Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A MS (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Average, sample
mean
A AP (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Planform area
b c
m
m
2
A A, AR,
AREA
(ships, basic quantities)
Area in general
m
2
A (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Assumed centre of
gravity above keel used for
cross curves of stability
A (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Assumed centre
of gravity above keel used
for cross curves of stability 
99/1.2.4.1 I
A
O
AO (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller disc
area
D
2
/ 4 m
2
A
O
AO (ships, propulsor geometry)
Disc Area
D
2
/ 4 m
2
XAB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre of buoyancy from aft
perpendicular  I99/1.2.4.2
Distance of centre of
buoyancy from aft
perpendicular
A
BL
ABL (ships, hull geometry) Area
of bulbous bow in
longitudinal plane
The area of the ram
projected on the middle line
plane forward of the fore
perpendicular; s. Remark .1
m
2
AB
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
BT
ABT (ships, hull geometry) Area
of transverse crosssection of
a bulbous bow (full area port
and starboard)
The cross sectional area at
the fore perpendicular.
Where the water lines are
rounded so as to terminate
on the forward perpendicular
A
BT
is measured by
continuing the area curve
forward to the perpendicular,
ignoring the final rounding;
s. Remark .1
m
2
A
C
AC (ships, appenaage geometry)
Area under cutup
m
2
A
C
CUA (ACJ ana SES) Cushion area Projected area of ACV or
SES cushion on water
surface
m
2
A
C
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Area of deck
available to crew
A
D
AD (ships, propulsor geometry)
Developed blade area
Developed blade area of a
screw propeller outside the
oss or hub b
m
2
A
DEN
ADEN (ships, propulsor geometry)
Duct entry area
m
2
A
DEX
ADEX (ships, propulsor geometry)
Duct exit area
m
2
A
E
AE (ships, propulsor geometry)
Expanded blade area
Expanded blade area of a
screw propeller outside the
boss or hub
m
2
XAF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Distance of the
centre of flotation from after
erpendicular p
A
F
AFO (hyarofoil boats) Foil area
general) (
Foil area in horizontal plane m
2
A
FB
AFB (ships, appenaage geometry)
Area of bow fin
m
2
AF
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
FB
AFBO (ships, manoeuvrability)
Area of bow fins
m
2
A
FE
AFE (hyarofoil boats) Emerged
rea of foil a
m
2
A
FF
ASFF (hyarofoil boats) Submerged
rea of front foil a
m
2
A
FR
AFR (ships, appenaage geometry)
Frontal area
Projected frontal area of an
appendage
m
2
A
FR
ASFR (hyarofoil boats) Submerged
area of rear foil
m
2
A
FS
AFS (ships, appenaage geometry)
Area of stern fin
m
2
A
FS
AFST Area of stern fins m
2
A
FS
AFS (hyarofoil boats) Submerged
oil area f
m
2
A
FST
AFSTO (hyarofoil boats) Submerged
foil plan area at takeoff
speed
m
2
A
FT
AFT (hyarofoil boats) Total foil
plan area
m
2
XAG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre of gravity from aft
perpendicular
Distance of centre of gravity
from aft perpendicular
YAG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Transverse
distance from assumed
centre of gravity A, to actual
centre of gravity G
ZAG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Vertical distance
from assumed centre of
gravity A, to actual centre of
gravity G
L
AG
T
AG
J
AG
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
HL
AHLT (ships, manoeuvrability)
Lateral area of the hull
The area of the profile of the
underwater hull of a ship
when projected normally
upon the longitudinal centre
plane
m
2
A
I
AIA (multihull vessels) Strut
hull intersection area
m
2
A
if
AM(I,J) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Added mass
coefficient in ith mode due
to jth motion
A
f
AJ (ships, propulsor geometry,
water fets) Cross sectional
area at Station j
m
A
f
ASJ (sailing vessels) Area of jib
or genoa
m
2
A
LJ
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Windage area of
hull in profile at LDM and
esign trim d
A
LK
ALK (sailing vessels) Lateral area
f keel o
m
2
A
LT
ALT (sailing vessels) Total lateral
area of yacht
m
2
A
LJ
AHLV (ships, manoeuvrability)
Lateral area of hull above
water
m
2
A
M
AM (ships, hull geometry) Area
f midship section o
Midway between fore and
ft perpendiculars a
m
2
A
m
ASM (sailing vessels) Area of
ainsail m
m
2
A
N
ASN (sailing vessels) Normalized
sail area
m
2
A
P
AP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Projected blade area
Projected blade area of a
screw propeller outside the
boss or hub
m
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
R
ARU (ships, manoeuvrability)
Total lateral area of rudder
m
2
A
RF
AF (ships, appenaage geometry)
Flap area
m
2
A
RL
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Positive area
under righting lever curve
A
Rmov
ARMV (ships, manoeuvrability)
ovable area of rudder M
m
2
A
RN
ARNO (ships, manoeuvrability)
ominal area of rudder N
(A
R
A
Rmov
) / 2 m
2
A
RP
ARP (ships, appenaage geometry)
Area of rudder in the
propeller race
m
2
A
RT
ART (ships, appenaage geometry)
Total rudder area
A
RX
A
RF
m
2
A
RX
ARX (ships, appenaage geometry)
Area of the fixed part of
udder r
m
2
A
S
AS (sailing vessels) Sail area in
general
(P E I J) / 2 m
2
A
S
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Area of sails in
profile according to ISO
8666
A
SI
, I
AS
ASI (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Attained
subdivision index
(to be clarified) 1
A
SI
I
AS
ASI (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Attained
subdivision index
A
SK
ASK (ships, appenaage geometry)
Skeg area
m
2
A
sp
ASSP (sailing vessels) Area of
spinnaker
m
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
SS
ASS (hyarofoil boats) Submerged
strut area
m
2
A
T
ATR (ships, hull geometry) Area
of transom (full area port
nd starboard) a
Crosssectional area of
transom stern below the load
aterline w
m
2
A
J
AV (ships, hull geometry) Area
exposed to wind
Area of portion of ship
above waterline projected
normally to the direction of
relative wind
m
2
A
J
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Projected lateral
area of the portion of the
ship and deck cargo above
the waterline  IMO/IS,
MO/HSC'2000 I
A
W
AW (ships, hull geometry) Area
of waterplane
m
2
A
WA
AWA (ships, hull geometry) Area
of waterplane aft of midship
m
2
A
WBK
AWBK (ships, appenaage geometry)
Wetted surface area of bilge
eels k
m
2
A
WF
AWF (ships, hull geometry) Area
of waterplane forward of
midship
m
2
A
X
AX (ships, hull geometry) Area
of maximum transverse
section
m
2
YAZ (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Righting arm
based on horizontal distance
from assumed centre of
ravity A, to Z g
Generally tabulated in cross
curves of stability
A
:
()
(ships, sea keeping)
Amplitude of frequency
response function for
translatory motions
:
a
() /
a
() or
:
a
() /
a
()
1
AZ
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A
a
() /
a
() or
a
() / (
2
/ (g
a
()))
1
XAB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
of buoyancy from aft
perpendicular
Distance of centre of
buoyancy from aft
perpendicular
m
XAF (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Distance of centre
of flotation from aft
perpendicular
m
L
XAG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
of gravity from aft
erpendicular p
Distance of centre of gravity
from aft perpendicular
m
T
YAG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Transverse
distance from assumed
centre of gravity A, to actual
centre of gravity G
m
J
ZAG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Vertical distance
from assumed centre of
gravity A, to actual centre of
gravity G
m
YAZ (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Righting arm based
on horizontal distance from
assumed centre of gravity A,
to Z
Generally tabulated in cross
curves of stability
m
a, a
1
AC, A1 (ships, basic quantities)
Linear or translatory
acceleration
av / at m/s
2
a ADMP (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
amping D
s
r
, in Laplace variable 1/s
a RAUG (ships, performance)
Resistance augment fraction
(T F
p
) / R
T
 1 1
AB
AF
AG
AG
AG
AZ
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 A, a
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
a
ATT (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Cylindrical
coordinates
Cylindrical system with
origin O and longitudinal x
axis as defined before;
angular a(attitude)
coordinate , zero at 12
o'clock position, positive
clockwise looking forward, r
distance measured from the
axis x
1
a
D
ADR (ships, propulsor geometry)
Developed blade area ratio
A
D
/ A
0
1
a
E
ADE (ships, propulsor geometry)
Expanded blade area ratio
A
D
/ A
0
1
a
i
AT(I) (ships, sea keeping)
Attitudes of the floating
ystem s
i = 1, 2, 3, e. g. Euler angles
of roll, pitch, and yaw,
espectively r
rad
a
P
ADP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Projected blade area ratio
A
D
/ A
0
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 B, b
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
B B, BR (ships, basic quantities)
Breadth
m
B B (ships, hull geometry) Beam
or breadth, moulded, of
ships hull
m
B (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Centre of buoyancy
B (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Centre of
buoyancy
b (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Centre of
flotation of added buoyancy
layer or centre of lost
buoyancy of the flooded
volume
b (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Maximum tank
breadth
B
B
BB (multihull vessels) Box
beam
Beam of main deck m
B
C
BCU (ACV and SES) Cushion
beam
SES cushion beam measured
between the side walls
m
B
C
CIRCB (ships, hull geometry) R.E.
Froude's breadth coefficient
B / V
1/3
1
B
CB
(*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Beam between
centres of buoyancy of side
hulls, see
B
FOA
BFOA (hydrofoil boats) Maximum
vessel breadth including
foils
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 B, b
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
B
ij
DA(I,J) (solid body mechanics,
inertial and hydro
properties) Damping
coefficient in ith mode due
to jth motion
B
LCG
BLCG (planing, semidisplacement
vessels) Beam at
longitudinal position of the
centre of gravity
Breadth over spray strips
measured at transverse
section containing centre of
gravity
m
B
M
BM (ships, hull geometry)
Breadth, moulded of
midship section at design
water line
m
BM
ZBM (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Transverse
metacentre above centre of
buoyancy
Distance from the centre of
buoyancy B to transverse
metacentre M
KB KM
I
BM
T
=
V
=
L BM
ZBML (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Longitudinal
metacentre above centre of
buoyancy
KB KM L = BM L
B
n
BN (fluid mechanics, flow
parameter) Boussinesq
number
V / (g R
H
)
1/2
1
B
OA
BOA (sailing vessels) Beam,
overall
m
B
P
BP (ships, propulsor
performance) Taylor's
propeller coefficient based
on delivered horsepower
n P
D
/ V
A
2.5
with n is revs/min,
P
D
in horsepower, and
V
A
in knots (obsolete)
1
B
PA
BPA (planing, semidisplacement
vessels) Mean breadth over
chines
A
P
/ L
P
m
B
PC
BPC (planing, semidisplacement
vessels) Beam over chines
Beam over chines, excluding
external spray strips
m
B
PT
BPT (planing, semidisplacement
vessels) Transom breadth
Breadth over chines at
transom, excluding external
spray strips
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 B, b
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
B
PX
BPX (planing, semidisplacement
vessels) Maximum breadth
over chines
Maximum breadth over
chines, excluding external
spray strips
m
B
S
BS (multihull vessels) Hull
spacing
Distance between hull centre
lines
m
B
T
BTR (ships, hull geometry)
Breadth, moulded of
transom at design water line
m
B
TV
BTUN (multihull vessels) Tunnel
width
Minimal distance of the
demihulls at the waterline
m
B
U
BU (ships, propulsor
performance) Taylor's
propeller coefficient based
on thrust horsepower
n P
T
/ V
A
2.5
with n is revs/min,
P
T
in horsepower, and
V
A
in knots (obsolete)
1
B
WL
BWL (ships, hull geometry)
Maximum moulded breadth
at design water line
m
B
WLT
BWLT (ACV and SES) Total
waterline breadth of SES
At the water line m
B
X
BX (ships, hull geometry)
Breadth, moulded of
maximum section area at
design water line
m
BM
ZBM (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Transverse
metacentre above centre of
buoyancy
Distance from the centre of
buoyancy B to the transverse
metacentre M.
KB  KM = / I = BM
T
V
m
BM
L
ZBML (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Longitudinal
metacentre above centre of
buoyancy
KM L
 KB
b B (environmental mechanics,
waves) Bandwidth of
spectral resolution
Sampling frequency divided
by the number of transform
points
Hz
b SP (fluid mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Wing or foil span
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 B, b
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
b (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Centre of flotation
of added buoyant layer or
centre of lost buoyancy of
the flooded volume
b
1
B1 (ships, propulsor geometry,
water jets) Maximum width
of cross sectional area at
Station 1
m
b
F
BSPF (fluid mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Flap span
m
b
R
SPRU (ships, manoeuvrability)
Rudder span
m
b
RM
SPRUME (ships, manoeuvrability)
Mean span of rudder
m
b
S
BST (hydrofoil boats) Span of
struts
m
b
ST
BSTT (hydrofoil boats) Transverse
horizontal distance of struts
m
b
w
BSPW (hydrofoil boats) Foil span
wetted
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C CR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
ovariance c
C FF(2) (ships, basic quantities)
Cross force
Force normal to lift and drag
(forces)
N
C
10
C10M (environmental mechanics,
wina) Surface drag
coefficient
(.08 + .065U
10
)10
3
C
A
CA (ships, hull resistance)
Incremental resistance
coefficient for model ship
orrelation c
R
A
/ (S q) 1
C
AA
CAA (ships, hull resistance) Air
or wind resistance
coefficient
R
AA
/ (A
J
q
R
) 1
C
ADM
CADM (ships, performance)
Admiralty coefficient
2/3
J
3
/ P
S
1
C
AL
CAHL (ships, manoeuvrability)
Coefficient of lateral area
f ship o
A
HL
/ (L T) 1
C
B
CB Block coefficient
V / (L B T) 1
C
C
CIRCC (ships, hull resistance) R.E.
