Scandinavia where wolves were at one time found in large numbers and, to a certain extent, still are. Werewolf stories from urban places towns and cities were very few in number, until modern lmmakers began to tell the stories. But in the countryside, especially in areas that are or were densely forested, the folklore concerning werewolves and wolf men is much more widespread. This is because the deep woodlands and trackless marshes provided an ideal place for wolves to breed and for stories concerning them to develop and are therefore the best places to go if you want to see a werewolf in his or her natural environment.

Further aeld, stories of people who can change into dog-like creatures appear in other countries and cultures. In Egypt and parts of North Africa and the Middle East, for instance, there are tales of sorcerers who can take the form of jackals, while in Japan tales of ladies who can change themselves into foxes are common. Among a number of North American tribes it was believed that their medicine men could turn themselves into coyotes by performing certain secret rituals and dances. In other parts of the world magicians can often transform themselves into other animals, although these are invariably wild animals whose form can help the magicians take goods or power.

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What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

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Spotting a werewolf is not easy, especially when they are in human form. However, there are a few telltale clues that you can use to make it easier:

10 Vital Ways to Spot a Werewolf

Once they have experienced raw meat in their wolf form, even as a human the werewolf will enjoy the taste of fresh, bloody meat.

In human form, check for eyebrows that meet in the middle. This has long been considered a sign of a werewolf. It is well known that any person who has a ring nger longer

than their middle nger is likely to be a werewolf in human guise.

All werewolves will be nervous, even secretive, as the full moon approaches. Some will enjoy this time of power; others may meet this prospect with sadness, even fear. Werewolves have a pronounced ability to heal themselves, unless struck by silver or, especially, shot with a silver bullet.

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Some werewolves exhibit heightened senses of hearing, smell, and sight.

All werewolves have excessive body hair. This does not mean that all people with extra body hair are werewolves, but check for hair on the palms of the hands, a pronounced widows peak or marked hair loss either side of the forehead, and harder to check hair growing inside the skin. When in human form, a werewolf may show signs of increased aggression or periods of unprovoked rage.

A werewolf will avoid silver of any kind, whether in wolf or human form, and will react as if burnt when touched by silver.

Keep an eye on anyone who hangs about in the woods or moors during a full moon and comes home in the morning naked!

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What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

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Take a close look at the person sitting next to you on Might they secretly be a werewolf? How can you tell? the bus or walking behind you down the street.

How to Avoid a Werewolf (VERY Important)

lthough werewolves often have deceptively human forms, there are at least some telltale signs that may give them away. Here are a few clues: look at the palms of their hands. In folklore all werewolves (or people who may become werewolves) are born with hair or fur on the

palms of their hands. However, this is not always a certain way of telling because some werewolves have become very smart and will have shaved their hands in order to disguise their identity. But also take

Above If you come across a werewolf in the forest or open countryside, the only real action is to run as fast as you can. Left The telltale signs of a werewolf include unusually hairy arms and hands.

a look at their arms and legs, which will probably be rather hairy. Check the thumbnail of their left hand. Many werewolves do not cut this nail very much but let it grow to a longer length than the others in order to facilitate an easy

transformation of the hand into a claw or to a wolfs paw. The left hand is chosen because it is the sinister hand i.e., the hand that does evil (left-handed people beware!). But, be warned, not all werewolves do this and you might be fooled! Observe the third nger of each hand. This is one clue that the werewolf cant disguise. In normal humans it is the middle nger that is the longest, but with a werewolf it is the third or wedding nger (where a wedding ring is worn). This is an infallible way of revealing a werewolf and gives him or her away immediately. Another certain way of detecting a werewolf is to look at the eyebrows. If they are unnaturally hairy and if they meet in the centre of the forehead, then the person concerned is almost surely a shape-shifting creature and must not under any circumstances be trusted. There is an old rhyme that illustrates this: Beware of him whose eyebrows meet, For in his heart there lies deceit. You have been warned!

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What Is a Werewolf?

What Is a Werewolf?

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to what to do when encountering them also differ.

Because all types of werewolf differ, the rules as

The Three Golden Rules

Try to look the beast Use an item of human directly in the eye clothing
It is said that a werewolf, whose soul has become corrupted by the beast, cannot look directly into the eye of a human, whose soul is slightly more pure, and so it will turn away. Because many transformations involve the person being naked in order to change, it is believed that by throwing an item of human clothing over the advancing werewolf it is possible to change him or her back to a human state. Try these and see. Good luck.

ne popular superstition says that you should hold up a Roman Catholic crucix, since the mere sight of the holy object is enough to turn the savage beast away, just as with a vampire. This may work, particularly if the cross is made of silver, since that metal in its purest form can often turn back the forces of evil. However, it should not be relied on Greek werewolves for instance, who are in a slightly different Christian tradition, seem to show no fear of the holy object and a solid silver coin may be just as effective. Another supposed method is to shoot them

with a silver bullet, which will automatically kill the werewolf, but it has to be said that this belief has no basis in folklore indeed it may just be a dramatic invention of the cinema and ordinary lead shot may work just as well. Some believe that the herb wolfsbane (also known as monkshood or aconite) will repel werewolves, but be careful here, because others believe that it will actually attract them! So, while it is incredibly difcult to repel a werewolf, there are a few golden rules that may save your life.
Left Wolfsbane, traditionally believed to repel werewolves, but should not be relied on.

Have something silver in your possession


This doesnt have to be a silver bullet; a silver coin may work as well. No evil thing can withstand silver, which is a pure metal, so it is possible to injure or weaken a werewolf with the touch of silver.
Right Silver, the purest metal. Keep about you an item of silver to keep the werewolf at bay. Below Check the eyes! Many believe that the werewolf will retain an element of humanity, or even that the pain of their evil intent will be apparent in their eyes.

TYPES OF WEREWOLF
types. From good witches to damned souls, it is vital that you can tell one type of werewolf from another. Remember, your life may depend on it! Here youll discover some of the most famous werewolf

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prehistoric times when our distant ancestors were hunters. They competed with the wolf when times were hard and food was scarce.

It is thought that the idea of the man-beast began in

The werewolf has been with us for a very long time.

Ancient Werewolves

he wolf was a fantastic hunting machine it was strong, fast, intelligent, and ferocious and it may well have been more successful than our lumbering ape-like forefathers. Wolves, however, were much like humans in some ways they were social animals and they hunted in packs that had a denite structure. So, while our ancestors feared the wolf, they might also have admired it and wished they were more like it. This may have provided the idea of the wolfman. If they could not actually be wolves, maybe they could pretend to be them. If they dressed up in wolf skins and behaved like wolves, then they might actually achieve the same success in hunting. This was where the shaman or witch doctor came in, because it was probably he who
Left A 16th-century werewolf, hairy and wolfheaded but still recognizably human, shown with a nonhuman meal.

went about in wolf pelts and performed wolflike rituals to ensure good hunting. We know this because of a drawing known as The Sorcerer de Trois-Frres, which is a cave drawing dating from the Paleolithic period (maybe from somewhere between 14,000 and 8,000 BC). The sorcerer is a curious creature with antlers and bear-like paws, but also the bushy tail of a wolf.
Below Ancient beliefs included the Greek stories of heroes and their encounters with wild beasts, shape-shifters, and devil dogs, such as the two-headed Hell-hound, Cerberus, shown here.

Left The prehistoric cave drawing of a shape-shifting sorceror from the cave at Trois-Frres, France.

It is also thought that around this time animals such as the wolf might have been worshipped and the shamans did not have to pretend but were truly possessed by the spirits of the wolf. This made the hunters more successful and ensured the communitys survival. From this the legend of the werewolf may well have come.

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wolf come from? And how did one go about it? Many believed in turning to witchcraft for the answers.

