Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

os, 29-Sep-09

Management stuff to read

1 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Content
Management stuff to read ............................................................................................................................................ 1
„The Essential Malik“ (German) ................................................................................................................................ 3
What effective General Managers really do! .............................................................................................................. 5
The CEO's Secret Handbook… ................................................................................................................................ 6
Dale Carnegie: „How to Win Friends and Influence People” ......................................................................................10
Seven surprises for new CEOs ................................................................................................................................11
The ways chief executive officers lead .....................................................................................................................12
What makes an effective executive? ........................................................................................................................13
What makes a leader?.............................................................................................................................................15
The Manager’s job: Folklore and fact ......................................................................................................................16
Why Should Anyone Be Led by You?.......................................................................................................................19

2 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

„The Essential Malik“ (German)


Fredmund Malik: Führen, Leisten, Leben. Wirksames Management für eine neue Zeit

Richtiges Management ist global, es ist weltweit überall sie bereits etwas können... „Was fällt dir leicht?“
gleich. Alle gut funktionierenden Organisationen werden Wer Ergebnisse erzielen will, muss Stärken
nach denselben Prinzipien gemanagt. Management nutzen.... Schwächen bedeutungslos, irrelevant
bedeutet Aktion, es heißt Tun, es heißt Vollbringen. machen.
Wissen für sich genommen hat wenig Bedeutung, · Es kommt auf gegenseitiges Vertrauen an... ein
solange es nicht genutzt wird, um Resultate zu Minimum an elementaren Manieren...
produzieren. charakterliche Integrität... Man muss meinen was
Kybernetik und richtiges Management sind Wissenschaft man sagt – und so handeln... Misstrauen ist eine
und Praxis des erfolgreichen Funktionierens der gefährlichsten Krebserkrankungen einer
hochkomplexer Systeme. Das Grundprinzip für richtiges Organisation...
und gutes, also kybernetisches Management heißt: · Es kommt darauf an, positiv oder konstruktiv zu
Organisiere ein komplexes System so, dass es sich denken... „Was für eine Chance liegt selbst in
weitgehend selbst organisieren, selbst regulieren und diesem Problem?“... Dinge verändern wollen... „Tu,
evolvieren kann. was du kannst, mit dem was du hast und dort wo
du bist... Mach das beste aus dem was da ist...“
Die einzige Gemeinsamkeit, die man bei wirksamen · Es kommt darauf an, dafür zu sorgen, dass Ziele
Menschen finden kann, sind ein paar Elemente ihre überhaupt da sind... wenige Ziele, dafür aber
Arbeitsweise: große – solche, die ins Gewicht fallen, die etwas
...Regeln, von denen sie sich... bewusst oder unbewusst bedeuten, wenn sie erreicht werden... Das Ziel soll
leiten lassen... die Quelle von Autorität, Direktion und Kontrolle
sein, und nicht der Vorgesetzte... Etwas nicht mehr
...Aufgaben, die sie mit bestimmter Sorgfalt und
zu tun ist genau so ein Ziel, wie etwas zusätzlich
Gründlichkeit erfüllen....
zu tun... Ziele, wo immer möglich, quantifizieren...
...Werkzeuge, die sie kompetent, manchmal virtuos, Ressourcen angeben...
einzusetzen verstehen...
· Es kommt darauf an, zu organisieren... für sich
und ihre unmittelbare persönliche Aufgabe und für
Gib Menschen die Möglichkeit, eine Leistung zu ihre Verantwortungsbereiche... wofür uns der
erbringen, und viele – nicht alle – werden ein Kunde bezahlt... wofür wir unsere Mitarbeiter
bemerkenswertes Maß an Zufriedenheit erlangen. bezahlen... wofür das Top-Management bezahlt
Management handelt von Menschen in Organisationen wird...
und umgekehrt von Organisationen mit Menschen. Was · Es kommt darauf an, zu entscheiden... wenige
immer den Mensch tut, er tut es nicht als Individuum, Entscheidungen, aber diese mit Bedacht und
sondern als Benutzer einer Organisation als deren wohlüberlegt... „Worum geht es hier wirklich?“...
Kunde oder als deren Mitarbeiter. Management ist eine „Gibt es noch mehr Alternativen?“... Wirklich
Folge der Entstehung von Organisationen. tragfähiger Konsens...entsteht...nur aus
ausgetragenem Dissens... und zwar ersten offen,
zweitens offen und drittens offen... Man muss jede
Management ist ein Beruf des Resultate-Erzielens oder
Problemdefinition immer und immer wieder gegen
Resultate-Erwirkens.
alle verfügbaren Fakten testen... Wenn die zu
· Es kommt darauf an, einen Beitrag zum Ganzen treffenden Entscheidung nicht einmal das
zu leisten... den Mitarbeitern die Ganzheit vor definierte Minimum erfüllt, dann treffen wir sie
Augen zu führen... lieber gar nicht... „Beim Eintreten welcher
· Es kommt darauf an, sich auf Weniges, dafür Umstände wollen wir akzeptieren, dass wir uns
Wesentliches zu konzentrieren... Konzentration getäuscht haben?“ Eine Entscheidung zu treffen
ist der Schlüssel zum Erfolg... Geistige Arbeit mag schwierig sein, sie zu realisieren ist aber
braucht für ihre Wirksamkeit große zehnmal so schwierig... kritische Maßnahmen sind
Zeiteinheiten...ungestörten Arbeitens... „Wie viel festzulegen... eindeutige Verantwortlichkeiten sind
ungestörte Zeit brauche ich mindestens, um diese festzulegen... auch die kritischen Termine gehören
Arbeit fertig zu stellen?“ zur Entscheidung... „Was, wer bis wann?“...
· Es kommt darauf an, bereits vorhandene Stärken · Es kommt darauf an, zu kontrollieren...
zu nutzen... die Menschen dort einzusetzen, wo Grundlage von Kontrolle muss Vertrauen sein...

