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TASHEEL AL-NAHW

TASHEEL AL-NAHW
based on Ilm al-Nahw of Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali

Revised & Edited by Aamir Bashir

Copyright Dr al-Sadah Publications 2011 First Online Edition July 2011 Second Online Edition July 2012 ilmresources.wordpress.com General and unrestricted permission is granted for the unaltered duplication, distribution, and transmission of this text. In Plain English: Make as many copies as you want.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents List of Tables Acknowledgments Foreword Arabic Terms CHAPTER 1 1.1. 1.2 Arabic Grammar The Word Noun Verb Particle 1.3 Types of Noun Types of Verb Types of Particle 1.4 1.4.1 Nominal Sentence Verbal Sentence 1.4.2 1.4.3
1. 2. 3. 4.

i vii ix xi xiii 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 7 8 Types of Phrases Descriptive Phrase Possessive Phrase Demonstrative Phrase 9 9 9 10 10

Sentences and Phrases

Numerical Phrase

5.

Indeclinable Phrase

11 14 15 16

1.4.4 Additional Notes About Summary 1.5 Signs of a Noun Signs of a Verb Sign of a Particle 1.5.1 General Notes 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 CHAPTER 2 Declinable and Indeclinable Words 2.1 Signs of Iraab Conditions of Murab Difference Between 2.2 Indeclinable Word and Personal Pronouns Prepositions Those Particles That Resemble the Verb Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs

16 16 16 17 19 20 22 25 27

27 27 27 28 29 30

2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5

Declinable Word Types of Indeclinable Nouns Personal Pronouns - Relative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Those Nouns Which Have the Meaning of Verbs Those Nouns Which Denote a Sound

31 32 33 39 42 45 46

ii

2.4.6

Adverbs Adverbs of Time Adverbs of Place

47 47 49 52 52 53 53 53 53

2.4.7 2.4.8 2.5

Those Nouns Which Indicate an Unspecified Quantity Numerical phrase Types of Declinable Nouns

2.6 CHAPTER 3 Further Discussion of Nouns 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 Similar to 3.7.4

Iraab of the Various Types of Murab Nouns

58 61 61 63 64 65 67 68 73 73

Relative Adjective Diminutive Noun Definite and Common Nouns Masculine and Feminine Nouns Singular, Dual and Plural Types of Plural - Words Which Are Always Marfoo

Subject/Doer
/ Substitute of The Noun of Those and , Which Are

75 76

The

of That Which Negates an Entire

77

(Class)
3.8 3.8.1 Words Which Are Always Mansoob Object 79 79

iii

3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 3.8.5 3.8.6 3.8.7 State / Condition

81 81 81 82 84 87 (Numerals) 88 92 Words Which Are Always Majroor 95 96

/
Rules for

3.8.8 3.9 3.10 3.10.1 3.10.2 3.10.3 3.10.4 Adjective Emphasis Substitute Conjunction

96 111 103 105 105

3.10.5 CHAPTER 4 Governing Words 4.1 Governing Particles Particles Which Govern Nouns Particles Which Govern 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Particles That Give Nasb Particles That Give Jazm Governing Verbs Active Verb Passive Verb Intransitive Verb

108 109

110 110 110 111 114 116 116 116 116 iv

4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.3 4.3.4 That Adjective Which is Similar to Verbs of Praise and Blame Verbs of Wonder Governing Nouns Conditional Nouns Transitive Verb

116 117 119 121 123 124 124 126 127 129 130

4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 4.3.8 4.3.9 4.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Particles of Exhortation Particle of Anticipation Particles of Interrogation Particle of Rebuke Non-Governing Particles Particles of Notification Particles of Affirmation Particles of Clarification

132 134 135 135 136 137 137 137 138 138 138 139 139 140 140

10. 11. 12. 13. Jazm 14. 15. Appendix Bibliography Extra Particles Conditional Particles That Do Not Give

140 140 141 142 143 143 145 149

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LIST OF TABLES

Table No 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.3 and 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Different Forms of the Noun of and Its Iraab Rules Governing the Iraab of Nouns in the Meaning of Nouns in the Meaning of in in and Personal Pronouns Prepositions Those Particles That Resemble the Verb Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs in (also called (also called in ) (also called ) ) (also called )

Page No 19 20 22 25 34 35 36

37 39 39 42 42 45 45 59 69 69 70 70 73 77 81

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3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Verbs Requiring Three

93 111 114 117 118 119 124 127 130 132

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are many people whom I would like to thank for making this project a success. To begin with, I am in debt to the sister who typed up the old Tasheel al-Nahw, and thus helped to kick-start the project. She does not want her name to be publicized. I would also like to thank Mawlana Ibrahim Memon and his students of Darul Uloom al-Madanias eAlim program for their valuable feedback. Last but not the least, I am indebted to my First year students at Darul Uloom al-Madania (both 20102011 and 20112012), who have been continuously giving me feedback. I would especially like to mention my current First year students Abdullah, Ayyub, Muhammad, Saeed, Umair, Umar, and Wahid. I have greatly benefitted from their intelligent questions, wise comments, useful suggestions, and help with proof-reading. May Allah reward them, and all others for their contributions and help.

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FOREWORD
This book is the second edition of the revised Tasheel al-Nahw, which in turn was a somewhat expanded translation of the Urdu language primer of Arabic grammar, Ilm al-Nahw by Mawlana Mushtaq Ahmad Charthawali. Mawlana Charthawalis primers for Nahw (Arabic grammar) and Sarf (Arabic Morphology) are standard textbooks in Western madrasahs. The original English translation of Ilm al-Nahw was prepared by scholars from Madrasah Islamiyyah, Benoni, South Africa. They put in a lot of hardwork and made the English translation much more beneficial than the Urdu original. May Allah reward them. At least two versions of this translation are available online. The first one had many errors and typing issues. The newer version made some improvements but issues remained, especially with regards to language and clarity of the English and Arabic texts. In 2010, we decided to bring out a revised edition of this translation to address these issues. During the course of our revision and editing, we consulted various grammar works including al-Nahw al-Wadih, Sharh ibn Aqil, Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah, and A Simplified Arabic Grammar. We completely revised some sections, as well as a number of definitions. The organization was changed in a way that we felt would make it easier for students to understand how each section fits in the overall picture. This second edition has undergone more changes. Further improvements have been made in many sections; some sections have been completely revised; confusing sentences have been elaborated; more examples and exercises have been included, including many from alNahw al-Wadih and Muallim al-Insha; and where needed, the relevant al-Nahw al-Wadih section has been pointed out in the footnotes. These footnotes are for the benefit of the teachers. The students can choose to ignore them. Lastly, an appendix has been attached at the end, identifying Tasheel al-Nahws place in Nahw texts, as well as suggesting a possible curriculum of classical Arabic studies. This is a beginner-to-intermediate level text; therefore, we have not transliterated Arabic words exactly, keeping in mind that most people at this stage will not be comfortable with Arabic transliteration schemes. Rather, we have used approximate equivalents that are easier to read for the untrained. Nevertheless, non-English words have been italicized to reflect their non-English origin. The documentation in the foot-notes does not follow any particular academic standard; rather, it has been modified for ease of the students. It should also be noted that the English equivalents of Arabic grammar terms are mere approximations. In some cases, they convey the exact meaning. In many cases, they do not. The student is, therefore, urged to focus on the original term in Arabic. We would also like to point out that this is not a do-it-yourself text. First of all, it assumes some prior knowledge of Arabic such as that acquired through studying Ten Lessons of Arabic and/or Durus al-Lughah al-Arabiyyah vol. 1. Moreover, it needs to be studied with a xi

teacher. However, it can be used as a revision text by those who have already studied Nahw using other texts. It is respectfully suggested to the teachers to also use al-Nahw al-Wadih (all six volumes) while teaching, as reference and for additional examples and exercises, as and when needed. Moreover, it should also be pointed out that this is not an exhaustive text. It does not cover every issue of Nahw, in brief or in detail. It is assumed that the student will be studying relatively advanced Nahw texts (such as Hidayat al-Nahw or al-Nahw al-Wadih) after this to round off his/her training of Nahw. The sample curriculum given in the appendix can be used for that purpose. To the best of our ability, we have tried to remove all errors. However, we are merely human. There are bound to be some mistakes in it, and definitely, room for improvement. Your comments, constructive criticism, and suggestions are all welcome. You can contact us with your feedback at the email address given at the end. We hope and pray that this revised translation will be of benefit to the students. We also pray that Allah Most High accepts this humble effort from all those who have contributed to it in any way, and gives us the power to continue with more. We also request the readers and all those who benefit from it in any way to remember us in their prayers. And He alone gives success.

Aamir Bashir Buffalo, NY 14th Shaban, 1433 (4th July, 2012) E-mail: ainbay97@yahoo.com

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ARABIC TERMS

Arabic Term

Approximate Transliteration ism fil harf mudhakkar muannath waahid tathniyah jam dammah fathah kasrah harakah plural: harakaat huroof al-illah iraab tanween sukoon saakin tashdeed mushaddad faail mafool aamil

Equivalent English Term / Description of the meaning Noun Verb Particle Masculine Feminine Singular Dual Plural

Short vowels, i.e., dammah , fathah , kasrah Long vowels i.e., These are the variations at the end of the word, which take place in accordance with the governing word. two fathahs ( ), two dammahs ( ), two kasrahs ( )

A letter with sukoon

A letter with tashdeed Subject i.e. the doer Object i.e. the person or thing upon whom or which the work is done. Governing word i.e. that word, which causes iraab change in the word(s) following it.

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Arabic Term

Approximate Transliteration mamool fil maroof fil majhool fil laazim fil mutaaddi marifah nakirah marfoo mansoob majroor

Equivalent English Term / Description of the meaning The governed word i.e. that word in which the iraab change occurred. The active verb i.e. that verb whose doer is known/mentioned. The passive verb i.e. that verb whose doer is not known/mentioned. The intransitive verb i.e. that verb, which can be understood without a . The transitive verb i.e. that verb, which cannot be fully understood without a . Definite noun. It is generally indicated by an example, . For

the house (a particular/specific house).

Common noun. It is generally indicated by a tanween. e.g. a house (any house). It is that word, which is in the state of It is that word, which is in the state of It is that word, which is in the state of , which is , which is , which is generally represented by a dammah on the last letter. generally represented by a fathah on the last letter. generally represented by a kasrah on the last letter.

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CHAPTER 1

Section 1.1 Arabic Grammar


Definition: Nahw is that science, which teaches us how to join a noun, verb and particle to form a correct sentence, as well as what the (condition) of the last letter of a word should be. Subject Matter: Its subject matter is

(word) and

(sentence).

Objective: The immediate objective is to learn how to read, write and speak Arabic correctly, and to avoid making mistakes in this. For example, , , , and are four words. The science of Nahw teaches us how to put them together to form a correct sentence. The mid-term objective is to use our Arabic skills to understand the Quran, Hadeeth, Fiqh and other Islamic sciences, so that we can act upon them. The ultimate objective through the above is to gain the pleasure of Allah Most High.

Section 1.2
The Word Any word uttered by humans is called a In Arabic, 1. 2. . Compound: It is a group of words. They may form a complete sentence or an incomplete one. Types of There are three types of 1. 2. 3. (noun) (verb) (particle) Noun: It is that whose meaning can be understood without the need to combine it with another word. It does not have any tense.1 It is the name of a person, place or thing.2 e.g. man house Note: A noun can never have a (tanween) and an at the same time. : . If it has a meaning, it is called (meaningless). . and

(meaningful); and if it does not have any meaning, it is called (meaningful word) is of two types:

Singular: It is that single word, which conveys one meaning. It is also called

The first two bullets combine to form the classical definition of ).

. See, for example, Abdullah ibn Aqil,

Sharh ibn Aqil ala Alfiyyat ibn Malik, (Cairo: Dar al-Turath, 1980), vol. 1, 15. The definition given by ibn Aqil is as follows: (
2

This third bullet by itself is the definition found in more modern texts like al-Nahw al-Wadih. See, for example, Ali al-Jaarim & Mustafa Ameen, al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Ibtidaiyyah, (Cairo: Dar alMaarif, n.d.), vol. 1, 16. Their definition of ( is as follows: )

Verb: It is that whose meaning can be understood without the need to combine it with another word. It has one of the three tenses: past, present, or future.3 It denotes an action.4 e.g. He hit. Note: A can never have a (tanween) or an .

He helped.

Particle: It is that it. e.g. (from) (on top) whose meaning cannot be understood without joining an or a or both to

EXERCISES
1. State with reason whether the following words are i. ii. (He sat.) (and) iii. iv. or . (girl) (He broke.)

2. Find the meaning and the plural of the following nouns using a dictionary. i. ii. iii. iv.

3 4

The first two bullets combine to form the classical definition of The last two bullets combine to form the definition of

. See Sharh ibn Aqil, vol. 1, 15.

as given in al-Nahw al-Wadih. See al-Nahw al-

Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 16.

Section 1.3
Types of Noun is of three types: 1. Primary Noun: It is that word derived from it. e.g. 2. 3. e.g. e.g. horse to hit hitter which is neither derived from another word nor is any girl from which many words are derived. to help which is derived from a masdar. the helped

Root Noun: It is that Derived Noun: It is that

Types of Verb is of four types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Past tense Present and Future tense Positive Command/ Imperative Negative Command/ Prohibitive Types of Particle is of two types: 1. 2. after it. e.g. Causative Particle: It is that e.g. Non-Causative: It is that then , which causes change in the word after it. change in the word Zayd is in the mosque. , which does not cause and e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. He hit. He is hitting or will hit. Hit! Dont hit!