Where did the ability to turn oneself into a

Witches and Werewolves

lthough it is said that some people were actually born with that ability for example the children of priests generally speaking it was acquired through the drinking of certain potions, through the wearing of certain types of clothing, or through the performance of certain rituals. In some cases, it was a mixture of all three. This usually meant that there was some sort of magic involved. During the prehistoric period, men may well have put on the pelts or skins of wolves to make them adopt wolf-like behaviour. When they took these off they became men again. This idea began to develop in later times. In the early medieval stories, sometimes a great knight might be accidentally transformed into a wolf by putting on a magic ornament like a ring often this was given to him by a faithless sweetheart who wanted to be rid of him. The act of
Left Changed through witchcraft, the werewolf would transform into the snarling beast of the forest.

transformation was therefore caused by an article with magic properties. Later, the Church began to question the source of such magic power. Where did it come from, asked clergymen? The answer that they came up with was that it must come from the Devil, who provoked the beast in every man until it took over. This linked werewolfry with witchcraft in the common mind, and the werewolf simply became a thing of
Above Three witches casting spells on unsuspecting victims to bring about the terrible werewolf curse.

evil. Witch-hunters manuals such as the Malleus Malicarum (the Hammer of the Witch, printed in 1484) stated that witches often changed themselves into the shapes of animals wolves, cats, stoats, crows in order to do wickedness against decent people and serve their Infernal Master, Satan. Such accusations would form the basis of many witchcraft/werewolf trials, especially in France, and would create panics in a number of remote towns and villages during the 16th and 17th centuries.

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[luh may-tra duh for-rett]


In some parts of the world it is believed that werewolves and indeed all wolf packs as well as certain other forest animals are actually controlled by a central figure which is not at all human.

Le Matre de Fort

Left A Witches Sabbath with Le Matre de Fort, seen here with garlands around his antlers and striking a human pose.

his may have come from a time when old forest gods still walked the earth and all creatures excluding, perhaps, Man were forced to obey them. In Romania such a being is often known as the Wolf Master, who both guides and directs the wolf packs that prowl in the forests. He also has the power to turn men into beasts as he sees t. Descriptions of him vary. In some he is described as an old man with a cruel face, wrapped in a green cloak, and with a broad hat decorated with owers and forest ferns; in others he is said to be a creature with long antlers and goats feet and
Left Wolves and their cubs could be controlled by the magical powers of the Master of the Forest, and directed to attack unwary travellers in such a way that made them appear to hunt like humans.

a shaggy lower body. This may be an embodiment of the ancient god Sylvanus, who was the master of all animals and growing things. As the Wolf Master, he gathers wolf packs around him in some forest clearing

and sends them out to harm humans, whom he hates. In some beliefs, he is the protector of the forest and of all living things there, and who takes revenge on humans who encroach on his territory. In some parts of rural France, the being is known as Le Matre de Fort the Master of the Forest and is greatly feared. He is portrayed as a giant or ogre who can turn men who come near him into animals with a single glance. In some rural, forested areas he is sometimes confused with another gigantic human gure, Le Grand Bissetre, and just to see him dooms the viewer, so be careful where you look!

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The Laignach Faelad


[lay-nak e-ladd]
concerning warriors who could transform themselves into wolves or savage beasts comes from Ireland. One of the most persistent and terrifying stories

War Wolves

n the mists of its early history the country was continually at war as its ancient kings tried to grab territory for themselves. Many armies were destroyed in these conicts, and the barbaric monarchs always sought to gain some sort of advantage over their neighbours. There is a story that dwelling away in the hills of what is now County Tipperary was a group of ferocious warriors, known as the Laignach Faelad, who were said to be half man, half wolf. They are mentioned in an extremely ancient Irish text known as the Coir Anmann, which says that these fealad (soldiers) would ght for any king who would pay them the terrible price they asked. It goes on to suggest that these men dressed in wolf skins and were extremely erce in battle thus they
Left An ancient bronze sword handle in the shape of a human gure, a fearsome warriors weapon and reminder of humanity.

were much sought after by many of the old Irish kings.The price for their service was indeed a terrible one. The wolf warriors did not ask for money. Instead they asked to be paid in the esh of newborn babies, which they would then divide among themselves, falling upon it like wolves and devouring it raw. They were followers of a terrible and bloodthirsty god Crom Cruach (the Bowed God of the Mounds), one of the oldest and most terrible deities in Ireland. It is further said that they were at the height of their power during the reign of a king called Tigernmas, who was also a follower of this god. However, writing in the late 1500s, the English writer William Camden pours scorn on these stories, saying that the Wolf Men of Tipperary never existed. But even he is not so sure!
Left With their wolf skin coverings, the Laignach Faelad were powerful warriors, loyal only to their own kind.

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The Eigi Einhamr


[eye-gee ain-hamma]
Away in the frozen wastes of Scandinavia in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden wolves and other wild animals continually roamed the forests and were a constant threat to the people who lived there.

Danish king Harald Krak (or Kraik). Bodvar often wrapped himself in the skin of a bear or a wolf and he would physically change and become that animal. In that form, he would ght in battle, slaying the kings enemies. When Adilis, the King of Sweden, was trying to regain his throne from

his uncle who had taken it by a trick, Harald leant him Bodvar, who killed the pretender by ripping out his throat. Certainly Bodvar was not a man to rub the wrong way!
Below A ght to the death between a Norse God and the monstrous wolf Fenris, as told in the Old Norse saga, the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning.

t is no wonder then that it was believed certain men could transform themselves into the forms of such animals by supernatural means and could take on some of their characteristics. These men were known as the eigi einhamr (meaning not of one skin) and appear as shape-shifters in the folklore of places such as Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. According to the legends some men were born with such powers (it was possible to tell at birth because the palms of their hands were either hairy or furry), but some of them acquired the art of changing through black magic. They also acquired some of the characteristics of the animals whose form they took particularly those of wolf and bear. Many of them were great warriors and hunters and were much sought after as soldiers by ancient kings. The most famous of all the eigi einhamr was the warrior Bodvar Bjarki, who appears in a number of the Old Norse sagas (the great heroic tales of myth and legend from Iceland and Norway). Although it is not known exactly when he lived, he is supposed to have come from Denmark and is thought to be the Danish equivalent of the Saxon hero Beowulf. He was one of twelve famous warriors sent out to do great deeds from the court of the legendary

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The Loup-Garou
by French-speaking peoples in the Laurentian Mountains of Southern Quebec, Canada, and the Cajun peoples of the Louisiana bayou country to describe a monster. The infamous French werewolves. The name is also used

[loop ga-roo]

lthough classed as a werewolf, the Loup-Garou is a bit more complicated. The name certainly means werewolf in French loup meaning wolf and garulf being a Frankish word that means man-wolf. However, even the name and the spelling sometimes differ in many cases it is Rougarou. Descriptions are different too sometimes it is a wolf-like creature, and sometimes it is a man with only the head of a wolf. Its powers tend to vary. Sometimes it hunts like a wolf, killing those it meets, while in other stories it behaves more like a vampire, drinking blood from its victims, who then become werewolves too. In some cases individuals can be transformed into werewolves by the bite of a Rougarou but

only remain so for 101 days, during which time they must drink blood and pass on the curse. In the Greater New Orleans area of Louisiana it is believed that the Loup-Garou will only attack Catholics who have broken their Lenten vows and that the only way to become such a monster is to miss the Lenten Mass for seven years. There are other descriptions of the Loup-Garou, however, which have nothing to do with wolves one has it depicted as a headless horseman and the other as a witch-like creature. Although belief in the creature is thought to have originated among French settlers in America, it is known that some Native American Indian
Left The hairy skin and terrible fangs of the LoupGarou hunting for the fresh blood of victims. Above A wolfskin covered hunter on the trail of a Loup-Garou prey.

tribes particularly the Algonquin and Ojibwa believed in something similar before the European settlers came. These, however, referred to cannibalistic beings who were not necessarily wolves, or a hairy man who dwelt in the forests like the Sasquatch, or Bigfoot. But whatever you believe it to be, there is no doubt that the LoupGarou is incredibly dangerous. Stay well away!

