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SYNOPSIS Although Reverse Osmosis seems like a complex system it is really a simple and straightforward water filtration process. And it's not a new process. High-pressure (pump driven reverse osmosis systems have !een used for years to desalinate" water # to convert !rackish or seawater to drinking water. Having a !etter understanding of how a reverse osmosis system works will eliminate the mystery and confusion you may feel when you look at a reverse osmosis system -- with its many colored tu!es and multitude of filters. Read on to enhance your knowledge of residential systems.

All RO $ystems work the same way. %ost RO (Reverse Osmosis systems look alike. All RO $ystems have the same !asic components. &he real difference is the 'uality of the filters and mem!ranes inside the RO INTRODUCTION Osmosis is a natural process !y which water flows into plant and animal cells(

through cellular mem!ranes( also known as semi-permea!le mem!ranes or osmotic mem!ranes. &hese mem!ranes have a uni'ue property that pure water can freely flow in either direction( !ut passage of salt and other dissolved impurities are inhi!ited. )iving cells contain salty solutions( which allows them to a!sor! water from their natural surroundings( through the osmotic process. Osmotic pressure is a uni'ue( natural property of all solutions. &he osmotic pressure of a solution depends on the concentration of the salt and other dissolved

materials. $uspended impurities like silt and !acteria do not contri!ute to osmotic pressure. WORKING PRINCIPAL Reverse Osmosis is a process in which dissolved inorganic solids (such as salts are removed from a solution (such as water . &his is accomplished !y household water pressure pushing the tap water through a semi permea!le mem!rane. &he mem!rane (which is a!out as thick as cellophane allows only the water to pass through( not the impurities or contaminates. &hese impurities and contaminates are flushed down the drain. *ltimately( the factors that affect the performance of a Reverse Osmosis $ystem are+

,ncoming water pressure -ater &emperature &ype and num!er of total dissolved solids (&.$ in the tap water &he 'uality of the filters and mem!ranes used in the RO $ystem (see operating specs ADVANTAGES &ap water contains multiple !iological contaminants &he RO treated water is not only pure !ut also great in taste and smell. &his is !ecause the RO system removes a!out /01 of chemicals from the tap water. $o you do not have to !ear with the taste and smell of chlorine anymore. -ith the removal of lead( mercury( chlorine( as!estos and other 2344 well known toxins( RO system significantly reduces the risk of illness and diseases. &he water that you get from RO system hydrates your !ody at a faster pace. &he !est part a!out RO system is that all the pollutants are not collected !ut directly flushed down the drain.

&he RO system is !est for areas having hard water.


As most minerals like iron( magnesium( calcium and sodium are larger in si5e than water molecules( the semi-permea!le prevents them from passing on to the other side. $o the water actually gets de-minerali5ed. &he removal of naturally occurring minerals not only makes the water less healthy !ut also affects its taste. &hus many people find the RO water tasteless. &he RO mem!rane fails to remove any dissolved salts ions or particles that are smaller in si5e as compared to water molecules. ,t is expensive to use an RO water purifier as it runs on electricity. &he system needs professional assistance for cleaning.