EXERCISES
1. Correct the following words (stating a reason) and give its meaning. i. ii. 2. iii. iv.

Find the meaning and the plural of the following nouns using a dictionary. i. ii. iii. iv.

3.

Translate the following sentences, and identify the different types of verbs in them. i. ii. iii. iv.

Section 1.4 Sentences and Phrases


is of two types: is also called Often, it is just called . , and . This is a phrase, is also called i.e., an incomplete sentence. From now onwards, when we use sentence, we will be referring to complete sentences; and when we use phrase, we will be referring to incomplete sentences. Types of Sentences There are two types of sentences: A. : It is that sentence, which has the possibility of being true or false. B. Section 1.4.1 : It is that sentence, which does not have the possibility of being true or false. and ,

.
and . This is a complete sentence.

is of two types: 1. Nominal Sentence: Definition: It is that sentence, which begins with a noun. The second part of the sentence can be a noun or a verb. The first part of the sentence is called (subject) or information is being given). The second part of the sentence is called information). The is generally Both parts ( and and the ) are . (predicate) or . (the word about which (the word giving the

generally

Sentence Analysis The house is clean. = +

Note: A sentence may have more than one Sentence Analysis

The man is tall and strong. = 2. 2 + 1 +

Verbal Sentence: Definition: It is that sentence, which begins with a verb. The first part of the sentence is called The second part of the sentence is called or or . and is always .

Sentence Analysis Zayd sat. = + i.e. it is a verb whose meaning can be

Note: In the above example, the verb is understood without a Note: If the verb is a , then a .

i.e. a verb whose meaning cannot be fully understood without will be added and will be .

Sentence Analysis Allah created the sky. = + +

EXERCISES5
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. iv. ii. v. iii. vi.

2. What is the difference between (v) and (vi) above?


5

For more examples and exercise, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 11-19 & 36-46.

Section 1.4.2 is of ten types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Note: 5. Note: 6. 7. Positive Command Negative Command Interrogative Desire e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. Hit! Dont Hit! Did Zayd hit? I wish youth would return. Hopefully, the examination will be easy. O Allah! Will you not come to me so that I may give you a dinar?

is generally used for something unattainable. Hope e.g.

is generally used for something attainable. Exclamation Request/Offer e.g. e.g.

Note: 8. 9. 10.

is a mere request; no answer is anticipated. Oath Amazement Transaction e.g. e.g. e.g. The seller says and the buyer says By Allah! How good Zayd is! I sold this book. I bought it.

Note: The sentences for as

are in reality

. However, Islamic law recognizes them

with respect to all contracts, and requires that they (past tense verbal sentences)

be used to convey definiteness. Sentence Analysis: Did Zayd hit? = + +

EXERCISE
1. State what type of i. ii. are the following sentences. iii. iv.

Section 1.4.3 - Types of Phrases Phrases are of five types: 1. Descriptive Phrase:6 It is a phrase in which one word describes the other. The describing word is called The 1. 2. 3. 4. and . .

The object being described is called

must correspond in four things:

Iraab. Gender i.e. being masculine or feminine. Number i.e. being singular, dual or plural. Being marifah or nakirah. a righteous men

For example,

the intelligent/wise girl

2.

Possessive Phrase: It is a phrase in which the first word ( attributed to the second one ( owns or possesses the first. The never gets an The e.g. is always or a . Zayds book

) is

). In some cases, this means that the second word .

The iraab of the

will be according to the

governing it. For example,

I found Zayds book.

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 82-86.

Notes: 1. Sometimes many , are found in one single phrase. For example, the door of the mans house

2. If a

of the

is brought, it should come immediately after the . For example, the new door of the house

with an

and should have the same iraab as that of the

3.

If a

of the

is brought, it should come immediately after it (

), and

it should correspond to it ( example,

) i.e. in the four aspects mentioned earlier. For the door of the new house

3.

Demonstrative Phrase: It is a phrase in which one noun ( towards another noun ( The e.g. ).

) points

must have an . This man

Note: If the e.g.

does not have an , it would be a complete sentence. This is a man.

=
4.

Numerical Phrase: It is a phrase in which two numerals are

joined to form a single word (number). A originally linked the two. e.g.

(eleven)

It was originally

.
(19).

This phrase is found only in numbers 11-19. e.g. (11), (12), (13),

10

Both parts of this phrase will always be e.g. Eleven men came. I passed by eleven men. ( )

except the number 12 ( I saw eleven men.

). ( )

As for number 12, its second part is always , it is written as , the first part is given a e.g. Eleven men came. ( I passed by twelve men. ) (

while the first part changes. Thus, in ). ( I saw twelve men. )

, with an at the end of the first part. However, in in place of the ( )

and

5.

Indeclinable Phrase: It is a phrase in which two words are joined to form a single word. The first part of this phrase is always The second part changes according to the Examples: 1. . . and

is the name of a region in Yemen. It is composed of two words is a verb, which means he/it became present and

.
2.

is a noun, which . was the name

means death. Thus, literally, of an idol and

means [a place where] death became present. and

is a city in Lebanon. It is composed of two words was the name of a king.

Note: The above mentioned various types of phrases/incomplete sentences form part of a complete sentence. Example 1 The trustworthy/honest trader gained profit.

11

Example 2

Every faail is marfoo and every mafool is mansoob.

Example 3 +

I bought this book.

Example 4

Fourteen men came.

Example 5

This is Balabakk.

EXERCISES
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following phrases. i. ii. iii. iv. 2. v. vi. vii. viii.

What is the difference between the following sentences? i. ii. iii. and and and

12

iv. 3.

and

Correct the following and state the reason(s). i. ii. iii. iv.

4.

Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following. i.

13

Section 1.4.4 Additional Notes About 1. Sometimes, the e.g. is not mentioned, in which case it will be regarded as hidden ( The Imam is in the mosque. ).7

+ = 2. The can be a complete sentence. Zayds father is knowledgeable. + +

Example 1:

= = Example 2:

+ + Zayd ate the food.

= =

+ +

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. ii.

However, generally, to simplify matters, the

is taken to be

. See Mawlana Hasan Dockrat, A Simplified

Arabic Grammar, (Azaadvillle: Madrasa Arabia Islamia, 2003 ), 37.

14

Summary

15

Section 1.5
Signs of a Noun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is preceded by an . It accepts . e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. . or . . . . . Signs of a Verb: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is preceded by . It is preceded by . It is preceded by It is preceded by It is preceded by It has a hidden It is an imperative It is a prohibitive . . . . . . e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. He has gone out. He will soon go out. He will go out after a while. He did not go out. He will never go out. He went out. Go out. Do not go out. She ate. e.g. the man in Zayds new house a man a word two men men The man is strong. Zayd sat. book of Zayd tall man O man! a little man a Makkan

There is tanween on the last letter. It ends with a round . It is a dual It is a plural It is a It is It is .8

e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g.

10. It is 11. It is 12. It is

It has taa saakin ( ) at the end. Sign of a Particle:

That word which has no sign of a noun or verb is a particle (a particle has no sign of its own).
8

Verbs are said to be dual and plural with respect to their doers

. The action is one. Thus, duality and

plurality are signs of a noun and not a verb.

16

Section 1.5.1 General Notes 1. The indefiniteness of a noun e.g. is indicated by a tanween. Such a noun is called .

a house (any house) .

2. The definiteness of a noun is indicated by an . Such a noun is called e.g. the house (a specific house) at the same time.

3. A noun can never have a tanween and an e.g. is incorrect.

4. When the last letter of a word and the first letter of the following word have sukoon ( ), it is called (the meeting of two sukoons). In this case, the first sukoon is . The before the will not be generally changed to a kasrah. e.g. will become pronounced. In some case, the first sukoon is changed to a fathah. e.g. (from Japan) will become . In some cases, the first sukoon is changed to dammah. e.g. 5. When an the e.g. (you understood the lesson) will become appears before a noun, which begins with a letter from of must not be pronounced. The of will get a tashdeed. the tree the sun . (sun

letters) then the

will not get a sukoon. Instead

6. The remaining letters are known as get a sukoon and will be pronounced. The e.g. the pen

(moon letters). In these, the will not get a tashdeed. the moon is a feminine noun.

of

will

7. Generally, a noun ending with a round e.g. 8. The generally be . blackboard

etc. of a

(non-human) plural will

17

e.g.

many idols these idols The houses were many.

The idols do not benefit. The guard dogs are sitting.

9. When writing a noun ending with two fathahs ( ), an alif e.g. However, If there is a round added. e.g.

must be added at the end.

at the end of such a word, alif should not be

18

Section 1.6 Personal Pronouns


Definition: to the speaker (singular: ) are those words, which are used in place of names and refer or the third person Table 1.1 Personal Pronouns Unattached Form He (one male), it They (two males) They (many males) She (one female), it They (two females) They (many females) You (one male) You (two males) You (many males) You (one female) You (two females) You (many females) I (one male or female) We (many males or females) Attached Form his, its, him their, them their, them her, its their, them their, them your your your your your your my, mine, me our .

or the second person

In the unattached form, these dameers can appear as mubtada, faail, etc. In the attached form, they can appear as mafool or mudaaf ilayhi. For more details, see section 2.4.1. e.g. He is Zayd. I am a student.
9

your pen I helped her.

Sometimes, a

is added before the (the of is

to protect an iraab as in ).

, which would otherwise

be incorrectly read as

19

Section 1.710 Prepositions


Effect: A gives a to the noun it enters upon, which is then known as Table 1.2 Prepositions Meaning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Example 1: with by (for oath) like for by (oath) since since/for besides, except many a besides, except from besides, except in, regarding from, regarding on up to, until up to, towards Example I wrote with the pen. By Allah! Zayd is like a lion. All praise is for Allah. By Allah! I have not seen him since a week. I have not see him for four days. The people came except Zayd. Many a learned person acts on his knowledge. The people came except Zayd. I returned from the journey. The people came except Zayd. Zayd is in the house. The doctor asked about the patient. The cloth/clothes is/are on the chair. I slept till dawn. I travelled to Madinah. Grammar in speech is like salt in food. .

10

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 76-81.

20

Example 2 with Sentence Analysis: I wrote with the pen. +

= Note: Together, the and are known as (connected) of the in . in

(there is more detail to this, and will follow later), and of the

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv.

21

Section 1.811 (also called Verb


These are called These appear before a to the because like and to the . which is then known as (or and so on). (or and so , they also govern two words.

) Those Particles That Resemble the

Effect: Such a particle gives a on) and a

which is then known as Table 1.3

Those Particles That Resemble the Verb Meaning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. certainly, verily, indeed that as if but, however if only, I wish maybe, hopefully, perhaps Example Verily Allah is All-Knowing. I know that the examination is near. It is as if the house is new. The house is new but the furniture is old. I wish youth would return. Hopefully, the examination will be easy.

Sentence Analysis: Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing.

Notes: 1. Difference between a.

and :

is generally used at the beginning of a sentence. is generally used in the middle of a sentence.

11

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 69-75.

22

b. Sometimes,

appears in the middle of a sentence. This happens in the following .

two cases: i. When it is used after a word with root letters e.g. ii. e.g. 2. The can be a complete sentence. When it is at the beginning of a .12

He says, indeed, it is a yellow cow. I visited the one whom I respect.

Example 1:

Indeed, Zayds mother is pious.

Example 2:

Indeed, Zayd ate the food.

3. If the e.g.

is (

), then the

will appear first and the

second.

Indeed, to us is their return.

12

will be discussed in Section 2.4.2.

23

4. When e.g.

is joined to any of these

, their effect is cancelled. Your god is only one god.

Note: In this example, the meaning has also changed to only. 5. by itself conveys emphasis. Sometimes, even more emphasis. In this case, the e.g. must be can be added before the . to convey

Indeed, I know your brother.

EXCERISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

24

Section 1.913 (also called


is called two mamools ( e.g. These verbs enter on a to the to the Effect: They give

) Auxiliary (Defective) Verbs


(incomplete/defective) because even though it is a , it needs

). The sentence remains incomplete with one Zayd was (the sentence remains incomplete). and a . (or and so on). , which becomes known as (or Table 1.4 Meaning Example

and so on) and

, which becomes known as

1. 2. 3.

was became happen in the morning OR became

The house was clean. The man became wealthy. Zayd became ill in the morning. Zayd became rich. The worker became tired in the evening. The clouds became dense at mid morning. It rained the whole day. Zayd passed the night sleeping. Sit as long as Zayd is sitting. Zayd was continuously sick. Zayd was always fasting. Zayd was always active. The trader was always truthful. The servant is not strong.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.


13

happen in the evening, became happen at midmorning, became happen during the day, became happen during the night, became as long as always, continuously always, continuously always, continuously always, continuously no, not

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 62-68 & vol. 2, 151155.

25

Sentence Analysis: The house was clean.

Notes: 1. When e.g.

is used with of

, it gives the meaning of past continuous or past habitual. Zayd was writing/Zayd used to write. is a . Also, note the two ways it is translated above. can be used in can be used in but not in or ). . and as well.