The Golden Rules for a Loup-Garou Encounter


1 As with any monster, the only useful rule to ensure suvival of an encounter is to stay well away in the rst place. 2 Silver, in any form, may help. The larger and sharper, the better! 3 You can try wolfsbane, but it is unlikely that the Loup-Garou will even notice it.

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Benandanti Werewolves
the Benandanti were sometimes regarded as shape-shifters traditional savage, slavering creatures of werewolf lore. and man-beasts. They were quite different from the While not exactly werewolves in the traditional sense,

[ben-an-dan-ti wer-wulvs]

heir name means Good Walkers and they are sometimes considered to be the direct survivors of sorcerous cults that were controlled in very early times by shamans or witch doctors. Even though they were witches, their main purpose was to defend their communities from the The Golden Rules for a attacks of evil spirits and witches who Benandanti Encounter would cause harm, and to protect local crops, livestock, and prosperity. 1 Although fearful to look at, there is no This they did through visions and problem meeting a Benandanti unless you are a troublemaking witch. dreams, sometimes seeming to take 2 Make sure it is a Benandanti and not on the personalities of birds and another type of werewolf. While the animals among them that of the Benandanti are really only interested in ghting witches, other types of howlers wolf. Indeed, in some of the accounts, will be after a tasty human snack. which come from Friuli, in Northern 3 Dont get between them and their goal. Italy, during the 16th and 17th If you try to stop them, the chances are centuries (as written by the historian youll be seen as siding with the bad witches and treated as one. Carlo Ginzberg), the wolf was often one of their forms, and as werewolves

they fought against evil magicians who threatened local communities. Humans could not become Benandanti but were born that way. Babies born with a caul a membrane over their face or bodies were sure to become part of the cult. Between the years 1575 and 1675 the Church took an interest in Benandanti activities in Europe and declared them all heretics and witches. This led to a wave of persecutions, with many of the

alleged Benandanti being killed. The most astonishing story of Benandanti werewolves comes from Livonia on the shores of the Baltic Sea, where in 1692 an eighty-year-old man named Theiss was tried for his involvement with the cult. He revealed that he had fought evil werewolves and that he had descended to Hell to get back stolen grain. Hearing this strange tale, the court did not execute him but sentenced him to ten lashes for conducting pagan practices.

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Werewolves are not the only man-beasts that are to be believed that some sorcerers had the power to take on the shape of whatever animal they chose. found in the world. In a number of countries, it was

Other Were-Creatures

or example, in Finland where the bear was worshipped, it was thought that shamans or local witch doctors could transform themselves into the animal simply by slipping on a shirt made of bearskin the famous baar-saark the bear shirt which has given us our word berserk, meaning ferocity. In Egypt and parts of the Middle East, sorcerers were believed to be able to transform themselves into jackals for the purposes of digging up dead bodies to use in their black magic. This belief may have arisen because of the numbers of jackals that were seen around lonely cemeteries throughout the Middle East.
Left A medieval woodcut of a were-creature a man-bear monster.

Further south in Africa, there was a widespread belief in both lion and leopard men, local wizards who took on the shape of these animals to take vengeance on their enemies or on those who crossed them. It was believed that a lion or leopard god would take possession of locals and turn them into ferocious monsters. In the 1950s and 1960s, these beliefs became mixed up with groups who were trying to drive colonists out of certain African countries and played a large part in what were called Nationalist movements.
Below A huge and terrible man-sh monster preparing to devour a sheep.

Strangely, there are also references to several were-sheep in England, particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries, although these may have been nothing more than unfortunate children who were born with terrible deformities, very much like the Elephant Man, John Merrick, who lived in England during the 19th century. But there is no doubt that these unfortunates also caused fear and alarm in their own areas as much as any werewolf. There was a tragic tale of a weresheep boy in Birdham near Chester, England, who was captured, stoned to death, and nailed to a church door. A very sad tale indeed.

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WEREWOLF TALES

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From Ancient Greece to the werecat of Salem, there are many true and terrifying stories of werewolf horror. bloodchilling tales of the beasts and their victims. Here youll find some of the most infamous and

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W e r e w o l f Ta l e s

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The Early Werewolf


Stories and legends about werewolves have been with us

LYCAON

since very early times. Some of these tales were often used to explain mysterious rituals that were sometimes carried out by our early ancestors.

many ferocious wolf packs lived, and this only added to his story. The mountain itself was said to take its name from an old king who had ruled long before the Flood of the Bible, and with whom a very grisly tale was associated. It is said that King Lycaon was an extremely cruel man, and word of his cruelty nally reached the ears of the gods. The supreme god Zeus decided to come down to earth and discover if

hese may have been a continuation of the early ceremonies connected to the wolf, which were performed by shamans or witch doctors in prehistoric times. One of these secret rituals occurred in ancient Greece and was based at Mount Lycaon (or Lykaon) in Arcadia on the Peloponessus peninsula in the south of the country. According to the Greek writer Pausanius, groups of men would go up into the mountain to a strange shrine, dedicated to the god Zeus, and there would become wolves, or else behave as wolves. At the time of his writing, around 480 BC, the slopes of this mountain were covered in thick forest where

all the rumours were true in fact, they were far worse than the gods had heard! Zeus then decided to face Lycaon and make him explain himself. When the god revealed himself at Lycaons court, many of the servants fell and pleaded for mercy, but Lycaon himself was unconvinced. He demanded that Zeus prove who he was and proposed to test the god. He prepared a great banquet, at which Zeus was the main guest, and set him down a special dish. This was actually the cooked body of a messenger whom Lycaon had killed earlier, and the vicious king wanted to see if Zeus would eat human esh. Zeus, of course, being a god, knew of the plan and was outraged at Lycaons cannibalism. In a t of anger, he turned the barbaric king and his court into wolves, who then ed into the forest. They remained as wolves for the rest of their days, and the only way to tell them from the wild creatures was to look into their eyes, which remained human.
Left A wolf running from the werewolf hunters. When werewolves were on the prowl, all the animals of the forest were threatened by the human reprisals.

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Zeus then demanded that a shrine to himself be erected on the site of Lycaons court to remind people of the cannibal king and how Zeus had punished him. There are variations of the story, which might be older than either Greek or Roman civilizations. Some say that Lycaon only remained as a wolf for nine years a bit like the Werewolves of Ossory (see pages 7273) after which time he was turned back into a man, provided he had not tasted human esh in that time. If he had, he would remain as a wolf forever. In some others, the esh that he offered to Zeus was that of Lycaons own son Nyktimos or his nephew Arkas. The story was also used to explain the origins of werewolves, since all of them were said to trace their lineage from Lycaon himself.

Nobody really knows what went on at these gatherings on the mountainside. Some have hinted that they worshipped Zeus in the form of a wolf; some have said that there was cannibalism involved. More recently, some writers have suggested that this was a ceremony where young boys made their way into manhood and were afterwards regarded as full members of the community. Whatever it was, it was all very mysterious and may well have truly been the secret origin of all werewolves.

Above The leader of the Greek gods, Zeuss fury at Lycaons treachery became a legendary tale of caution for all men. Right An early engraving of King Lycaon of Arcadia, as he tests Zeuss omniscience by serving him a dish of human esh at dinner. For this impudence he is transformed into a wolf.