3 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Vertrauen über jene Grenze hinaus, sie einem Nutzung von Talenten... Arbeitsmethodik ist etwas
gefühlsmäßig leicht fällt... man muss sicherstellen, sehr individuelles... „don’t work harder, work
dass die Leute wissen, dass man dahinter smarter“... „do less and in order to achieve more“...
kommen wird...wenn das Vertrauen missbraucht „Was sollte ich in Zukunft nicht mehr tun ... Was
wird...und dass das schwerwiegende und nicht muss ich selbst erledigen ... Was muss oder will
verhandelbare Folgen hat... Man muss sich auf die ich erledigen lassen ... Was muss sofort erledig
kleinstmögliche Zahl an Kontrollgrößen werden ... Was hat oder braucht Zeit...?“ Routine
beschränken... Wo immer man messen kann, soll ist wichtig für Produktivität und für Funktionalität.
man messen... Wo man nicht messen kann, muss ...Das wichtige Instrument...die Checkliste.
beurteilt werden – und dafür eben braucht es · Es kommt aufs Budget an... das beste Instrument
Manager, solche mit Erfahrung und solche, die ihre für den produktiven Einsatz von
Aufgaben gewissenhaft und sorgfältig erfüllen... Schlüsselressourcen, insbesondere Menschen...
· Es kommt darauf an, Menschen zu entwickeln wichtige Grundlage für wirksame und gute
und zu fördern... individuell. Menschen entwickeln Kommunikation...
sich an ihren Aufgaben... bereit sein vorhandene · Es kommt darauf an, Leistungen zu beurteilen...
Stärken weiterzuentwickeln... selbst ein Vorbild „Was braucht man auf dieser ganz speziellen,
sein... Erbrachte Leistung...und Ergebnisse...ist konkreten Position in diesem konkreten
das Einzige, was wirklich real und konkret ist... das Unternehmen und in dieser konkreten Situation?“
Einzige, was zählen darf. ...herausfinden, wer in der Organisation welche
· Es kommt darauf an, Sitzungen produktiv zu besondern Stärken hat.
machen... die Vermehrung von Sitzungen zu · Es kommt auf eine systematische Müllabfuhr an.
unterbinden... „Trenne dich von Abfall und unnötigen Ballast!“
· Es kommt darauf an, empfängerorientierte „Was von dem, was wir heute tun, würden wir nicht
Berichte zu verfassen. Klarheit, Prägnanz und mehr neu beginnen, wenn wir es nicht schon
Genauigkeit der Sprache sind unabdingbar... täten?“ „Stop doing the wrong things!“ „Warum tun
· Es kommt darauf an, den Job – die Stelle – zu wir etwas überhaupt?“
organisieren und gestallten... die wirksame
Steuerung des Einsatzes der Menschen... Freisetzung von Leistungsreserven heißt nicht mehr,
· Es kommt darauf an, die persönliche sondern wirksamer arbeiten, heißt, sich selbst und
Arbeitsmethodik zu kennen... sie ist der Kern von andere besser und vor allem richtig zu managen. Man
Selbstmanagement... Systematisches und nimmt sich etwas vor oder es stellt sich einem eine
methodisches Arbeiten ist der Schlüssel für die Aufgabe – und dann löst man sie, weil man es kann.