Froude's resistance
coefficient
1000 R / ((K
C
)
2
) 1
C
D
CDSE (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Section drag
coefficient
1
C
D
CD (ships, hull resistance)
Drag coefficient
D / (S q) 1
C
DF
CDF (hyarofoil boats) Drag
coefficient of foil
D
F
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DI
CDSI (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Section induced
rag coefficient d
1
C
DI
CDI (hyarofoil boats) Induced
drag coefficient
D
I
/ (A
FS
q) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
DINT
CDINT (hyarofoil boats)
Interference drag
oefficient c
D
INT
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DO
CDO (hyarofoil boats) Section
drag coefficient for angle of
ttack equal to zero a
D
P
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DS
CDSP (hyarofoil boats) Spray
drag coefficient
D
S
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DJENT
CDVENT (hyarofoil boats)
Ventilation drag coefficient
D
J
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DW
CDW (hyarofoil boats) Wave
drag coefficient
D
W
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
DV
CDVOL (ships, performance)
Powerdisplacement
oefficient c
P
D
/ ( J
3
V
2/3
/ 2) 1
C
F
CF (ships, hull resistance)
Frictional resistance
oefficient of a body c
R
F
/ (S q) 1
C
f
CFL (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Skin friction
coefficient
/ ( U
e
2
/ 2) 1
C
F0
CF0 (ships, hull resistance)
Frictional resistance
coefficient of a
orresponding plate c
R
F0
/ (S q) 1
C
FU
CFU (sailing vessels) Frictional
resistance coefficient
(upright)
R
FU
/ (S q) 1
C
H
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Height
coefficient, depending on
the height above sea level
of the structural member
exposed to the wind
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
I
(sailing vessels) Induced
resistance coefficient
1
C
I
CI (ice going vessels)
Coefficient of net ice
esistance r
R
I
/ (
I
g h
2
B) 1
C
if
RF(I,J) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Restoring force
coefficient in ith mode due
o jth motion t
C
IL
CWIL (ships, hull geometry)
Coefficient of inertia of
ater plane, longitudinal w
12 I
L
/ ( B L
3
) 1
C
IT
CWIT (ships, hull geometry)
Coefficient of inertia of
water plane, transverse
12 I
T
/ (B
3
L) 1
C
IW
CIW (ice going vessels)
Coefficient of water
resistance in the presence
of ice
R
IW
/ (S q
IW
) 1
CL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Crew limit
Maximum number of
persons on board
C
L
CLSE (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Section lift
coefficient
1
C
LF
CLF (hyarofoil boats) Foil lift
coefficient
L
F
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
LO
CLO (hyarofoil boats) Profile lift
coefficient for angle of
attack equal to zero
L
0
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
Lo
CL0D (planing, semi
aisplacement vessels) Lift
coefficient for zero
deadrise
/ (B
CG
2
q) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
LTO
CLTO (hyarofoil boats) Lift
coefficient at takeoff
ondition c
L
TO
/ (A
FS
q) 1
C
LX
CLA (hyarofoil boats) Slope of
ift curve l
aC
L
/ a 1
C
L
CLBET (planing, semi
aisplacement vessels) Lift
coefficient for dead rise
surface
/ (B
CG
2
q) 1
C
M
CMSE (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Section moment
coefficient
1
C
M
CMS (ships, hull geometry)
Midship section coefficient
(midway between forward
nd aft perpendiculars) a
A
M
/ (B T) 1
C
M
CM (hyarofoil boats) Pitching
oment coefficient m
M / ((A
FF
A
FR
) (l
F
 l
R
) q) 1
C
MTL
CMTL (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal
trimming coefficient
trimming moment divided
by change in trim
which approximately equals
L / BM L
1
C
MTL
CMTL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
trimming coefficient 
I99/1.2.4.3
Trimming moment divided
by change in trim which
approximately equals
L / BM
L
C
N
CN (ships, performance) Trial
correction for propeller rate
of revolution at speed
dentity i
n
T
/ n
S
1
C
NP
CNP (ships, performance) Trial
correction for propeller rate
of revolution at power
identity
P
DT
/ P
DS
1
C
P
CPL (ships, hull geometry)
Longitudinal prismatic
coefficient
V / (A
X
L) or V / (A
M
L) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
P
CDP (ships, performance) Trial
correction for delivered
ower p
1
C
P
CPD (ships, propulsor
performance) Power loading
oefficient c
P
D
/ (A
P
q
A
J
A
) 1
C
p
CP (ships, hull resistance) Local
pressure coefficient
1
C
p
CP (ships, water fets) Local
ressure coefficient p
(pp
0
)/( J/2) 1
C
PA
CPA (ships, hull geometry)
Prismatic coefficient, after
ody b
V
A
/ (A
X
L / 2) or
V
A
/ (A
M
L / 2)
1
C
PE
CPE (ships, hull geometry)
Prismatic coefficient,
entrance
V
E
/ (A
X
L
E
) or
V
E
/ (A
M
L
E
)
1
C
PF
CPF (ships, hull geometry)
Prismatic coefficient fore
ody b
V
F
/ (A
X
L / 2) or
V
F
/ (A
M
L / 2)
1
C
PR
CPR (ships, hull resistance)
Pressure resistance
coefficient, including wave
effect
R
P
/ (S q) 1
C
PR
CPR (ships, hull geometry)
Prismatic coefficient, run
s. Remark .2
V
R
/ (A
X
L
R
) or
V
R
/ (A
M
L
R
)
1
C
PR
CPR (ACJ ana SES)
erodynamic profile drag A
R
0
/ (
A
J
R
2
A
C
/ 2) 1
C
PJ
CPV (ships, hull resistance)
Viscous pressure resistance
coefficient
R
PJ
/ (S q) 1
C
Q*
CQS (ships, propulsor
erformance) Torque index p
Q / (A
P
q
S
D) 1
CR CR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
ovariance c
C
R
CR (ships, hull resistance)
Residuary resistance
coefficient
R
R
/ (S q) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
r
CRA (environmental mechanics,
waves) Average reflection
oefficient c
1
C
r
CRDS (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Directional stability
riterion c
Y
v
(N
r
 mux
G
) 
 N
v
(Y
r
 mu)
N
2
s
2
C
r
(f) CRF (environmental mechanics,
waves) Reflection
coefficient amplitude
unction f
1
C
RU
CRU (sailing vessels) Residuary
resistance coefficient
upright) (
R
RU
/ (S q) 1
CS CS (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample
covariance
C
S
CSR (ships, hull resistance) Spray
esistance coefficient r
R
S
/ (S q) 1
C
S
CS (ships, hull geometry)
Wetted surface coefficient
S / (V L)
1/2
1
C
s
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Shape coefficient,
depending on the shape of
the structural member
exposed to the wind
C
T
CT (ships, hull resistance) Total
resistance coefficient
R
T
/ (S q) 1
C
T*
CTHS (ships, propulsor
performance) Thrust index
T / (A
P
q
S
) 1
C
Th
CTH (ships, propulsor
performance) Thrust loading
coefficient, energy loading
coefficient
T / (A
P
q
A
)
(T
P
/ A
P
) / q
A
1
C
TL
CTLT (ships, hull resistance)
Telfer's resistance
coefficient
g R L / (J
2
) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
TQ
CTQ (ships, hull resistance)
Qualified resistance
oefficient c
C
TV
/ (
H
R
) 1
C
TU
CTU (sailing vessels) Total
resistance
coefficient (upright)
R
TU
/ (S q) 1
C
TV
CTVOL (ships, hull resistance)
Resistance displacement
R
T
/ (V
2/3
q) 1
C
T
CTPHI (sailing vessels) Total
resistance coefficient with
eel and leeway h
R
T
/ (S q) 1
C
uv
SI(U,V) (ships, unsteaay propeller
orces) Generalized stiffness f
s. Remark .1
C
J
CV (ships, hull resistance) Total
viscous resistance
coefficient
R
J
/ (S q) 1
C
J
CSP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Froude number
ased on breadth b
J / (B
CG
g)
1/2
1
C
JP
CVP (ships, hull geometry)
rismatic coefficient vertical P
V / (A
W
T) 1
C
W
CW (ships, hull resistance) Wave
making resistance
coefficient
R
W
/ (S q) 1
C
WA
CWA (ships, hull geometry) Water
plane area coefficient, aft
A
WA
/ (B L / 2) 1
C
WC
CWC (ACJ ana SES) Cushion
ave making coefficient w
1
C
WF
CWF (ships, hull geometry) Water
plane area coefficient,
orward f
A
WF
/(B L / 2) 1
C
WP
CW (ships, hull geometry)
Waterplane area
coefficient
A
W
/(L B) 1
C
WP
CWP (ships, hull resistance) Wave
pattern resistance
coefficient, by wave analysis
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 C, c
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
C
WU
CWU (sailing vessels) Wave
resistance coefficient
upright) (
1
C
X
CX (ships, hull geometry)
Maximum transverse section
oefficient c
A
X
/ (B T),where B and T are
measured at the position of
aximum area m
1
C
x
(sailing vessels) Force
coefficients
1
C
xx
XXCR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocovariance
of a stationary stochastic
rocess p
(x(t)  x
E
)(x(t )  x
E
)
E
C
xy
XYCR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosscovariance
of two stationary stochastic
processes
(x(t)  x
E
)(y(t )  y
E
)
E
C
y
(sailing vessels) Force
oefficients c
1
C
:
(sailing vessels) Force
oefficients c
1
C
V
CVOL (ships, hull geometry)
olumetric coefficient V
V / L
3
1
C
0
m
D
0
'
DC0N (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Non
dimensional inherent steady
urning diameter t
D
0
/ L
PP
1
D
C
DC (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Steady
urning diameter t
m
D
C
'
DCNO (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Non
dimensional steady turning
iameter d
D
C
/ L
PP
1
D
C
DC (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
avity drag C
N
D
F
DRF (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Foil drag
Force in the direction oI
otion oI an immersed Ioil m
N
D
F
DRF
(hyarofoil boats) Foil drag Force in the direction oI
motion oI an immersed Ioil
N
D
FF
DFF
(hyarofoil boats) Drag Iorce
on Iront Ioil
C
DF
A
FF
q N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 D, d
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
D
FR
DFA
(hyarofoil boats) Drag Iorce
on rear Ioil
C
DF
A
FR
q N
D
H
DHUL
(multihull vessels) Hull
diameter
Diameter oI axis symmetric
submerged hulls
m
D
I
DRIND
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Induced drag
For Iinite span Ioil, the
component oI liIt in the
irection oI motion d
N
D
I
DRIND
(hyarofoil boats) Induced
drag
For Iinite span Ioil, the
component oI liIt in the
direction oI motion
N
D
INT
DRINT
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) InterIerence drag
Due to mutual interaction oI
the boundary layers oI
ntersecting Ioil i
N
D
INT
DRINT
(hyarofoil boats)
InterIerence drag
Due to mutual interaction oI
the boundary layers oI
intersecting Ioil
N
D
P
DRSE
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Section or proIile
rag at zero liIt d
Streamline drag
N
D
P0
DRF0 (hyarofoil boats) ProIile
drag Ior angle oI attack
equal to zero liIt
Streamline drag
N
DR
DR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
eviation d
DS
DS (funaamental, statistical,
tochastic) Sample deviation s
D
S
D
RSP (
hyarofoil boats) Spray drag
D
ue to spray generation
N
D
ST
D
RST (
hyarofoil boats) Strut drag
N
D
uv
DA(U,V) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized damping
s. Remark .1
D
J
DRVNT
(hyarofoil boats) Ventilation
drag
Due to reduced pressure at
the rear side oI the strut base
N
D
W
DRWA
(hyarofoil boats) Wave drag
Due to propagation oI
surIace waves
N
D
X
DX
(multihull vessels) Hull
diameter at the longitudinal
position "X"
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 D, d
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
D
X
(f,),
D
X
(,),
DIRSF
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Directional spreading
Iunction
S(f,)S(f)D
X
(f,) where
2
)D
X
(f,)a1
0
rad
a
D, DI
(ships, basic quantities)
Diameter
m
a
T
(ships, hull geometry) DraIt,
moulded, oI ship hull
m
a
T
T (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) DraIt, moulded,
oI ship hull  I99/1.2.1
a (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Density
coeIIicient Ior submerged
test weights
a
A
TA, TAP
(ships, hull geometry) DraIt
t aIt perpendicular a
m
a
D
CLEARD (ships, propulsor geometry)
ropeller tip clearance P
Clearance between propeller
ip and inner surIace oI duct t
m
a
F
TF, TFP (ships, hull geometry) DraIt
at Iorward perpendicular
m
a
h
DH
(ships, propulsor geometry)
Boss or hub diameter
2 r
h
m
a
KL
KDROP
(ships, hull geometry)
Design drop oI the keel line
T
AD
 T
FD
alias 'keel drag
m
a
M
TM, TMS
(ships, hull geometry) DraIt
t midship a
(T
A
T
F
) / 2 Ior rigid bodies
ith straight keel w
m
a
TR
DTRA (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Immersion oI
transom, underway
Vertical depth oI trailing
edge oI boat at keel below
water surIace level
m
a
t
YART
(ships, manoeuvrability)
Rate oI change oI course
a / at
rad/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 E, e
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
E EL (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Modulus of
lasticity e
Pa
E MR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
population mean
E MEI (environmental mechanics,
ice) Modulus of elasticity of
ce i
n/m
2
E E, EN (ships, basic quantities)
nergy E
J
E EM (sailing vessels) Mainsail
base
m
E
f
EJ (ships, water fets) Energy
flux at Station j
E
f
(/2))J
Ef
2
aQ
f
Q
J
W
e ED (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Density of total flow
energy
J
2
/ 2 + p g h Pa
e
A
ENAPP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of appendage
ift force N
A
l
Distance between N
A
and
centre of gravity (measured
ormally to N
A
) n
m
e
B
ENBOT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of bottom
normal force N
B
Distance between N
B
and
centre of gravity (measured
normally to N
B
)
m
e
PN
ENPN (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of propeller
normal force N
PN
Distance between propeller
centreline and centre of
gravity (measured along
haft line) s
m
e
PP
ENPP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of resultant of
propeller pressure forces
N
PP
Distance between N
PP
and
centre of gravity (measured
normally to N
PP
)
m
e
PS
ENPS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of resultant
ropeller suction forces N
PS
p
Distance between N
PS
and
centre of gravity (measured
ormal to N
PS
) n
m
e
RP
ENRP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of resultant of
rudder pressure forces N
RP
Distance between N
RP
and
centre of gravity (measured
normal to N
RP
)
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
F CQF (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Entrainment factor
1 / (U
e
aQ / ax) 1
F FETCH (environmental mechanics,
wina) Fetch length
Distance over water the
wind blows
m
F F, F0 (ships, basic quantities)
Force
N
F (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Centre of flotation
of the water plane
F (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Centre of
Flotation of the water plane
F (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Wind force 
IMO/IS
F
0
F, F0 (ships, basic quantities)
Force
N
F
0
1
FX,
F0(1), F(1)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis x
Nm
F
0
2
FY,
F0(2), F(2)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis y
Nm
F
0
3
FZ,
F0(3), F(3)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis z
Nm
F
1
FX,
F0(1), F(1)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis x
Nm
F
1
1
F1(1), F(4) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis x
Nm
F
1
2
F1(2), F(5) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis y
Nm
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
F
1
3
F1(3), F(6) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis z
Nm
F
2
FY,
F0(2), F(2)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
ody axis y b
Nm
F
3
FZ,
F0(3), F(3)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis z
Nm
F
4
F1(1), F(4) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
xis x a
Nm
F
5
F1(2), F(5) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis y
Nm
F
6
F1(3), F(6) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis z
Nm
FB
XFB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre of buoyancy, LCB,
from forward perpendicular
Distance of centre of
buoyancy from forward
perpendicular
F
C
CIRCF (ships, hull resistance) R.E.
Froude's frictional resistance
oefficient c
1000 R
F
/ ((K
C
)
2
) 1
F
1
F1 (ships, basic quantities)
oment of forces M
First order moment of a
orce distribution f
F
1
F
D
SFC (ships, performance) Skin
friction correction in self
propulsion test
Skin friction correction in a
self propulsion test carried
out at the ship self
propulsion point
N
FF
XFF (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
of floatation, L
CF,
from
forward perpendicular
Distance of centre of
flotation from forward
perpendicular
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
FF
XFF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre of flotation, LCF,
from forward perpendicular
Distance of centre of
floatation from forward
perpendicular
F
F
1
FF(1) (ships, basic quantities)
Resistance (force)
Force opposing translatory
velocity
N
F
F
1
FF(1) (ships, basic quantities)
Drag (force)
Force opposing translatory
velocity, generally for a
ompletely immersed body c
N
F
F
2
FF(2) (ships, basic quantities)
Cross force
Force normal to lift and drag
(forces)
N
F
F
3
FF(3) (ships, basic quantities) Lift
(force)
Force perpendicular to
translatory velocity
N
FG
XFG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
of gravity from forward
perpendicular
Distance of centre of gravity
from forward perpendicular
m
FG
XFG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre of gravity, from
forward perpendicular
Distance of centre of gravity
from forward perpendicular
F
H
(sailing vessels) Heeling
orce of sails f
N
F
h
u
FH(U) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Generalized
ydrodynamic force h
F
IN
FNIC (ice going vessels) Normal
ice force on a body
Projection of hull  ice
interaction force on the
xternal normal e
N
F
IT
FTIC (ice going vessels)
Tangential ice force on a
body
Projection of the hull  ice
interaction force on the
direction of motion
N
F
i
F(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Vibratory force
i = 1, 2, 3 N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
F
L
FS(2) (ships, sea keeping) Wave
excited lateral shear force
Alias horizontal!
N
F
N
FS(3) (ships, sea keeping) Wave
excited normal shear force
Alias vertical! N
F
P
FP (ships, performance) Force
pulling or towing
a ship
N
F
PO
FPO (ships, performance) Pull
uring bollard test d
N
Fr FN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Froude number
J / (g L)
1/2
1
F
R
(sailing vessels) Driving
orce of sails f
N
Fr
c
FNC (hyarofoil boats) Froude
number based on chord
ength l
J / (g c
M
)
1/2
1
Fr
h
FH (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Froude depth
number
J / (g h)
1/2
1
Fr
I
FNIC (ice going vessels) Froude
number based on ice
hickness t
J / (g h
I
)
1/2
1
Fr
L
FNFD (hyarofoil boats) Froude
number based on foil
istance d
J / (g L
FR
)
1/2
1
Fr
V
FV (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Froude
displacement number
J / (g V
1/3
)
1/2
1
F
S
i
FS(I) (solia boay mechanics,
oaas) Shearing force l
F
S0
2
, F
S0
3
N
F
S
u
FS(U) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force or load acting
at a given planar cross
section of the body,
generalized, in section
oordinates! c
F
S
i
F
S0
i
F
S
3i
F
S1
i
M
B
i
N
Nm
F
T
FT,
FS(1)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Tensioning or normal
force
F
S0
1
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
F
TA
FTAPP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Appendage drag
force (parallel to reference
ine) l
Drag forces arising from
appendages inclined to flow,
assumed to act parallel to the
eference line r
N
F
TB
FTBOT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Bottom frictional
force (parallel to reference
line)
Viscous component of
bottom drag forces assumed
acting parallel to the
reference line
N
F
TK
FTKL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Keel or skeg drag
force
(parallel to reference line)
Drag forces arising from
keel or skeg, assumed to act
parallel to the reference line
N
F
TRP
FTRP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Additional rudder
drag force (parallel to
reference line)
Drag forces arising from
influence of propeller wake
on the rudder assumed to act
arallel to the reference line p
N
F
u
F(U) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force, generalized,
load, in body coordinates
M
F
u
M
M
u
F
i
F
0
i
F
3i
F
1
i
n
F
u
FG(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
vibratory
force
u = 1,.., 6
u = 1, 2, 3: force
u = 4, 5, 6: moment
N
N
Nm
F
J
(sailing vessels) Vertical
force of sails
N
F
XI
F
YI
F
ZI
FXIC
FYIC
FZIC
(ice going vessels)
Components of the local
i e force c
N
N
N
F
x
XPF (funaamental, statistical)
Probability function
(distribution) of a random
quantity
1
F
x
,
FX,
F0(1), F(1)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis x
Nm
F
xy
XYPF (funaamental, statistical)
Joint probability function
(distribution) function of
two random quantities
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
F
y
, FY,
F0(2), F(2)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
body axis y
Nm
F
:
, FZ,
F0(3), F(3)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
ody axis z b
Nm
f FR (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Frequency
Hz
f FR (environmental mechanics,
waves) Frequency
2 Hz
f FR (ships, basic quantities)
requency F
1 / T Hz
f FREB (ships, hull geometry)
Freeboard
From the freeboard
markings to the freeboard
deck, according to official
rules
m
f FBP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Camber of blade profile
m
f FM (ships, appenaage geometry)
Camber of an aerofoil or a
ydrofoil h
Maximum separation of
median and nosetail line
m
f FREB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Freeboard
From the freeboard
markings to the freeboard
deck, according to official
rules
m
f FC (ships, hull resistance)
Friction coefficient
Ratio of tangential force to
normal force between two
liding bodies s
1
f FR (ships, sea keeping)
Frequency
1 / T Hz
f FREB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
Freeboard capsi:ing)
From the freeboard markings
to the freeboard deck,
ing to official rules accord
f
AA
FRAA (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of wind force
R
AA
Distance between R
AA
and
centre of gravity (measured
normal to R
AA
)
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
f
AP
FRAP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of appendage
drag R
AP
Distance between R
AP
and
centre of gravity (measured
ormal to R n
AP
)
m
f
BL
CABL (ships, hull geometry) Area
oefficient for bulbous bow c
A
BL
/ (L T) 1
f
BT
CABL (ships, hull geometry) Taylor
sectional area coefficient for
ulbous bow b
A
BT
/ A
X
1
f
C
FC (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Basic frequency in repeating
unctions f
1 / T
C
Hz
f
D
FD (ships, propulsor geometry)
amber of duct profile C
m
f
e
FE (ships, sea keeping)
Frequency of wave
encounter
1 / T
e
Hz
f
F
FRF (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of frictional
esistance R r
F
Distance between R
F
and
centre of gravity (measured
ormal to R n
F
)
m
f
ID
CFRD (ice going vessels)
Coefficient of friction
between surface of body and
ice (dynamic)
Ratio of tangential force to
normal force between two
bodies (dynamic condition)
1
f
IS
CFRS (ice going vessels)
Coefficient of friction
between surface of body and
ce (static) i
The same as above (static
condition)
1
f
i
FS(I) (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
ass specific force M
Strength of force fields,
sually only gravity field g u
i
m/s
2
f
L
FML (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Camber of lower
side (general)
m
f
P
FRPK (environmental mechanics,
waves) Spectral peak in
requency f
Frequency at which the
spectrum has its maximum
Hz
f
R
FRRC (environmental mechanics,
waves) Frequency resolution
1 / T
R
Hz
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 F, f
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
f
S
FS (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Frequency of sampling
1 / T
S
period in repeating spectra
Hz
f
S
FSL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of axial
propeller thrust
Distance between axial
thrust and centre of gravity
(measured normal to shaft
ine) l
m
f
S
FRSA (environmental mechanics,
waves) Sample frequency
1 / T
S
Hz
f
T
FRT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever of total
esistance R r
T
Distance between R
T
and
centre of gravity (measured
ormal to R n
T
)
m
f
t.