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take on wolf-like behaviour or they may even have been raised by wolves and had wolf-like ways about them.

supposed to be connected to wolves either they could

In the ancient world, a number of great heroes were

ROMULUS AND REMUS

The Roman Werewolves

Romulus and Remus. They were said to have been born in 771 BC and were supposedly the twin sons of the Roman war god, Mars. Their mother, Rhea Silvia, was a Vestal Virgin, a member of a strict Roman cult who was not supposed to have children. She supposedly gave birth to the infants in what are now the Alban Hills in Italy and took them to nearby Latium, where she left them to die in a swamp. However, a kindly she-wolf found them while looking for food
Right A famous Roman image of Romulus and Remus with their mother wolf as babies. Below Rome, most ancient and beautiful of cities, whose very existence is said to be thanks to a wolf!

ne of the oldest tales comes from a series of works written by the Roman poet Petronius (27-66 AD), who tells of Niciros, a mighty soldier, who when travelling with a companion was able to turn himself into a wolf by throwing off his clothes, then attacked people in the houses of the towns through which they passed. He was wounded by a spear and was treated for the wound

in a nearby house. What became of him is unknown. Some later stories say that he acquired this power because he was raised by a she-wolf. Such stories were not uncommon in ancient times, and many strong kings declared that they, too, had been raised by wild beasts. According to legend and tradition the most famous of all those children raised by wolves were the twin founders of the city of Rome

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Right Romulus and Remus found with their wolf mother by Faustulus and his wife. Below The image of the wolf was revered in ancient Rome as saviour of their founders.

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and took them back to her den, where she suckled them as though they were her own cubs. They were then found, when a little older, by a shepherd named Faustulus, who took them home and raised them as his own sons. It was only after the death of the local king, Amulius, that the boys found out their true identities and the people of Latium demanded that they found and rule a major city. This they did the city became Rome which they initially ruled together. However, having been raised by the she-wolf, they were both subject to frightful frenzies and ts of anger, and according to legend Romulus killed Remus it is said by hitting him on the back of the head with a spade and ruled alone to become the rst real King of Rome. It was said that he

was a ferocious and tyrannical ruler but that he defended his city from invaders who sought to destroy it and that this ferocity was because he and his brother had been suckled by a wolf. No wonder many of the rulers claimed a link to the wolf! Nor were kings and rulers the only ones who built their reputations on being raised by wolves some great sportsmen did so too. A famous boxer and ghter from Arcadia (or Arcady) in Greece who competed in the Olympic Games of 400 BC was also said to have been raised by beasts. His name was Damarachus and he was crowned Champion of the Games. Having been abandoned by his mother, it was said he had been found and raised by a wolf pack. None could match him for strength and skill. It was also said that he could change into the form of a wolf if he so chose. Again, this Damarachus appears only briey in ancient writings, and nobody knows what became of him.

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ST CHRISTOPHER

The Christian Werewolf

for the Church, and there are even some queries as to whether he truly existed or not.

travellers, has always been something of a problem

werewolf! St Christopher, the patron saint of

Yes, it seems even a Christian saint can be a

he name Christopher is taken from the Greek and is said to mean Christ-bearer he was the strongman who carried the infant Jesus on his shoulders. However, the Latin name given for him is Reprebus a corruption of the word reprobus, meaning wicked. Old legends say that the saint did not have a human head but rather the head of a canine or wolf. It is further said that St Christopher was a member of a race who lived in the East and were known as Dogheads because they all had the heads of dogs. Christopher was supposed to have come from a place called Marmaritae, which was once a region in North Africa where many of these Dogheads lived. It is said that in his early life he spoke in a harsh guttural language, was incredibly ferocious, and ate human esh. However, on hearing the words of the Christian missionary on the borders of his country, he began to question his actions and, as he did so, an angel appeared and touched his lips so that he could speak in all languages. He left his own country and travelled throughout the Greek world, preaching the Gospel and becoming a forceful missionary.

However, he still had the head of a wolf and the Church was still highly suspicious of him. The legend of Christopher was widely told in the West, especially in Ireland where the Celtic Church used Greek text rather than Latin. However, in Irish tales about him he was still prone to eat human esh when he could and was still very erce. A very strange saint indeed!
Below St Christopher as he is usually portrayed, carrying the Christ child.

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creatures including werewolves. It is said that Icelandic witches and wizards were taught how to assume the shape of beasts at the famous hidden Black Schools schools

Iceland is a country full of witchcraft and supernatural

GOTTSKALK, BISHOP OF HLAR

The Bishop Werewolf

book buried with him in order to keep the dreadful power to himself. After Gottskalks death in 1520, the cathedral school had to be burned to the ground to get rid of the werewolf curse, and it took two years before a new bishop, Jon

Arnasson, could be appointed in Hlar, so evil was the legacy that Gottskalk had left. That evil lingers on, and several times since his death there have been attempts to raise his bestial spirit in order to discover the whereabouts of the Raudskinna none of which have succeeded . . . as far as we know.

of witchcraft which were tucked away in remote areas.

ne of the most famous of these black magicians was actually a churchman. He was Gottskalk Nikulasson the Cruel and was bishop of Hlar in the north of the country between 1497 and 1520. He is said to have been the most evil man who ever lived in Iceland. Under the previous bishop, Olafur Roegnavalsson, Hlar had a great cathedral school that educated many ne young monks. When Gottskalk became bishop, he turned it into a den of black magicians, educating the monks in the ways of

black magic and turning them into werewolves. Gottskalk himself was able to change shape, and prowled about the countryside in the guise of a great wolf, threatening and killing many people. He is also said to have written the most evil book in Icelandic folklore the Raudskinna or Red Skin Book, packed with the secrets of black magic. Among the spells contained in it were several to allow men to change shape and become wolves. No one really knows what happened to it, although some believe he had the terrible

Above A man in the guise of a wolf, the terrible apparition that cursed and haunted the people of Hlar for many generations.

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panic even worse strangely enough did not occur in France at all but in Germany.

One of the cases that made the French werewolf

PETER STUBBE

The German Werewolf

round 1590, a booklet concerning the terrible case of Peter Stubbe (or Stumpf) began to appear in parts of France and greatly alarmed many of those who read it. Peter Stubbe came from the town of Bedbur, near Cologne. He was a wealthy farmer and seems to have been a widower with two children. However, in 1589 he was brought to trial as a witch who, it was claimed,

had the ability to transform himself into the likeness of a greedy wolf with sharp and cruel teeth, large paws, and a huge body. His eyes were so great and large that they sparkled like brands of re. Stubbe was able to take on this shape by means of a magic belt, which he is said to have received from the Devil, and he was accused of attacking and eating, in the guise of the wolf, a number of people who crossed his

path. He was also able to outdistance the hounds that had been sent to hunt him down, escaping into the surrounding countryside. In his wolf form, he was said to have killed 13 small children and two pregnant women. He was also accused of killing his own son and eating his brain. Found guilty of all these terrible crimes, he was placed on a huge wooden wheel, where portions of his esh were torn away by red-hot instruments and his legs were broken with a wooden axe. He was decapitated and his body burnt on a large pyre. Whether or not Stubbe could transform himself into a wolf or whether he was guilty of all the crimes or not, his trial and execution became famous all across Europe and fed into the fear of werewolves that had been steadily growing there.

Above An early woodcut of a werewolf killing a family and carrying off one of the children. Here the werewolf is pictured as far more human than wolf-like.

Below The gruesome stages in the life and death of a werewolf, from his attacks to his capture, cruel torture, and burning. From the 1590 woodcut illustration, The Damnable Life and Death of One Stubbe Peter.