4 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

What effective General Managers really do!


By John P. Kotter (HBR Classic)

…they chat about hobbies, hold spur-of-the · humor and non-work discussions can be used as
moment meetings, and seek out people far effective tools for building relationships and
from their chain of command… all to maintaining them under stressful conditions
combat the uncertainty and resistance (pattern 6)…
inherent in their work. · spend time on issues that seem unimportant to
…this behaviour is hard to reconcile, on the them (pattern 7)…
surface at least, with traditional notions of · implement their agendas by using a wide variety of
what top managers do… or should do… direct and indirect influence methods… find them
rarely ordering others (pattern 8)…
… effective general managers rely on agenda
settings and network building. · but spending a lot of time trying to influence
people (pattern 9)…
…excellent performers ask questions,
· do not plan their day in much detail but instead
encourage, cajole, praise, reward,
react (pattern 10)… conversations are short and
demand, manipulate, and generally
disjointed (pattern 11).
motivate other with great skill in face-to-
face situations.
On the surface at least, such behaviour seems
Patterns: particularly un-managerial. Yet these patterns are
GMs… possibly the most important efficient of all.
· spend most of their time with other (pattern 1)…
· with many others besides a boss and direct A good planning system should help the general manager
subordinates (pattern 2)… create an intelligent agenda and a strong network. It
should encourage the GM to think strategically, to
· the breadth of topics covered in daily
consider both the long and the short term and, regardless
conversations will be very wide (pattern 3)…
of the time frame, to take into account financial, product,
· ask a lot of questions (pattern 4)… market, and organizational issues.
· create largely unwritten agendas… major agenda Note: keep in mind that this article is from 1999 and
settings, decisions are often invisible, they are original appeared for the first time in 1982!!!!!!
made in the GMs mind (pattern 5)…

5 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

The CEO's Secret Handbook…


"It started decades ago as flashes of insight scribbled on loose scraps of paper. Then it morphed into a PowerPoint
presentation that distilled years of business wisdom into a handful of easy-to-remember aphorisms. In 2004 it became a
76-page spiral-bound booklet clad in a plain gray cover…"
The rules are a compilation of writing down advice and thoughts over years… the rules are not original… about half of
Swanson's rules can be found word for word or nearly so in the 1944 book "The Unwritten Laws of Engineering" by W.J.
(William Julian) King, a one-time General Electric engineer who retired as a UCLA engineering professor in 1969 and
died in 1983. Swanson became Raytheon CEO in 2003.

Swanson's Unwritten Rules of Management (compendium)