ATR (ships, hull geometry)
Sectional area coefficient for
ransom stern t
A
T
/ A
X
1
f
U
FMU (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Camber of upper
side
m
f
W
FW (environmental mechanics,
aves Basic wave frequency w
1 / T
W
Hz
f
Wi
FW(I) (environmental mechanics,
waves) Frequencies of
harmonic components of a
periodic wave
i f
W
Hz
f
x
XPD (funaamental, statistical)
Probability density of a
andom quantity r
a F
x
/ ax
f
xy
XYPD (funaamental, statistical)
Joint probability density of
two random quantities
c
2
F
xy
/ (cx cy)
f
:
(ships, sea keeping) Natural
requency of heave f
1 / T
:
Hz
f
Hz
f
Hz
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 G, g
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
G
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Centre oI gravity
oI a vessel
G (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Centre oI gravity
oI a vessel
G
0
i , G
i
G0(I)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Gravity or weight
Iorce
in body coordinates!
G
i
G
0
i
m
0
if
g
f
mg
i
N
G
1
i
G1(I)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Gravity or weight
moment
in body coordinates!
G
3i
G
1
i
ikf
x
k
G
0
f
m
1
if
g
f
Nm
GGV (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Vertical stability
lever caused by a weight
hiIt or weight addition s
KG
GGH
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Horizontal stability
lever caused by a weight
shiIt or weight addition
m
GGH (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Horizontal
stability lever caused by a
weight shiIt or weight
addition
GGL
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal
stability lever caused by a
weight shiIt or weight
addition
m
GGL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
stability lever caused by a
weight shiIt or weight
addition
1 0 1
GG KG + =
1
GG
H GG
H
GG
L GG
L
GG
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 G, g
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
, GG
GG1, GGV
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Vertical stability
lever caused by a weight
shiIt or weight addition
m
GGV (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Vertical stability
lever caused by a weight
shiIt or weight addition
KG
GM
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Transverse
metacentric height
Distance oI centre oI gravity
to the metacentre
KM

m
GM (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Transverse
metacentric height
Distance oI centre oI gravity
to the metacentre
(not corrected Ior Iree
urIace eIIect) s
GMEFF
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) EIIective
transverse metacentric
height
GM corrected Ior Iree
surIace and/or Iree
communication eIIects
m
GMEFF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) EIIective
transverse metacentric
height
Corrected Ior Iree
surIace and/or Iree
communication eIIects
GML
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI metacentric height
Distance Irom the centre oI
gravity G to the longitudinal
metacentre M
L

m
GML (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
metacentric height
Distance Irom the centre oI
gravity G to the longitudinal
metacentre M
L
G
u
G(U)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Gravity or weight
Iorce, generalized, in body
coordinates!
G
u
m
uv
g
v
KG KM GM
L
L
=
L
GM
KG L KM
L GM
GM
Eff GM
Eff GM
KG KM GM =
GM
KG
GM
1 0 1
GG KG + =
J
GG
1
0 1
GG
KG
KG
J 1 GG
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 G, g
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
GZ (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Arm oI statical
stability corrected Ior Iree
urIaces  IMO/table s
GZ
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Righting arm or
lever
AZ AG sin
T AG cos
m
GZ (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Righting arm or
lever
GZ =
GZMAX
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Maximum righting
arm or lever
m
GZMAX (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum
righting arm or lever
G
Z
GAP
(ships, propulsor geometry)
Gap between the propeller
lades b
2 r sin () / :
m
g
G, GR (ships, basic quantities)
Acceleration oI gravity
Weight Iorce / mass,
strength
oI the earth gravity Iield
m/s
2
g
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Centre oI gravity
oI an added or removed
weight (mass)
g (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Centre oI gravity
oI an added or removed
eight (mass) w
g
E
GMR (funaamental, statistical)
Expected value oI a Iunction
oI a random quantity
E(g) )g(x)f
x
(x)ax
x  ...
g
i
G1(I)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Gravity Iield strength,
in body coordinates!
m/s
2
GZ J
GZ sin AG AZ
J
MAX GZ
MAX
GZ
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 G, g
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
g
M
GMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Expected value oI a Iunction
oI a random quantity
E(g) )g(x)f
x
(x)ax
x  ...
g
MR
GMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Expected value oI a Iunction
I a random quantity o
E(g) )g(x)f
x
(x)ax
x  ...
g
MR
GMR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Mean oI a
Iunction oI a random
quantity
M(g(t)) lim(1/T )g(t)at)
t T/2 ... T/2
T  ...
g
MS
GMS
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Average or
sample mean oI a Iunction oI
random quantity a
A(g(t)) 1/T )g(t)at
t 0 ... T
g
u
G(U) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Gravity Iield strength,
generalized, in body
coordinates
g
i
g
1
i
g
3i
0
m/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 H, h
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
H HT (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Total head
e / w h p/w q/w m
H H, HT (ships, basic quantities)
Height
m
H HBL (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Boundary layer
shape parameter
*
/ 1
H (sailing vessels) Side force N
H
1
HT1
(ships, water fets) Local
total head at Station 1
m
H
1/3a
H13D (environmental mechanics,
waves) Zero downcrossing
significant wave height
Average of the highest one
third zero downcrossing
wave heights
m
H
1/3u
H13U (environmental mechanics,
waves) Zero upcrossing
significant wave height
Average of the highest one
third zero upcrossing wave
heights
m
H
35
H35
(ships, water fets) Mean
increase of total head across
pump and stator or several
pump stages
m
H
CG
HVCG (ACJ ana SES) Height of
centre of gravity above mean
water plane beneath craft
m
H
DK
HCLDK (multihull vessels) Deck
clearance
Minimum clearance of wet
deck from water surface at
rest
m
H
a
HD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave height by zero
downcrossing
m
H
E
HQF (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Entrainment shape
parameter
( 
*
) / 1
H
H
HH (ACJ ana SES) Vertical
spacing between inner and
outer side skirt hinges or
attachment points to
structure
needs clarification m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 H, h
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
HL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heeling lever
(due to various reasons) 
IMO/HSC'2000
H
mo
HMO (environmental mechanics,
waves) Significant wave
height based on zeroth
moment for narrow banded
spectrum
4 (m
0
)
1/2
m
H
N
HTNT (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Net useful head of turbo
engines
m
H
SK
HSK (ACJ ana SES) Skirt depth m
H
SS
HSS (multihull vessels) Strut
submerged depth
Depth of strut from still
water line to struthull
intersection
m
H
TC
HTC (ships, propulsor geometry)
Hull tip clearance
Distance between the
propeller sweep circle and
the hull
m
H
U
HTUS (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Total head upstream of
turboengines
m
H
u
HU (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave height by zero
upcrossing
m
H
J
HV (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave height
estimated from visual
observation
m
H
W
HW (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave height
C

T
m
H
v
I
if
IN(I,J) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Second moments
of mass, i.e. inertia
distribution
Alias mass moments of
inertia
kg m
2
I
AS
ASI (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Attained
ubdivision index s
I
L
IL (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Longitudinal
second moment of water
lane area p
About transverse axis
through centre of floatation
m
4
I
T
IT (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Transverse
second moment of water
plane area
About longitudinal axis
through centre of floatation
m
4
IJR
IVR
(ships, water fets) Intake
velocity ratio
J
2
/J 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 I, i
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
I
xy
IXY (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Real products of
inertia in case of non
rincipal axes p
kg m
2
I
y
, I
yy
, IY, IYY, (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Pitch moment of
inertia
around the principal axis y
kg m
2
I
y:
IYZ (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Real products of
inertia in case of non
principal axes
kg m
2
I
:
, I
::
IZ, IZZ, (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Yaw moment of
inertia
around the principal axis z
kg m
2
I
:x
IZX (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Real products of
inertia in case of non
principal axes
kg m
2
i I (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Imaginary unit
sqrt(1) 1
i
EI
ANENIN (multihull vessels) Half
angle of entrance at tunnel
inner) side (
Angle of inner water line
with reference to centre line
f demihull o
rad
i
EO
ANENOU (multihull vessels) Half
angle of entrance at outer
side
Angle of outer water line
with reference to centre line
of demihull
rad
i
E
ANEN (ships, hull geometry) Angle
of entrance, half
Angle of waterline at the
bow with reference to centre
plane, neglecting local shape
at stem
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 I, i
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
i
G
RAKG (ships, propulsor geometry)
Rake
The displacement from the
propeller plane to the
generator line in the
direction of the shaft axis.
Aft displacement is positive
ake. r
m
i
R
ANRU (ships, hull geometry) Angle
of run, half
Angle of waterline at the
stern with reference to the
centreplane, neglecting
ocal shape of stern frame l
rad
i
S
RAKS (ships, propulsor geometry)
Axial displacement, skew
induced
The axial displacement of a
blade section which occurs
when the propeller is
skewed. Aft displacement is
positive rake
m
i
T
RAKT (ships, propulsor geometry)
Axial displacement, total
The axial displacement of
the blade reference line from
the propeller plane
i
G
i
S
= c
S
sin
Positive direction is aft.
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 J, j
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J JEI (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
advance ratio
V
A
/ (D n) 1
J J (sailing vessels) Fore
riangle base t
m
J
A
JA (ships, propulsor
performance) Apparent or
ull advance ratio h
V / (D n) = V
H
/ (D n) 1
J
H
JH (ships, propulsor
performance) Apparent or
hull advance ratio
V / (D n) = V
H
/ (D n) 1
J
P
JP (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
advance ratio for ducted
ropeller p
V
P
/ (D n)
J
PQ
JPQ (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance ratio
of propeller determined from
orque identity t
1
J
PT
JPT (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance ratio
of propeller determined from
thrust identity
1
J
Q
JQ (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance ratio
of propeller determined from
orque identity t
1
J
T
JT (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance ratio
of propeller determined from
thrust identity
1
JVR JVR (ships, water jets) Jet
tio velocity ra
V
7
/V 1
j J (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
Integer values
 ...+ 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 K, k
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
K (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Keel reference
K MX (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Roll moment on
body, moment about body x
xis a
Nm
K KS (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Gain factor in
linear manoeuvring equation
1/s
K K (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis x
Nm
K (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Keel reference
KM
ZKM (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Transverse
metacentre above moulded
base of keel
Distance from the transverse
metacentre M to the
moulded base of keel or K
L KM
ZKML (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
metacentre above moulded
base of keel
Distance from the
longitudinal metacentre M
L
to the moulded base of keel
or K
K
1
C1 (ships, performance) Ship
model correlation factor for
ropulsive efficiency p
DS
/
DM
1
K
2
C2 (ships, performance) Ship
model correlation factor for
propeller rate revolution
n
s
/ n
M
1
KA
ZKA (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Assumed centre of
gravity above moulded base
or keel
Distance from the assumed
centre of gravity A to the
moulded base or keel K
m
KA
ZKA (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Assumed centre
of gravity above moulded
base of keel
Distance from the assumed
centre of gravity A to the
moulded base of keel or K
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 K, k
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
K
AP
KAP
(ships, performance)
Appendage correction
factor
Scale effect correction factor
for model appendage drag
applied at the towing force
in a selfpropulsion test
1
KB
ZKB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Centre of buoyancy
above moulded base or keel
Distance from the centre of
buoyancy B to the moulded
base or keel K
m
KB
ZKB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Centre of
buoyancy above moulded
base of keel
Distance from the centre of
buoyancy B to the moulded
base of keel or K
K
C
CIRCK (ships, hull resistance) R.E.
Froude's speed displacement
coefficient
(4 )
1/2
F
nV
or
(4/g)
1/2
J
K
/V
1/6
K
Fi
KF(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Vibratory force
coefficients
F
i
/ ( n
2
D
4
) 1
K
Fu
KF(U) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
vibratory
force coefficients
According to definitions of
K
Fi
and K
Mi
1
KG
ZKG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Centre of gravity
above moulded base or keel
Distance from centre of
gravity G to the moulded
base or keel K
m
KG
ZKG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Centre of gravity
oulded base of keel above m
Distance from the centre of
gravity G to the moulded
base of keel or K
Kg
ZKAG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Vertical centre of
gravity of added or removed
weight above moulded base
or keel
Distance from centre of
gravity, g, to the moulded
base or keel K
m
Kg
ZKAG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Vertical centre of
gravity of added or removed
weight above moulded base
of keel
Distance from the assumed
centre of gravity, g, to the
moulded base of keel or K
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 K, k
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
KM
ZKM (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Transverse
metacentre above moulded
ase or keel b
Distance from the transverse
metacentre M to the
moulded base or keel K
m
K
Mi
KM(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Vibratory moment
oefficients c
M
i
/ ( n
2
D
5
) 1
L KM
ZKML (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal
metacentre above moulded
ase or keel b
Distance from the
longitudinal metacentre M
L
to the moulded base or keel
K
m
K
P
KP (ships, propulsor
performance) Delivered
ower coefficient p
P
D
/ ( n
3
D
5
) 2 K
Q
1
K
p
KPR (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Pressure coefficient
p / ( n
2
D
2
) 1
K
Q
KQ (ships, propulsor
performance) Torque
oefficient c
Q / ( n
2
D
5
) 1
K
QO
KQO (ships, propulsor
performance) Torque
coefficient of propeller
converted from behind to
open water condition
K
Q
.