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The Hermit Werewolf

As the werewolf frenzy began to take hold more people were brought in front of local in France in the late 1500s, more and

GILLES GARNIER

sometimes of turning themselves into animals.

magistrates to be accused of witchcraft and

he period coincided with a series of hard winters when wolves and wolf packs were very active and of summers when the game was scarce and animals were forced to travel further and further in search of food. The sightings of wolves so close to settlements and villages only increased the idea among local people that werewolves were about and might be living with them. Many French townspeople became suspicious of their neighbours or of anyone who was a bit strange in their ways this might be a clue that they were not all they should be. One of these difcult people was a man named Gilles Garnier, who was something of a hermit and who in the 1570s lived with his wife in

a lthy cabin, deep in the woods of St Bonnot, near the town of Dole in the Armanges countryside. Garnier was certainly strange. He was not from Dole but was supposed to have come from Lyons and was greatly disliked by local people. He, in turn, seems to have disliked them even more. He had little education, and its quite possible that he may have had mental health problems, but he stayed away from the nearby towns and lived like a beggar in the wilds. Around the time that hed come to Armanges, a huge wolf had also appeared in the district and had begun to carry off small children. There is really nothing to suggest that this was not an ordinary animal, but the people of Dole were convinced that it was a werewolf and suspicion fell on the grim and unfriendly hermit of St Bonnot. It grew to a fever pitch when a number of men armed with muskets and arquebuses (another early gun) rescued a little girl from the beast in a meadow known as La Poupe near
Left The werewolf returns home. Too often those who lived outside the towns, in isolation in forests or country areas, were accused of being werewolves and practicing witchcraft.

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the village of Chastenoy. Although she was badly mauled, the child was able to tell her rescuers that before it leapt upon her she thought that she had recognized the face of Gilles Garnier in the muzzle of the animal. In the werewolf-frenzied times, that was enough for the local authorities. The parlement (or local council) in Dole ordered that the hermit be arrested and questioned in connection with the attack. As the local hysteria concerning wolves had grown, the old man had long been a suspect. Garnier was put to the question (tortured) and he confessed. He gave a long and rambling account, all in gruesome detail, concerning his time as a werewolf. The central part of this was the murder of two small boys, aged 10 and 12, one of whom he
Left Terrible depictions of werewolf attacks fuelled the terror that had gripped France. Huge beasts that mauled defenceless maidens were a favourite of the time.

had killed near Dole and the other in August 1570 in a pear orchard just outside the village of Perrouze in the parish of Cromany. As he had been devouring the latter, he had been driven off, still in his wolf form, by some hunters and labourers from the village. In October 1570, he had killed and eaten a little girl who had been playing in a wood called La Serre about a mile from Dole, apalling the court by saying that he had found her esh particularly sweet. Unlike many others, Garnier was very vague about how he actually

Above Caught in the act! The wolf-like beasts believed to terrorize the countryside in France were diligently hunted, though many arrests and convictions were based on rumour and confession, often after torture.

turned himself into a wolf and spoke of a spectral man whom he had met in the woods of St Bonnot who had taught him great magic, including the act of transformation. The confession was enough to condemn him and, at the beginning of 1573, he was brought for trial under the Public Prosecutor Henri Camus, found guilty, and sentenced to death.

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alarming levels in some parts of France. Many people now witches or ferocious beasts and, as a result of accusations, a good number of people were brought to trial. began to suspect their neighbours of secretly being either

By the late 1500s, the fear of werewolves had grown to

THE GANDILLION FAMILY

The Family of Werewolves

ne of the most famous cases occurred in 1598 in Burgundy.

One spring morning in that year, 16-year-old Bonoit Bidel was picking fruit with his younger sister in a pear orchard near the village of St Claude. Leaving the little girl at the foot of a tree, he climbed up into the branches to get some of the juicy fruit near the top. While he was up in the tree, a tail-less wolf suddenly emerged from the undergrowth and threatened the child below. As it attacked her, Bidel dropped from
Left The werewolf attacks. The tail-less wolf, the sign of evil in St Claude. Right A Witches Sabbat. The Gandillions were accused of attending these gatherings of evil.

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Left The Devil makes a pact. The Gandillion family were believed to be in league with the Devil.

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the branches with his sharp knife at the ready. Suddenly the wolf in front of him started to change becoming almost man-like, a human creature covered in fur. It struck the boys knife away and delivered a fatal blow to his neck. The girls screams brought labourers running from nearby elds and they drove the wolf away. Although badly wounded, Bidel was able to give a description of his human attacker, and a search was underway. Close by, a young girl named Perenette Gandillion was wandering among the trees. Her apron and dress had smears of blood on them and she was covered in scratches. This was enough to convince the mob who found her that she was the wolf and they tore her to pieces. The Gandillions lived not far away and they were not well liked in

the community. They were widely suspected of being witches and of worshipping the Devil, and so the idea that they were also werewolves was not all that strange. It was their misfortune that the senior judge in the Bordeaux district was Henri Boguet (see pages 60-63), a noted witch-hunter and a great believer in werewolves. When the scandal in St Claude broke out, his famous book Discours des sorciers (An Examen

of Witches) was just out in print and he saw an opportunity to further its publicity though a trial. He ordered the arrest of the Gandillion family on suspicion of witchcraft and werewolfery. Perenettes sister, Antoinette, was also accused of being a werewolf and of creating hailstorms through black magic. She was also accused of attending a Witches Sabbat a great gathering of witches intending to do evil. Her brother Pierre was similarly accused. He

was an epileptic and was subject to terrifying ts and faints and was presumed to lie in a coma while his spirit roamed the countryside in the shape of a wolf. It was also said that he attended the Sabbat made up entirely of werewolves. Under torture he revealed how the Devil had given him clothes of wolf skin and had made him run about the countryside on all fours attacking people as he met them. Pierres son Georges confessed that the Devil had also given him a magic ointment which would change him into a wolf. When they were held in the local cells, it was noted that the entire family crawled about the oor, making growling noises between themselves a sure sign that they were werewolves. All of them were found guilty and executed. Having burned the Gandillions, Boguet turned his attention to any other werewolves that might be lurking in the district. Indeed, his suspicion and hatred of lycanthropes seems to have increased, but it is not clear whether he actually found any.
Left Children battle a werewolf who has attacked their friend. All people, at the time, were urged to be vigilant in the hunt for werewolves.

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PIERRE DE LANCRE AND HENRI BOGUET


In 16th century France, the werewolf belief was at its most fierce, and in areas of the countryside some people began to actually suspect their neighbours or even members of their own families of being werewolves or witches who had the power to turn themselves into wolves.

The Werewolf Hunters

number of magistrates in some areas also believed this and set about rooting out those people who, they believed, were doing Satans work. In doing so they only made the belief much worse, and soon everybody was accusing everybody else. Of course, the names of some of these magistrates became very famous as hunters of witches and werewolves. One of these was Henri Boguet, who was the Grand Justice of the Franche-Comt region of central France and who lived from 1550 1619. He was a well-educated man, having made a special study of witchcraft and demons. He had also written several books on the subject, the most famous of which was Discours des sorciers (An Examen of Witches), in which he claimed that there were witches and shapeshifters everywhere. He now turned his attention to werewolves, which he declared were living among decent people and were seeking to eat and corrupt them. Between 1589 and 1616, he tried and executed usually by burning over 600 sorcerers and

Left Hundreds of people were burned to death. All across France werewolf terror had taken hold.