1. Learn to say "I don't know." If used when 6. Work for a boss to whom you can tell it like it is.
appropriate, it will be used often. Remember, you can't pick your family, but you
If you are asked to contribute and don't know what to say can pick your boss.
-- or don't have the answer - then simply say "I don't The point here is the in the workplace, unlike in your
know". It is my belief that if you behave in this way, you family, you have a choice. You have a choice, more than
will be respected for your honesty and candor. You are you may realize. Be proactive...
not expected to know the answer to everything... 7. Constantly review developments to make sure
2. It is easier to get into something, than to get out that the actual benefits are what they are
of it. supposed to be. Avoid Newton's Law.
One should not be timid about committing, but one should Follow-through is just as important as good decision-
commit only when one has a clear sense of goals and making in the first place. When deciding on a course of
means. Invariably, it is more complicated and potentially action, set measurable objectives than can be monitored
more costly to undo an action already under way that to over time to make sure the decision is yielding the
change a decision before it is acted upon... intended benefits. By "avoid Newton's Law," I mean that
3. If you are not criticized, you may not be doing "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."
much. Monitor the progress of the actions you set in motion to
make sure these effects are not counter-productive, and if
No one enjoys criticism - either having to justify one's
they are, that they are addressed early. It is essential that
decision or, on occasion, acknowledge error. But there is
the manager use the disciplines to gain insight into his or
also a risk in avoiding decisions. Small problems now can
her program and its progress, and not simply as a way to
fester and grow into big problems later. Opportunities
"check the box"...
today can disappear tomorrow. Remember: problems are
not like whine and cheese; they do not get better with 8. However menial and trivial your early
age... assignments may appears, give them your
best efforts.
By all means, don't be rash, but do make decisions.
Calculated risks may be appropriate. However, be It is important to set high standards for your career and to
thoughtful: do not make the same mistake twice... be demanding of yourself -- to want to perform
challenging tasks well. However, you are more likely to be
4. Look for what is missing. Many know how to
given the opportunity to take on complicated, difficult
improve what's there; few can see what isn't
assignments if you first demonstrate that you are willing
there.
and able to perform simpler tasks well.
Always think about what's missing; It's amazing what
Everything you do, no matter how menial or trivial it may
you'll find...
seem, has your name associated with it. For that reason
5. Presentation Rule: when something appears on alone it is worth doing well...
a slide presentation, assume the world already
9. Persistence or tenacity is the disposition to
knows about it and deal with it accordingly.
persevere in spite of difficulties,
Don't think that what shows up in a presentation is discouragement, or indifference. Don't be
private. In fact, assume it will be published in the New knows as a good starter but a poor finisher!
York Times, the Los Angeles Times or The Washington
There is often a wonderful excitement when starting
Post. And always maintain an atmosphere of total
something new. It is important to maintain that passion
integrity...
throughout the course of an assignment, especially when
difficulties arise or the project encounters negative
thinking of those who lack the commitment to persevere.

6 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Don't say you'll "never" be able to overcome the obstacles 15. Be extremely careful in the accuracy of your
-- unless you have truly analyzed each obstacle and statements.
demonstrated in a fact-base way that they are truly You should be passionate and inspiring, but what you say
insurmountable... must be true. People are counting on your words for
10. In doing your project, don't wait for others; go information and may act on what you tell them. When you
after them and make sure it gets done. say something, you want people to be able to "take it to
Don't be passive, don't just react, and don't assume. the bank".
Decide and act. Make sure everybody is one the same 16. Don't overlook the fact that you are working for
page and moving out with you. Ask for help if you need it. a boss. Keep him or her informed. Whatever
Understand what it will take to keep the project moving. the boss wants, within the bounds of integrity,
Follow-up is essential and will help ensure success of the takes top priority.
project. When done, be sure to share the credit... The intent here is not to encourage fawning behavior or
11. Confirm the instructions you give others, and narrowness of scope, but only to suggest that for the
their commitments in writing. Don't assume it organization to achieve its goals, everyone must be on
will get done. the same page.

The point here is that we often believe we have On the other hand, if you believe that your boss is not
communicated clearly when we have only transmitted seeing the big picture or is header in the wrong direction,
clearly. It is just as important to make sure that the you should speak up and be straightforward about your
message has been properly received and that you and concerns.
your team agree on what everybody is committing to. When your boss gives you an assignment, make it a
Confirming instructions and commitments in writing helps priority, even though you may want to work on something
to give structure to the communication process and to else...
ensure that everybody knows what needs to be done, and 17. Promises, schedules and estimates are
who will do it. Keep the confirmation of instructions and important instruments in a well-run business.
commitments clear and crisp so as not to bureaucratize You must make promises - don't lean on the
the process... often-used phrase: "I can't estimate it because
12. Don't be timid: speak up, express yourself and it depends on many uncertain factors.
promote your ideas. Do you want to be known as someone who offers
If you evaluate yourself from the perspective of your excuses, reasons or results? I will take results any day.
manager, you will see that you are valued most for your Be fact-based. We all need to be disciplined and
contributions. It is not bragging to express yourself and accountable in the way we perform. Our customers
your ideas vigorously - so long as you are prepared to respect us more when we establish metrics for various
support your ideas with logic and facts... milestones so that actual performance can be tracked,
13. Practice shows that those who speak the most evaluated, and, if need be, improved...
knowingly and confidently often end up with 18. Never direct a complaint to the top; a serious
the assignment to get the job done. offense is to "cc" a person's boss on a copy of
If you speak up when you are knowledgeable on a a complaint before the person has a chance to
particular subject, you will inspire the confidence of your response to the complaint.
management and you will get assignments that will allow If you have complaint, first take it directly to the individual
you to demonstrate your worth. However, if you speak up in a straightforward manner and give him or her a chance
when you are not knowledgeable, you may well sign on to know about it and work it.
for an assignment you can't handle... To send a complaint to an individual and at the same time
14. Strive for brevity and clarity in oral and written to "cc" that individual's boss can be counter-productive. I
reports. have found that most times the problem may not get
It takes longer to write cleanly and crisply. It shows solved and you've ended up alienating someone you will
respect for the time of others when you do. need to work with later.