Note: Here, the 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The e.g. 7. If the e.g. is ( and

have a past tense only (no

must be preceded by another sentence. of is sometimes prefixed with a . Is Allah not the greatest of rulers/best of judges? ), then the will appear first and the second.

There were clouds in the sky.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

26

CHAPTER 2 Declinable and Indeclinable Words

Words are of two types with respect to changes, which may or may not take place at their ends. If the end of a word remains the same in all conditions, it is called ; and that word whose end changes is called .

Section 2.114
: Those conditions or states ( are four: , , and ), which remain unchanged at the end of . words are four: words . These are called

: Those conditions or states ( , , , and . These are called brought about at the end of a (governing word). Signs of Iraab

), which occur at the end of (

for short). These changes are

word in accordance with the requirement of the

Iraab can be expressed in different ways. These are called two common ones are as follows: 1. means of a e.g. 2. or . e.g. States of Murab As mentioned above, the conditions or states that occur at the end of Below, we look at them in more detail.

(signs of iraab). The

: These are the basic signs and are the most common. Iraab is shown by i.e. or or or (which is the absence of a ). i.e. or

: Sometimes, the iraab is shown by means of any of the

words are four.

14

This section is based upon the discussion in al-Nahw al-Wadih. See al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibdtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 7-18.

27

1. e.g. 2. e.g. 3.

is the condition in which a end of a word. Such a word is said to be

or its substitute such as

appears at the

is the condition in which a

or its substitute such as

appears at

the end of a word. Such a word is said to be

is the condition in which a

or its substitute such as

appears at

the end of a word. Such a word is said to be e.g. 4. e.g. is the condition in which a in the case of

appears at the end of a word or its substitute (

) is dropped from the end. Such a word is said to be

Note: It should be remembered that verbs can only be in the state of nouns can only be in a state of Difference Between The words a at the end. It is The words , , or and .

or

, while

are used to describe the states at the end of a .

, e.g.

has

are used for all other places where ( ), ( ) and ( ) appear. , respectively, wherever word. Thus, one ) is on ( ), but one must say (

In other words, ( ), ( ) and ( ) are normally called they occur except when one needs to precisely point out the end of a could say . has a on ( ), a on ( ), and a

28

Section 2.2 Indeclinable Word


As mentioned earlier, a e.g. This came. Note: The at the end of I saw this. I passed by this. is that word whose end remains unchanged in all conditions i.e. governing it.

irrespective of the requirement of the

remained constant and did not change according to the

requirement. Types of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Those seeghahs of ). Amongst nouns , those whose ends remain constant are called words ( or i.e. nouns, which do not give place to changes. These nouns are their resemblance with any one of the three types of or a. the word b. Resemblance in meaning. For example, the noun , which is (one of the and are recognized by : * * that are ( and ) or have ( and *

All Particles

). This resemblance can be in any one of the following ways: (give grace/respite) resembles ) and has the same , which is (one of the ), , which is

meaning. Resemblance in dependency. For example, the noun dependent on a to give meaning, resembles a which is also dependent on another word to give meaning.

c.

Resemblance in having less than three letters. For example, the noun less than three letters, resembles letters. Resemblance in having had a resembles a

(e.g. ), which is also generally less than three originally. For example, the noun .

d.

in the sense that originally it contained a

*These three are known as

29

:15 When a , place of , or , word appears in a sentence in a place where it is supposed to be in the state of , its end does not change because it is , , or ( , . However, it is said that it is in the ), in accordance with its place in

the sentence. For example, We helped him. Keeping in mind that all pronouns are is is is and is . and and . . , this sentence will be analyzed as follows:

, is
, is

EXERCISE
1. Analyze the following sentences like in the example given above. i. ii. iii.

15

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 35-38.

30

Section 2.3 Declinable Word


As mentioned above, a requirement of the e.g. A man came. Note: The iraab of Types of : , all of the seeghahs of ( and ) are besides those of ( and I saw a man. I passed by a man. . is that word whose end accepts any of the iraab according to the governing it.

kept on changing according to the requirement of the

1. Amongst verbs ) and those with 2. Amongst nouns known as

.
. They are

, those nouns, which accept iraab changes are

i.e. nouns which give place to iraab changes. only when they are used in a sentence. If not used in a . For example, on its own, when not part of a .

Note: These nouns will be sentence, such a word will be sentence, will be

EXERCISES
1. State with reason whether the following words are i. ii. iii. iv. 2. Translate the following sentences and identify the i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. v. vi. vii. viii. and words in them. or .

31

Section 2.4 Types of Indeclinable Nouns


The types of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. are as follows: (relative pronouns) (demonstrative pronouns) (those nouns which have the meaning of verbs) (those nouns which denote a sound) (adverbs) (those nouns which indicate an unspecified quantity) (numerical phrase)

(personal pronouns)

In the following pages, we will look at each of these in detail.

32

Section 2.4.116 Personal Pronouns We have discussed Definition: to the speaker 1. before. Now, we will look at them in greater detail. ) are those words, which are used in place of names and refer or the third person . : , which is visible and has a ). These two are defined as or the second person

(singular:

There are two types of

Visible or Independent Pronoun: It is that ), or it can be attached to another word (known as follows: i. ii.

distinct form. It can appear on its own, i.e. unattached to another word (known as

: The unattached pronoun is that pronoun which can be pronounced on its own without being connected to another word. : The attached pronoun is that pronoun which cannot be pronounced on its own without being connected to another word. Hidden or Implied Pronoun: It is that , which is not visible but is

2.

implied. It is always attached ( Note: A hidden

). . (refer to Table 2.2) will assume in the various

can only appear in

Below are tables showing different forms that the conditions/states (haalaat).

16

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 120-135.

33

Table 2.1 in (also called )

e.g.

34

Table 2.2 in (also called )

Note: In the table above, the respective verb in parentheses.

, which in many cases is the

, is indicated after its

35

Table 2.3 and in (also called and )

Dameer

Example

17

e.g.

You alone we worship.

17

Sometimes, a

is added before the (the of is

to protect an iraab as in ).

, which would otherwise

be incorrectly read as

36

There are two ways in which by a

appears in

. One is when it is preceded


to it.

; and the other is when some other word is Table 2.4 in (also called

e.g.

His house is his.

Note: The

in

will always be

37

: It is that e.g. : It is that e.g. : It is that e.g. , which appears between a and a for emphasis. It is they who are successful. , which sometimes appears at the beginning of a sentence without a . Indeed, the matter is that Fatimah is standing. (an earlier word that it refers to). The sentence after it clarifies such a , which sometimes appears at the beginning of a sentence without a . Indeed, the matter is that Zayd is standing. (an earlier word that it refers to). The sentence after it clarifies such a

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences, pointing out all the as well as their type and i. ii. . iii. iv. ,

38

Section 2.4.218 - Relative Pronouns Definition: An An is an whose meaning/purpose is understood through the . , must have a .

sentence, which comes after it, which is called which relates (refers back) to it. The (visible or hidden) referring to the

cannot form a complete part of a sentence on its own. It must have a , which is generally a . This is called

Table 2.5

who, that, which those two who, that, which those two who, that, which those who, that, which Table 2.6

who, that, which those two who, that, which those two who, that, which those who, that, which those who, that, which Examples 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The one (masculine) who helped you, came. The two (masculine) who helped you, came. I saw the two (masculine) who hit you. I met those (masculine) who helped me. The one (feminine) who helped you, came. The two (feminine) who helped you, came.

18

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 136-140.

39

7. 8. Additional Relative Pronouns: 1. and (that and who)

I saw the two (feminine) who hit you. Those (feminine) who helped you, came.

These are used for all genders and all numbers. The difference is that is used for intelligent beings ( non-intelligent beings ( e.g. ).

) and

is used for

Show goodness to that person who has shown goodness to you. I read what you wrote.

2.

and They are generally has the meaning of e.g. has the meaning of e.g. . which girl and an would equal would equal would equal , has the effect of . and used in . from which book .

3.

, which appears before an e.g.

4. According to the dialect of the tribe , it is an . It is used for all genders and all numbers, without its form changing. e.g. equals equals equals The one who hit you, came. I saw the one who hit you. I passed by the one who hit you.

40

Sentence Analysis: That person whose father is knowledgeable, came.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv.

41

Section 2.4.319 Demonstrative Pronouns Definition: An is that noun, which is used to point at something. These nouns are

of of two types. i. : It is used for pointing at something near. ii. : It is used for pointing at something far.

Table 2.7

this these two these two these

that those two those two those

Table 2.8

this these two these two these e.g. that book these women those men
19

that those two those two those

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 141-145.

42

Notes: 1. In the case of not part of the actual the 2. The of , for both masculine and feminine, the in the beginning is . It is, in fact, a . However, it is so often used with , that it is normally considered a part of them. is sometimes changed according to the number of persons being

addressed. The meaning will not be affected. e.g. He is the Lord of both of you. 3. If the e.g. 4. If the e.g. However, if the which is an e.g. If no e.g. 5. If the the . e.g. 6. or rules. Sentence Analysis: This pen is precious. + (here) and This is the son of the king. (there) are also . However, they do not have any special is a is also , and the occurs as a is a , then the will come after the .

this book of yours , then the will generally be a . ,

This is a book. , then a suitable should be added between the for it to remain a complete sentence.

This is the book. is added, it would be an incomplete sentence. this book , then there will be no need for a to be added between the and

43

EXERCISE 1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

44

Section 2.4.420 Those Nouns Which Have the Meaning of Verbs Definition: These are nouns that have the meaning of verbs but do not accept its signs. That which has the meaning of , gives the noun after it a raf; and the one which has the meaning of , gives the noun after it a nasb. Table 2.9 Nouns in the Meaning of Noun Verb Meaning he/it became far, it is far (from him) same as above; and what a difference, there is a difference between he hastened Example It is far from (beyond) Zayd to do this. What a difference there is between the learned and the ignorant! Zayd hastened.

Table 2.10 Nouns in the Meaning of Noun Verb Meaning Give respite! Leave!; Give up! Example Give Zayd respite. Give up thinking about that which does not concern you. Take the milk. Hold on to my Sunnah. Come to salah.

Take! Hold on to (it)!; (It is) incumbent on you Come!; Hasten!

20

For more examples and exercises, please refer to Ali al-Jaarim & Mustafa Ameen, al-Nahw al-Wadih li alMadaris al-Thanawiyyah, (Cairo: Dar al-Maarif, n.d.), vol. 1, 40-43.

45

Notes: 1. There are some other nouns which have the meaning of verbs. These are as follows: ( come) ( accept) ( ( ( keep quite) bring, give) bring him/it to me) ), i.e. their form changes. ( ( suffice) away from me)

2. Some of these nouns are inflectable ( i. e.g.

Say: bring your proof, if you are truthful. ii. e.g. Say: O people of the book! Come to a word e.g. Then, come, I will make provision for you and release you with kindness.

Section 2.4.5 Those Nouns Which Denote a Sound To denote a cough. To denote pain. To denote happiness, pleasure. To make a camel sit. To denote the cawing of a crow.

21

is an abbreviation for

(until the end of the ayah).

46

Section 2.4.622 Adverbs Definition: An is that noun, which gives us an idea of the place or time when (or . (the adverb of place).

where) some work is done. It is also called are of two kinds: Adverbs of Time: 1. (when) It gives the meaning of The sentence after e.g. e.g.

(adverb of time) and

even when it appears before or a . Remember when you were less.

could be a

And when Ibrahim (Allah give him peace) was

raising the foundation of the House (Kaba). Sometimes, it gives the meaning of suddenness . This is called . e.g. I came out and suddenly the principal of . the school was watching. Sometimes, it gives the meaning of because ( ). This is called e.g. That you are together in punishment will never benefit you today because you oppressed. [This is according to one translation.]

2.

(when/if) It gives the meaning of It gives the meaning of The sentence after e.g. e.g. even when it appears before and but does not give either a or preferably a . . .

could be a

I will come to you when the sun is up. When the help of Allah comes...

22

The list of

given in this section is by no means exhaustive. There are many more that should be studied

in advanced books of Nahw.

47

Sometimes, it gives the meaning of suddenness followed by a e.g. standing. .

, in which case

must be

I came out and suddenly the dog was

3. e.g. e.g. 4.

(when) It can be used as an interrogative . and get a . When will you travel? When you fast, I will fast. (how) It is used to enquire condition. e.g. How are you? (In what condition are you?) (when) It is used as an interrogative. e.g. Note: When will be the day of recompense? is used only to enquire of great events of the future as compared to .

It can also be used as a conditional noun in which case the

5.

6. e.g. 7.

(yesterday) Zayd came to me yesterday. (since, from) These two can be used to convey the beginning of a time period. e.g. I have not seen him since Friday. They can also be used to refer to an entire period. e.g. I have not seen him for two days. These can be used as as a e.g. followed by a . I have not seen him since Friday. (followed by a ) or as , which will be regarded

48

8. e.g. 9. e.g. 10.

(not, never) It is used to emphasize . I never hit him. (never) It is used to emphasize . I will never hit him. (before) (after) They are e.g. Allahs is the decision before and after (i.e. before everything and after everything). e.g. I have been present from before (i.e. before you). e.g. When will you come after (i.e. after this)? When the e.g. Adverbs of Place: is mentioned, they will be before the victory . when they are and the is not mentioned, but intended.

1. e.g. 2. e.g.

