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Practice Midterm

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Instructions: 40 points total (2 pts/question). These are all multiple choice and there is only one best answer. Answers should be entered on the scantron provided. 1) You have version A. Bubble in A on your scantron (0 points). 2) When NaCl is added to water A) an ionic bond is broken B) Na+ is attracted to hydrogen atoms in water C) Cl- forms an ionic bond with the water D) an acidic solution is formed E) A hydration shell forms around Cl- but not Na+ 3) White blood cells are higher than phospholipids in terms of structural hierarchy because they A) have more mass than phospholipids B) are fewer in number than phospholipids in the body C) are present in more organisms than phospholipids D) have membranes composed of phosopholipids E) are larger than phospholipids 4) A new species of squirrel is identified. During hibernation their body temperature drops from 37oC to near freezing. Which of the following changes could account for the ability of membrane bound ATP synthases to continue producing ATP during hibernation? A) Cells increase the concentration of unsaturated phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes B) Cells make a new LDL receptor that causes a decrease in cellular uptake of cholesterol C) Cells increase the concentration of free ribosomes synthesizing unsaturated phospholipids in mitochondria D) Cells decrease the concentration of cholesterol in lysosomal membranes E) Cells increase the concentration of saturated phospholipids in lysosomal membranes 5) In neurons the Na-K pump is important in maintaining a resting potential. Addition of a drug that blocks ATP production in neurons will result in: A) decrease in aquaporin channel production B) flow of water out of the cell down its concentration gradient C) the inside of the cell becoming more negatively charged D) an increase in intracellular sodium
E) an increase in intracellular potassium

6) An experimental drug unexpectedly reduced sperm motility in males. This drug most likely: A) blocks dynein's ability to hydrolyze ATP B) blocks assembly of actin filaments C) inhibits extension of pseudopodia D) blocks kinesin's ability to bind to microtubules E) disrupts interaction between actin and myosin

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7) The microtubule organizing center in nondividing cells is where A) tubulin subunits are always removed from microtubules B) tubulin subunits are always added to microtubules C) the minus end of microtubules are anchored D) the motor protein myosin moves toward or away from E) the plus end of microtubules are anchored 8) A free ribosome that binds to an mRNA molecule coding for a lysosomal proton pump in the lysosome membrane will: A) cleave off the signal peptide region before starting protein synthesis B) bind to the ER and synthesize the protein directly into rER membrane C) bind to the ER and synthesize the protein into the rER lumen D) synthesize the protein in the cytosol and transport it to the lysosome E) synthesize the protein in cytosol and package it in vesicles for transport to lysosome 9) You are interested in a newly discovered membrane glycoprotein. Where is the best place in the cell to observe how the carbohydrate is attached to the protein? A) On free ribosomes B) In the smooth ER C) Inside the plasma membrane D) In the cytosol E) In the Golgi 10) Which of the following statements about G-protein coupled receptor signaling is FALSE? A) Activation of the receptor stimulates GTP dependent phosphorylation of a G protein B) The associated G protein is a transmembrane receptor C) Rate of G-protein coupled receptor signaling is influenced by membrane fluidity D) Activated G-protein interacts with a membrane bound enzyme to stimulate a cellular response E) The receptor undergoes a conformational change when ligand binds 11) The type of bond formed between hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule is A) ionic B) nonpolar ionic C) polar covalent D) hydrogen E) nonpolar covalent 12) What kinds of R groups in a transmembrane protein are most likely to be embedded within the hydrophobic interior of the plasma membrane? A) polar B) nonpolar C) charged D) Acidic E) Basic

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13) One of the buffers that contributes to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid H2CO3, which can dissociate into a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and a hydrogen ion (H+). Thus, H2CO3 _ HCO3- + H+. Carbonic acid will dissociate and release H+ ions in response to a(n) A) decrease in blood pH B) increase in free H+ ion concentration C) an increase in lactic acid D) decrease in OH- concentration E) increase in blood pH 14) Inhibiting the activity of an enzyme important in dehydration reactions and ester bonds could result in a(n) A) decrease in concentration of nucleic acids B) increase in hemoglobin proteins C) increase in concentration of steroids D) decrease in average length of polysaccharides E) decrease in number of phospholipids 15) You have found a protein involved in glycolysis that has been exposed to high temperatures. Ubiquitins are attached to this protein A) in hydrophobic regions of the protein B) in acidic regions of the protein C) inside a chaperone protein D) inside the lumen of the rough ER E) in the proteasome 16) The energy released by cleaving the terminal phosphate from ATP is: A) used to increase the rate of facilitated diffusion B) is important in G-protein receptor signaling C) necessary for conformation changes in myosin D) necessary to drive all exergonic reaction E) both c and d 17) When electrons flow along the electron transport chains in mitochondria, which of the changes occurs? A) NAD+ is oxidized to NADH B) Pyruvate is produced in the inner mitochondrial membrane C) Electrons gain free energy D) pH of the matrix increases E) ATP synthase pumps protons by active transport 18) The diagram below shows the progress of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. If an inhibitor of the enzyme were added to the reaction vessel, how would the reaction be affected?

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A) The free energy of the products would increase B) The activation energy would increase C) The activation energy would decrease D) The free energy of the reactants would decrease. E) There would be no change 19) Two batches of radish seeds of equal weight were put in two different Petri dishes with identical amounts of water and light. Dish A was grown in normal air. Dish B was grown in pure oxygen. After 10 days you removed all the water and measured the dry weight of both dishes and found that: A) Dish A was heavier than Dish B B) Dish A was lighter than Dish B C) Dish A and Dish B both produced seedlings and had same weight D) Seeds germinated and produced seedlings only in Dish A E) Seeds germinated and produced seedings only in Dish B 20) Which of the following does NOT occur in the Calvin cycle? A) Regeneration of CO2 acceptor B) Oxidation of NADPH C) Release of oxygen D) Consumption of ATP E) Carbon fixation 21) A pigment that captures light energy used in photosynthesis A) proton pumps B) chloroplasts C) chlorophyll D) thylakoid E) ultraviolet

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Short Answer Instructions: 20 points total. The answers to the following questions should be completed in the space provided. Make sure you put your name on each page. 1) In a blood sample from Joe The Plumber you found that the extracellular concentration of Na+ was 140 mM and the red blood cell volume was 60 !m3. The red blood cells were put in 3 different solutions (A, B and C) and the volume of the red blood cells in each solution is shown on the graph below. a. (3 pts) Indicate whether solutions A, B and C are hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic compared to Joe's extracellular fluid.

A. _ _________ B. _ _________ C. _ ___________

b. (2 pts) If you added ATP to the inside of the cell how would this affect the rate of transport of water across the cell membrane. ____ _____________

2) (4 pts) Match the cellular pathway with its most suitable metabolic description. a. produces CO2 b. Glucose to two pyruvate c. NAD+ regenerated, two ATP net d. H+ flows through ATP synthase ______Glycolysis ______Lactic acid fermentation ______Citric Acid Cycle ______Chemiosmosis

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3) LDL (containing cholesterol) bound to its receptor and stimulated formation of the vesicle shown below

a. (2 pts) Draw a circle on the diagram showing where LDL binds to its receptor. b. (2 pts) Name the specific process by which this vesicle was formed. c. (2 pts) To what organelle will this be transported, so that the cholesterol can be incorporated into newly forming membranes? d. (2 pts) What motor protein will transport this vesicle to the organelle making membranes?

4) a. (2 pt) What is the name of the general reaction that diassembles or breaks down polymers? ______ ______ b. (1 pt) Name the specific type of bond between monomers in a polysaccharide ______ _________

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