As you grow in position and assume roles of increasing On the positive side, if you have something wonderful to
responsibility and complexity, you truly appreciate those say about a peer, then by all means copy the boss. As it
who communicate with brevity and clarity. Their emails, is said, "Praise in public, admonish in private"...
notes and reports will get read! Conversely, and sadly, 19. When interacting with people outside the
good ideas in hard-to-open packages wrapped with company, remember that you are always
complicated bows may be overlooked... representing the company. Be especially
careful of your commitments.
No matter how much you may believe that you are just
speaking for yourself, you may well be perceived by

7 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

customers, suppliers and others to represent the I know our customers appreciate a team that enjoys what
company's point of view. it does...
Do not ever make commitments that are beyond your 26. Treat the name of the company as if it were
scope of responsibility... your own.
20. Cultivate the habit of boiling matters down to A company's reputation is built on a foundation of
the simplest terms: the proverbial "elevator integrity. The actions of each employee reflect on the
speech" is the best way. company. As a manager, you must help your employees
Time is the discipline of the elevator speech. Space is the to see this - and to feel the responsibility.
discipline of having to pull out all your key points on one I can't emphasize enough this idea of "ownership". Good
3-by-5-inch card. Both disciplines require you to get the managers are looking to promote people who feel a
point and focus on what action you're asking for. sense of stewardship for the company, a sense of
Always ask yourself: Have I made the business case? responsibility to always behave like an "owner" of the
What action do I seek?... company, like a member of the family...

21. Don't get excited in engineering emergencies: 27. Beg for the bad news.
keep your feet on the ground. "Begging for the bad news" means creating a climate in
It is precisely when things go wrong that your leadership which everyone on your team understands that the boss
skills will be most tested. If you help the team solve the wants to hear the bad as well as the good.
problem in a calm, professional manner, you will inspire The leader must create a climate in which it is understood
confidence. reflexively that bad news, while never pleasant, must be
You may want to use the "24-Hour Rule." That is, think shared. And the sooner the bad new is aired, the better...
about the problem and, when possible, don't make a final 28. You remember 1/2 of what you read, 1/2 of what
decision for 24 hours... people tell you, but 100% of what you feel.
22. Cultivate the habit of making quick, clean-cut By all means, be clear and crisp, be brief, get to the point,
decisions. be respectful of the time of other - but do not withdraw
This does not mean one should act impulsively. Quick, from those you are trying to engage.
clean-cut decisions are the product of a mind that trains Reach out to make the connection. Show your humanity.
itself to eliminate waste - to focus on value-added Tell a story. Relate it to a real situation.
thinking. There is nothing more powerful than sincerely engaging
Stand by your decisions unless you find out something others and revealing aspects of yourself. One must be
new - or you discover that you were wrong. Then, quickly secure to do this. It is this security which inspires the
and cleanly, make it right... confidence of others...
23. When making decisions, the "pros" are much 29. You can't polish a sneaker.
easier to deal with than the "cons". Your boss In other words, don't waste effort putting the finishing
wants to see both. touches on something that has little substance to begin
There is nothing more valuable than a review process with. If you polish a hollow shell, it's still a hollow shell,
that surfaces all the potential consequences of an action albeit a shiny one.
rather than just the best-case scenario.There is no way to Polishing a sneaker can inadvertently convince others
effectively weigh the risks and benefits of an action if one that the sneaker has a value that it doesn't possess. This
is ignorant of the risks. By presenting both the pros and can distract an organization from important pursuits or
the cons, you show others that you have thought the lead an organization down a dead end...
problem through. You will have more credibility...
30. When facing issues or problems that are
24. Don't ever lose your sense of humor. becoming drawn-out, "short them to ground".
This Rule and rule no. 25 are very important for balance, If you sense that your organization is spending more time
and for connecting with others on a more personal level. on the bureaucracy of solving a problem that on the
Good-natured humor acknowledges the humanity of actual solution, you need to simplify the problem-solving
others and is a wonderful way to reduce tension on the process.
team...
"Shorting issues to the ground" means finding the
25. Have fun at what you do. It will be reflected in quickest path from problem to solution - avoiding non-
your work. No one likes a grump except value-added procedures and delays...
another grump!
31. When faced with decisions, try to look at them
We all spend many hours doing what we do. It is much as if you were one level up in the organization.
more pleasant to spend those hours with people who Your perspective will change quickly.
have a bounce in their step and a smile on their face than
It is incredibly illuminating to step out of one's own role
with those who mistakenly associate professionalism with
and to look at the world from the perspective of one's
being sour and dour.
manager or one's manager's manager. As you see the