(where) It is generally to a sentence. Sit where Zayd is sitting. (in front of) & (behind) and .

It has the same rules as those for

The people stood in front and behind. (i.e. in front of him and behind him).

49

3. e.g.

(under)

&

(on top, above) and .

It has the same rules as those for

Zayd sat under and Amr above. (i.e. under the tree and above the tree.) 4. e.g. Note: e.g. 5. e.g. They are used for e.g. ( (where) They are used for . Where are you going? and will get a ). (by, at, near, with) The money is with Zayd. will get a kasrah if it is preceded by from Allah .

Where you sit, I will sit.

6. e.g.

(at, by, near, with (same meaning as

)).

The money is with Zayd. from the All-Wise, All-Knowing

is generally preceded by and is that in the case of

. , the possessed thing must be present with the , the possessed thing need not be present with

When used in the meaning of possession (with), the difference between person; whereas, in the case of the person.

Note: That adverb which is

and is

to a sentence or the word , could be .

or it could get the iraab according to the e.g. the adverb which is and

in the following ayahs:

This is the day when the truth of the truthful will benefit them. and faces on that day 50

EXERCISE
1. Translate the follows ayahs of the Quran and identify the whether they are from among i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. or . in them. Also identify

51

Section 2.4.7 Those Nouns Which Indicate an Unspecified Quantity 1. (so many, so much, how many, how much) They can be used for numbers e.g. How many silver coins do you have? e.g. e.g. 2. e.g. e.g. or or I took this many silver coins. is also used in the meaning of such and such. He said to me such and such. (so and so, such and such) I said such and such. I did such and such.

Section 2.4.8 Numerical Phrase This has been discussed earlier. Please, refer to section 1.4.3.

52

Section 2.5 Types of Declinable Nouns


These are of two types: 1. Definition: It is that noun which does not have two causes from amongst the nine causes that prevent declension ( ) or one such cause, which is equivalent to two. 2. Definition: It is that noun which has two causes from amongst the nine causes that prevent declension ( ) or one such cause, which is equivalent to two. Such a noun does not accept a kasrah and never gets a tanween. In fathah in place of a kasrah.
23

It accepts all harakaat as well as tanween.

, it gets a

There are nine reasons/causes which prevent iraab changes. Each one of these has its own conditions, which must exist for it to be a cause. The nine causes are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. i. e.g. ii. e.g. 7. 8. 9.

: It refers to the case when a noun gives up its original form to assume a new form.
is of two types:

: It refers to the case when a noun has an original.


In the case of (three and three together), the original is .

: It refers to the case when it is assumed that a noun had an original because
it is used as by the Arabs. as . However, there is only one apparent cause, is . . Therefore, in order to keep the grammar rule intact, it is assumed that the second reason is , and the original for The Arabs use

23

This discussion is based upon Hidayat al-Nahw. It is presented in an entirely different manner in al-Nahw alWadih. See al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibdtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 125-133.

53

2.

: There can be two cases when a noun, which is a

, would be ghayr munsarif.24

These are as follows: i. The was originally devised to give a descriptive ( on the wazn of ( e.g. ii. The 3. has ), and does not accept taa for its red green

) meaning. If such a

is

, it will be ghayr munsarif.

. Its conditions are given below in (7).

: It refers to the case when a noun is a proper noun (name of a person, place or thing). e.g. female name name of a region in Yemen

4.

: It refers to the case when a noun is such a feminine proper noun, which has one of the following characteristics: i. It ends with a round . For example,
25

ii. It does not end with a round and has more then three letters. For example, iii. It is a non-Arabic three-letter word and the middle letter is Note: All nouns ending in e.g. 5. Presence of pregnant red or is equivalent to two reasons. . For example,

. .

or

are feminine.

: It refers to the case when a word, which is a proper noun in a non-Arabic language,
has either more than three letters or has three letters and the middle letter is Thus, . e.g. e.g. (name of a fort) .

is munsarif because its middle letter is not

24 25

Sharh ibn Aqil, vol. 3, 322-324. Even though is a masculine proper noun, it is considered a feminine noun because of the presence of a

round . For more discussion on the subject, see Section 3.4.

54

Note: The difference between ghayr munsarif because of . 6. be an e.g.

and and

is that , while

is a feminine noun because of is is munsarif because it only has

it being the name of a country, while does not apply to either.

is not a feminine noun. Thus,

: It refers to the case when a word is a combination of two words. This word must
. name of a city in Lebanon name of a region in Yemen

7.

: It refers to the case when a noun ends with an the following is true: i. The and e.g. Note: Thus, the word noun. ii. The of e.g. .
26

and

and one of (proper noun).

appear at the end of such a noun which is an

(grass) is not ghayr munsarif because it is not a proper whose feminine is not on the

and

appear at the end of such a intoxicated


27

thirsty . is on

Their feminines are not on the Note: Thus, the word the wazn of If the and .

of

is not ghayr munsarif because its feminine

are not extra or added (i.e. not

) but are part of the original For example,

letters of the word, then it will not be ghayr munsarif.

26

is mainly used as ghayr munsarif (without tanween), and is sometimes used as munsarif (with tanween). , which requires that the masculine be ghayr . This requires that the masculine

The reason is that it has two feminines. The main feminine is munsarif ( be munsarif ( 4, 1391.
27

). However, in the dialect of Banu Asad, the feminine is

). See E. W. Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, (Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1968), book I, part

is interchangeably used as munsarif (with tanween) and ghayr munsarif (without tanween). The reason , and the other is . Considering the first, it becomes ghayr ). See Lane, book I, part 5, 2079.

is that it has two feminines. One is munsarif (

); and considering the second, it becomes munsarif (

55

8.

: It refers to the case when a proper noun is on the wazn of e.g. Here, is an .

is on the wazn of a

or when a

You are not more advanced/ahead than Ahmad. and is on the wazn of the verb , and is a and

is on the wazn of the verb e.g. Here, 9. following: i. ii. iii. two one letters. letter. is an

. Therefore, these two are ghayr munsarif.

and is on the wazn of the verb

. (alif of plural) one of the

: It is that plural, which has after the e.g. e.g. . e.g.

mosques animals keys

three letters, the middle letter being

Note: If any of the above words ends with a round , it will not be ghayr munsarif. e.g. polishers is equivalent to two reasons/causes. in the following cases: I prayed in their mosques. I went to the graves.

General Note: A ghayr munsarif noun will get a kasrah in when it is when it has . before it. e.g. e.g.

EXERCISES
1. Mention with reason why the following words are munsarif or ghayr munsarif. i. ii. iii. iv.
28

28

v. vi. vii. viii.


29

This is the name of a major Hanafi Imam. It is non-Arabic in origin and is pronounced with a dammah on the first letter and a fathah on the second letter.
29

Its main feminine is

. In the dialect of Banu Asad, its feminine is

. See Lane, book I, part 6, 2265.

56

2. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out with reason the words which are ghayr munsarif. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

57

Section 2.6 Iraab of the Various Types of Murab Nouns


We begin this section by defining some terms. Then, we will outline the iraab of each of the various types of murab nouns. : It is that noun, which does not end with any of the e.g. man : It is that noun, which ends with a or e.g. are as follows: father brother brother-in-law (plural: ) mouth something insignificant someone who possesses something . bucket preceded by a deer . These . .

: These are six nouns, which are not in their diminutive form

: It is that noun, which ends with an e.g. : It is that noun which ends with a e.g. When it is , the the judge Note: It should be remembered that the is not visible, e.g. does become visible, e.g.

preceded by a kasrah. is visible in an becomes when it is . , it

. However, in

(I saw a judge).

Before we list the iraab of each of the various types of murab nouns in a table, it would be useful to remember that a simple method of illustrating different iraab is to make three sentences on the following pattern:

Zayd came.

I saw Zayd.

I passed by Zayd.

In these three sentences, the word changing state ( kasrah in

is displaying the different iraab according to the , and a fathah in , and a

). Thus, it has a dammah in

.
58

Table 2.11

Noun Type

Examples for Each State

a. When

to

any noun besides the dameer.31 b. When the dameer. to hidden hidden hidden

c. when not hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden hidden

(masculine) (feminine) (masculine) (feminine)

30

I said to some men. The of is dropped when it is to any noun besides the dameer. For example, it is dropped in the

31

followng hadith:
32

(Whatever you put in the mouth of your wife)

Both of them.

59

Table 2.11 Continued Noun Type Examples for Each State

(plural of

) hidden

EXERCISE35
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and identify which rule from among those given in Table 2.11, is applicable. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.
33

was originally

. First, the

was dropped because of

. It became

. Then, the

was

changed to a

and the two were joined according to the following morphological , then the is changed to a , and the two . . It became

rule: when a and a are joined (this is called ),

appear together and the first is


34

and the dammah before the is changed into a kasrah. Thus, it became was originally . First, the . was dropped because of

. Then, the two

were joined (
35

). Thus, it became

For more exercises, refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 13-51 & 83-94.

60

CHAPTER 3 Further Discussion of Nouns

Section 3.1 Relative Adjective


Definition: It is that noun, which shows something or someone to be related to it. e.g. someone or something from Baghdad an expert in morphology an expert in Arabic grammar someone or something from India Rules of Forming To show this relation, a : preceded by a kasrah is added at the end of the

noun after affecting the following changes, if needed: 1. If a three-letter or a four-letter noun ends with an should be changed to a . e.g. e.g. becomes should be dropped. becomes , then the should be changed to a . Note: In the case of a five-letter noun, the , then

2. If a noun ends with an e.g. becomes

3. That noun which already ends with a e.g.

does not require

would remain as is.

4. The round at the end of a noun should be dropped. e.g. 5. The round dropped. e.g. and becomes of a noun, which appears on the becomes of becomes and becomes should be

61

6. In case of the noun, which appears on the e.g. becomes

of

and ends with a , the first should be dropped.

should

be changed to a preceded by a fathah, and the second

7. If the fourth letter of a noun is a can be changed to a . e.g. becomes

preceded by a kasrah, then the

can be dropped or it

or

8. If an original letter from the end of a noun was dropped, it should first be brought back, and then, the relative adjective should be made. e.g. (originally ) becomes (originally (originally ) ) becomes becomes

9. Some words do not follow any particular rule. They are based on usage. e.g. becomes becomes

EXERCISE
1. Form the relative adjective from the following words. i. ii. iii. v.

62

Section 3.2 Diminutive Noun


Definition: It is that noun, which is used to express the diminutive form of a noun. Sometimes, the purpose is to show affection or contempt. Rules: 1. A three-letter noun would come on the wazn of e.g. becomes becomes (a little slave) .

(or

for feminine).

(a little man)

2. A four-letter noun would come on the wazn of e.g. becomes

3. A five-letter noun, without a , or The fifth letter would be dropped. e.g. (name of a plant) A five-letter noun, having a , or e.g. (paper)

as the fourth, would also come on the wazn of becomes as the fourth letter, would come on the scale of .

becomes

Notes: 1. In the diminutive form, the hidden of a e.g. becomes

becomes apparent.

2. In the diminutive form, the last letter of a noun which has been dropped becomes apparent. e.g. (originally ) becomes ( was originally , and underwent a morphological process to become )

EXERCISE
1. Form the diminutive noun from the following words. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

63

Section 3.3 Definite and Common Nouns


(common noun): It is that noun, which denotes something unspecified. e.g. a man

(definite noun): It is that noun which denotes something specific. There are seven types of 1. 2. . : It is a personal pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in Section 2.4.1. : It is a proper noun, i.e. the name of a specific person, place or thing. e.g. 3. 4. 5. e.g. 6. That common noun e.g. : It is the demonstrative pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in section 2.4.3. : It is the relative pronoun. It has been discussed earlier in Section 2.4.2. : It is that noun, which has the man which is mudaaf to any of the above five definite nouns. (definite particle) at the beginning.

7.

: It is the vocative noun, i.e. that noun, which appears after a e.g. EXERCISE

1. Which of the following words are marifah (state what type) and which are nakirah. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

64

Section 3.4 Masculine and Feminine Noun


- Masculine Noun: It is that noun, which does not have any sign from amongst the signs of femininity .

- Feminine Noun: It is that noun, which has a sign from amongst the signs of femininity. This sign could be apparent or hidden. : The signs of being feminine are of two types: 1. e.g. . of a particular word. . . (assumed): It is that sign, which is not visible in words and is assumed to exist. This is determined by looking at the diminutive form This reveals the original letters of the word. e.g. The diminutive form is The diminutive form is Based on the signs of femininity being 1. femininity. 2. femininity. In terms of 1. (essence), e.g. 2. is of two types: (woman). Its masculine is (man). (according to usage): It is that feminine noun, which has a sign of or , (in words): It is that sign, which is visible in words. These signs are of the following three types: : This renders the word noun. e.g. e.g. even if the appears in a masculine proper (a masculine proper noun)

If a word has any of these three signs it will be 2.

. Therefore, it is . Therefore, it is is of two types:

(according to rule): It is that feminine noun, which has a

sign of

: It is that feminine noun, which has an opposite masculine.

: It is that feminine noun, which does not have an opposite masculine. e.g. (darkness) (spring)

65

Notes: 1. The following are used as feminine a. b. c. d. Name of females. e.g. Words denoting the feminine gender. e.g. Names of countries, cities, towns and tribes. e.g. Parts of the body found in pairs. e.g. Note: There are exceptions to the rule. e. f. g. masculine. Names of various types of winds. e.g. Various names of Jahannam (hell). e.g. Letters of the alphabet used as masculine. e.g. are generally used as . They can also be (cheek), (eyebrow) etc. are :

..