werewolves in the Franche-Comt and Jura regions of France. It was he who tried the Gandillion family (see pages 56-59) and who made sure of their execution. Having burned them, he began to hunt out other werewolves who might still be lurking in the Jura region. He wrote several pamphlets on his work, which were widely circulated, and became an inspiration for a number of other local magistrates. One of these was a judge in Bordeaux named Pierre de Rostegny (also known as Pierre de Lancre), who lived between 1553 and 1631. Greatly taken with Boguets writing, de Lancre himself decided to hunt for witches and werewolves in his own area the Loubard region of Brittany. This area included many Basque people, who were living in small villages and whom de Lancre hated. In 1609 he began a great programme of persecution against them, burning around 700 people at the stake in 1609 and 1610. Nobody was spared men, women, even young children (whom de Lancre considered to be the worst of all since their innocence hid great evil, or so he said). Like Boguet, he also brought out a book on the subject

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of witches and werewolves Tableau de linconstance des mauvais Anges et Demons (On the Inconsistency of Witches) which was published in 1613 and which became a bestseller far beyond the borders of France. In it, de Lancre said quite clearly that there were beasts living at the very heart of many villages waiting only for the opportunity to strike against their neighbours. They could transform themselves, through the magic of the Devil himself, into the forms of animals, usually of wolves, and in this form they would attack and eat those around them. These people had to be rooted out and brought before the courts. Just like Boguet, de Lancre was a very educated and wellrespected man and his words were taken very seriously even in countries other than France. Indeed, this book set the example for werewolf trials in countries such as Germany and Italy. But the times were slowly beginning to change, and the French werewolf hysteria was beginning to slow down. In 1603, de Lancre presided over the trial and review of Jean Grenier (see pages 6467) and seems to have taken a more lenient view. He did not burn Grenier, as he might once have done, but committed him to a monastery for life. This is generally thought to be the last great French werewolf case, and the fear of the wolf in forest and village was fading away.

Right Witch dunking to prove witchcraft. Many women were accused of witchcraft, often just on the gossip of their neighbours.

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The Wretched Werewolf

JEAN GRENIER

During the 1500s and early

1600s, werewolf hysteria raged through many parts of Europe but particularly case which is generally through France. The

at least, was that of Jean Grenier in 1603.

as France was concerned

frenzy to an end, as far

regarded as bringing that

Left A werewolf in a wolf-skin coat. It was believed that wearing the skin of a wolf, especially one enchanted by the Devil, could turn you into a beast.

renier was the son of a poor labourer in the village of St Antoine de Pizon in the District of Bordeaux. Even at 14 years of age he was an odd character. He liked to terrify other small children with frightening stories, mainly concerning himself. One of these was that he was a werewolf, and as time went on these stories grew wilder and wilder and much more horrifying. He claimed, for instance, that he had been out in the elds near his home

Above Reports of werewolf attacks were so plentiful at the time that almost every town had believers and many had those who claimed to have witnessed attacks.

when he had been approached by a mysterious stranger whom he thought was the Devil. He had been given a strange ointment, along with a wolf-skin cloak, which would change him into the shape of a wolf for one hour on certain nights of the week. It was known that the man with whom Jean lived the labourer was not his real father, and Jean claimed that his true father was a

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priest, a fact that would inevitably make him a werewolf. Grenier claimed to have attacked several dogs while in his wolf shape but found their blood disgusting. He then changed to killing young children and found their blood much sweeter. However, he was not terribly specic about those whom he had attacked or devoured. Many people regarded such stories simply as wild fantasies in the head of a disturbed boy, but slowly their views began to change. While out tending sheep with 13-year-old Marguerite Pourier, Grenier began to scare her with some of his most frightening tales. Terried, the girl accused him of turning into a werewolf before her eyes and of attacking her. She declared that Jean had gone off into the bushes and had re-emerged in his wolf form. She managed to beat the creature off, but
Right One great fear of werewolves was that they could be your neighbors, your friends, even members of your family and have access to the safety of your home.

it retreated only a little way and sat on its hunches and growled at her as if ready to spring. She said that it looked remarkably like Jean Grenier. She also said that it was smaller than an ordinary wolf and that it had no tail a sure sign of a werewolf. Grenier was quickly arrested. Given the severity of the charges against him, he was expected to deny them all, but to the surprise of those questioning him he admitted everything. Not only this, but in

the months before his arrest several children had gone missing in the area, and Grenier also admitted an involvement in that. His confession was rambling and often made no sense, and even his questioners had to admit that some of the accounts that he gave just didnt add up. However, he also implicated some of his neighbours whom he said were werewolves, and they too were arrested. Among those he implicated was his father,

who was arrested and tortured and eventually confessed that he was a werewolf and had approached several little girls. He had not eaten them, he said, only toyed with them. As time went on, Jean Grenier changed his story several times, each version becoming more fantastic. In the end, the charges against his father were dropped and he was released. Jeans stories, however, were taken extremely seriously and he was brought before the court of Bordeaux and the severe judge and witchhunter, Pierre de Lancre. Although he was found guilty and condemned to death, de Lancre reviewed the case and pardoned him citing his wretched upbringing placing him in a monastery where he lived out his days. In many respects this case brought the French werewolf frenzy to a close.

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before the courts charged with witchcraft and werewolfery, all from the small southwestern town of Vaud.

On April 22, 1602, three women were brought

SUSANNE PREVOST

The Werewolf of Vaud

kidnapping the boy, all three were charged with eating him. The other two claimed that Suzanne Prevost was their leader and had brought them to meet the Devil, who was her master. According to legend, she was declared to have been a werewolf for a long time beforehand and may have been responsible for many other killings. What became of the three is unknown, since there is no record of the outcome of their trial, but it is more than likely that they were all burned at the stake.

The case shows how closely accusations of witchcraft and werewolfery were connected in the eyes of the authorities. Many witches in parts of Europe were often thought to go about in the guise of wolves seeking to do harm against their neighbours. This belief was widely accepted all across Europe throughout the 16th and early 17th centuries and served as the basis for many other trials and many other deaths.
Left and below Gatherings of witches. Many witches were believed to turn themselves into werewolves to attack their victims.

uzanne Prevost and her fellow accused, Miche Bauloz and Jeanne de la Pierre, were said to be witches who had met with the Devil. He had given them a secret recipe for a special ointment, made from disgusting things such as the fat of a hanged man and the blood of children, which they then rubbed

on their bodies to change them into vicious wolves. In this form they attacked several people, including a young child whom they ate completely, apart from the right hand, which God did not permit them to take. Although Miche Bauloz and Jeanne de la Pierre were only charged with

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THE BURGOMEISTER OF ANSPACH


Germany and concerns a wolf that was caught and then dressed as a man, chased through the streets, and hanged by the terrified townsfolk. One of the most curious werewolf tales comes from

The Werewolf Mayor

n the mid-1600s, the town of Anspach (now Ansbach) in Bavaria had a thoroughly nasty burgomeister (mayor) whom everyone in the town disliked and feared. Unfortunately, as the top ofcial in the area, he had the support of the ruling nobility and was able to

do more or less as he pleased. This, coupled with the fact that he disliked the local townspeople as much as they hated him, made for a very unhappy town. Then, in 1685, the burgomeister died and everyone in the town was hugely relieved, although some certainly would not have said as much. However, shortly after his death, a great wolf began to roam the countryside, killing livestock and attacking people who came near it. It even attacked and ate a few local children
Left A werewolf driven from the town.

signicantly, these were the children of people who had spoken out against the burgomeister when he was alive. Because of the mean nature of the beast and the perceived association with the families affected by the attacks, the people assumed that this wolf was the vengeful spirit of the dead mayor, doing evil against those whom he disliked. The creature, locals said, was a werewolf. They were all the more certain of this because the animal proved extremely difcult to catch, despite the efforts of some of their best huntsmen. Eventually, however, the beast was tracked to a nearby wood and killed. The townspeople, anxious to rid themselves of the burgomeisters evil

Above The evil mayor was believed to have come back from the dead to attack and eat the children of those who opposed him while he was alive.

spirit, brought back the body and dressed it in esh-coloured clothing, a wig, and a beard, and paraded it through the streets while they jeered, shouting the name of the former mayor. They then took it to the town gibbet, where it was hanged for all to see as a warning not to act in an evil manner and so become a werewolf. In some versions of the story, the wolf was hanged on the gibbet while still alive. Whatever actually happened, it was said that the wolfghost of the burgomeister troubled the town no more.