8 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

world from a higher perch, you take in more of the People sometimes ask me what I believe are the
landscape. From this vantage point, your role becomes essential qualities of leadership. To me the qualities
clearer. You see how you can contribute more effectively of leadership boil down to: Confidence, Dedication,
to the goals of your organization... Integrity, and Love.
32. A person who is nice to you but rude to the By "Confidence" I mean not only believing in
waiter - or to others - is not a nice person (This yourself, which is great, but also being
never fails!). comfortable with yourself - with who you
Watch out for people who have situational value systems are. That enables you to honestly access
- who can turn the charm on and off depending on the yourself and acknowledge your weaknesses
status of the person they are interacting with. as well as your strengths.

Be especially wary of those who are rude to people "Dedication" is the desire to work hard to be the
perceived to be in subordinate roles. This kind of behavior best you can be at any task - small as well
is not the mark of a leader... as large (remember Rule no. 8). The
members of your team will feel this
33. Never be afraid to try something new.
commitment and share it.
Remember, an amateur built an ark that
survived a flood while a large group of "Integrity" to me is having the fortitude to do what
professionals built the Titanic! is right when no one is watching.
"Love" isn't used often in corporate position
papers. I don't mean it in the "mushy"
Obviously, you need to think before you try something
sense. What I mean by "love" is a
new, and you need to know when to ask for help and
willingness to sacrifice for the benefit of
expert guidance, but don't talk yourself out of trying
others and the organization. It inspires the
something that your heart tells you is within your power to
dedication of those around you.
accomplish. Often those less immersed in a field or
discipline have the unique perspective that produces the I believe we all have some of these qualities throughout
answer... the various stages of our lives. But true leaders don't
just have these traits - they apply them and instill
them in others.

9 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Dale Carnegie: „How to Win Friends and Influence People”

Fundamental Techniques in · Let the other person feel that the idea
Handling People is his or hers.
· Don't criticize, condemn or complain. · Try honestly to see things from the
· Give honest and sincere appreciation. other person's point of view.
· Arouse in the other person an eager · Be sympathetic with the other
want. person's ideas and desires.
· Appeal to the nobler motives.
Six ways to make people like you · Dramatize your ideas.
· Become genuinely interested in other · Throw down a challenge.
people.
· Smile! Be a Leader: How to Change People
· Remember that a person's name is to Without Giving Offence or Arousing
that person the sweetest and most Resentment
important sound in any language.
· Begin with praise and honest
· Be a good listener. Encourage others appreciation.
to talk about themselves.
· Call attention to people's mistakes
· Talk in terms of the other person's indirectly.
interests.
· Talk about your own mistakes before
· Make the other person feel important - criticizing the other person.
and do it sincerely.
· Ask questions instead of giving direct
orders.
Twelve ways to win people to your
· Let the other person save face.
way of thinking
· Praise the slightest improvement and
· The only way to get the best of an
praise every improvement. Be "hearty
argument is to avoid it.
in your approbation and lavish in your
· Show respect for the other person's praise."
opinions. Never say, "You're wrong."
· Give the other person a fine
· If you are wrong, admit it quickly and reputation to live up to.
emphatically.
· Use encouragement. Make the fault
· Begin in a friendly way. seem easy to correct.
· Get the other person saying "yes, yes" · Make the other person happy about
immediately. doing the thing you suggest.
· Let the other person do a great deal
of the talking.