2. There are some words that Arabs use as feminine without regard to the presence or absence of signs of femininity. Examples include the following: (bucket) (tillage/field) (well) (self) (fire) (house)

66

Section 3.5 Singular, Dual and Plural


Singular: It is that noun, which denotes one. e.g. one man

Dual: It is that noun, which denotes two. It is formed by placing at the end of a singular An e.g. A . e.g. two men one of the following: preceded by a fathah and followed by a two men preceded by a fathah and followed by a with a kasrah i.e. for with a kasrah i.e. for .

Plural: It is that noun, which denotes more than two. e.g. Note: The e.g. .) (Originally, (Originally, but the but the was dropped due to .) .) was dropped due to of and men is dropped in case of (Originally, (Originally, . but the was dropped due to but the .) was dropped due to

EXERCISE
1. Translate the following into Arabic. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. The boys two bicycles. The farmers two servants. Your parents came. I saw your parents. The servants of deen. The teachers of the school.

67

Section 3.6 Types of Plural


Sound Plural: It is that plural whose e.g. There are two types of 1. A e.g. A e.g. 2. Feminine Sound Plural: It is formed by discarding the round adding at the end of a singular, one of the following: An preceded by a fathah and followed by a madmoom long . e.g. An e.g. Broken Plural: It is that plural whose e.g. (singular (the singular letter sequence/form) of ) preceded by a fathah and followed by a maksoor long . i.e. for i.e. for and preceded by a kasrah and followed by a . with a fathah i.e. [ ] for one of the following: preceded by a dammah and followed by a . with a fathah i.e. for : (singular ) (letter sequence/form) of does not

change, when its plural is made. In other words, the singular letter sequence does not break.

Masculine Sound Plural: It is formed by adding at the end of a singular

changes, when its plural is made. In other words, the singular letter sequence breaks.

68

Restricted Plural: It is that plural, which denotes a number from three to ten. It has four common

.
Table 3.1

Wazn

Singular

Examples Meaning self statement food boy

Plural

Note: The masculine and feminine sound plural, which is not preceded by an considered e.g. . intelligent females intelligent males

is also

Unrestricted Plural: It is that plural, which denotes a number from ten upwards. Some of the common are given below. Table 3.2

Wazn

Singular

Examples Meaning slave knowledgeable prophet messenger star servant patient student group/sect boy

Plural

69

Note: The masculine and feminine sound plural which is preceded by an considered as e.g. .

is also

Plural of a Plural: It is the plural of a plural. Sometimes, it appears on the wazn of and sometimes on the wazn of . Every plural does not have a plural. Some examples of plurals, which have a plural are given below. Table 3.3

Singular

Meaning blessing nail house well-qualified

Plural

Plural of Plural

: It is that plural, which has after the two one letters. letter. . e.g. e.g. e.g.

(alif of plural), one of the following:

(the original being

three letters, the middle one being

Some of the common wazns of

are given below: Table 3.4

Wazn

Singular

Examples Meaning mosque key rule/maxim message/letter elder

Plural

70

Collective Noun:36 It is a singular noun, which gives a plural meaning. Generally, it does not have a singular from the same word. e.g. nation group Note: 1. These words have plurals. e.g. 2. In usage, if the word is considered, it will be used as a singular noun. e.g. The people are present. If its meaning is considered (as is commonly done), it will be used as a plural noun. e.g. righteous people Notes: 1. Some plurals do not have the same root letters as their singulars. e.g. (woman) (the one who possesses something) 2. Some plurals are not according to rule e.g. (mother) (mouth) (water) (human being) (goat/sheep) Generic Noun:37 It is that noun, which is devised for an essence ( ). Because of .

that, it refers to an entire genus (category/class). Generally, its singular has a ( ). For example, refers to trees. Its singular is (a tree). (a date-palm tree). refers to date-palm trees. Its singular is

36

For more details, please refer to Abd al-Ghaniyy al-Daqr, Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah fi al-Nahw wa alTasreef, (Damascus: Dar al-Qalam, 1986), 36. 37 For more details, please refer to Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah, 36.

71

EXERCISE
1. What type of plurals are the following? i. iv. vii. ii. v. viii. iii. vi. ix.

72

Section 3.7 - Words That Are Always Marfoo


There are eight words that are always in the state of 1. 6. discussed in Section 1.4.1, 2. 7. Some of these have been discussed before. discussed in Section 1.9. We discuss the rest below. Section 3.7.1 3. . These are as follows: 4. 5. 8. (subject) and (predicate) were was was discussed in Section 1.8, and

Subject/Doer
Definition: It is the doer of the action or of the meaning contained in the verb. The can either be a personal pronoun or an (i.e. visible in words after the ). We have discussed personal pronouns before in Section 2.4.1. Now, we will discuss what the should be for various types of .

Table 3.5

If the 1. and the 2. .

is and there is

Then the

will be

Example

no word between the and its singularity, duality, or plurality will be according to the preceding noun that it refers to. 3. the 4. 5. . or or 73 or or and there is a word between the and or or

Table 3.5 Continued If the is Then the will be Example

beside the corresponding in 6. any above five categories gender 7. and its singularity, duality, or plurality will be according to the preceding noun that it refers to 8. or or

EXERCISE
1. Fill in a suitable i. iii. v. _______ _______ _______/_______ in the spaces below. ii. iv. vi. _______/_______ _______/_______ _____/_______

74

Section 3.7.2 / Substitute of of a whose (passive voice). The original (substitute of is not mentioned). is ) or

Definition: It is that noun, which is the dropped and the (the e.g. The same e.g. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sentence Analysis: or or or or or or of such a

subsitutes it. This is why, it is called

Zayd was hit. (The doer is not known/mentioned.) usage rules apply as mentioned above in Table 3.5.

or or

The door was opened.

EXERCISE
1. Convert the following to i. ii. 2. Convert the following to i. ii. . iii. iv. with its iii. iv. .

75

Section 3.7.338 The Noun of Those It means that e.g. Like e.g. The effect of i. ii. e.g. The word e.g. appears before the When the and , Which Are Similar to ) as .

and have the same meaning and effect ( Zayd is not standing.

No man is more virtuous than you. , sometimes, an extra baa ( ) is added before the . I am not a reader/I cannot read. and will be cancelled if any of the following occurs: appears before the . negating the negative meaning of and . Zayd is not standing. And Muhammad is not but a messenger./ And Muhammad is only a messenger. [Allah bless him and give him peace] of is not . ( can appear before a or a The city is not big.

iii.

If the e.g.

and/or

38

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 95-102.

76

Section 3.7.439 The gives its e.g. of That Which Negates an Entire a dammah when the No man is standing. Table 3.6 Different Forms of the Noun of and Its Iraab If the 1. or There is no servant of a man in the house. No one who attempts to do good is blameworthy. 2. There is no man in the house. 3. - The has to be repeated with another . - The effect of is cancelled. 4. with a word between it and - The has to be repeated. - The effect of is cancelled. 5. and repeated word with no between them Neither is there a man in it nor a woman. Neither is Zayd in the house nor Amr. of is Then it will be Explanation Example (Category/Class) and the are . a single fathah and its

39 40

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 118-122. It refers to the case when a word is connected to another word, which completes its meaning, in the same way that mudaaf and mudaaf ilayhi are connected to one another. 41 There is no power (to do good) and there is no power (to stay away from evil) [except with Allahs help].

77

Note: The e.g.

of may be omitted when the meaning is understood. i.e. There is no harm upon you. / No problem.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the rule which applies. i. ii. v. vi.

78

Section 3.8 Words Which Are Always Mansoob42


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. known as 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Of these, 8,9,10 and 11 have been discussed before. Here, we will discuss the remaining. Section 3.8.1 Object Definition: It is that word on which the action of the e.g. takes place. Khalid drank water.

Sometimes, the verb governing the a. e.g. It was originally Note: The . The verb (the one being called):43

is dropped as in the following:

O son of Zayd! was dropped.

(vocative particle) substitutes the omitted verb. is near. is far.

Some of the vocative particles are as follows: and These are used when the and These are used when the

This is used for both (near and far).

42

There are exceptions to the rule. Mustathnaa, for example, is not always mansoob. It is still mentioned under this category because most of the time, it is mansoob. 43 For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 120-124.

79

Table 3.7 Rules Governing the Iraab of the If the 1. 2. 3. (Unspecified nakirah) 4. (Specified nakirah) 5. (Singular marifah) 6. (masculine) or added between the O man! e.g. (abbreviation) is allowed in munaadaa. can become can become Note: The last letter can be given a dammah or it can retain its original harakah. b. : This is said to ones guest for welcoming him/her. Its original is two verbs, and , which means You have come to your own people have been dropped. is dropped due to or (feminine) has to be and . O woman! O Zayd!
44

is

Then it will be

Example O son of Zayd! O reader of a book! O man! Take my hand. (call of a blind man to any person for assisstance) O man!

and have trampled comfortable ground. In other words, you are welcome. Here

c. Sometimes, when warning someone, the verb governing the context. Examples include the following: is used instead of Beware of the road! Here, the verb is used instead of is Save yourself from the lion.
44

to give the same meaning, which is has been dropped. to give the same meaning, which

This is another term for

. As mentioned earlier, it is similar to mudaaf in meaning.

80

Section 3.8.245

Definition: It is the masdar of the verb that governs it and is used for the following: (emphasis) e.g. I beat him severely. sit. (number of times) e.g. I hit him twice. is dropped because of context. For example, , which means You came a good coming. , which is the , which is , have been dropped because of context. , remains. (description of type) e.g. I sat like a Qari would

Note: Sometimes, the verb governing . Originally, it was Here, the verb Only the of the

, and

Section 3.8.346

Definition: It is that noun, which explains the reason for the action taking place. Generally, it is a masdar. e.g. I beat/hit him to teach (him) manners.

Section 3.8.447

Definition: It is that noun, which appears after such a This is known as e.g. .

, which has the meaning of

(with).

Zayd came with the book. I came with Zayd.

45

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 156-160. For , with accompanying examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih,

additional types of

Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 127-130. 46 For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 161-164. 47 For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 157-162.

81

Section 3.8.5

Definition: It is that noun, which denotes the time took place. e.g. Both types of and i. I travelled for a month. , namely, and

or place

in which an action

are of two types:

(limited, restricted)

(unlimited, unrestricted). Types of (limited, restricted): for example, day night month year ii. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. I fasted for one day. I worked for one night. I fasted for a month. I travelled for a year.

(unlimited, unrestricted): for example, long period of time e.g. e.g. Nuh (peace be upon him) called his people for some time. I fasted for a long time. some time (could be short or long period of time)

i.

Types of (limited, restricted): e.g. e.g. ii. (unlimited, unrestricted): behind in front of Note: In the case of the case of e.g. e.g. I sat behind him. I stood in front of him. is mentioned in words; while in I prayed in the mosque. I sat in the house.

, the preposition
, it is assumed to exist ( ).

82

The above-mentioned five mafools have been combined in a couplet, which is as follows:

I praised Haamid a lot, with Hameed, out of regard for thanking him, for an extended period of time. Sentence Analysis: 1. 2.

= = = =

| =

| (

| )

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and identify the type of i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. in the following sentences.

83

Section 3.8.648 State / Condition Definition: It is a noun, which describes the condition of either the or the or both at

the time the action contained in the verb takes place. e.g. Zayd came while mounted/riding. I came to Zayd while he was sleeping. I spoke to Zayd while both of us were sitting. Notes: 1. The condition itself is known as described is known as 2. The 3. The e.g. 4. If the e.g. is , the gets a . , whereas the one whose condition is being

, which is generally in the form of two fathahs. and the is generally

is generally

Zayd came riding/while he was mounted. is brought before the mounted. .

A man came to me riding/while he was

5. The e.g.

can be a Here, the

. Zayd ate sitting. is , which is the hidden in .

6. The

can be a sentence. If the is a , then a (with or without a ) is added to give the meaning of condition. e.g.

Dont come near salah while you are intoxicated.

If the . e.g.

is a

and the

is

has to appear before the

Zayd came while his servant had left.

48

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 101-109.

84

Sentence Analysis: 1. Zayd came riding/while he was mounted.

+ = 2. +

I came to Amr while he was asleep.

+ = 3. +

I met Bakr while he was sitting.

= + = 4. Zayd ate while sitting. + +

| + = = +

85

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the i. ii. iii. iv. v. and vi. vii. viii. ix. x. in the following sentences.

86

Section 3.8.749

/
Definition: It is an , which removes the ambiguity or vagueness created by the previous

noun. This ambiguity may be in distance, weight, measure, number, etc. e.g. I saw eleven stars. Here, the word ( Sentence Analysis: ) clarifies what ( ) refers to.

+ = Notes: The ambiguous noun is called or The . is mansoob and gets two fathahs. is not mentioned in words but is understood from the . The boy is good in terms of (his) speech. is a number, the rules with regards to the usage of numerals (on the +

and the noun which clarifies it is called

Sometimes, the e.g.

meaning of the sentence If the

next page) must be kept in mind.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the i. ii. iii. iv. and v. vi. vii. viii. in the following sentences.

49

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 110-119.