R
1
K
QIA
KQICMS (ice going vessels) Average
oefficient of torque in ice c
Q
IA
/ (
W
n
IA
2
D
5
) 1
K
SC
KSC (ships, propulsor
performance) Centrifugal
pindle torque coefficient s
Q
SC
/ (
P
n
2
D
5
) 1
K
SH
KSH (ships, propulsor
performance) Hydrodynamic
spindle torque coefficient
Q
SH
/ ( n
2
D
5
) 1
K
R
KR (ships, hull resistance)
Resistance coefficient
orresponding to K c
Q
, K
T
R / ( D
4
n
2
) 1
K
T
KT (ships, propulsor
performance) Thrust
coefficient
T / ( n
2
D
4
) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 K, k
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
K
TD
KTD (ships, propulsor
performance) Duct thrust
coefficient
T
D
/ ( n
2
D
4
) 1
K
T,IA
KTICMS (ice going vessels) Average
oefficient of thrust in ice c
T
IA
/ (
W
n
IA
2
D
4
) 1
K
TP
KTP (ships, propulsor
performance) Ducted
ropeller thrust coefficient p
T
P
/ ( n
2
D
4
) 1
K
TT
KTT (ships, propulsor
performance) Total thrust
coefficient for a ducted
ropeller unit p
K
TP
K
TD
1
k HK (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Roughness
height or magnitude
Roughness height, usually in
terms of some average
m
k WN (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave number
2 / L
W
2
/g 1/m
k K (ships, hull resistance) Three
dimensional form factor on
lat plate friction f
(C
J
 C
FO
) / C
FO
1
k RDGX (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Roll radius of
gyration
around the principal axis x
(I
xx
/m)
1/2
m
k (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Roll damping
coefficient expressing the
effect of bilge keels
k
s
SK (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Sand roughness
Mean diameter of the
equivalent sand grains
covering a surface,
s. Remark .2
k
x
, k
xx
RDGX (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Roll radius of
gyration
around the principal axis x
(I
xx
/m)
1/2
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 K, k
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
k
y
, k
yy
RDGY (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Pitch radius of
gyration
around the principal axis y
(I
yy
/m)
1/2
m
k
:
, k
::
RDGZ (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Yaw radius of
gyration
around the principal axis z
(I
::
/m)
1/2
m
k() WDC (ships, hull resistance) Wind
direction coefficient
C
AA
/ C
AA0
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 L, l
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
L
L
(ships, hull geometry)
Length oI ship
ReIerence length oI ship
(generally length between
the perpendiculars)
m
L
L
(ships, hull geometry)
Length oI ship
ReIerence length oI ship
(generally length between
he perpendiculars) t
m
L
L, LE
(ships, basic quantities)
ength L
m
L
FF(3) (ships, basic quantities) LiIt
(Iorce)
Force perpendicular to
translatory velocity
N
L (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Length oI the
vessel on the waterline in
maximum load condition 
IMO/IS
L
0
LF0
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) LiIt Iorce Ior angle
oI attack oI zero
C
L0
A
FT
q N
L
0
LF0
(hyarofoil boats) ProIile liIt
Iorce Ior angle oI attack oI
zero
C
L0
A
FT
q N
L
B
LB
(ACJ ana SES) DeIormed
ag contact length b
m
L
b
LSB (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
eeping) Static stability lever k
N
v
/ Y
v
m
L
C
LC (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted chine length,
underway
m
L
C
LAC
(ACJ ana SES) Cushion
ength l
m
L
CB
XCB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI buoyancy (LCB)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI buoyancy, B
m
L
CF
XCF
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI Ilotation (LCF)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI Ilotation, F
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 L, l
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
L
CG
XCG
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI gravity (LCG)
Longitudinal distance Irom a
reIerence point to the centre
oI gravity, G
m
L
CH
LCH
(multihull vessels) Length
I centre section oI hull o
Length oI prismatic part oI
ull h
m
L
CS
LCS (multihull vessels) Length
I centre section oI strut o
Length oI prismatic part oI
trut s
m
L
D
LD (ships, propulsor geometry)
uct length D
m
L
DEN
LDEN (ships, propulsor geometry)
Duct entry part length
Axial distance between
leading edge oI duct and
propeller plane
m
L
DEX
LDEX
(ships, propulsor geometry)
Duct exit length
Axial distance between
propeller plane and trailing
dge oI duct e
m
L
a
LSR
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Damping stability
lever
(N
r
 mux
G
) / (Y
r
 mu) m
L
E
LEN
(ships, hull geometry)
Length oI entrance
From the Iorward
perpendicular to the Iorward
end oI parallel middle body,
r maximum section o
m
L
E
LEFF
(sailing vessels) EIIective
ength Ior Reynolds Number l
m
L
E
LACE (ACJ ana SES) EIIective
length oI cushion
A
C
/ B
C
m
L
F
LF
(ships, appenaage geometry)
Length oI Ilap or wedge
Measured in direction
parallel to keel
m
L
F
LF
(hyarofoil boats) LiIt Iorce
n Ioil o
C
L
A
FT
q N
L
FF
LFF (hyarofoil boats) LiIt Iorce
n Iront Ioil o
C
L
A
FF
q N
L
FR
LFR (hyarofoil boats) LiIt Iorce
n rear Ioil o
C
L
A
FR
q N
L
FS
LFS (ships, hull geometry) Frame
spacing
used Ior structures m
L
H
LH
(multihull vessels) Box
length
Length oI main deck m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 L, l
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
L
H
LH
(ACJ ana SES) Horizontal
spacing between inner and
outer side skirt hinges or
attachment points to
tructure s
needs clariIication m
L
HY
(sailing vessels)
ydrodynamic liIt Iorce H
N
L
K
LK (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted keel length,
underway
m
L
M
LM
(planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Mean wetted length,
nderway u
(L
K
L
C
) / 2 m
L
NH
LNH (multihull vessels) Length
I nose section oI hull o
Length oI nose section oI
ull with variable diameter h
m
L
NS
LNS (multihull vessels) Length
oI nose section oI strut
Length oI nose section oI
strut with variable thickness
m
L
OA
LOA
(ships, hull geometry)
Length, overall
m
L
OS
LOS
(ships, hull geometry)
ength, overall submerged L
m
L
P
LP (ships, hull geometry)
Length oI parallel middle
ody b
Length oI constant
transverse section
m
L
PP
LPP (ships, hull geometry)
Length between
perpendiculars
m
L
PR
LPRC
(planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Projected chine
ength l
Length oI chine projected in
a plane parallel to keel
m
L
R
LRU (ships, hull geometry)
Length oI run
From section oI maximum
area or aIter end oI parallel
middle body to waterline
termination or other
esignated point oI the stern d
m
L
S
LS
(multihull vessels) Strut
length
Length oI strut Irom leading
to trailing edge
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 L, l
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
L
S
LS
(ACJ ana SES) Distance oI
leading skirt contact point
outboard or outer hinge oI
ttachment point to structure a
needs clariIication m
L
SB
LSB (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Total length oI
haIts and bossings s
m
L
SH
LSH (multihull vessels) Length
oI submerged hull
m
L
SS
LSS
(ships, hull geometry)
Station spacing
m
L
T0
LT0
(hyarofoil boats) LiIt Iorce
t take oII a
C
LTO
A
FT
q N
L
JHD
LVD (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Vertical component
I hydrodynamic liIt o
N
L
JS
LVS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Hydrostatic liIt
Due to buoyancy N
L
W
LW
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave length
Measured in the direction oI
wave propagation
m
L
WL
LWL
(ships, hull geometry)
Length oI waterline
m
l
XTA
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal
trimming arm
x
cb
 x
CB
m
l (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Arm oI dynamic
stability corrected Ior Iree
surIaces  IMO/table
l XTA (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
trimming arm
x
CB cb
x
l (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum tank
length
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 L, l
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
l
b
LSB
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Static stability lever
N
v
/ Y
v
m
l
C
LC
(fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Cavity length
Streamwise dimension oI a
Iullydeveloped cavitating
egion r
m
l
CP
LCP
(planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Lever oI resultant oI
pressure Iorces, underway
Distance between centre oI
pressure and aIt end oI
planing surIace
m
l
a
LSR
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Damping stability
ever l
(N
r
 mux
G
) / (Y
r
 mu) m
l
F
LEFF (hyarofoil boats) Horizontal
distance oI centre oI
pressure oI Iront Ioil to
centre oI gravity
m
l
FR
LEFR
(hyarofoil boats) Horizontal
distance between centres oI
pressure oI Iront and rear
oils I
l
F
l
R
m
l
R
LERF (hyarofoil boats) Horizontal
distance oI centre oI
pressure oI rear Ioil to centre
oI gravity
m
l
r
LHRD
(ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Loop height
oI r curve Ior unstable ship
rad/s
l
w
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Wind heeling
lever
l
s
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Actual length oI
enclosed superstructure
extending Irom side to side
I the vessel o
l
LWRD (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Loop width
oI r curve Ior unstable ship
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
M M1, F1 (ships, basic quantities)
Moment of forces
First order moment of a
force distribution
Nm
M MO (ships, basic quantities)
Momentum
Ns
M MR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
population mean
M (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Metacentre of a
vessel
See subscripts for
qualification
M MY (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Pitch moment on
body, moment about body y
xis a
Nm
M MSP (hyarofoil boats) Vessel
pitching moment
Nm
M (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Metacentre of a
vessel
See subscripts for
qualification
M
1
MF1 (ships, water fets)
Momentum flux at Station 1
M
1
)J
1
aQ
f
Q
J
N
M
7
MF7 (ships, water fets)
Momentum flux at Station 7
M
7
)u
7x
aQ
f
)(p
7
 p
0
)aA
7
N
Ma MN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Mach number
J / c 1
M
B
i
MB(I) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Bending moment
F
S1
2
, F
S1
3
Nm
M
C
CIRCM (ships, hull geometry) R.E.
Froude's length coefficient,
or lengthdisplacement ratio
L / V
1/3
1
M
C
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum offset
load moment due to crew
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
M
c
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Minimum
capsizing moment as
determined when account is
taken of rolling
M
F
MLF (hyarofoil boats) Load factor
of front foil
L
FF
/ 1
M
f.s.
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Free surface
moment at any inclination
M
i
M(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Vibratory moment
i = 1, 2, 3 Nm
M
L
MB(3),
FS(6)
(ships, sea keeping) Wave
excited lateral bending
oment m
Alias horizontal! Nm
M
N
MB(2),
FS(5)
(ships, sea keeping) Wave
excited normal bending
moment
Alias vertical! Nm
M, MR MR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
opulation mean p
M
R
MLR (hyarofoil boats) Load factor
of rear foil
L
FR
/ 1
M
R
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heeling moment
ue to turning d
M
S
MS (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Moment of ship
stability
in general
GZ A Other moments such
as those of capsizing,
heeling, etc. will be
represented by M
S
with
additional subscripts as
ppropriate a
Nm
MS MS (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Average, sample
mean
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
M
S
MS (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Moment of ship
stability in general
GZ A . Other moments such
as those of capsizing,
heeling, etc. will be
represented by M
S
with
additional subscripts as
appropriate.
M
T
MT(1),
FS(4)
(ships, sea keeping) Wave
excited torsional moment
Nm
M
T
MT,
MB(1)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Twisting or torsional
oment m
F
S1
1
Nm
M
TC
MTC (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Moment to change
trim one centimetre
Nm/cm
M
TC
MTC (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Moment to
hange trim one centimetre c
M
TM
MTM (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Moment to trim
one meter
C
MTL
Nm/m
M
TM
MTM (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Moment to
change trim one meter
A C
MTL
M
uv
MA(U,V) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized mass
M
uv
MA(U,V) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Generalized
mass, i. e. generalized
inertia tensor
of a (rigid) body referred
to a body fixed coordinate
system
M
if
M
0
if
M
i, 3f
M
1T
if
M
3i, f
M
1
if
M
3i , 3f
M
2
if
M
uv
M
W
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum
heeling moment due to wind
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
M
v
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Dynamically
applied heeling moment due
o wind pressure t
M
x
, M(1), (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis x
Nm
M
x
M(1) (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis x
Nm
M
y
, M, M(2), (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
xis y a
Nm
M
:
, M(3 (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
axis z
Nm
m M, MA,
MASS
(ships, basic quantities)
Mass
kg
m XACB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
of floatation of added
buoyant layer
Longitudinal distance from
reference point to the centre
of the added buoyant layer, b
m SHIPMA (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Ship mass
W / g kg
m BLCK (ships, hull resistance)
Blockage parameter
Maximum transverse area of
model ship divided by tank
ross section area c
1
m MA (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) mass
kg
m SHIPMA (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Ship mass
W / g
m
0
if
,
m
if
M0(I,J),
MA(I,J)
(solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Zeroth moments
of mass, i.e. inertia
distribution, mass tensor
m
if
m
if
kg
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
m
1
if
M1(I,J) (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) First moments of
mass, i.e. inertia distribution
Alias static moments of
mass
kg m
m
2
22
,
m
55
M2(2,2),
MA(5,5)
(solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Pitch moment of
inertia
around the principal axis y
kg m
2
m
2
33
,
m
66
M2(3,3),
MA(6,6)
(solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Yaw moment of
inertia
around the principal axis z
kg m
2
m
2
if
, M2(I,J), (solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Second moments
of mass, i.e. inertia
distribution
Alias mass moments of
inertia
kg m
2
m
LCC
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Mass in light craft
condition
m
LDC
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Mass in loaded
displacement condition
according to
m
MTL
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum total
load (mass)
m
n
MN (environmental mechanics,
waves) nth moment of wave
power spectral density
)f
n
S(f)af m
2
/ s
n
m
if
M0(I,J),
MA(I,J)
(solia boay mechanics,
inertial ana hyaro
properties) Zeroth moments
of mass, i.e. inertia
distribution, mass tensor
m
if
m
if
kg
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 M, m
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
m
SSC
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Mass in standard
sailing conditions according
o t
m
x
XMS (funaamental, statistical)
Average or sample mean of
a random quantity
1/n E x
i
, i = 1...n
unbiased random estimate of
the expectation with
x
AE
= x
E
x
JSE
= x
J
/ n
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 N, n
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
N FR, N (ships, basic quantities)
Frequency or rate of
revolution
Alias RPS (RPM in some
propulsor applications)
N MZ (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Yaw moment on
body, moment about body z
xis a
Nm
N N, M(3),
F1(3), F(6)
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Moment around body
xis z a
Nm
N
A
NAPP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Appendage lift force
(normal to reference line)
Lift forces arising from
appendages inclined to flow,
assumed to act normally to
reference line
N
N
B
NBOT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Bottom normal
force (normal to reference
ine) l
Resultant of pressure and
buoyant forces assumed
acting normally to the
eference line r
N
N
PP
NPP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Propeller pressure
force (normal to reference
line)
Resultant of propeller
pressure forces acting
normally to the reference
line
N
N
PS
NPS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Propeller suction
force (normal to reference
ine) l
Resultant of propeller
suction forces acting
normally to the reference
ine l
N
N
PR
NPR (ships, propulsor geometry)
Number of propellers
1
N
r
NR (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of yaw
moment with respect to yaw
elocity v
cN / cr
Nms
NRRT (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of yaw
moment with respect to yaw
acceleration
cN / c
Nms
2
N
v
NV (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of yaw
moment with respect to
sway velocity
cN / cv
Ns
Nr r
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 N, n
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Nv v
NVRT (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of yaw
moment with respect to
way acceleration s
cN / c
Nms
2
N
TJ
T J
A
P
JSE
PJSE (ships, water fets) Effective
jet system power
W
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 P, p
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
P
n
PN (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Pnumber, heading
change per unit rudder
ngle in one ship length a
1
P
PE
PPE (ships, water fets) Effective
p power pum
W
P
S
PS (ships, performance) Shaft
ower p
Power measured on the shaft W
P
T
PTH (ships, performance) Thrust
power
T J
A
W
P
J
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
apsi:ing) Wind pressure c
p P (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis x
rad/s
p PR, ES (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Pressure, density of static
flow energy
Pa
p PR (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Static pressure
Pa
p PDR (ships, propulsor geometry)
Pitch ratio
P / D 1
p PR (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Pressure
Pa
p OX, P (ships, manoeuvrability)
Roll velocity, rotational
elocity about body xaxis v
1/s
p
0
P0 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Ambient pressure in
undisturbed flow
Pa
p
0
PR0 (ships, water fets) Ambient
ressure in undisturbed flow p
N/m
p
A
PA (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
mbient pressure A
Pa
p
AC
PACO (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Collapse pressure
Absolute ambient pressure at
which cavities collapse
Pa
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 P, p
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
p
AI
PAIC (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Critical pressure
Absolute ambient pressure at
which cavitation inception
akes place t
Pa
p
B
PBM (ACJ ana SES) Mean bag
ressure p
Pa
p
BS
PBS (ACJ ana SES) Bow seal
ressure p
Pressure in the bow seal bag Pa
p
C
PC (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Cavity pressure
Pressure within a steady or
quasisteady cavity
Pa
p
CI
PCIN (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Initial cavity pressure
Pressure, maybe negative,
i. e. tensile strength,
ecessary to create a cavity n
Pa
p
CE
PCE (ACJ ana SES) Mean
ffective skirt pressure e
Pa
p
CU
PCU (ACJ ana SES) Cushion
pressure
Mean pressure in the
cushion
Pa
p
FT
PFT (ACJ ana SES) Fan total
pressure
Pa
p
LR
PLR (ACJ ana SES) Cushion
pressure to length ratio
P
CU
/ L
C
Pa/m
p
f
PRJ (ships, water fets) Local
tation j static pressure at S
N/m
p
SK
PSS (ACJ ana SES) Skirt
ressure in general p
Pa
p
SS
PSS (ACJ ana SES) Stern seal
pressure
Pressure in the stern seal bag Pa
p
J
PV (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Vapour pressure of water
At a given temperature! Pa
p
PR (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rates of
change of components of
rotational velocity relative to
body axes
s. Remark .3 rad/s
2
p OXRT, PR (ships, manoeuvrability)
Roll acceleration, angular
acceleration about body x
axis
ap / at 1/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 P, p