10 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Seven surprises for new CEOs


by Michael E. Porter, Jay W. Lorsch and Nitin Nohria (HBR)

Even the best-prepared new CEOs can be blindsided by Implications for CEO Leadership
the realities – and limitations – of the job ...so much to do
The CEO must learn:
in complex new areas, with imperfect information and
never enough time …the more power you have, the …to manage organizational context rather than focus
harder it is to use. on daily operations
…how to act in indirect ways to create the conditions
Surprise One: You can’t run the company! that will help others make the right choices
…the CEO can’t monitor everyone. …to set the tone and define the organization’s culture
Surprise Two: Giving orders is costly! and values through his words and actions
…usually power is best used indirectly. …to recognize that his position does not confer the
Surprise Three: It’s hard to know what’s really right to lead, nor does it guarantee the
going on! organization’s loyalty
…all information coming to the top is filtered. ...that success ultimately depends on his ability to
Surprise Four: You’re always sending a message! enlist the voluntary commitment rather than the
…the CEO’s microphone is always on. forced obedience of others

Surprise Five: You’re not the boss! …that the conventional tools of management alone
…the board hired him and can also fire him. will not keep him in his job

Surprise Six: Pleasing shareholders is not the goal! …to not get totally absorbed in his role.
…ultimately, it’s only long-term profitability that matters,
not today’s growth expectations or even the stock price.
Only by maintaining a personal balance and staying
Surprise Seven: You’re still only human! grounded can the CEO achieve the perspective required
…stay humble, revisit decisions and actions, continue to make decisions in the interest of the company and its
to listen to others, and find people who will be honest long-term prosperity.
and forthright.

11 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

The ways chief executive officers


lead
By Charles M. Farkas and Suzy Wetlaufer (HBR classic)
Where is the school for the person in charge of getting What makes a CEO decide to take on the expertise
the best results from all members of the organization? approach? …a well-conceived, carefully developed area
There is no school for CEOs – except the school of of competence is the surest way to gain and sustain a
experience. CEOs must learn… while every stakeholder competitive advantage.
is watching… they are allowed few mistakes. 4. The Box Approach
CEOs who use this approach believe that they can add
There are five leadership approaches: the most value in their organizations by creating,
1. The Strategy Approach communicating, and monitoring an explicit set of controls
CEOs who use this approach believe that their most – financial, cultural, or both – that ensure uniform,
important job is to create, test, and design the predictable behaviors and experiences for customers and
implementation of long-term strategy, extending in some employees …they say that building frameworks and
cases into the distant future… they believe his position drawing boundaries are their primary responsibilities…
give them the best vantage point for making decisions they believe that this approach is the best way to deliver
about capital allocations, resource management, what customer wants most: no surprises… they apply the
investment in technologies, new products, and locations pressure of orthodoxy to the corporation…
for doing business… What makes a CEO decide to take on the box approach?
What makes a CEO decide to take on the strategy …in highly regulated industries, such as banking, or
approach? …the level of complexity in the company or industries in which safety is a paramount concern, such
industry, in terms of technology, geography, or as airlines.
organizational structure …he or she must frequently 5. The Change Approach
make decisions that have enormous consequences.
CEOs who use this approach believe that the CEOs’ most
2. The Human-Asset Approach critical role is to create an environment of continual
CEOs who use this approach believe that strategy reinvention, even if such an environment produces
formulations belongs close to the markets, in the anxiety and confusion, leads to some strategic mistakes,
business units… they believe that their imperative is hire and temporarily hurts financial performance… they
and cultivate a kind of individuals who will act intelligently, cultivate an environment of constant questioning and risk
swiftly, and appropriately without direct or constant taking… they believe that passion, energy and an
supervision… their primary job is to impart to their openness to a new, reinvented tomorrow matters… one
organizations certain values, behaviors, and attitudes by of change agents most important techniques: consensus
closely managing growth and development of building…
individuals... What makes a CEO decide to take on the role of chief
What makes a CEO decide to take on the human-assets strategist? …change is the best way to deliver
approach? …the success of the organization depends on consistently extraordinary results.
superior execution – the way members of the company
makes decisions, interact with customers, roll our new
In most effectively run organizations, CEOs select a
products, or design programs to deflect or defeat the
dominant approach, using it as the compass and rudder
competition.
that all corporate decisions and actions… sometimes the
3. The Expertise Approach approach fits the CEOs personality, sometimes not…
CEOs who use this approach believe that their most CEO’s approach can and should change over the course
important responsibility is selecting and disseminating of his or her tenure… a business is a living organism…
within the corporation an area of expertise that will be a there will always be a point where the environment
source of competitive advantage… they reward people changes, the competition changes, something critical
who acquire the expertise and share it across the borders changes, and you must realize this and take the leading
of business units and functions… role in meeting change…