87

Rules for

(Numerals)

Before we proceed, it should be pointed out that (number) is the and One and two (1-2) The will appear first and the The e.g. and the one boy one girl

(the counted noun) is the

will appear second.

must correspond in all aspects.

Note: Normally, for one or two boy, girl, men etc., one would simply say etc. However, at times, the number is used for emphasis. Three Through Ten (3-10) From three onwards, the The The e.g. will be and the three pens five cars Note: In choosing the correct into account. e.g. Here, the singular (night) of For ten, the masculine form is gender, the singular form of the seven nights and eight days is feminine, and (day) of . . must be of opposite gender.

or

will appear first and the

second.

will be taken

is masculine.

, and the feminine form is

Eleven and Twelve (11-12) From eleven onwards till 99, the The e.g. From 1119, the and the eleven stars twelve girls of will get a fathah when used with a masculine and a sukoon when used with a feminine.50
is also used. See W. Wright, Arabic Grammar, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005), Part 1, 256. Also see Sharh ibn Aqil, vol. 4, 71.
50

will be

must have the same gender.

For feminine, the form

88

Thirteen Through Nineteen (13-19) The e.g. The ten (masc.)/ will be . should be opposite of the gender of the . fourteen men nineteen girls (fem.) will agree with the in terms of gender. The gender of the first part of the

Twenty Till Ninety (21, 31, 41,,91) The will be . The gender of whether the e.g. to (21,31,41,91) will remain the same, irrespective of is masculine or feminine. twenty men thirty girls Twenty-one and Twenty-two (21-22) The will be . The first part of the e.g. and the must have the same gender. twenty-one men twenty-one girls The same will apply to 31-32, 41-4291-92.

Twenty-three Through Twenty-nine (23-29) The will be . The gender of the first part of the e.g. should be opposite of the gender of the . twenty-four men twenty-six girls The same will apply to 33-39, 43-4993-99. The tens will remain the same, irrespective of whether the feminine. is masculine or

89

Hundred (100) e.g. For 200, e.g. Since e.g. The will be . is masculine or feminine. hundred girls ) hundred men will be used. ( in two hundred girls two hundred girls is feminine, the number before four hundred men four hundred women If there are units and tens with the 100s as well, their respective gender rules will. e.g. hundred and ten books hundred and forty-five note-books Thousand (1,000) e.g. Since e.g. Note: The plural for Million (1,000,000) The will be e.g. Since e.g. Note: The plural for is is The will be . is masculine or feminine. thousand girls will be feminine. thousand men is masculine, the number before four thousand men four thousand women . will remain the same, irrespective of whether the will be masculine. will remain the same, irrespective of whether the

. is masculine or feminine. million men million girls

will remain the same, irrespective of whether the

is masculine, the number before four million men

will be feminine.

four million women .

90

EXERCISES
1. Write the following in Arabic. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. 2 schools 12 women 17 doors 21 cars 150 houses 444 miles vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. 11 books 14 chairs 26 boys 111 elephants 195 keys 3,333 roses

2. Translate the following sentences and fill in the iraab. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

91

Section 3.8.851

means to exclude. is that noun, which has been excluded and appears after the is that noun from which the are as follows: . .

has been excluded. It appears before

e.g.

The people came except Zayd.

Related Terminology refers to the case when the e.g.

was included in the The people came except Zayd.

before the

(Zayd was one of the people before the exclusion.) refers to the case when the . e.g. The angels prostrated except Iblees. (Iblees was never one of the angels.) The people came except the donkey. (Donkey was never included among the people.) refers to that sentence in which the e.g. is not mentioned. was not included in the before the

No one came except Zayd. is mentioned.

refers to that sentence in which the e.g.


51

The people came except Zayd.

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 88-100.

92

/ or . e.g.

(positive statement) refers to that sentence, which does not have a The people came except Zayd. (negative sentence) refers to that sentence, which does have a e.g. The people did not come except Zayd. are as given below: Table 3.8

/
or .

The iraab of the various types of

Sentence Type 1.

Example The angels prostrated except Iblees.

2. The people came to me except zayd. 3. same as No one came to me except Zayd. 4. according to the governing (as if does not exist) I did not see anyone except Zayd. I did not pass by anyone except Zayd. 5. All types The people came except Zayd. No one came except Zayd. or

93

Table 3.8 Continued Sentence Type 6. All types or (as a preposition) 7. All types The people came except Zayd. The people came except Zayd. Example

Note: The iraab of the word determine the iraab of to get, should be given to .

is the same as that of

. Thus, the simple way to was supposed

is to replace

with . Now, whatever iraab and 2)

For example, we have two sentences, 1) To determine the iraab of sentences. a. Replace 1) The first sentence is sentence is it will be marfoo. b. The iraab of the 1) and , so the , so the with

, follow the following two steps for each of these and see what the iraab of the 2) will be mansoob. The second is according to the aamil. Thus, would be.

(with ) will be given to 2)

EXERCISES
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and explain the iraab of the mustathnaa. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

94

Section 3.952 Words Which Are Always Majroor


There are two types of words that are always majroor. These are as follows: 1. Noun preceded by a . e.g. 2. e.g. book of Zayd in the book

52

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 76-81.

95

Section 3.10

Definition: A The 1) 4)

is that noun, which follows the noun before it in terms of iraab (and some to ). The preceding noun is called the also governs the 2) 5) . 3) . which governs the :

other things which vary from There are five

Section 3.10.153 Adjective54 is of two types: 1. 1) 2) . , which is the in this

: It is that word, which describes the actual As mentioned in section 1.4.3, the follows the

case, in the following: a. Iraab b. Gender c. Being marifah or nakirah d. Being singular, dual or plural The can be a complete sentence, in which case the must be . The e.g.

, which is a sentence must have a

which refers to the

A boy who was riding the bicycle came to me.

+ +

53 54

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 134-142. is another name for ; and is another name for .

96

Note: If a is followed by a sentence, it will be a Here, ( Example 2 The boy came to me while riding the bicycle. Here, ( ) is , and ( ) is the Sentence Analysis 1. A learned man came. . ) is , and ( or . Example 1 The boy is riding the bicycle.

) is the

A man whose father is learned, came.

2.

: It is that word, which does not describe the connected to the e.g. Here, .

, but describes that which is

A boy whose father is learned, came to me. is describing , which is connected to the indirectly. ( ). In other words, it is describing the

Notes: 1. In a. b.

, the

and

must correspond in only two aspects:

Iraab Being marifah or nakirah 97

2.

The plural. e.g.

will always be singular, irrespective of whether the

is singular, dual or

These are two pictures whose frames are beautiful. will correspond in gender to the word after it. The lady, whose son is intelligent, came.

3.

The e.g.

Sentence Analysis: 1. A woman whose son is learned, came.

Note: In this example, . However, it follows

is the

of

. Because of

, it is marfoo and

, or more precisely

, in being masculine.55

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. and the in the following

55

There seems to be a contradiction between the sentence analysis and the note given above for is the

. All

the books of Nahw that we referred to, including Ilm al-Nahw, al-Nahw al-Wadih, and Sharh ibn Aqil, agree that in this example, only explaining the rules for of . Yet, in Ilm al-Nahw, the author, Mawlana Charthawali, after the

, has given this example of sentence analysis, in which he makes

. This suggests that there can be two ways of looking at this.

98

2. Analyze the following sentences and and point out the difference between them. i. ii. iii.

99

Section 3.10.256

Emphasis , which gives emphasis to the in the matter related to it or

Definition: It is that e.g. The is called

emphasizes the inclusion of all members of the ( and the : , and

in the matter related to it.

(The second Zayd emphasized Zayds coming.) emphasized that all came, no one remained.) is called .

There are two types of 1. may be e.g. , ,

Verbal Emphasis: The emphasis is attained by repeating the , or sentence. Zayd definitely came. The absent one definitely became present. I will definitely not break the pledge. You open the window. You are, indeed, the censured one.

, which

2.

Emphasis Through Meaning: The emphasis is attained with any of the following words: Below, we discuss each of these. a. (himself, herself, itself) These are used for singular, dual and plural. They have to be to a . Their must agree with the in terms of gender and singularity (or should agree with the in terms duality/plurality), while the form

of singularity (or duality/plurality). The exception is that the plural form of and is used in place of the dual form. e.g. Zayd himself stood. The two Zayds themselves stood. The (many) Zayds themselves stood.

56

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 143-152

100

The female teacher herself came. The two female teachers themselves came. The (many) female teachers themselves came. b. (both) These are used for dual only. is masculine and is feminine. It must be e.g. to a dual . Both of the men stood up. Both of the female teachers stood up. c. e.g. (all) They are used for singular and plural. and should be towards a . is used with its form changing to correspond to the I read the whole book. All the men came. All the men came. All the people came. Note: . , which must correspond to the

and

can only be used for emphasis in those things, which (I treated all of Zayd

have parts or can be divided. Thus, hospitably) would be incorrect. d. These are used for greater emphasis. They appear after . They are not used without before e.g. .

nor can they appear

All of the people came. All of the women stood up.

101

Sentence Analysis All the people came.

|
2 1

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences.
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.

102

Section 3.10.357 Substitute Definition: A The e.g. is that is called , which is actually intended in the sentence and not its . is called or (the (substitute) and the . The

merely serves as an introduction to the substituted).

There are four types of 1) 1. the . e.g. 2. The e.g. 3. 2)

: 3) ): It is that 4) , which refers to the exact same thing as

(also called

(also called must have a

): It is that

, which refers to a part of the .

, which refers to the I hit Zayds head.

: It is that The e.g.

, which is related to the , which refers to the

, but is not part of it. .

must have a

Zayds shirt was stolen. , which is mentioned after an error, as a correction. I bought a horse; no, a donkey.

4.

: It is that e.g.

57

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 163-167.

103

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.

104

Section 3.10.4 Conjunction Definition: It is that and the The is called e.g. , which appears after a and the is called Zayd and Amr came. . The . appears between the is also applicable to the .

. The meaning of the

applicable to the

: The various are as follows:

Their details are as follows: (and): This is without regard to sequence. e.g. Zayd and Bakr came. Here, sequence is not considered. (then, thus): It shows sequence with slight delay. e.g. Zayd came. Then, Bakr (came). It can also show cause e.g. He sends down water from the sky. Therefore, the earth becomes green. (then): It shows sequence with delay. e.g. Zayd came. Then, (after some time) Bakr (came). ). .

(upto, till, even): It shows the end point ( e.g.

I read the Quran until the end. The pilgrims came, even those on foot.

105

(eitheror): e.g. (or): e.g. We stayed for a day or a part of a day. . The fruit is either sweet or bitter.

(or): It is generally used with an interrogative e.g. (not): This negates from the e.g.

Is Zayd with you or Bakr? that which has been established for the Zayd came to me and not Bakr. i.e. to give up one notion for another. ) or a command ( ), it negates the .

(but, instead, rather): It is used for

If it appears after a positive sentence (

ruling for that which is before it, and affirms it for that which is after it. e.g. Zayd came to me. Rather, Bakr (came). If it appears after a ( ) or a ( ), it confirms this ruling (of negation) for the one

before it, and affirms its opposite (i.e. opposite of negation) for the one after it. e.g. I did not read the whole book; rather, [I read] some of it. (but, however): It is generally used with a rectify. e.g. Notes: 1. If the e.g. 2. However, if after the need not be brought. e.g. 3. If the by the same e.g. is a . I passed by you and Zayd. Zayd and I hit, today. Neither us nor our forefathers associated partners. preceded by a , then the should also be preceded and serves the purpose of i.e. to

Zayd did not come to me but Bakr came.

is a

, then its Zayd and I hit.

has to be mentioned after it.

, another word appears before the

, then the

106

EXERCISE
1. Fill in a suitable i. ii. iii. _____ _______ _____ , translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. iv. v. vi. _____ _____

107

Section 3.10.5

Definition: It is that

, which clarifies or specifies its

Often, it is a more famous name of two names. Example: Abu Hafs Umar stood up.

| + = Example: Abu Amr Zayd came. +

| + = +

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii.

108

CHAPTER 4 Governing Words

Definition: An

is a word that governs/causes iraab changes in another word. : 1) 2)

There are two types of 1. i. : It is that There are two types of e.g. Here, ii.

, which is not in word form i.e. it is abstract. . gives because of . or a . is the and it is also gives a Zayd is standing.

: It means that being free of a is the because of In the case of . e.g. Here is Zayd is working. because it is free of any , which is in word form. . , which is

.
, being free of a

or

2. i. ii. iii.

: It is that

There are three types of

109

Section 4.1 Governing Particles


A. Particles, Which Govern Nouns 1. refer to section 1.7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. Particles, Which Govern refer to section 1.8 refer to section 3.7.3 refer to section 3.8.4 refer to section 3.8.8 refer to section 3.8.1 refer to section 3.7.4

1. 2.

110

Section 4.1.158 Particles That Give Nasb These are as follows: These appear before If the last letter is a two . Table 4.1 of and cause the following changes at the end: of or . of the or , it is dropped. The exception is the They give the last letter a fathah if it is not a

Meaning that, to will not, never so that then, case in that

Example I want to enter Paradise. The disbeliever will never enter Paradise. I came so I could rest. In that case, you will be successful in your work. [This is said in response to the one who may have said: (I will work hard).]

Notes: 1. Sometimes , together with its . e.g.