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
p PR (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rates of
change of components of
rotational velocity relative to
body axes
s. Remark .3 rad/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Q, q
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Q Q (ships, performance) Torque
P
D
/ Nm
Q (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Quality
nder consideration u
Q
U
/s
Q QF,
QFLOW
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
ate of flow R
Volume passing across a
ontrol surface in time unit c
m
3
/s
Q QF (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Entrainment
b
)U ay
a
m
2
/s
Q
AW
QQAW (ships, sea keeping) Mean
torque increase in waves
Nm
Q
BS
QBS (ACJ ana SES) Bow seal air
low rate f
Air flow rate to the bow seal m
3
/s
Q
bl
(ships, water fets) Volume
flow rate inside boundary
ayer l
m/s
Q
C
QCF (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Convective
lux f
Q
U
/s
Q
CU
QCU (ACJ ana SES) Cushion air
low rate f
Air flow rate to cushion m
3
/s
Q
D
QDF (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Diffusive
flux
Q
U
/s
Q
F
QFL (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Total flux
across the
surface of the control
volume
Inward positive! Q
U
/s
Q
FS
QFS (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Torque of stern fin
Nm
Q
IA
QIMS (ice going vessels) Average
t rque in ice o
Nm
Q
J
QJ (ships, water fets) Volume
flow rate of jet
m/s
Q
M
QDM (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Molecular
diffusion
Q
U
/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Q, q
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Q
P
QPN (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Production
of sources in the control
volume
Q
U
/s
Q
FB
QFB (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Torque of bow fin
Nm
Q
R
QRU (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Torque about
udder stock r
Nm
Q
S
QSP (ships, propulsor
performance) Spindle torque
About spindle axis of
controllable pitch propeller
Q
S
Q
SC
Q
SH
positive if it increases pitch
Q
S
Q
S
QRT (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Storage in
the control volume, rate of
hange of the quantity stored c
aq / at Q
U
/s
Q
SC
QSPC (ships, propulsor
performance) Centrifugal
pindle torque s
Q
SC
Q
SH
QSPH (ships, propulsor
performance) Hydrodynamic
spindle torque
Q
SH
Q
SS
QSS (ACJ ana SES) Stern seal air
low rate f
Air flow rate to the stern seal m
3
/s
Q
T
QT (ACJ ana SES) Total air
olume flow v
m
3
/s
Q
T
QDT (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Turbulent
diffusion
Q
U
/s
q Q (funaamental, balances ana
system relatea) Quantity of
the quality under
consideration stored in a
control volume
Q
U
q UNQ (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Load per unit length
N/m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Q, q
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
q Q (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis y
rad/s
q PD, EK (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Dynamic pressure, density
of kinetic flow energy,
J
2
/ 2 Pa
q PD, EK (ships, hull resistance)
Dynamic pressure, density
of kinetic flow energy,
J
2
/ 2
see 3.3.2
Pa
q OY, Q (ships, manoeuvrability)
Pitch velocity, rotational
elocity about body yaxis v
1/s
q
A
QA (ships, propulsor
performance) Dynamic
pressure based on advance
speed
J
A
2
/ 2 Pa
q
S
QS (ships, propulsor
performance) Dynamic
pressure based on section
dvance speed a
J
S
2
/ 2 Pa
q
R
PDWR,
EKWR
(ships, hull resistance)
Dynamic pressure based on
apparent wind
J
WR
2
/ 2
see 3.4.2
Pa
q OYRT, QR (ships, manoeuvrability)
Pitch acceleration, angular
acceleration about body y
xis a
aq / at 1/s
2
q
QR (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rates of
change of components of
rotational velocity relative to
body axes
rad/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 R, r
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
R R (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Complex variable
exp(s T
S
)
Laurent transform
R RR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
correlation
R R, RE (ships, basic quantities)
Resistance (force)
Force opposing translatory
velocity
N
R RD (ships, basic quantities)
Radius
m
R RDP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Propeller radius
m
R
A
RA (ships, hull resistance)
Modelship correlation
allowance
Incremental resistance to be
added to the smooth ship
resistance to complete the
modelship prediction
N
R
AA
RAA (ships, hull resistance) Air or
ind resistance w
N
R
AP
RAP (ships, hull resistance)
ppendage resistance A
N
R
AR
RAR (ships, hull resistance)
oughness resistance R
N
R
ASK
RASK (ACJ ana SES) Intake
momentum resistance
of skirt
A
Q
TS
J
A
N
R
AW
RAW (ships, sea keeping) Mean
esistance increase in waves r
N
R
aw
(sailing vessels) Added
esistance in waves R
N
R
AT
RAT (ACJ ana SES) Total
erodynamic resistance a
R
M
R
0
N
R
C
RC (ships, hull resistance)
Resistance corrected for
difference in temperature
between resistance and
selfpropulsion tests
R
TM
((1 k) C
FMC
+ C
R
) /
((1 + k) C
FM
C
R
)
where C
FMC
is the frictional
coefficient at the temperature
of the selfpropulsion test
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 R, r
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
R
C
RC (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Steady
turning radius
m
Re RN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Reynolds
number
J L / v 1
Re
*
RDELS (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Reynolds number
based
on displacement thickness
U
*
/ v or U
e
*
/ v 1
Re
/ v or U
e
/ v 1
R
F
RF (ships, hull resistance)
Frictional resistance of a
ody b
Due to fluid friction on the
surface of the body
N
R
F0
RF0 (ships, hull resistance)
Frictional resistance of a flat
plate
N
R
FINT
RFINT (multihull vessels)
Frictional resistance
nterference correction i
R
FMH
 2 R
F
N
R
FMH
RFMH (multihull vessels)
Frictional resistance of
ultihull vessel m
N
R
FU
(sailing vessels) Friction
resistance (upright)
N
R
H
RH (ACJ ana SES)
Hydrodynamic resistance
R
W
R
WET
N
R
H
RH (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Hydraulic radius
Area of section divided by
wetted perimeter
m
R
H
RTUHA (sailing vessels) Resistance
increase due to heel (with
ero side force) z
N
R
I
Resistance increase due to
ide (induced resistance) s
N
R
I
RI (ice going vessels) Net ice
resistance
R
IT
 R
IW
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 R, r
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
R
IT
RIT (ice going vessels) Total
resistance in ice
Ship towing resistance in ice N
R
IW
RIW (ice going vessels)
Hydrodynamic resistance
in presence of ice
Total water resistance of
ship in ice
N
R
K
RKEEL (planing, semiaisplacement
essels) Keel drag v
N
R
M
RM (ACJ ana SES) Intake
momentum resistance
in general
A
Q
T
J
A
N
R
MCU
RMCU (ACJ ana SES) Intake
momentum resistance
of cushion
A
Q
TCU
J
A
N
R
P
RP (ships, hull resistance)
ressure resistance P
Due to the normal stresses
ver the surface of a body o
N
R
PAR
RPAR (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Parasitic drag
Drag due to inlet and outlet
penings o
N
R
PS
RSP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Pressure component
of spray drag
N
R
PJ
RPV (ships, hull resistance)
iscous pressure resistance V
Due to normal stress related
o viscosity and turbulence t
N
RR RR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
correlation
R
R
RR (ships, hull resistance)
Residuary resistance
R
T
 R
F
or R
T
 R
F0
N
R
RH
RRBH (ships, hull resistance)
Residuary resistance of the
are hull b
N
R
RI
RRINT (multihull vessels)
Residuary resistance
interference correction
R
RMH
 2 R
R
N
R
RMH
RRMH (multihull vessels)
Residuary resistance
orrection of multihull c
R
TMH
 R
FMH
N
R
RU
(sailing vessels) Residuary
resistance (upright)
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 R, r
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
R
S
RS (ships, hull resistance) Spray
resistance
Due to generation of spray N
RS RS (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample
orrelation c
R
SI
RSI (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Required
subdivision index
1
R
si
RSI (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Required
ubdivision index s
R
T
RT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Total resistance
Total towed resistance N
R
TBH
RTBH (ships, hull resistance) Total
resistance of bare hull
N
R
TI
RTINT (multihull vessels) Total
resistance interference
correction
R
TMH
 2 R
T
N
R
TMH
RTMH (multihull vessels) Total
resistance of multihull
vessel
N
R
TU
RTU (sailing vessels) Total
resistance (upright)
N
R
T
RTUH (sailing vessels) Total
resistance when heeled
R
TU
R
N
R
u
R(U) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
vibratory bearing reaction
u = 1,.., 6
u = 1, 2, 3: force
u = 4, 5, 6: moment
N
N
Nm
R
J
RV (ships, hull resistance) Total
viscous resistance
R
F
R
JP
N
R
JS
RSV (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Viscous component
f spray drag o
C
F
S
WS
q
S
N
R
W
RW (ships, hull resistance) Wave
aking resistance m
Due to formation of surface
aves w
N
R
WB
RWB (ships, hull resistance) Wave
breaking resistance
Associated with the break
down of the bow wave
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 R, r
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
R
WET
RWET (ACJ ana SES) Resistance
due to wetting
N
R
WP
RWP (ships, hull resistance) Wave
pattern resistance
N
R
xx
XXRR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocorrelation
of a stationary stochastic
process
x(t)x(t )
E
R
xx
()
R
xx
() R
xx
()
if x is ergodic. R
xx
()
x(t)x(t )
MR
R
xx
() ) S
xx
()cos()a
0 ...
xx
R
, xx
RR
,
R
xx
R
xx
XXMR (funaamental, statistical)
Autocorrelation of a
random quantity
x x
E
R
xy
XYRR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosscorrelation
of two stationary stochastic
processes
x(t)y(t )
E
R
xy
()
R
yx
() R
xy
()
if x, y are ergodic:
R
xy
() x(t)y(t )
MR
xy
R
, R
xy
R
xy
XYMR (funaamental, statistical)
Crosscorrelation of two
andom quantities r
x y
E
R
fkm
x
m
as
S
A
SRA (ships, propulsor
performance) Apparent slip
atio r
1  J / (n P) 1
S
A
AS (sailing vessels) Sail area in
general
(P E I J) / 2 m
2
S
AP
SAP (ships, hull resistance)
Appendage wetted surface
rea, underway a
m
2
S
AP0
SAP0 (ships, hull resistance)
Appendage wetted surface
rea, at rest a
m
2
S
BH
SBH (ships, hull resistance) Bare
Hull wetted surface area,
underway
m
2
S
BH0
SBH0 (ships, hull resistance) Bare
Hull wetted surface area, at
est r
m
2
S
C
CIRCS (ships, hull geometry) R.E.
Froude's wetted surface area
coefficient
S / V
2/3
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 S, s
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
S
C
CIRCS (ships, hull resistance) R. E.
Froudes wetted surface
coefficient
S / V
2/3
1
S
C
SC (sailing vessels) Wetted
urface area of canoe body s
m
2
S
H
THL (fluia mechanics, flow
ielas) Total head loss f
m
S
H0
SSH0 (ACJ ana SES) Wetted area
of side hulls at rest off
ushion c
Total wetted area of side
walls under way on cushion
m
2
S
I
SAIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Salinity of ice
Weight of salt per unit
weight of ice
1
S
i
(f),
S
i
()
EISF,
EISC
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Incident wave power
pectral density s
m
2
/Hz
S
K
SK (sailing vessels) Wetted
urface area of keel s
m
2
S
(f), S
(f),
S
(), S
()
EWSF,
EWSC
(ships, sea keeping) Wave
elevation auto spectral
density
see also section 3.4.1,
Waves
m
2
s
S
(f),
S
()
EWSF,
EWSC
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave power spectral
density
m
2
/Hz
Sr SN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Strouhal number
f L / J 1
S
R
SRR (ships, propulsor
performance) Real slip ratio
1  J
A
/ (n P) 1
S
R
SR (sailing vessels) Wetted
surface area of rudder
S
r
(f),
S
r
()
ERSF,
ERSC
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Reflected wave
power spectral density
m
2
/Hz
S
SHC
SSHC (ACJ ana SES) Wetted area
of side hulls under way on
cushion
Total wetted area of side
walls under way on cushion
m
2
S
SH
SSH (ACJ ana SES) Wetted area
of side hulls under way off
cushion
Total wetted area of side
walls under way off cushion
m
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 S, s
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
STIX (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Actual stability
index value according to
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Required stability
ndex value, see i
S
uv
S(U,V) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea)
Generalized moment of a
scalar quantity distributed
in space
s. Remark .3
S
if
S
0
if
S
i, 3f
S
1
if
T
S
3i, f
S
1
if
S
3i, 3f
S
2
if
S
W
SAWA (environmental mechanics,
ice) Salinity of water
Weight of dissolved salt per
unit weight of saline water
1
S
WB
SWB (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted bottom area,
nderway u
Area bounded by stagnation
line, chines or water surface
nderway and transom u
m
2
S
WHP
SWHP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted area
underway of planing hull
Principal wetted area
bounded by trailing edge,
chines and spray root line
m
2
S
WHE
SWHE (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted hull area,
underway
Total wetted surface of hull
underway, including spray
area and wetted side area,
/o wetted transom area w
m
2
S
WHS
SWSH (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Area of wetted sides
Wetted area of the hull side
above the chine or the
design water line
m
2
S
WS
, S
S
SWS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Area wetted by
pray s
Wetted area between design
line or stagnation line and
pray edge s
m
2
S
xx
XXSR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Power spectrum
or autospectral power
density of a stochastic
process
xx
RRSR
STIX
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 S, s
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
S
xy
XYSR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosspower
spectrum of two stationary
stochastic processes
xy
RRSR
S
(,)
S
(,)
etc.
S2ZET
S2TET
etc.
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Two dimensional
pectral density s
1
S
(f,)
S
(,)
STHETA (environmental mechanics,
waves) Directional spectral
density
m
2
/Hz/
rad
s S (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Any
scalar quantity distributed,
aybe singularly, in space m
)as
s S (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Complex variable
a 2if
Laplace transform
1/s
s SP (ships, basic quantities)
Distance along path
m
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Wave steepness
s
F
SPF (ships, manoeuvrability,
stopping man.) Distance
along track,
track reach
m
s
R
if
SR(I,J) (fluia mechanics, flow
fielas) Turbulent or
Reynolds stress
v
i
v
f
CR
Pa
s
if
ST(I,J) (fluia mechanics, flow
fielas) Total stress tensor
Density of total diffusive
momentum flux due to
molecular and turbulent
exchange
Pa
s
J
SINKV (ships, performance)
inkage, dynamic S
Change of draft, fore and
ft, divided by length a
1
s
J
if
SV(I,J) (fluia mechanics, flow
fielas) Viscous stress
Pa
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 S, s
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
s
x
XDS (funaamental, statistical)
Sample deviation of a
random quantity
x
JS 1/2
,
unbiased random estimate of
the standard deviation
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 T, t
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
T T (ships, hull geometry) Draft,
oulded, of ship hull m
m
T TC (ships, basic quantities)
Period
Duration of a cycle of a
repeating or periodic, not
necessarily harmonic
process
s
T TIC (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Time constant of
the 1st order manoeuvring
quation e
s
T TH (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
thrust
N
T TC (ships, sea keeping) Wave
period
s
T T (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Draft, moulded,
of ship hull  I99/1.2.1
T YHA (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Equivalent
transverse heeling arm
Heeling moment/A
T
01
T1 (environmental mechanics,
waves) Average period from
eroth and first moment z
m
0
/m
1
s
T
02
T2 (environmental mechanics,
waves) Average period from
zeroth and second moment
(m
0
/m
2
)
1/2
s
T
1
TIC1 (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) First time constant
f manoeuvring equation o
s
T
2
TIC2 (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Second time
constant of manoeuvring
equation
s
T
3
TIC3 (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Third time constant
of manoeuvring equation
s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 T, t
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
T
A
TA, TAP (ships, hull geometry) Draft
t aft perpendicular a
m
T
AD
TAD, TAPD (ships, hull geometry)
Design draft at aft
perpendicular
m
T
AW
TAW (ships, sea keeping) Mean
thrust increase in waves
N
T
C
CIRCT (ships, hull geometry) R.E.
Froude's draft coefficient
T / V
1/3
1
T
C
TC (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
eriod of cycle P
1 / f
C
duration of cycles in
eriodic, repeating processes p
s
T
C
TC0 (ACJ ana SES) Cushion
thrust
N
T
C
TCAN (sailing vessels) Draft of
canoe body
m
T
D
THDU (ships, propulsor
performance) Duct thrust
N
T
DP
THDP (ships, propulsor
performance) Ducted
ropeller thrust p
N
T
DT
THDT (ships, propulsor
performance) Total thrust of
a ducted propeller unit
N
T
a
TD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave periods by
zero down crossing
s
T
E
TEFF (sailing vessels) Effective
draft
F
H
/ (J
B
2
R)
5
m
T
e
TE (ships, sea keeping) Wave
encounter period
s
T
F
TF, TFP (ships, hull geometry) Draft
at forward perpendicular
m
T
F
TFO (hyarofoil boats) Foil
mmersion i
Distance between foil chord
nd mean water surface a
m
T
FD
TFD, TFPD (ships, hull geometry)
Design draft at forward
perpendicular
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 T, t
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
T
FD
TFD (hyarofoil boats) Depth of
submergence of apex of a
ihedral foil d
Distance between foil apex
and mean water surface
m
T
FM
TFOM (hyarofoil boats) Mean
depth of foil submergence
m
T
H
THUL (ships, hull geometry) Draft
of the hull
Maximum draft of the hull
without keel or skeg
m
Th TN (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Thoma number
(H
U
 p
J
/ w) / H
N
1
Th TN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Thoma number,
Cavitation number
(p
A
p
J
)/q 1
T
IA
TIMS (ice going vessels) Average
otal thrust in ice t
N
T
if
T(I,J) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Tensor in
space referred to an
orthogonal system of
Cartesian coordinates
fixed in the body
T
if
s
T
if
a
T
if
A
TAS(I,J) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Anti
symmetric part of a tensor
( T
if
 T
fi
) / 2
T
if
S
TSY(I,J) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea)
Symmetric part of a tensor
( T
if
T
fi
) / 2
T
if
T
TTR(I,J) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea)
Transposed tensor
T
fi
T
if
v
f
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Tensor
product
E T
if
v
f
TL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Turning lever
T
M
, a
M
TM, TMS (ships, hull geometry) Draft
at midship
(T
A
T
F
) / 2 for rigid bodies
with straight keel
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 T, t
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
T
MD
TMD, TMSD (ships, hull geometry)
esign draft at midship D
(T
AD
T
FD
) / 2 for rigid
odies b
m
T
P
TP (environmental mechanics,
waves) Period with
maximum energy
2f
P
T
R
TR (environmental mechanics,
waves) Duration of record
1 / f
R
s
T
rt
TRT (environmental mechanics,
waves) Return period
The average interval in years
between times that a given
design wave is exceeded
T
S
TS (environmental mechanics,
waves) Sample interval
1 / f
S
,
time between two successive
samples
s
T
S
TS (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
eriod of sampling P
Duration between samples s
T
T
TTR (ships, hull geometry)
Immersion of transom
Vertical depth of trailing
edge of boat at keel below
water surface level
m
T
u
TU (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave periods by
zero up  crossing
s
T
J
TV (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave period
estimated from visual
observation
s
T
W
TW (environmental mechanics,
waves) Basic wave period
1 / f
W
s
T
xP
TXP (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
Thrust along shaft axis