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W e r e w o l f Ta l e s

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The Sorrowful Werewolves


What is possibly the oldest written werewolf story and 1187 by the monk Geraldus Cambrensis, or Gerald who was Overlord of Ireland at that time. comes from Ireland and was written between 1185

OSSORY

of Wales. He had visited the country with Prince John,

he story tells of a certain holy man who was visiting the Diocese of Meath on important business and who had to camp for the night in the forests of Ossory. As he lay by his re a voice called to him from the darkness,

Below Wolf couples, members of the clan destined to spend years in wolf form.

and into the circle of relight walked a large wolf. The creature told him not to be afraid for he was not really a wolf but a human being in wolf form. He was a member of a clan (Clan Altan) which had been cursed by the bad-tempered St Nechtan. Every seven years two members of the clan were turned into wolves, in which guise they had to remain until the time was up. He and his wife had assumed the wolf shape, but his wife had been injured by a huntsmans arrow and was dying. The wolf wished the monk to come and grant her last rites. After a little persuasion, the holy man went with him to a cave in the forest where a she-wolf lay dying.

Above Full moon rises over forests and lakes the perfect setting for werewolf encounters.

Taking his knife, the monk cut through the wolf skin and found the face of an elderly woman looking back at him. Knowing that the wolfs story was true, the monk granted her absolution and the she-wolf died in peace. The talking wolf then escorted the monk to the edge of the forest, making some prophesies about the future of Ireland as it did so, and saw him on his way. The holy man promised to return and check on the creature when his business in Meath was done, but if he did there is no record of this.

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75

could not only take on the form of wolves but also of other animals and birds rats, stoats, crows, and even cats.

In certain parts of the world, it was believed that witches

SUSANNA MARTIN

The Werecat of Salem

Martin, who was sometimes known as a troublemaker. No charge was brought against Goody (as married women were called at the time) Martin, but she cursed Robert Downing and said that he would pay for his accusation. One night in 1692, as he lay on his bed, a great cat came to his window and slid into the room. It then attacked him, leaping on him and attempting to tear his throat out. He managed to throw it to the oor and, calling out the name of God, he drove it away. The experience badly shook him, but he remembered the threat that Susanna Martin had made against

him a while before and went straight to the local magistrates. Susanna Martin was arrested and accused as the Salem witch frenzy took hold of the colony. She was accused of being a witch and of taking on the form of a huge cat in order to seek her revenge. Found guilty, she was executed along with several others at Salem in 1692. The word werecat was not used until the 1800s, so it did not appear at her trial, but this expression has later slipped into our language.
Left A huge werecat over the body of a victim. Below Courtrooms were overrun with accusations of witchcraft and shape-shifting for evil means.

Indeed, cats were a favourite guise for many witches and appear in the accounts of many witchcraft trials. One such was that of Susanna Martin, suspected of witchcraft at Salem Village, New England. Her story is found in the works of the Puritan witch-hunter, the Reverend Cotton Mather, in his book, Wonders of the Invisible World.

In 1692 there were a series of witch trials in Bay Colony, in what is today Massachusetts, in which a number of women were accused of consorting with the Devil and were executed. Several years earlier a man called Robert Downer had been accused of being a witch, and he in turn had accused a woman of Salem Village named Susanna

76

W e r e w o l f Te s t s

W e r e w o l f Te s t s

77

If theres a chance youve stumbled upon a werewolf, there are various tests you can use to make sure. If the answer to any of the questions is no, youre probably safe...

WEREWOLF TESTS

PHASE ONE
From a safe distance, check out the eyebrows. Do they meet in the middle?

PHASE TWO
Phase two begins with a taste test. Tempt your doggy pal with a plate of fresh liver. Is he or she looking longingly at such a snack?
No

PHASE ThRee
Ask about pastimes and hobbies. Does your suspect favour time in the woods? Are they unnaturally interested in spending time in forests?
No

PHASE FoUR
The nal phase is probably the most dangerous. Arrange to meet your suspect at full moon. Do they readily agree? Are they licking their lips?
No

No

Look at the hands. There are a couple of things to check for here. Are they very hairy? Is the ring nger longer than the middle one?
No

Check out the clothes. Have they chosen a wolf-skin cloak? Or strips of wolf fur worn around the arm?
No

Offer your companion some wolfsbane. A steady nerve is needed here. Are they repelled by the plant? Or does it bring out the wolf in them?
No

When you meet, is there any sign of excessive dental work? Have their teeth suddenly grown? Do they have fangs?
No

Look for extra body hair all over. Strangely hairy ears? Furry arms? A pronounced widows peak on the forehead?
No

Now, carefully, start to tease your companion. Does he or she overreact? Does the anger outweigh your comments?
No

Now for a real test. Offer your suspect something silver. Do they shrink from even the smallest silver trinket?
No

Finally, and this is probably the clincher, have they developed great big slashing claws and a desire to howl all night?
No

If yes, you are quite possibly in the company of a werewolf.

If yes, it seems likely that your companion is indeed a werewolf.

The signs are all there, its a good idea to be on your guard.

OK, just RUN!

78

Glossary

Index

79

Black magic A type of magic believed to use the power of the Devil to do evil.

GLOSSARY
Gibbet A structure for hanging criminals. Heretic A person who holds religious beliefs in conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. Hermit A person who lives in solitude or isolation from society. Lenten Mass The Mass said at Easter marking the end of Lent. Medicine man A person believed to have magic powers of healing. Medieval The period of European history between the end of the Roman Empire in 476 AD and about 1500 AD. Prehistoric Things that existed at a time before information was written down. Shaman or witch doctor A person believed to have powers to heal the sick or to remove evil spirits from them.

Shape-shifter A person able to change their physical form into that of another. Sylvanus Roman god of woods, fields, and flocks. Master of all animals and growing things. Wehr Old Saxon or Viking word for man. Widows peak A V-shaped point in the hairline in the middle of the forehead. Witches Sabbat A great gathering of witches intending to do evil. Witch-hunter Someone who identifies and punishes people for practicing witchcraft. Wolfsbane An herb, also known as monkshood or aconite.

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations. A Africa 9, 11, 35 North 10, 47 Algonquin 31 America 9, 31 North 10 Amulius 44 Ancient Greece 38 Ancient Werewolves 2021 Argentina 8 B Baar-saark (bear shirt) 34 Benandanti 3233 Bigfoot 31 Bjarki, Bodvar 2829 Black magic 28, 34, 48, 59, 78 artifact 7, 23, 50 ornament 22 spell 6, 48 Boguet, Henri 5861 Burgomeister of Anspach, the 7071 C Canada 30 Cannibalism 27, 40, 47, 51, 55, 68 king 40 Caul 8, 33, 78 Cave drawing 21 Cerberus 21, 21 Clan Atlan 73 Coir Anmann 26 Crom Crach 27 Crucifix 16 Cu-Cuhullain 6, 78 D Damarachus 44 Denmark 28 Devil 23, 50, 58, 5859, 62, 65, 6869, 74, 78

Discours des sorciers 5859, 61 Dogheads 47

INDEX
J Japan 9, 10 L Laignach Faelad 2627 Lancre, Pierre de 6062, 67 Lenten mass 78 vows 31 Livonia 33 Loup-Garou 3031 Lycaon 3840 Lycanthropes 59 M Matre de Fort, Le 2425, 25 Marmaritae 47 Mars, Roman god of war 43 Martin, Susanna 7475 Mather, Reverend Cotton 74 Middle East 34 Movies 7 N Niciros 42 Norway 28 O Ointment 7, 59, 65, 68 Ojibwa 31 Old Norse sagas 28 Olympic Games 44 On the Inconsistency of Witches 62 Ossory 40, 72 P Paleolithic 21 Palms 14, 28 Potions 22 Prevost, Susanne 6869 Priest 9 Children of 8, 22, 66

Caul A thin membrane that covers or partly covers a newborn baby immediately after birth. Cu-Cuhullain The Hound or Wolf of Ulster in Irish mythology. Curse An appeal to a supernatural power to inflict evil on someone. Demon An evil spirit. One of the servants of the Devil. Devil The most powerful evil spirit in the Christian faith. Folklore Stories and traditional tales that have been held as part of a community for generations. Full moon The time when the moon is fully illuminated and can be seen as a complete sphere.