, gives the meaning of a masdar. In this case, i.e.

is called

Your fasting is better for you. 2. is hidden after the following six a. After e.g. I travelled until I entered the city. and gives the last letter of a .59

59

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 47-52. For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 52-62.

111

b.

After e.g.

or

: i.e. that

, which appears after

Allah was not going to punish them. c. After , which has the meaning of e.g. ( (until) or ) (but that/unless).

I will not leave you until you give me my right.

The sinner will be punished unless he provides an excuse. d. After which the e.g. Do not command the truth while you lie. (Here, the turned away/stopped the effect of from e. After e.g. I came so I could rest. f. After six. 1. e.g. Visit me so that I treat you hospitably. 2. e.g. Do not cross the limit regarding it, lest My wrath descends upon you. 3. e.g. You do not visit us, otherwise we would have treated you hospitably. 4. e.g. Where is your house, so I can visit you. : i.e., that This is also known as or or . (it is also called ). . The sentence must start with a : i.e., that .) : i.e., that which turns away from the word after it the effect, ).

had on the word before it (before the

which has the meaning of

, which comes in the

to any of the following

112

5.

e.g. I wish I had wealth, so I would have spent it.

6.

e.g. Why dont you visit us so that you receive good!

3.

has to be written after a e.g.

if the

is joined to a

So that he does not know. is not a . Therefore, i.e., that

4.

which appears after a verb with the root letters it does not give which was . e.g. e.g. a fathah. Such an is known as

I knew that he will stand up. He knew that some of you will be sick.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. and its effect in the following

113

Section 4.1.260 Particles That Give Jazm These are as follows: These appear before If the last letter is a of the two and cause the following changes at the end: of or . of . Table 4.2 or They give the last letter a sukoon if it is not a

, it will be dropped. The exception is the

Meaning if did not not yet should, shall, let do not

Example If you sit, I will sit. He did not hit me. The boy went but has not returned yet. He should sit. Do not sit.

Notes: 1. appears before two verbal sentences. The first one is called second 2. If (answer/result).

(condition) and the

appears before , it should be translated negatively. e.g. He is not but an honorable angel. Note: This negation could also be expressed as He is only an honorable angel.

3.

can also be used to give the meaning of which was given e.g. by .

. For this,

or

is added after the

He has not gone yet. of a when the is one of the following:

4.

should be brought before the a. e.g.

If you come to me you will be treated hospitably.


60

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 1, 52-57 & vol. 2, 63-66.

114

b.

e.g. If you see Zayd, treat him hospitably.

c.

e.g. If Zayd comes to you, do not humiliate him.

d.

e.g. If you treat me hospitably, then, may Allah reward you well.

5.

will be translated in the future tense when it is a. used as a b. preceded by c. preceded by e.g. May Allah reward you well. e.g. If you sit, I will sit. e.g. Whoever comes with good, there will be ten like it for him.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. and its effect on the following

115

Section 4.2 Governing Verbs


Section 4.2.1 Active Verb: It is that verb whose doer is known/mentioned. , whether transitive or intransitive, governs the following nouns, as and when applicable: it gives it gives i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Section 4.2.2 Passive Verb: It is that verb whose doer is not known/mentioned. It gives It gives e.g. Zayd was beaten severely on Friday, in front of the Judge, in his office/house, to teach him manners. Section 4.2.3 Intransitive Verb: It is that verb whose meaning can be understood without a . e.g. Section 4.2.4 : These were discussed earlier in section 1.9. Zayd sat. is also known as to the (originally the . to all the remaining (a verb whose ). is not named). to the ( . can only be governed by a )

to the following, as and when applicable:

116

Section 4.2.561 Transitive Verb Definition: It is that verb whose meaning cannot be understood without a e.g. There are four types of Zayd hit Bakr. . These are as follows: as is the case with most mutaaddi verbs. .

1. Those verbs, which require one e.g. 2. Those verbs, which can be given two

. These include the following: (to give). etc. I gave the beggar a bread. include the following

Any verb, which has the meaning of e.g.

Some other verbs, which can also have two etc. e.g.

Knowledge clothes its possessor with dignity. . (verbs which relate to the heart/feelings). unlike the verbs above (number 2). Table 4.3

3. Those verbs, which must be given two These verbs are known as They enter upon a and

Verb

Usage used for certainty used for certainty used for certainty used for certainty or doubt used for doubt used for doubt used for doubt

Example I was sure Saeed was going. I was sure Rasheed was knowledgeable. I was sure Zayd was trustworthy. I was sure Zayd was present. / I thought Zayd was present. I thought Zayd was well-educated. I thought Khalid was standing. I thought Bakr was sleeping.

61

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 69-71.

117

Note: Other verbs, which also require two to make something something else e.g.

include the following: I made the pages a book.

to take someone/something as someone/something e.g. Allah took Ibraheem (peace be upon him) as a friend. to make something something else e.g. 4. Those verbs which require three showing. These are as follows: Table 4.4 Verb Example I informed Zayd that Khalid is sleeping. I informed Zayd that Bakr is well-educated. The messenger informed me that the chief is coming. I informed them that arrogance is hated. I informed the boys that sport is beneficial. I informed the travellers that the train is late. I informed the children that swimming is beneficial. I made the book organized. . Each of these has the meaning of informing or

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

118

Section 4.2.662

Definition: These verbs are actually a type of also enter upon that their and , and give . to their is always

and they behave the same way. They and to their . The difference is

They are used for the following purposes: 1. 2. 3. show nearness in the attainment ( show desire for attainment of . show commencement of action. Table 4.5 ) of the

Type preferably without

Example Zayd was about to go. Khalid was about to sit. Zayd was about to sit. Hopefully Zayd will come out. Zayd began writing. Zayd began reading. Zayd began eating.

preferably without preferably with

preferably with without without without * These verbs are used only in past tense. The can be used as normal verbs too. e.g. Zayd took his clothes.

62

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 103-108.

119

Sentence Analysis:

Hopefully Zayd will come out.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

120

Section 4.2.763 Verbs of Praise and Blame Verbs of praise: Verbs of blame: e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. That which appears after the The i. ii. e.g. iii. iv. a hidden e.g. The word . e.g. In , is the is the . is its . . How evil is what they used to do! followed by a of prefixed with . e.g. What a wonderful man Zayd is! to a noun prefixed with . What a wonderful learned man Zayd is! (being ). What a wonderful man Zayd is! is called What a wonderful man Zayd is! What a wonderful man Zayd is! What an evil man Zayd is! What an evil man Zayd is! or .

must be one of the following

Notes: 1. These verbs are used in the past tense in their singular form (masculine or feminine). 2. At times the e.g. is dropped. i.e. What a wonderful slave Ayyub is!

63

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 57-59.

121

Sentence Analysis:

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii.

122

Section 4.2.864 Verbs of Wonder For three-letter verbs 1. : e.g. has the meaning of , there are two wazns for expressing wonder or amazement. . How wonderful Zayd is!

2.

: e.g.

has the meaning of past tense and the

is extra

How wonderful Zayd is!

To express wonder for other than three-letter verbs or will be e.g. , thus etc. should be placed before the .

, a word such as of the desired verb. The

How very respectful people are towards the learned!

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and analyze the following sentences. i. ii. iii.

64

For more details, examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 60-63.

123

Section 4.3 Governing Nouns Amongst these, Section 4.3.165 Conditional Nouns They govern two (result). Table 4.6 giving both a . (condition) and the second They appear before two sentences. The first is called were discussed in section 2.4.4. Here, we will discuss the rest.

Noun 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Meaning who, whoever what, whatever however much when when where where where how, manner any of the above

Usage

Example Whoever treats me hospitably, I will treat him hospitably. Whatever you eat, I will eat. Whatever you spend in the way of good, will benefit you. Whenever you go, I will go. Whenever you travel, I will travel. Wherever you go, I will go. Wherever you stay, I will stay. Wherever you travel, I will travel. Whichever way you sit, I will sit.

any of the above

Whichever place you go, I will go.

Notes: 1. and

have the same function as .

i.e. giving jazm to two

except

that they are particles are all called


65

and not nouns. Collectively they (nouns and particles)

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 2, 66-71.

124

if if 2. There are other

e.g. e.g. that are

If you go, I will go. If you do evil, you will be regretful. , i.e. they do not give to . Some

of these are discussed in Section 4.4, # 13 ( , which do not give , two are discussed below: i. (whenever, every time) This is a e.g. , and enters upon

). Amongst the

. It also conveys the meaning of Whenever I fell sick, I went to the doctor.

emphasis and repetition.

ii.

(when) This is also a e.g. , and is used to give the meaning of ). When you meet him, greet him. (interrogative), they appear before one . It also entails the meaning of condition (

3. When the following nouns are used for sentence. e.g.

EXERCISE
1. Complete the following sentences with a suitable i. ii. _______ _______ _______ _______ v. vi. vii. . _______ _______ _______ _______

125

Section 4.3.266 Active Participle Definition: It is a noun which indicates the one doing or undertaking an action described by the root letters. This is irrespective of its position in a sentence. It is created from verbs on the pattern of . For other than verbs, it is created on the pattern of its by changing the into a meem with a dammah, and giving a kasrah to the letter before the last. Effect: 1. 2. It has the same effect as that of its active verb ( to the ; and if it is , it gives to the and ) i.e. if its verb is to the . , it gives

acts only in either of the following two situations: When it is prefixed with . e.g. or a. b. c. d. . For example, e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. Zayds father is beating/will beat Bakr. I passed by a man whose father is beating/will beat Bakr. Is Zayd beating Bakr?/Will Zayd beat Bakr? Zayd is not standing/will not stand. I am grateful for your favor. or or When it indicates present or future tense and is preceded by

Sentence Analysis:

| + +

66

This section and the following sub-section are based on the discussion in al-Nahw al-Wadih. See al-Nahw alWadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 71-76.

126

Section 4.3.2.1

Definition: It is that noun, which conveys extremity/intensity in meaning. is turned into the seeghahs of Some of the wazns of are as follows: Table 4.7 when exaggeration in meaning is intended.

Wazns

Arabic

Examples Meaning most learned great distinguisher someone who laughs a lot very patient careful maintainer/sustainer very eloquent someone who helps frequently

e.g.

does the

of

with the same conditions.

The one who is very grateful to the one who does good (to him), pleases me.

Indeed, the coward is very scared of meeting the enemy. Notes: 1. The round at the end of some wazns is for e.g. 2. The wazn e.g. and not for gender.

well-learned is also used to denote a profession. cook blacksmith carpenter barber

127

EXERCISES
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the effect and tense of the following sentences. i. ii. v. vi. in the

128

Section 4.3.367 Passive Participle Definition: It is that noun which indicates the one upon whom an action described by the root letters is done. This is irrespective of its position in a sentence. It is created from verbs on the pattern of . For other than , it is created on the pattern of its by changing the into a meem with a dammah, and giving a fathah to the letter before the last. Effect: It has the same effect as that of its passive verb . The rules mentioned above regarding the also apply here. , i.e. it gives to the

Examples: i. prefixed with alif-laam ii. iii. iv. v. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. The one named Hisham is my brother. Zayds son is being beaten/will be beaten. I passed by a man whose son is being beaten/will be beaten. Is Zayd being beaten?/Will Zayd be beaten? Zayd is not being beaten/will not be beaten.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and point out the effect and tense of the following sentences. i. in the

67

This section is based on the discussion in al-Nahw al-Wadih. See al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol 2, 7782.

129

Section 4.3.468 That Adjective Which Is Similar to Definition: It is that noun, which is created from the of a (three-letter

intransitive verb) to indicate permanent existence of the meaning in the doer. Like its e.g. , it generally gives the a .

His face is beautiful. (beautiful) is a

It conveys permanency of meaning in the object it relates to e.g. permanent quality, as compared to e.g.

, which indicates a temporary meaning

is a temporary quality, which exists only at the time of the action. (three-letter intransitive verb) and , are .

All such nouns, which are derived from a give the meaning of

but are not on the wazn of

Some of the common wazns of

(based on usage) are given below Table 4.8

Wazns

Arabic

Examples Meaning happy beautiful noble/honorable coward brave

Colors and bodily defects appear on the following wazns: (masculine) (feminine) e.g. e.g. red mute red mute

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For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 83-91.

130

The e.g.

of non-three letter verbs straight

is brought on the wazn of its

on the condition that permanency of meaning is intended.

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab, and identify all the in the following passage.

2. Translate, fill in the iraab and identify the seeghahs of

and

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Section 4.3.569

Comparative and Superlative Noun


Definition: It is that noun, which indicates that a quality described by the root letters is found to a greater extent in one person/thing when compared to another. e.g. Khalid is older/bigger than Amr. It can also refer to the highest degree (superlative) of the quality described by the root letters. e.g. Allah is the greatest. , i.e. without comparison. Note: This is the case when it is used without Table 4.9

Masculine Singular Dual Plural

Example

Feminine

Example

Meaning Bigger/older Bigger/older Bigger/older Bigger/older

Usage: is used in three ways. 1. With e.g. : the will always be a singular masculine Aishah is older than Zaynab. 2. With : the e.g. must correspond with the word before it in gender and number. The two more knowledgeable Zayds are absent. The older Aishah is present. 3. With e.g. The Zayds are the most knowledgeable of people. : the may be or it may correspond with the word before it. . Zayd is more knowledgeable than Bakr.