N
T
yP
TYP (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
normal force in y direction
in propeller axis
N
T
:
TNHE (ships, sea keeping) Natural
period of heave
s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 T, t
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
T
:P
TZP (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
normal force in z direction in
propeller axis
N
T
1
uv
UJPV(I) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Vector
product
ifk
u
f
v
k
u
*
USHEAR (environmental mechanics,
wina) Wind shear velocity
C
10
1/2
U
10
or 0.71U
10
1.23
m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J VA (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity
J v
i
v
i
1/2
m/s
J VO (ships, basic quantities)
Volume
m
3
J DISPVOL (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement volume
/ ( g) V
BH
V
AP
m
3
J V (ships, hull resistance)
Speed of the model or the
hip s
m/s
J V (ships, performance) Ship
peed s
m/s
J V (ships, manoeuvrability)
Linear velocity of origin in
body axes
m/s
J (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Tank total
capacity
J
0
V0, OMN (ships, basic quantities)
Rotational velocity
2 n rad/s
J
0
i
J0(I),J(I) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Zeroth
order moments of a vector
quantity distributed in space,
referred to an orthogonal
system of Cartesian
coordinates fixed in the
ody b
)av
i
J
O
VO (ships, manoeuvrability)
Approach speed
m/s
J
0
V0 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity of undisturbed flow
m/s
J
0
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Speed of craft in
the turn  IMO/HSC'2000
Service speed  IMO/IS
J
1
V, V1 (ships, basic quantities)
Linear or translatory
velocity of a body
as / at m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J
1
i
J1(I) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) First
order moments of a vector
istribution d
)
ifk
x
f
av
k
J
A
VA (ships, manoeuvrability)
pproach speed A
m/s
J
A
VA (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance
speed of propeller
m/s
J
A
VA (ships, performance)
Propeller advance speed
Equivalent propeller open
water speed based on thrust
r torque identity o
m/s
J
BM
VBM (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Mean bottom
velocity
Mean velocity over bottom
of the hull
m/s
J
Ef
VEJ (ships, water fets) Local
energy velocity at Station j
{u
f
2
+ (2/)(p
f
 p
0
)}
0.5
m/s
J
F
VF (ships, manoeuvrability)
low or current velocity F
m/s
J
I
VI (fluia mechanics, lifting
urfaces) Induced velocity s
m/s
J
i
V(I) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Velocity field of the
ake w
i = 1, 2, 3 m/s
J
i
J0(I),J(I) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Zeroth
order moments of a vector
quantity distributed in space,
referred to an orthogonal
system of Cartesian
coordinates fixed in the
body
)av
i
J
f
VJ (ships, water fets) Mean
tation j velocity at S
m/s
J
KN
VKN (ships, hull resistance)
peed in knots S
J
L
VOLS (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Volume loss
W
L
/ w m
3
J
mc
VMC (sailing vessels) Velocity
made good on course
m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J
mg
VMG (sailing vessels) Velocity
made good to windward
(contrary to wind direction)
m/s
J
P
VP (ships, propulsor
performance) Mean axial
velocity at propeller plane of
ucted propeller d
m/s
J
R
VR (ships, hull resistance) Wind
velocity, relative
m/s
J
S
VS (ships, propulsor
performance) Section
advance speed
at 0.7 R
(J
A
2
+ (0.7 R )
2
)
1/2
m/s
J
SP
VSP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Spray velocity
Relative velocity between
hull and spray in direction of
the spray
m/s
J
T
VT (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Resultant velocity
of
flow approaching a
hydrofoil
Taking vortex induced
velocities into account
m/s
J
tw
VWABS (sailing vessels) True wind
velocity
m/s
J
u
V(URT) (ships, manoeuvrability)
Generalized velocity
m/s
J
u
V(URT) (ships, manoeuvrability)
eneralized acceleration G
m/s
2
J
u
J(U) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea)
Generalized vector
J
i
J
0
i
J
3i
J
1
i
J
WR
VWREL (ships, manoeuvrability)
Relative wind velocity
m/s
J
WR
VWREL (environmental mechanics,
wina) Apparent wind
velocity
see section 1.4.1 m/s
J
WT
VWABS (ships, manoeuvrability)
True wind velocity
m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J
WT
VWABS (environmental mechanics,
wina) True wind velocity
see section 1.4.1 m/s
v UY, V (ships, manoeuvrability)
Sway velocity, linear
velocity along body yaxis
m/s
v V (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis y
m/s
v (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Tank total
capacity
v
0
1
P, OMX,
V0(1), V(4)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis x
rad/s
v
0
2
Q, OMY,
V0(2), V(5)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis y
rad/s
v
0
3
R, OMZ,
V0(3), V(6)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis :
rad/s
v
1
1
U, VX,
V1(1), V(1)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis x
m/s
v
1
2
V, VY,
V1(2), V(2)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis y
m/s
v
1
3
W, VZ,
V1(3), V(3)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
ody axis : b
m/s
v
1
U, VX,
V1(1), V(1)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis x
m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
v
1
VX, V1 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity component in
direction of x, y, : axes
m/s
v
2
V1(2), V(2) (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis y
m/s
v
2
VY, V2 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity component in
irection of x, y, : axes d
m/s
v
3
V1(3), V(3) (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
ody axis z b
m/s
v
3
VZ, V3 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity component in
direction of x, y, : axes
m/s
v
4
V0(1), V(4) (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
elocity around body axis x v
rad/s
v
5
Q, OMY,
V0(2), V(5)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis y
rad/s
v
6
R, OMZ,
V0(3), V(6)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
elocity around body axis : v
rad/s
v
A
POAI (environmental mechanics,
ice) Relative volume of air
Volume of gas pores per unit
olume of ice v
1
v
B
POBR (environmental mechanics,
ice) Relative volume of
brine
Volume of liquid phase per
unit volume of ice
1
v
O
POIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Total porosity of ice
v
O
v
A
v
B
1
v
i
V(I) (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity
m/s
TTC Symbols
Version 2002 V, v
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
v
u
V(U) (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Components
of generalized velocity or
motion relative to body axes
v
i
v
1
i
v
3i
v
0
i
m/s
rad/s
v
y
VY, V2 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity component in
direction of x, y, : axes
m/s
v
W
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Calculation wind
speed
v
x
VX, (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis x
m/s
v
y
V, VY,
V1(2), V(2)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis y
m/s
v
:
W, VZ,
V1(3), V(3)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
ody axis : b
m/s
uv
UJPV(I) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Vector
product
ifk
u
f
v
k
v VR (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rates of
change of components of
linear velocity relative to
body axes
m/s
2
v UYRT, VR (ships, manoeuvrability)
Sway acceleration, linear
acceleration along body y
axis
av / at m/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 W, w
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
W WT (ships, basic quantities)
Weight (force), gravity force
acting on a body
N
W SHIPWT (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Ship weight
m g N
W SHIPWT (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Ship weight
m g
We WN (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Weber number
J
2
L / 1
W
F
WTF (hyarofoil boats) Weight of
foil
N
W
L
WTLS (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Weight loss
Weight of material eroded
from a specimen during a
specified time
N/s
w WD (ships, basic quantities)
Weight density, formerly
specific weight
aW / aJ g N/m
3
w WPUL (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Weight per unit
length
aW / ax
1
N/m
w W (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Translatory
velocity in the direction of
body axis z
m/s
w WD (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Weight Density
g (See 1.1.1)
w WFT (ships, performance) Taylor
wake fraction in general
(J  J
A
) / J 1
w UZ, W (ships, manoeuvrability)
Heave velocity, linear
elocity along body zaxis v
m/s
w
F
WFF (ships, performance) Froude
wake fraction
(J  J
A
) / J
A
1
w
Q
WFTQ (ships, performance) Taylor
torque wake fraction
Propeller speed V
A
determined from torque
identity
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 W, w
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
w
T
WFTT (ships, performance) Taylor
thrust wake fraction
Propeller speed, J
A
,
determined from thrust
identity
1
w,v
:
VZ, V3 (fluia mechanics, flow
fielas) (fluia mechanics,
flow fielas) Velocity
component in direction of x,
y, z axes
m/s
w WR (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rates of
change of components of
linear velocity relative to
body axes
s. Remark .3 m/s
2
w UZRT, WR (ships, manoeuvrability)
Heave acceleration, linear
acceleration along body z
axis
aw / at m/s
2
w,v
:
VZ, V3 (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
(fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Velocity component in
direction of x, y, z axes
m/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
X
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Real "valued" Iunction
X
X
(solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction oI
body axis x
Nm
X
FX
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Surge Iorce on
body, Iorce along body x
xis a
N
X
(sailing vessels)
Components oI resultant
Iorce along designated axis
N
X
1
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Roll damping
coeIIicients
X
2
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Roll damping
oeIIicients c
X
CB
XCB (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI buoyancy (LCB)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI buoyancy, B
m
X
CB
XCB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre oI buoyancy (LCB)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI buoyancy, B
X
CF
XCF
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI Ilotation (LCF)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI Ilotation, F
m
X
CF
XCF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre oI Ilotation (LCF)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI Ilotation, F
X
CG
XCG
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI gravity (LCG)
Longitudinal distance Irom a
reIerence point to the centre
oI gravity, G
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
X
CG
XCG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
entre oI gravity (LCG) c
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI gravity, G
X
F
FDIM (environmental mechanics,
wina) Dimensionless Fetch
gF/U
19
2
X
H
XH
(ACJ ana SES) Horizontal
spacing between inner and
outer side skirt hinges or
attachment points to
structure
needs clariIication
m
X
R
XRU
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Longitudinal
udder Iorce r
N
X
S
XS (ACJ ana SES) Distance oI
leading skirt contact point
outboard or outer hinge oI
attachment point to structure
needs clariIication
m
X
u
XU
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative oI surge
Iorce with respect to surge
velocity
cX / cu
Ns/m
X u
XURT
(ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative oI surge
Iorce with respect to surge
cceleration a
cX / u c
Ns
2
/m
x,
X,
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Body
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in the body
m
x
X, Y
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Stationary
stochastic process
x(,t), y(,t)
x
x
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Values oI real quantities
x(t)
x
XLO
(ships, performance) Load
Iraction in power prediction
D
P
D
/ P
E
 1 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
11
x
X
(ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Cylindrical
coordinates
Cylindrical system with
origin O and longitudinal x
axis as deIined beIore;
angular a(attitude)
coordinate , zero at 12
o'clock position, positive
clockwise looking Iorward, r
distance measured Irom the
axis x
m
x
X
(ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Cartesian coordinates
Origin O coinciding with the
centre oI the propeller. The
longitudinal xaxis coincides
with the shaIt axis, positive
Iorward; the transverse y
axis, positive to port; the
hird, :axis, positive upward t
m
x
X, Y
(funaamental, statistical)
andom quantities R
x(), y()
x
0
X0 (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Space
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the space
m
x
01
X0(1)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Space
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the space
m
x
02
X0(2) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Space
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the space
m
x
03
X0(3) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Space
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the space
m
x
090
X090
(ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Advance at
0 change oI heading 9
m
x
0180
X0180 (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Advance at
180 change oI heading
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
x
0F
X0F
(ships, manoeuvrability,
stopping man.) Head reach
m
x
0max
XMX
(ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Maximum
dvance a
m
x
1
X(1) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Body
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in the body
m
x
2
X(2)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Body
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in the body
m
x
3
X(3) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Body
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in the body
m
x
A
XA
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
nalytic Iunction A
X
A
(t) X(t) iX
H
(t)
x
A
XMS (funaamental, statistical)
Average or sample mean oI
a random quantity
1/n E x
i
, i 1...n
unbiased random estimate oI
the expectation with
x
AE
x
E
x
JSE
x
J
/ n
x
B
XBDR
(ships, propulsor geometry)
Boss to diameter ratio
a
h
/ D
x
cb
XACB (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre oI Iloatation oI added
uoyant layer b
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI the added buoyant layer, b
x
cg
XACG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Longitudinal centre
oI gravity oI added weight
(mass)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence to the centre oI
gravity, g, oI an added or
removed weight (mass)
m
x
cg
XACG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Longitudinal
centre oI gravity oI added
weight (mass)
Longitudinal distance Irom
reIerence point to the centre
oI gravity, g, oI an added or
removed weight (mass)
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
x
D
XDR
(funaamental, statistical)
Standard deviation oI a
random quantity
x
JR /
x
D
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Distance oI down
Ilooding opening Irom end
oI boat
x
DR
XDR
(funaamental, statistical)
Standard deviation oI a
random quantity
x
JR /
x
DS
XDS
(funaamental, statistical)
Sample deviation oI a
andom quantity r
x
JS 1/2
,
unbiased random estimate oI
he standard deviation t
x
DF
XDF (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Fourier transIorm oI
sampled Iunction
X
DF
(f) Ex
f
exp(i2ffT
S
)
i.e. periodically repeating
X(0)/2 f
S
EX
F
(f ff
S
)
sample theorem: aliasing!
x
E
XMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Expectation or population
mean oI a random quantity
E(x)
x
F
XF
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Flow
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the Ilow
m
x
F
XFT
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Fourier transIorm
X
F
(f) )X(t)exp(i2ft)at
inverse Iorm:
)X
F
(f)exp(i2ft)at
iI X(t) 0 and a 0 then
X
F
(f)X
L
(f)
x
F1
XF(1)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Flow
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the Ilow
m
x
F2
XF(2) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Flow
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the Ilow
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
x
F3
XF(3)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Flow
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system oI coordinates Iixed
in relation to the Ilow
m
x
F
f
XFT(J) (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Fourier transIorm oI
periodic Iunction
1/T
C
)X(t)exp(i2ft/T
C
)at
t 0 . . T
C
X
F
Ex
F
f
(f  f/T
C
)
inverse Iorm:
X(t) Ex
F
f
exp(i2ffT
C
)
x
H
XHT
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Hilbert transIorm
X
H
(t) 1/ )X()/(t  )a
x
HF
XHF
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Fourier transIorm oI
H
ilbert transIorm
X
HF
( ) X
F
(f)(i sgn f) f
(1/t)
F
i sgn f
x
i
X(I), Y(I) (funaamental, statistical)
Samples oI random
quantities
i 1... n
n : sample size
x
i
X(I)
(ships, sea keeping)
Absolute displacement oI the
hip at the reIerence point s
i 1, 2, 3 :surge, sway,
and heave respectively
m
x
f
X(J) (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Variables Ior samples
values oI real quantities
x(t
f
) )x(t)(t  t
f
)at
x
L
XLT
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Laplace transIorm
X
L
(s) )X(t)exp(st)at
iI X(t0) 0 then
(X(t)exp(at))
F
x
M
XMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Expectation or population
ean oI a random quantity m
E(x)
(x
m
)
E
XmMR (funaamental, statistical) m
th moment oI a random
quantity
(x
m
)
E
x
MR
XMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Expectation or population
mean oI a random quantity
E(x)
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
x
MS
XMS
(funaamental, statistical)
Average or sample mean oI
a random quantity
1/n E x
i
, i 1...n
unbiased random estimate oI
the expectation with
x
AE
x
E
x
JSE
x
J
/ n
x
PD
XPD
(funaamental, statistical)
Probability density oI a
random quantity
a F
x
/ ax
x
PF
XPF
(funaamental, statistical)
Probability Iunction
(distribution) oI a random
uantity q
1
x
p
XP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Longitudinal propeller
osition p
Distance oI propeller centre
Iorward oI the aIter
erpendicular p
m
x
R
XRT (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
aurent transIorm L
X
R
(r)
Ex
f
r
f
X
DL
x
R
XRU (ships, manoeuvrability)
Longitudinal position oI
udder axis r
m
x
S
XS (funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Singlesided complex
spectra
X
S
(f) X
F
(f)(1 sgn f)
X
AF
i.e. 0 Ior f 0
x
S
f
XS(J)
(funaamental, time ana
frequency aomain quantity)
Singlesided complex
Fourier series
X
F
f
(1 sgn f)
line spectra
x
u
X(U)
(ships, sea keeping)
Generalized displacement oI
ship at the reIerence point a
u 1...6 surge, sway, heave,
roll, pitch, yaw
m
rad
x
J
XVR, XXVR (funaamental, statistical)
Variance oI a random
quantity
x
2 E
 x
E 2
x
JR
XVR, XXVR
(funaamental, statistical)
Variance oI a random
quantity
x
2 E
 x
E 2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
x
JS
XVS, XXVS
(funaamental, statistical)
Sample variance oI a
random quantity
1/ (n  1) E (x
i
 x
A
)
2
i 1...n
unbiased random estimate oI
the variance x
JSE
x
J
xx
C
XXCR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocovariance
oI a stationary stochastic
rocess p
(x(t)  x
E
)(x(t )  x
E
)
E
xx
CR
XXCR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocovariance
oI a stationary stochastic
process
(x(t)  x
E
)(x(t )  x
E
)
E
xx
MR
x
XXMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Autocorrelation oI a
random quantity
x x
E
xx
R
XXMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Autocorrelation oI a
andom quantity r
x x
E
xx
R
XXRR (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocorrelation
oI a stationary stochastic
process
x(t)x(t )
E
R
xx
()
R
xx
() R
xx
()
iI x is ergodic. R
xx
()
x(t)x(t )
MR
R
xx
() ) S
xx
()cos()a
0 ...
xx
RR
XXRR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Autocorrelation
oI a stationary stochastic
process
x(t)x(t )
E
R
xx
()
R
xx
() R
xx
()
iI x is ergodic. R
xx
()
x(t)x(t )
MR
R
xx
() ) S
xx
()cos()a
0 ...