E Egypt 10, 34 Eigi einhamr 28 England 35 Examen of Witches 5859, 61 F Faustulus 44 Finland 11, 34 Folklore 7, 28, 78 Icelandic 48 France 25, 56, 6062, 64 Full moon 7, 13, 77, 78 G Gandillion Antoinette 59 family 56, 61 Perenette 58 Pierre 59 Garnier, Gilles 52, 5455 Gerald of Wales 72 Germany 50, 62, 70 Ginzberg, Carlo 32 Gottsklak Bishop of Hlar 4849 Grand Bissetre, Le 25 Greece 44 Grenier, Jean 62, 6465 H Hair 13, 1415, 28, 76 Hanged 71 Hell 33 Hermit 52 Hunting 20 I Iceland 48 Ireland 11, 26, 47, 72 Italy 32, 43, 62

R Raudskinna 4849 Red Skin Book 4849 Remus 4244, 43, 45 Reprebus 47 Romania 24 Rome 42 Romulus 4244, 43, 45 Rougarou 30 Russia 9 S Salem 74 Sasquatch 31 Scandinavia 9, 10, 28 Seventh son of a seventh son 8 Shaman (witch doctor) 11, 2021, 32, 34, 38, 78 Shape-shifter 8, 15, 28, 32, 78 She-wolf 4244, 73 Silver 12, 17, 31, 77 bullet 7, 1213, 16 Sorcerer 10, 34, 61 de Trois Freres 21, 21 South America 11 St Christopher 4647, 47 Stubbe, Peter 5051, 5051 Sweden 28 Sylvanus 25, 78 T Tableau de linconstance des mauvais Anges at Demons 62 Theiss 33 Tigernmas 27 Transformation 9, 15, 17, 23, 55 V Vestal Virgin 43 Viking 6

80

Index

Index continued
W Wehr 6, 78 Werecat 7475 Were-creatures 34, 3435, 35 Were-sheep 35 Werewolf ancient 2021 Benandanti 3233 bite 7 curse 79, 31, 78 eigi einhamr 28 eyebrow 12, 15, 76 golden rules 1617 how to avoid 1415 Laignach Faelad 2627 Loup-Garou 3031 Matre de Fort, Le 2425, 25 movies 7 tail-less 56, 66 tales 3637 tests 7677 types 1819 ways to spot a 1213 what is a 69, 1213 where do they live? 1011 witches and 2223 Widows peak 13, 76, 78 Witchcraft 22, 48, 61, 68, 74 Witch doctor (shaman) 11, 2021, 32, 34, 38, 78 Witches 6, 2223, 23, 62, 69 Witches Sabbat 57, 59, 78 Witch-hunter 23, 58, 74, 78 Wolf Master 24 Wolf Men of Tipperary 27 Wolfsbane 9, 16, 16, 31, 77, 78 Wolf skin 20, 22, 26, 29, 59, 64, 65, 76 Wonders of the Invisible World 74 Z Zeus 3841, 40, 41

Marshall Editions would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their images: t = top b = bottom c = center r = right l = left

Acknowledgments

Cover Credits: Front cover design by Tim Scrivens Jacket photos: Shutterstock/Getty Images Pages: 1t Rex Features/Universal/Everett; 1br Shutterstock/Alaettin Yildirim/Michael Steden/2happy; 2-3 Shutterstock/ supertramp88; 2-3b Getty Images/Dorling Kindersley; 4 Shutterstock/Suzanne Tucker; 5 Shutterstock/Jaroslaw Grudzinski; 6 Alamy/Redmond Durrell; 7 Alamy/Archives du 7me Art/Photos12; 8 Shutterstock/Fribus Ekaterina; 9t Shutterstock/Shipov Oleg; 9b Ronald Grant Library/Le Canal; 10 Shutterstock/Kurt De Bruyn; 11 akg-images/Universal/Album; 12 Shutterstock/ CURA Photography; 13 Shutterstock/Cynoclub; 14 Getty Images/Dorling Kindersley; 15 Bridgeman Art Library/Private Collection; 16 The Bridgeman Art Library/The Stapleton Collection; 17c Shutterstock/Tom Grundy; 17b Shutterstock/ fotografie4you; 18-19 Shutterstock/Junker; 20 The Art Archive/Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana/Gianni Dagli Orti; 21t akgimages/Herbert Kraft; 21b The Art Archive/Muse du Louvre/Gianni Dagli Orti; 22 The Kobal Collection/Columbia; 23 The Bridgeman Art Library/Collection of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre; 24 Shutterstock/Ilya D. Gridnev; 25 Getty Images/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 26 Werner Forman Archive/National Museum of Ireland; 27 The Bridgeman Art Library/Private Collection/Ken Welsh; 29 Lord Price Collection; 30 Topfoto/British Library/HIP; 31 Getty Images/James Balog/Aurora; 33 Corbis/Sunset Boulevard; 34 Topfoto/The Granger Collection; 35 Topfoto/Artmedia/HIP; 36-37 Shutterstock/Lukiyanova Natalia/Frenta; 38-41 Mary Evans Picture Library; 42 Corbis/Bob Krist; 43t The Bridgeman Art Library/Archivio di Stato, Siena/Alinari; 43b Shutterstock/Silky; 44 Shutterstock/Silviu-Florin; 45 Corbis/Alexander Burkatovski; 46 akg-images; 47 Corbis/Francis G. Mayer; 49tc Shutterstock/Robyn Mackenzie; 49b Getty Images/Stone/Steve McAlister; 50-51b Topfoto/ Charles Walker; 51t akg-images; 52-53 Alamy/Mary Evans Picture Library; 54 Topfoto/Charles Walker; 55 The Bridgeman Art Library/Muse Nationale des Arts et Traditions Populaires/Archives Charmet; 56 Mary Evans Picture Library; 57 The Bridgeman Art Library/Museo Lazaro Galdiano/Giraudon; 58t The Bridgeman Art Library/Private Collection/The Stapleton Collection; 58-59 Mary Evans Picture Library; 60 The Bridgeman Art Library/Bibliothque Mazarine/Archives Charmet; 62-63 Corbis/Bettman Archives; 64 Alamy/Bilwissedition Ltd & Co KG; 65 Topfoto/Charles Walker; 66-67 Topfoto/The Granger Collection; 68 The Bridgeman Art Library/Private Collection/The Stapleton Collection; 69 The Art Archive/Museo del Prado/ Gianni Dagli Orti; 70 Topfoto/The Granger Collection; 71 akg-images/Stonewood Com/Hollywood Pictures; 72 Mary Evans Picture Library; 73 The Bridgeman Art Library/Bibliothque des Arts Decoratifs/Archives Charmet; 74 Lord Price Collection; 75 The Bridgeman Art Library/Peabody Essex Museum; 77 Shutterstock/Ducu59us.