The two Zayds are the most knowledgeable of people.


69

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 92-100.

132

Aishah is the oldest of people. Notes: 1. the of words, which indicate color, physical defects and of made by placing the words , and therefore, will be e.g. , , etc. before the . He is redder than Zayd. He is lamer than Zayd. He is more hard-working than Zayd. 2. The words e.g. 3. e.g. The dameer in gives to its hidden and are also used for . of that word. The verbs is will be

The oppressor is the worst of people. . Zayd is more virtuous than Bakr. is its .

EXERCISE
1. Translate, fill in the iraab and explain the usage of i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. in the following sentences.

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Section 4.3.670 Infinitive/Verbal Noun Definition: It is that noun which refers to the action indicated by the corresponding verb without any reference to time. It is the root of all derived words ( ). Effect: It has the same effect as that of its verb i.e. it gives . e.g. Usage: Masdar is generally used in one of the following two ways: as a to its . e.g. as a e.g. to its . i.e. I disliked Zayds beating of Bakr. i.e. I disliked Zayds beating of Bakr. Today, I saw Zayds beating of Bakr. to the and to the

EXERCISE
1. Fill in the iraab and explain the usage of the masdar in the following sentences. i. ii. iii. iv.

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For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 52-70.

134

Section 4.3.771

In the case of between the

, it is assumed that one of the following prepositions and when the e.g. . is a part/type i.e. is a i.e. . night prayer of the . silver ring

is hidden

when the e.g.

when it is neither of the above two. e.g. i.e. Zayds son

Section 4.3.8

Definition: It is that noun, which gives the noun A noun will be considered as a. tanween. e.g.

after it a nasb.

when it has one of the following:

There is not even a palms measure of clouds in the sky. b. hidden tanween. e.g. There are eleven men with me. c. of a dual noun. e.g. I have two qafeezes72 of wheat. d. which resembles the e.g. I have twenty dirhams. The in the above examples cannot be while having a tanween or having a noon because of it being . of a sound masculine plural . ( was originally )

of dual/plural, thus the noun after it gets a


71 72

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 1, 131-141. A qafeez is a classical Islamic measure of volume. According to the Hanafis, it is equal to 40.344 litres.

135

Section 4.3.9

Definition: It is that noun, which indicates an unspecified quantity. It is clarified by the noun following it. These are and . or as an informative exclamation

: can be used in two ways: as an interrogative . 1. The (how many) It gives the noun is singular. e.g. At times, the preposition e.g. 2. (so many) It gives the noun The e.g. e.g At times the preposition e.g. (so much, such and such) It gives the noun The is singular. e.g. after it a nasb. after it a after it a .

How many books do you have? appears before the . How many books do you have?

(because of it being a

).

may be singular or plural. So much of wealth you have spent! So much of wealths you have spent! appears before the . There are so many angels in the skies/heavens!

I have this much dirhams.

EXERCISE
1. What is the difference between the following sentences. i. ii.
73

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 170-173.

136

Section 4.4 Non-Governing Particles


1. Particles of Notification: These are used to draw the attention of the listener. These are as follows: meaning e.g. Lo! / Behold! / Take heed! Behold! Indeed, Allahs help is near. Behold! Zayd is sleeping. Lo! I am present. This Note: The actual is only , while is the . However, in common usage the whole is referred to as 2. Particles of Affirmation:74 These are used for affirmation of a statement made earlier. These are as follows: without differentiating.

(yes) It is used to confirm a statement, be it positive or negative. For example, If someone says (Did Zayd come?), the reply will be meaning If someone says (yes) meaning (yes, why not) It is used to convert a negative statement into a positive one. e.g. If someone says (Did Zayd not stand up?), the reply will be (yes, why not) meaning (yes) It is the same as e.g. . However it is used with an oath (Zayd stood up.). after a question. If someone says (yes, by Allah!) meaning
74

(yes)

(Zayd came.). (Has Zayd not come?), the reply will be (Zayd did not come.).

(Zayd has stood up.).

(Did Zayd stand up?), the reply will be

For more examples and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 168-174.

137

/ e.g. Note:

(yes) . (Did Zayd come?), the reply will be (Zayd came.). or or If someone says (yes) meaning

These have the same meaning as

is very rarely used for this purpose.

3.

Particles of Clarification: These are used to clarify a word in a sentence. These are as follows: (that is) e.g. And ask the town, that is, the people of the town. And We called him, that is, O Ibraheem!

4. e.g.

: These are used to give a masdari meaning. These are as follows:

and

come before a .

comes before a

Until when the earth became straitened for them despite its vastness. ( ( Note: 5. and ) ) Your truthfulness pleases me. (News of) Zayds sleeping reached me.

are governing particles.

Particles of Exhortation: These are used to encourage someone to do something when they appear before These are as follows: e.g. Do you not pray salah? .

These particles are also used to create regret and sorrow in the listener when they appear before . Therefore, they are also called . e.g. e.g. Have you not prayed Asr salah? When you heard it, why did you not say

138

6.

Particle of Anticipation:75 This is . An example of its usage for is as follows. Probably, the absent person will return today. Besides , can also be used for one or more of the following. These are all more . the meaning of near past. This usage is specific to Zayd has arrived (recently). the meaning of seldomness. This usage is specific Indeed, sometimes, a generous person is miserly. or the meaning of certainty.

common than its usage for : In this case, it gives . e.g. : In this case, it gives to e.g. : In this case, it gives e.g. .

Certainly, Zayd came. Certainly, Allah knows.

can also be used simultaneously for more than one of the above-mentioned purposes. An example of follows: Indeed, salah has been established. being simultaneously used for , , and , is as

Note: 7.

can also be used for

Particles of Interrogation:76 These are and e.g.

.
Is Zayd standing? Did Zayd stand up?

75 76

This is based on Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah. See Mujam al-Qawaid al-Arabiyyah, 338-339. For more examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Ibtidaiyyah, vol. 3, 168-171.

139

8. This is

Particle of Rebuke: , which means Never! It can be used to rebuke or reprimand. e.g. said in response to someone who says It can also be used to convey the meaning of certainty. e.g. Indeed, soon you will know. Note: This is according to one translation. According to another, it is in the meaning of never. (Hit Zayd.).

9.

: It is used for one or more of the following: : It is that tanween, which shows a noun to be e.g. : It is that tanween, which shows a noun to be e.g. : It is that tanween, which subsitutes a e.g. i.e. , . the day when such and such happens and . It is of two forms: and . . .

10.

: It is used for emphasis in Both have the same meaning.

Indeed, he should hit. You must help. 11. : It can be used for the following: : It appears before the e.g. : It comes in the answer to e.g. If Allah did not repel some people by means of others, the earth would be corrupted. By Allah! I will fast tommorrow. : This is extra, and can be used for emphasis. e.g. 140 Indeed, they eat food. , and is used for emphasis. Indeed, you are more feared and .

12.

Extra Particles: These are not translated. However, they add beauty and emphasis to the meaning. They may also stop the effect ( ( Usage: : It appears after e.g. : It appears after e.g. : It appears after the following: e.g. e.g. e.g. Here, e.g. blocked the When you are afflicted, be patient. When you travel, I will travel. Whoever comes to you, treat him hospitably. of . Whichever way you turn, there is the face of Allah. e.g. Then, should some guidance come to you from Me. e.g. Here, e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. e.g. did not block the So, it is through mercy from Allah that you are gentle to them. of . . When the bearer of good news came. ) of an . These are: ) are governing particles

. Zayd is not standing.

I swear by this city. Indeed, they eat food. Is there a creator besides Allah? There is nothing like Him. Zayd is not a liar.

141

13.

Conditional Particles That Do Not Give Jazm:77 (however, as for, as far asis concerned) It is used to explain/clarify something, which was mentioned briefly. should be used before its answer . e.g. So, some of them will be wretched and (some) blessed. As for the wretched, they will be in the Fire. (if) It is used to negate the second sentence not being fulfilled. e.g. If there had been gods besides Allah in them (the heavens and the earth), they would have been corrupted. (There will not be corruption because there is not more than one god.) Note: If a e.g. is added to i.e. on account of the first sentence

, it will give the meaning of even if/even


.

though and will be known as

Celebrate walimah even if it be with one (slaughtered) goat.

and

(if such and such had not been so, ) Apart from being used for that the second sentence e.g. the condition of the first sentence and . , they are also used to demonstrate cannot be attained because of the presence of Had it not been for Zayd, Bakr would have perished.

(when) This is a e.g. in the meaning of . It enters upon greeting. . When I greeted him, he returned my

77

For more details, examples, and exercises, please refer to al-Nahw al-Wadih, Thanawiyyah, vol. 2, 43-48.

142

14. e.g.

: It is that , which has the meaning of i.e. I will stand as long as the leader is sitting.

(as long as).

15.

: These have been discussed in Section 3.10.4

FINAL EXERCISE
Q: Go through the whole book and identify the various meaning and uses of the following:

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APPENDIX
Studying Classical/Quranic Arabic There are a number of options available for the student of sacred Islamic knowledge seeking to learn classical Arabic on his/her path to learning the deen. The following is a set of suggested curricula for studying Arabic language, based upon the South Asian (Indo-Paki) scholarly tradition. It is by no means the only option. To begin with, Urdu texts have been omitted. Moreover, those following other scholarly traditions (Arab, Turkish, South East Asian) may have a somewhat different set of books, although they will also find some overlap here. The books whose names are only mentioned in English are English texts, while those whose Arabic names are also given are Arabic texts. The texts increase in difficulty and advancement downward. General Arabic Language Level Texts Durus al-Lughah al-Arabiyyah vols. 1-3 ( ) OR Al-Arabiyyah Bayna Yadayk vols. 1-3 ( )

Beginner to Intermediate

Arabic Tutor vols. 1-2

Ten Lessons

Nahw Level Texts Tasheel al-Nahw Sharh Miat Amil ( OR Awamil al-Nahw ( Beginner to Intermediate Hidayat al-Nahw ( OR Al-Ajurrumiyyah ( ) with commentary ) ) ) OR ) OR ) ) al-Tuhfah al-Saniyyah ( Al-Kafiyah ( Sharh ibn Aqil ( Sharh Jami ( Advanced Sharh Qatr al-Nada wa Ball al-Sada ( OR Sharh Shudhur al-Dhahab ( ) ) )

145

The texts al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Ibtidaiyyah vols. 1-3 ( and al-Nahw al-Wadih li al-Madaris al-Thanawiyyah vols. 1-3 (

) )

belong to the intermediate to advanced level. The six volumes in general, and the three alIbtidaiyyah volumes in particular, can be used in place of, or in conjunction with Tasheel alNahw. The six could also be used in conjunction with Hidayat al-Nahw. Almost always, one of these texts has something that the other does not. Sarf Level Beginner Intermediate Texts Fundamentals of Classical Arabic vol. 1 From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology Ilm al-Seeghah ( Shadha al-Arf fi Fann al-Sarf ( Arabic Reading/Literature Level Beginner Al-Qiraah al-Rashidah vol. 1 ( ) Al-Qiraah al-Rashidah vol. 2 ( ) Nafhat al-Arab ( ) ) OR )

Texts Qasas al-Nabiyyin vol. 1 ( Qasas al-Nabiyyin vol. 2 ( Qasas al-Nabiyyin vol. 3 ( Qasas al-Nabiyyin vol. 4 ( ) ) ) )

Intermediate

Qasas al-Nabiyyin vol. 5 (

Advanced

Mukhtarat min Adab al-Arab vol. 1 ( ) Mukhtarat min Adab al-Arab vol. 2 ( )

Al-Maqamat al-Haririyyah ( )

Arabic Rhetoric (Balaghah) Level Beginner

Texts Durus al-Balaghah ( Al-Balaghah al-Wadihah ( ) ) ) )

Intermediate to Advanced

Talkhees al-Miftah ( OR its commentary Mukhtasar al-Maani (

146

Suggested Curriculum Below, we have provided a suggested curriculum based upon some of the texts given above that could be followed as part of an overall traditional Arabic & Islamic Studies curriculum. This curriculum is based on a two-semester academic year. Year Sem 1 Ten Lessons Texts Fundamentals vol. 1 Durus alLughah vol. 1 (continued if not completed, followed by vol. 2) Durus al-Lughah vol. 1

1 2

Tasheel al-Nahw (using Al-Nahw alWadih Ibtidaiyyah & Thanawiyyah for reference/examples) Tasheel al-Nahw (continued, if not completed) followed by selected readings & exercises from alNahw al-Wadih Ibtidaiyyah & Thanawiyyah Awaamil al-Nahw Hidayat OR al-Nahw Sharh Miat Aamil

Treasures of Arabic Morphology

Arabic Tutor vol. 1

Qasas alNabiyyin vols. 1 & 2

Treasures of Arabic Morphology (continued)

Ilm alSeeghah

Durus alLughah vol. 2 (continued if not completed, followed by vol. 3)

Arabic Tutor vol. 1 (continued if not completed, followed by vol. 2)

Qasas alNabiyyin vols. 3 & 4

Nafhat alArab

Qasas alNabiyyin vol. 5

1 3 Sharh ibn Aqil vol. 1

Durus al-Balaghah Durus al-Balaghah (continued, if not completed) followed by selected readings from Talkhees alMiftah OR its commentary Mukhtasar al-Maani

Mukhtarat vol. 1

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