xx
S
XXSR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Power spectrum
or autospectral power
density oI a stochastic
process
xx
RRSR
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
xx
JR
XVR, XXVR
(funaamental, statistical)
Variance oI a random
uantity q
x
2 E
 x
E 2
xx
JS
XVS, XXVS (funaamental, statistical)
Sample variance oI a
random quantity
1/ (n  1) E (x
i
 x
A
)
2
i 1...n
unbiased random estimate oI
he variance x
JSE
x
J
t
xy
C
XYCR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosscovariance
oI two stationary stochastic
processes
(x(t)  x
E
)(y(t )  y
E
)
E
xy
CR
XYCR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosscovariance
oI two stationary stochastic
rocesses p
(x(t)  x
E
)(y(t )  y
E
)
E
xy
MR
XYMR (funaamental, statistical)
Crosscorrelation oI two
andom quantities r
x y
E
xy
PD
XYPD (funaamental, statistical)
Joint probability density oI
two random quantities
c
2
F
xy
/ (cx cy)
xy
PF
XYPF
(funaamental, statistical)
Joint probability Iunction
(distribution) Iunction oI two
random quantities
1
xy
R
XYMR
(funaamental, statistical)
Crosscorrelation oI two
random quantities
x y
E
xy
R
XYRR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosscorrelation
oI two stationary stochastic
processes
x(t)y(t )
E
R
xy
()
R
yx
() R
xy
()
iI x, y are ergodic:
R
xy
() x(t)y(t )
MR
xy
S
XYSR
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Crosspower
spectrum oI two stationary
stochastic processes
xy
RRSR
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 X, x
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
xy
J
XYVR
(funaamental, statistical)
Variance oI two random
uantities q
x y
E
 x
E
y
E
xy
JR
XYVR (funaamental, statistical)
Variance oI two random
quantities
x y
E
 x
E
y
E
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Y, y
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Y Y (solia boay mechanics,
loaas) Force in direction of
ody axis y b
Nm
Y FY (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Sway force on
body, force along body y
axis
N
Y (sailing vessels)
Components of resultant
orce along designated axis f
N
Y
r
YR (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of sway
force with respect to yaw
velocity
cY / cr
Ns
Y
R
YRU (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Transverse rudder
orce f
N
Y r
YRRT (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of sway
force with respect to yaw
acceleration
cY / r c
Ns
2
Y
v
YV (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of sway
force with respect to sway
elocity v
cY / cv
Ns/m
Y v
YVRT (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Derivative of sway
force with respect to sway
acceleration
cY / v c
Ns
2
/m
Y
:
() (ships, sea keeping)
Amplitude of frequency
response function for
ranslatory motions t
:
a
() /
a
() or
:
a
() /
a
()
1
Y
a
() /
a
() or
a
() / (
2
/ (g
a
()))
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Y, y
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
y X, Y (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Stationary
tochastic process s
x(,t), y(,t)
y X, Y (funaamental, statistical)
andom quantities R
x(), y()
y Y (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Cartesian coordinates
Origin O coinciding with the
centre of the propeller. The
longitudinal xaxis coincides
with the shaft axis, positive
forward; the transverse y
axis, positive to port; the
hird, :axis, positive upward t
m
m
m
y X, X(1)
Y, X(2)
Z, X(3)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Body
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in the body
m
y
0
X0, X0(1)
Y0, X0(2)
Z0, X0(3)
(funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Space
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in relation to the space
m
y
090
Y090 (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Transfer at
90 change of heading
m
y
0180
Y0180 (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Tactical
diameter (transfer at 180
change of heading)
m
y
0F
Y0F (ships, manoeuvrability,
stopping man.) Lateral
eviation d
m
y
0max
Y0MX (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Maximum
ransfer t
m
y
0max
Y0MX (ships, manoeuvrability, :ig
:ag man..) Maximum
transverse deviation
m
y
CG
YCG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Lateral
displacement of centre of
gravity (YCG)
Lateral distance from a
reference point to the centre
of gravity, G
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Y, y
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
y
CG
YCG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Lateral
displacement of centre of
gravity (YCG)
Lateral distance from a
reference point to the centre
of gravity, G
y
D
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Distance of down
flooding opening from
gunwale
y
D
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Distance of down
flooding opening off
entreline c
y
F
YF (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Flow
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in relation to the flow
m
y
i
Y(I) (funaamental, statistical)
Samples of random
quantities
i = 1... n
n : sample size
y
p
YP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Lateral propeller position
Transverse distance of wing
propeller centre from middle
ine l
m
y
/ v 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Z, z
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Z Z, FZ, (solid body mechanics,
loads) Force in direction of
ody axis z b
Nm
Z NPB (ships, propulsor geometry)
umber of propeller blades N
1
Z ZRA
(ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Intersection of
righting arm with line of
action of the centre of
uoyancy b
Z FZ (ships, manoeuvrability, sea
keeping) Heave force on
body, force along body z
axis
N
Z (sailing vessels)
Components of resultant
force along designated axis
N
Z ZRA (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Intersection of
righting arm with line of
action of the centre of
buoyancy
Z (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Vertical distance
from the centre of A to the
centre of the underwater
lateral area or approximately
to a point at one half the
draught  IMO/IS
Z (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Vertical distance
from the centre of A to the
waterline
Z
CE
ZCE (sailing vessels) Height of
centre of effort of sails
above waterline in vertical
centre plane
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Z, z
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
Z
H
ZH (ACV and SES) Vertical
spacing between inner and
outer side skirt hinges or
attachment points to
tructure s
needs clarification m
z Z (fundamental. coordinate
and space related) Body
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in the body, s. Remark .2
m
z Z (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
Complex variable
z ZSURF (environmental mechanics,
wind) Height above the sea
surface in meters
m
z NPB (ships, propulsor geometry)
umber of propeller blades N
1
z Z (ships, unsteady propeller
forces) Cartesian coordinates
Origin O coinciding with the
centre of the propeller. The
longitudinal xaxis coincides
with the shaft axis, positive
forward; the transverse y
axis, positive to port; the
hird, zaxis, positive upward t
m
m
m
z
0
Z0 (fundamental. coordinate
and space related) Space
axes and corresponding
Cartesian coordinates
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in relation to the space, s.
Remark .2
m
z
a
ZAM (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
mplitude A
mod(z) = sqrt(z
r2
+z
i2
)
z
c
ZRE (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
Real or cosine component
z
c
= real(z) = z
a
cos(z
p
)
z
D
(*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Height above
waterline of down flooding
opening
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Z, z
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
z
F
ZF (fundamental. coordinate
and space related) Flow
axes and corresponding
artesian coordinates C
Righthand orthogonal
system of coordinates fixed
in relation to the flow, s.
emark .2 R
m
z
i
ZIM (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
Imaginary or sine
component
imag(z) = z
a
sin(z
p
) = z
s
z
j
ZCJ (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
onjugate C
z
r
 iz
i
z
l
ZLG (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
(Phase) Lag
 z
p
z
p
ZPH (fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
hase P
arc(z) = arctg(z
i
/ z
r
)
z
p
ZP (ships, propulsor geometry)
ertical propeller position V
Height of propeller centre
bove base line a
m
z
r
ZRE
(fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
Real or cosine component
real(z) = z
a
cos(z
p
) = z
c
z
s
ZIM
(fundamental, time and
frequency domain quantity)
r sine Imaginary o
omponent c
z
s
= imag(z) = z
a
sin(z
p
)
z
S
ZS (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Mean static
sinkage
(z
SF
+ z
SA
) / 2 m
z
S
ZS (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Mean static
inkage s
(z
SF
+z
SA
)/2
z
SA
ZSA (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Static sinkage at
AP
Caused by loading m
z
SA
ZSA (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Static sinkage at
AP
Caused by loading
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Z, z
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
z
SF
ZSF (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Static sinkage at
P F
Caused by loading
z
SF
ZSF (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Static sinkage at
FP
Caused by loading m
z
VA
ZVA (ships, hull resistance)
Running sinkage at AP
m
z
VF
ZVF (ships, hull resistance)
Running sinkage at FP
m
z
VM
ZVM (ships, hull resistance) Mean
running sinkage
(z
VF
+ z
VA
) / 2 m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
AA (solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angular
acceleration
a/at rad/s
2
AT
ALFA
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angle oI
attack
The angle oI the longitudinal
body axis Irom the
projection into the principal
plane oI symmetry oI the
velocity oI the origin oI the
body axes relative to the
Iluid, positive in the positive
sense oI rotation about the y
axis
rad
AA,
ALFA
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Angle oI attack or
incidence
Angle between the direction
oI undisturbed relative Ilow
and the chord line
rad
GC (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Gas content
Actual amount oI solved and
undissolved gas in a liquid
ppm
WD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave direction
rad
ALFA
(ships, propulsor geometry,
water fets) Angle between
centreline oI jet and
horizontal plane
rad
AAPI (ships, manoeuvrability)
Pitch angle
Angle oI attack in pitch on
the hull
rad
0
AAZL
ALF0
(fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Angle oI zero liIt
Angle oI attack or incidence
at zero liIt
rad
B
ALFSL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Angle oI stagnation
line
Angle between projected
keel and stagnation line a in
plane normal to centre plane
and parallel to reIerence line
rad
BAR
ALFBAR (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Barrel Ilow angle
Angle between barrel axis
and assumed Ilow lines
rad
c
ALFTW (hyarofoil boats) Geometric
angle oI twist
1
D
AD (ships, propulsor geometry)
Duct proIileshaIt axis angle
Angle between nosetail line
oI duct proIile and propeller
shaIt
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
E AAEF,
ALFE
(Iluid mechanics, liIting
surIaces) EIIective angle oI
attack
or incidence
The angle oI attack relative
to the chord line including
the eIIect oI induced
velocities
rad
FB ANFB (ships, appendage geometry)
Bow Iin angle
s. Remark .1 rad
FS ANFS (ships, appendage geometry)
Stern Iin angle
s. Remark .1 rad
G AAGE,
ALFG
(Iluid mechanics, liIting
surIaces) Geometric angle oI
attack or incidence
The angle oI attack relative
to the chord line neglecting
the eIIect oI induced
velocities
rad
H AAHY,
ALFI
(Iluid mechanics, liIting
surIaces) Hydrodynamic
angle oI attack
In relation to the position at
zero liIt
rad
I AAID,
ALFS
(Iluid mechanics, liIting
surIaces) Ideal angle oI
attack
For thin airIoil or hydroIoil,
angle oI attack Ior which the
streamlines are tangent to
the mean line at the leading
edge. This condition is
usually reIerred to as
"shockIree" entry or
"smooth"
rad
IND ALFIND (hydroIoil boats) Downwash
or induced angle
1
M ALFM (hydroIoil boats) Angle oI
attack oI mean liIt
coeIIicient Ior Ioils with
twist
1
S GS (Iluid mechanics, cavitation)
Gas content oI saturated
liquid
Maximum amount oI gas
solved in a liquid at a given
temperature
ppm
as GR (Iluid mechanics, cavitation)
Gas content ratio
/ S 1
s AFS (hydroIoil boats) Angle oI
attack Ior which Ilow
separation (stall) occurs
1
TO ATO (hydroIoil boats) Incidence
angle at takeoII speed
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
DR
BET
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angle of drift
or sideslip
The angle to the principal
plane of symmetry from the
velocity vector of the origin
of the body axes relative to
the fluid, positive in the
positive sense of rotation
about the zaxis
rad
BETE (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Equilibrium
parameter
*
/ (
w
ap / ax) 1
BETD (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Dead rise angle of
planing bottom
Angle between a straight
line approximating body
section and the intersection
between basis plane and
section plane
1
APSF (ships, performance)
Appendage scale effect
actor f
Ship appendage resistance
divided by model
ppendage resistance a
1
AADR (ships, manoeuvrability)
Drift angle
Angle of attack in yaw on
the hull
rad
BETB (ships, propulsor
performance) Advance
angle of a propeller blade
ection s
arctg (J
A
/ R ) rad
1
BET1 (ships, propulsor
performance)
Hydrodynamic flow angle
of a propeller blade section
Flow angle taking into
account induced velocity
rad
C
DRCI (ships, manoeuvrability,
turning circles) Drift angle
at steady turning
rad
aw
BETWA (environmental mechanics,
wina) Apparent wind
angle (relative to vessel
course)
see section 2.6 rad
aw
BETWA (sailing vessels) apparent
wind angle (relative to boat
course)
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
D
BD (ships, propulsor geometry)
Diffuser angle of duct
Angle between inner duct
tail line and propeller shaft
rad
L
BETAL (sailing vessels) leeway
angle
rad
M
BETM (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Dead rise angle at
idship section m
1
T
BETT (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Dead rise angle at
transom
1
tw
BETWT (environmental mechanics,
wina) True wind angle
(relative to vessel course)
see section 2.6 rad
tw
BETWT (sailing vessels) true wind
angle (relative to boat
course)
rad
WR
ANWIRL (ships, manoeuvrability)
Angle of attack of relative
ind w
rad
*
BETS (ships, propulsor
performance) Effective
advance angle
arctg (J
A
/ (0.7 R )) rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
CC (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Circulation
J as
along a closed line
m
2
/s
n
CN (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Normalized circulation
/ ( D J)
is frequently omitted
1
RO
GAMR
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Projected
angle of roll or heel
The angular displacement
about the x
o
axis of the
principal plane of symmetry
from the vertical, positive in
the positive sense of rotation
bout the x
o
axis a
rad
ANSW (fluia mechanics, lifting
urfaces) Sweep angle s
rad
VD (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
ortex density V
Strength per length or per
rea of vortex distribution a
m/s
MR (ships, basic quantities)
Relative mass or weight,
sometimes called specific
gravity
Mass density of a substance
divided by mass density of
distilled water at 4C
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
DISPF Displacement force
(buoyancy)
g V
N
DISPF (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Displacement
(buoyant) force
g V
N
A DISPF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Displacement
(buoyant) force
g V
AP
DISPFAP (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement force
buoyancy) of appendages (
g V
AP
N
BH
DISPFBH (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement force
(buoyancy) of bare hull
g V
BH
N
C
F
DELCF (ships, hull resistance)
Roughness allowance
(obsolete, see C
A
) 1
C
DFCAN (sailing vessels)
Displacement force (weight)
of canoe body
N
K
DFK (sailing vessels)
Displacement force (weight)
of keel
N
M DMF (ships, water fets) Change
omentum flux of m
N
m
DISPM (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement mass
V
kg
m
DISPM (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Displacement mass
V
kg
A
m
DISPM (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Displacement
mass
V
R
DFR (sailing vessels)
Displacement force
(weight) of rudder
N
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
U UDEF (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Velocity defect in
oundary layer b
(U
e
 U) / u
1
w DELW (ships, performance) Ship
model correlation factor for
ake fraction w
w
T,M
 w
T,S
1
w
C
DELWC (ships, performance) Ship
model correlation factor
with respect to w
T,S
method
formula of ITTC 1978
ethod m
1
DELTT (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Thickness ratio of
section (general)
t / C 1
ADCT (ships, propulsor
performance) Taylor's
advance coefficient
n D / J
A
with n in revs/min,
D in feet, V
A
in knots
(obsolete)
1
D (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Finite increment
in...
Prefix to other symbol
o (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Tank block
coefficient
0
ANRU0 (ships, manoeuvrability)
Neutral rudder angle
rad
1
DELS (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Displacement
thickness of boundary layer
)(U
e
 U) / U
e
ay m
995
DEL (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Thickness of a
boundary layer at
=0.995U
e
U
m
B
c
DBCV (ACJ ana SES) Increase in
cushion beam due to water
contact
m
B
ANFB (ships, manoeuvrability)
Bow fin angle
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
B
DELTB (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Thickness ratio of
trailing edge of struts
t
B
/ C
S
1
C
HC (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Cavity height or thickness
Maximum height of a fully
developed cavity, normal to
the surface and the stream
wise direction of the cavity
m
if
DEL(I,J) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Delta
perator o
+1 : if = 11, 22, 33
0 : if otherwise
I
ELIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Deflection of ice sheet
Vertical elevation of ice
surface
m
eff
ANRUEF (ships, manoeuvrability)
Effective rudder inflow
angle
rad
F
DELTF (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Camber ratio of
mean line (general)
f / C 1
F
DELFS (ships, appenaage geometry)
Flap angle (general)
Angle between the planing
surface of a flap and the
bottom before the leading
dge e
rad
FRin
ANFRIN (ships, appenaage geometry)
Assembly angle of flanking
udders r
Initial angle set up during
the assembly as zero angle
f flanking rudders o
rad
FL
DLTFL (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Angle of flap
eflection d
1
FR
ANFR (ships, appenaage geometry)
lanking rudder angle F
rad
f
ANFL (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Flap deflection
angle
rad
L
DELTL (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Camber ratio of
lower side of foil
f
L
/ C 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
max
ANRUMX (ships, manoeuvrability, :ig
:ag man..) Maximum value
of rudder angle
rad
R
ANRU (ships, appenaage geometry)
udder angle R
rad
R
ANRU (ships, manoeuvrability)
udder angle R
rad
R0
ANRUOR (ships, manoeuvrability)
udder angle, ordered R
rad
RF
ANRF (ships, appenaage geometry)
Rudderflap angle
rad
S
DELTS (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Thickness ratio of
trut s
t
S
/ C
S
1
S
ANFS (ships, manoeuvrability)
tern fin angle S
rad
STH
DELTT (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Theoretical
hickness ratio of section t
t
S
/ C
STH
1
s
ANSL (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Slat deflection
angle
rad
t
KL
DTR (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Change in static
trim
m
ot
KL
DTR (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Change in static
trim
U
DELTU (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Camber ratio of
upper side
f
u
/ C 1
o
u
DP(U) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
vibratory displacement
u = 1,.., 6
u = 1, 2, 3: linear
u = 4, 5, 6: angular
m
m
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
W
DELWG (ships, appenaage geometry)
Wedge angle
Angle between the planing
surface of a wedge and the
bottom before the leading
dge e
rad
DLAM (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Dimensionless
ncrease in total friction area i
Effective increase in friction
area lengthbeam ratio due
o spray contribution to drag t
1
*
DELS (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Displacement
hickness of boundary layer t
)(U
e
 U) / U
e
ay m
**
ENTH (fluia mechanics, bounaary
ayers) Energy thickness l
)(U / Ue) (1  U
2
/ U
e
2
)ay m
o
u
DPVL(U) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
ibratory velocity v
u = 1,.., 6
u = 1, 2, 3: linear
u = 4, 5, 6: angular
m/s
m/s
rad/s
o
u
DPAC(U) (ships, unsteaay propeller
forces) Generalized
vibratory acceleration
u = 1,.., 6
u = 1, 2, 3: linear
u = 4, 5, 6: angular
m/s
2
m/s
2
rad/s
2
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 V
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
V
DISPVOL (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement volume
/ ( g) V
BH
V
AP
m
3
V
DISPVOL (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Displacement
volume
/ (g) m
3
V DISPVOL (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Displacement
volume
A / (g)
V
AP
DISPVAP (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement volume of
ppendages a
AP
/ ( g) m
3
V
BH
DISPVBH (ships, hull geometry)
Displacement volume of
bare hull
BH
/ ( g) m
3
V
C
DVCAN (sailing vessels) Displaced
volume of canoe body
m
3
V
F
DISVF (hyarofoil boats) Foil
displacement volume
m
3
V
fw
DISVOLFW (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Displacement
olume of flooded water v
fw
/ (g) m
3
V
K
DVK (sailing vessels) Displaced
volume of keel
m
3
V
R
DVR (sailing vessels) Displaced
volume of rudder
m
3
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
EPSLD (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) LiftDrag ratio
L/D
1
EPSG (ships, hull resistance)
Resistancedisplacement
atio in general r
R / 1
PSIBP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Propeller axis angle
measured to body fixed
coordinates
Angle between reference
line and propeller shaft axis
rad
F
EPSLDF (hyarofoil boats) Lift/ Drag
atio of foil r
L / D 1
ifk
EPS(I,J,K) (funaamental. coorainate
ana space relatea) Epsilon
perator o
+1 : ifk = 123, 231, 312
 1 : ifk = 321, 213, 132
0 : if otherwise
I
STIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Ice strain
Elongation per unit length 1
R
EPSR (ships, hull resistance)
Residuary resistance
displacement ratio
R
R
/ 1
SH
EPSSH (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Shaft angle
Angle between shaft line and
reference line (positive, shaft
nclined downwards) i
WL
EPSWL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted length factor
L
M
/ L
WL
1
WS
EPSWS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Wetted surface area
factor
S / S
0
1
WS
EPSWS (ACJ ana SES) Wetted
urface factor s
S
SHC
/ S
SH0
1
c I
STRTIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Ice strain rate
c / c 1/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
(funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Outcome of a
random "experiment"
(funaamental, statistical)
Outcome of a random
"experiment"
DW (environmental mechanics,
waves) Instantaneous wave
depression
zaxis positive vertical
down, zero at mean water
level
m
13
ZETA13 (ships, water fets) Inlet and
diffuser loss coefficient
Station 13, based on E0
1
57
ZETA57 (ships, water fets) Duct and
nozzle loss coefficient
tation 57, based on E7 S
1
C
ZETAC (ACJ ana SES) Height of
cushion generated wave
above mean water plane at
leading edge side of the skirt
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
EW (environmental mechanics,
waves) Instantaneous wave
elevation at a given
location
zaxis positive vertical up,
zero at mean water level;
s. Remark .3
m
EF, ETA (ships, basic quantities)
fficiency E
Ratio of powers,
see Remark .3
EW (ships, hull resistance) Wave
levation E
see 3.4.1 m
0
ETAO,
EFTPO
(ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
efficiency in open water
P
T
/ P
D
T J
A
/ (Q ) all
quantities measured in open
water tests
1
AP
ETAAP (ships, performance)
Appendage efficiency
P
EwoApp
/ P
EwApp
, R
TBH
/ R
T
1
a
i
EWAM(I) (environmental mechanics,
waves) Amplitudes of
harmonic components of a
eriodic wave p
FSa
m
B
ETAB,
EFTP
(ships, performance)
Propeller efficiency behind
hip s
P
T
/ P
D
T J
A
/ (Q ) 1
C
EC (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave crest elevation
m
C
EC (environmental mechanics,
waves) Maximum of
elevations of wave crests in
a record
m
D
ETAD,
EFRP
(ships, performance)
Propulsive efficiency or
uasipropulsive coefficient q
P
E
/ P
D
P
R
/ P
P
1
G
ETAG,
EFGP
Gearing efficiency 1
H
ETAH,
EFRT
(ships, performance) Hull
fficiency e
P
E
/ P
T
P
R
/ P
T
= (1  t) / (1  w)
1
I
EFID (ships, propulsor
performance) Ideal propeller
efficiency
Efficiency in nonviscous
fluid
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ID
EFDIC (ice going vessels)
Propulsive efficiency in ice
R
IT
J / (2 n
IA
Q
IA
) 1
ICE
ERIC (ice going vessels) Relative
propulsive efficiency in ice
ID
/
D
1
inst
ETAIN (ships, water fets) Pump
llation efficiency insta
1
JP
EFJP (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
pump or hydraulic efficiency
P
J
/ P
D
P
J
/ P
P
1
JP0
ZETO,
EFJPO
(ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
pump efficiency at zero
advance speed,
alias static thrust coefficient
T / ( / 2)
1/3
/ (P
D
D)
2/3
1
M
ETAM,
EFSI
(ships, performance)
Mechanical efficiency
P
S
/ P
I
or P
B
/ P
I
1
O
ETAO (ships, performance)
Propeller open water
efficiency
1
P
ETAP (ships, water fets) Pump
efficiency
1
p
i
,
i
EWPH(I) (environmental mechanics,
waves) Phases of harmonic
components of a periodic
wave
FSp
rad
R
ETAR,
EFRO
(ships, performance)
Relative rotative efficiency
B
/
O
1
S
ETAS,
EFPS
(ships, performance)
hafting efficiency S
P
D
/ P
S
P
P
/ P
S
1
T
ET (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave trough
depression
Negative values! m
T
ET (environmental mechanics,
waves) Elevations of wave
roughs in a record t
Negative values! m
TJ
EFTJ (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller jet
efficiency
2 / (1 + (1 + C
Th
)
1/2
) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
TPO
ETAO,
EFTPO
(ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
efficiency in open water
P
T
/ P
D
T J
A
/ (Q ) all
quantities measured in open
water tests
1
WJ
ETAWJ (ships, water fets) Effective
jet system efficiency
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
THETA (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Momentum thickness
)(U / U
e
) (1  U / U
e
)ay m
X(5), TR,
TETP
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angle of
pitch or trim
Positive in the positive sense
of rotation about the yaxis
rad
CWD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Component wave
irection d
rad
PI (ships, manoeuvrability)
Pitch angle
rad
RAKA (ships, propulsor geometry)
Angle of rake
rad
u
HEELANG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing)
Heel angle
0
TRIMS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Static trim angle
Angle between ship design
waterline and actual water
line at rest (positive bow up)
an
1
((:
SF
 :
SA
) / L) t
rad
B
TETB (ACJ ana SES) Bag contact
deformation angle
1
u
c
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Capsizing angle
under the action of a gust of
wind IMO/IS
D
TRIMV (ships, hull resistance)
Running (dynamic) trim
angle
tan
1
((:
JF
 :
JA
) / L) 1
D
TRIMV (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Running (dynamic)
trim angle
Angle between actual water
line at rest and running water
line (positive bow up)
tan
1
((:
JF
 :
JA
) / L)
rad
DH
DIHED (hyarofoil boats) Dihedral
angle
1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
DWL
TRIMDWL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Running trim angle
ased on design waterline b
Angle between design
waterline and running
aterline (positive bow up) w
rad
EXT
TEMX (ships, propulsor geometry)
Skew angle extent
The difference between
maximum and minimum
local skew angle
rad
F
TETF (ACJ ana SES) Finger outer
face angle
1
u
f
HEELANGF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle at
flooding
m
MWD
THETAMOX
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Mean or dominant
wave direction
rad
u
m
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle
corresponding to the
maximum of the statical
tability curve s
S
TRIMS (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Static trim angle
tan
1
((:
SF
 :
SA
) / L) rad
S
TRIMS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Static trim angle
Angle between ship design
waterline and actual water
line at rest (positive bow up)
tan
1
((:
SF
 :
SA
) / L)
rad
u
S
TRIMS (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Static trim angle
tan
1
((:
SF
:
SA
)/L)
s
TETS (ships, propulsor geometry)
Skew angle
The angular displacement
about the shaft axis of the
reference point of any blade
section relative to the
generator line measured in
the plane of rotation. It is
positive when opposite to
the direction of ahead
otation r
rad
J
TRIMV (ships, hull resistance)
Running (dynamic) trim
angle
tan
1
((:
JF
 :
JA
) / L) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
J
TRIMV (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Running (dynamic)
trim angle
Angle between actual water
line at rest and running water
line (positive bow up)
tan
1
((:
JF
 :
JA
) / L)
rad
u
J
HEELANGV (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle for
vanishing stability
W
TETW (ACJ ana SES) Slope of
mean water plane for surface
level beneath cushion
eriphery p
1
W
TETWI (environmental mechanics,
wina) Wind direction
rad
*
ENTH (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Energy thickness
)(U / Ue) (1  U
2
/ U
e
2
)ay m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
K
K
(fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) von Karman constant
0.41
1
CK
(fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Kinematic
apillarity c
/
m
3
/s
2
WN (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave number
2 / L
W
2
/g
1/m
KS
KS
(ships, propulsor
performance) Roughness
height oI propeller blade
surIace
m
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
AS (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Aspect ratio
b
2
/ A 1
PRGR (fluia mechanics, bounaary
layers) Pressure gradient
arameter p
995
/ (v aU
e
/ ax) 1
FR
ASRF (ships, appenaage geometry)
lanking rudder aspect ratio F
1
R
ASRU (ships, appenaage geometry)
Rudder aspect ratio
S
2
/ A
RT
1
TA (fluia mechanics, lifting
surfaces) Taper ratio
c
t
/ c
r
1
SC (ships, basic quantities)
Scale ratio
Ship dimension divided by
corresponding model
imension d
1
SC (ships, hull geometry) Linear
cale of ship model s
L
S
/ L
M
B
S
/ B
M
T
S
/ T
M
1
a
LD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave length by zero
downcrossing
m
FR
TAFR (ships, appenaage geometry)
lanking rudder taper F
1
R
TARU (ships, appenaage geometry)
udder taper R
c
t
/ c
r
1
u
LU (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave length by zero
upcrossing
m
W
LW (environmental mechanics,
waves) Wave length
Measured in the direction of
wave propagation
m
W
LAMS (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Mean wetted length
beam ratio
L
M
/ (B
LCG
) 1
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
VI (fluid mechanics, flow
parameter) Viscosity
kg/ms
CWD (environmental mechanics,
waves) Component wave
irection d
rad
PMVO (ships, hydrostatics,
stability) Volumetric
permeability
The ratio of the volume of
flooding water in a
compartment to the total
volume of the compartment
1
(ships, sea keeping) Wave
encounter angle
Angle between ship positive
x axis and positive direction
of waves (long crested) or
dominant wave direction
(short crested)
rad
I
POIIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Poisson's ratio of ice
1
x
XMR (fundamental, statistical)
Expectation or population
mean of a random quantity
E(x)
PMVO (*sea keeping, large
amplitude motions
capsizing) Volumetric
permeability
The ratio of the volume of
flooding water in a
compartment to the total
volume of the compartment
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
v VK (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Kinematic
viscosity
/ m
2
/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
DN, RHO (fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Density
kg/m
3
DN, RHO (ships, basic quantities)
Mass density
am / aJ kg/m
3
RHO (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) (Liquid) density
RHO (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
apsi:ing) (Air) density c
I
DNIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Mass density of ice
Mass of ice per unit volume kg/m
3
SN
DNSN (environmental mechanics,
ice) Mass density of snow
Mass of snow per unit
olume v
kg/m
3
W
DNWA (environmental mechanics,
ice) Mass density of water
kg/m
3
W

I
kg/m
3
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
CA
(fluia mechanics, flow
parameter) Capillarity
SurIace tension per unit
length
kg/s
2
CNPC
(fluia mechanics, cavitation)
Cavitation number
(p
A
 p
C
) / q
1
SN, SIGS
(ships, basic quantities)
Normal stress
Pa
FC
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Circular wave
Irequency
2 f
W
2 / T
W
rad/s
CI
SCIC
(environmental mechanics,
ice) Compressive strength oI
ce i
Pa
FI
SFIC (environmental mechanics,
ce) Flexural strength oI ice i
Pa
TI
SNIC (environmental mechanics,
ce) Tensile strength oI ice i
Pa
J
CNPV (fluia mechanics, cavitation)
apour cavitation number V
(p
A
 p
J
) / q
1
x
XDR (funaamental, statistical)
Standard deviation oI a
random quantity
x
JR /
DIRSF
SIGMAOX
(environmental mechanics,
waves) Directional spreading
Iunction
S(f,)S(f)D
X
(f,) where
2
)D
X
(f,)a1
0
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
TICV (funaamental, statistical,
stochastic) Covariance or
orrelation time c
SI
STIC (environmental mechanics,
ice) Shear strength of ice
Pa
ST, TAU (ships, basic quantities)
angential stress T
Pa
b
(ships, propulsor geometry)
Blade thickness ratio
t
0
/ D 1
DWL
TAUDWL (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Reference line angle
Angle between the reference
line and the design waterline
1
R
TAUR (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Angle of attack
elative to the reference line r
Angle between the reference
line and the running
aterline w
1
W
LSF, TAUW (ships, hull resistance) Local
kin friction s
N/ m
2
w
TAUW (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Wall shear stress
(cU / cy)
y0
Pa
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
 HEELANG (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle

0
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle during
offset load tests

0(REQ)
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Maximum
permitted heel angle during

D
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Actual down
flooding angle according to

D(REQ)
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Required down
flooding angle, see

DC
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Down flooding
angle to nonquick draining
cockpits

DH
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Down flooding
angle to any main access
hatchway

F
HEELANGF (*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle at
flooding

GZMAX
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Angle of heel at
which maximum righting
moment occurs
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit

R
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Assumed roll
angle in a seaway

W
(*sea keeping, large
amplituae motions
capsi:ing) Heel angle due to
alculation wind speed c
X(4), RO,
PHIR
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angle of roll,
heel or list
Positive in the positive sense
of rotation about the xaxis
rad
PHIP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Pitch angle of screw
ropeller p
arctg (P / (2 R)) 1
PO (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
otential function P
m
2
/s
HEELANG (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Heel angle
rad
RO (ships, manoeuvrability)
Roll angle
rad
F
HEELANGF (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Heel angle at
looding f
rad
F
PHIF (ships, propulsor geometry)
Pitch angle of screw
propeller measured to the
face line
1
SP
PHISP (planing, semiaisplacement
vessels) Spray angle
Angle between stagnation
line and keel (measured in
lane of bottom) p
1
JS
HEELANGV (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Heel angle for
vanishing stability
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
X(6), YA,
PSIY
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Angle of yaw,
eading or course h
Positive in the positive sense
of rotation about the zaxis
rad
YA (ships, manoeuvrability)
aw or course angle Y
rad
SF (fluia mechanics, flow fielas)
Stream function
= const
is the equation of a stream
urface s
m
3
/s
0
YAOR (ships, manoeuvrability)
riginal course O
rad
01
PSI01 (ships, manoeuvrability, :ig
:ag man..) First overshoot
angle
rad
02
PSI02 (ships, manoeuvrability, Zig
:ag man..) Second overshoot
ngle a
rad
aP
PSIAP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Propeller axis angle
measured to space fixed
coordinates
Angle between horizontal
plane and propeller shaft
axis
rad
bP
PSIBP (ships, propulsor geometry)
Propeller axis angle
measured to body fixed
oordinates c
Angle between reference
line and propeller shaft axis
rad
C
COCU (ships, manoeuvrability)
ourse of current velocity C
rad
S
PSIS (ships, manoeuvrability, :ig
:ag man..) Switching value
of course angle
rad
WA
COWIAB (ships, manoeuvrability)
bsolute wind direction A
rad
WR
COWIRL (ships, manoeuvrability)
Relative wind direction
rad
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 ,
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name
DeIinition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
FC, OMF
(ships, basic quantities)
Circular Irequency
2 f
1/s
V0, OMN
(ships, basic quantities)
otational velocity R
2 n
rad/s
V0P (ships, propulsor
performance) Propeller
otational velocity r
2 n
1/s
W
FC (environmental mechanics,
waves) Circular wave
requency I
2 f
W
2 / T
W
rad/s
x
P, OMX,
V0(1), V(4)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis x
rad/s
y
Q, OMY,
V0(2), V(5)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
elocity around body axis y v
rad/s
:
R, OMZ,
V0(3), V(6)
(solia boay mechanics, rigia
boay motions) Rotational
velocity around body axis z
rad/s
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Identifiers (Subscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
0
(ships, hyarostatics,
tability) Initial s
A (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) attained
a
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) apparent
AB (ships, hull geometry)
After body
AP (ships, hull geometry)
After perpendicular
APP (ships, hull geometry)
Appendages
att
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) attained
BH (ships, hull geometry)
Bare hull
BK (ships, appenaage geometry)
Bilge keel
BS (ships, appenaage geometry)
Bossing
D (ships, propulsor geometry)
uct D
d (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) dynamic
DW (ships, hull geometry)
Design waterline
dyn
(ships, hyarostatics,
tability) dynamic s
e (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) effective
eff
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) effective
EN (ships, hull geometry)
Entry
f (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) false
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Identifiers (Subscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
FB (ships, hull geometry)
Fore body
FB (ships, appenaage geometry)
Bow foil
FP (ships, hull geometry)
Fore perpendicular
FR (ships, appenaage geometry)
Flanking rudder
FS (ships, hull geometry)
Frame spacing
FS (ships, appenaage geometry)
Stern foil
FW (ships, hull resistance) Fresh
water
HE (ships, hull geometry)
Hull
KL (ships, appenaage geometry)
Keel
KL
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) keel line
L
(ships, hyarostatics,
tability) longitudinal s
LR (ships, hull geometry)
Reference Line
LP (ships, hull geometry)
Based on L
PP
LW (ships, hull geometry)
Based on L
WL
M
(General) Model
MAX
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) maximum
MF (ships, hull resistance)
Faired model data
MR (ships, hull resistance) Raw
model data
MS (ships, hull geometry)
Midship
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Identifiers (Subscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
MTL
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) longitudinal
trimming moment
OW
(ships, hull resistance) Open
water
P
(ships, propulsor geometry)
propeller shaft axis
PB (ships, hull geometry)
Parallel body
R (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) required (to be
larified) c
req (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) required (to be
larified) c
RF (ships, appenaage geometry)
udder flap R
RU (ships, hull geometry)
Run
RU (ships, appenaage geometry)
udder R
S
(
General) Ship
S (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Sinkage, squat
s
(ships, hyarostatics,
tability) Static s
sqt (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Sinkage, squat
SA (ships, appenaage geometry)
Stabilizer
SF (ships, hull resistance)
aired full scale data F
SH (ships, appenaage geometry)
hafting S
SK (ships, appenaage geometry)
Skeg
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Identifiers (Subscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
SR (ships, hull resistance) Raw
full scale data
SS (ships, hull geometry)
Station spacing
ST (ships, appenaage geometry)
trut S
SW (ships, hull resistance) Salt
ater w
T (ships, hyarostatics,
tability) transverse s
TC (ships, hyarostatics,
tability) Trim in cm s
TM (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) Trim in m
TH (ships, appenaage geometry)
hruster T
V (ships, hyarostatics,
stability) vertical
WG (ships, appenaage geometry)
Wedge
WP (ships, hull geometry)
Water plane
WS (ships, hull geometry)
W
etted surface
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) at heel angle
(ships, hyarostatics,
stability) at trim angle
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Operators (Superscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
A MS (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Average, sample
mean
CR CR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
ovariance c
CR CR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
covariance
CS CS (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample
covariance
D DR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
eviation d
DR DR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
deviation
DS DS (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample deviation
E, M, MR MR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
opulation mean p
M
MR
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
population mean
MR
MR
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Expectation,
opulation mean p
MS MS (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Average, sample
mean
PD PD (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Probability
density
PF PF (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Probability
function
ITTC Symbols
Version 2002 Operators (Superscripts)
ITTC
Symbol
Computer
Symbol
Name Definition or
Explanation
SI
Unit
S SR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) (Power)
Spectrum
SS SS
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample spectrum
R RR
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
orrelation c
RR RR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
correlation
RS RS
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample
correlation
V VR
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
ariance v
VR VR (fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Population
variance
VS VS
(fundamental, statistical,
stochastic) Sample variance