12 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

What makes an effective


executive?
By Peter Drucker (HBR classic) The third practice is to develop action
An effective executive does not need to be a leader in the plans.
sense that the term is now most commonly used… Executives are doers, they execute… knowledge is
Effective executives …were all over the map in terms of useless to executives until it has been translated into
their personalities, attitudes, values, strength, and deeds… but before springing into action, the executive
weaknesses …ranged from extroverted to nearly needs to plan his course… needs to think about desired
reclusive, from easygoing to controlling, from generous to results, probable restraints, future revisions, check-in
parsimonious.
points, and implications for how well he’ll spend this
What made them all effective is that they followed the time… The action plan is a statement of intentions rather
same eight… (plus one) …practices: than commitment… must not become a straitjacket…
To get the knowledge they… should be revised often, because every success creates
new opportunities – so does the failure… A written plan
Ask what needs to be done.
should anticipate the need for flexibility… needs to create
Ask what is right for the enterprise.
a system for checking the results against the
To convert the knowledge into action they … expectations… has to become the basis for the
Develop action plans. executive’s time management… Without action plan, the
executive becomes a prisoner of events… without check-
Take responsibility for decisions.
ins to reexamine the plan as events unfold, the executive
Take responsibility for communicating.
has no way of knowing which events really matter and
Focus on opportunities rather than problems. which are only noise…
To ensure that the whole organization feels responsible
and accountable, they… The fourth practice is to take
Run productive meetings. responsibility for decisions.
Think and say “we” rather than “I”. A decision has not been made until people know …the
Plus one final practice... name of the person accountable for carrying it out …the
deadline …the names of the people who will be affected
… ;-)))
by the decision …the names of the people who have to
be informed even if they are not directly affected. It’s
The first practice is to ask what needs important to review decisions periodically… poor
to be done. decisions can be corrected before it does real damage…
Failure to ask this question will render even the ablest Decision review also shows executives their own
executive ineffectual… the answer to the question “What weakness… areas in which they are simply
needs to be done?” almost always contains more than incompetent… in this area smart executives don’t make
one urgent task... effective executives do not splitter decisions or take actions – they delegate…
themselves… concentrate on one task if at all possible…
set priorities and stick to them… after completing the The fifth practice is to take
original top-priority task, the executive resets priorities responsibility for communicating.
rather than moving on to number two from the original
Effective executives make sure that both their action plan
list… asks, “What must be done now?”… he asks himself,
and their information needs are understood… they share
which of the two or three tasks at the top of the list he
their plans… ask for comments… let each people know
himself is best suited to undertake… than he
what information they’ll need to get the job done…
concentrates on that task, the others he delegates…
Organizations are held together by information rather
than by ownership or command... the executives has to
The second practice is to ask what is identify the information he needs, ask for it, and keep
right for the enterprise. pushing until he gets it…
They do not ask if it’s right for the owner, the stock price,
the employees, or the executives… they know that a
decision that isn’t right for the enterprise will ultimately not
be right for any of the stakeholders…

13 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

The sixth practice is to focus on The eights practice is to think and say
opportunities rather than problems. “we” rather than “I”.
Problem solving, however necessary, does not produce Effective executives know they have the authority only
results… it prevents damage… exploiting opportunities because they have the trust of the organization… they
produces results… effective executives treat change as think of the needs and the opportunities of the
an opportunity rather than a threat… they systematically organization before they think of their own needs and
look at changes, inside and outside the corporation… opportunities…
staffing is an other important aspect of being opportunity
focuses… effective executives put their best people on The final practice is…
opportunities rather than problems…
This one is so important that Peter Drucker elevates it to
the level of a rule: Listen first, speak last!
The seventh practice is to run
productive meetings.
Effective executives differ widely in their personalities,
Executives must make meetings productive… must make strengths, weaknesses, values, and beliefs… all they
sure that meetings are work sessions rather than bull have in common is that they get the right things done…
session… must decide in advance what kind of meeting it effectiveness is a discipline… effectiveness can be
will be... making a meeting productive takes a good deal learned and must be learned.
of self-discipline… good executives don’t raise another
matter for discussion – they sum up and adjourn… good
follow-up is just as important as the meeting itself…

14 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

What makes a leader?


by Daniel Goleman (HBR Classic)
IQ and technical skills… are the entry-level requirements
for executive positions …Emotional intelligence is the
sine qua non of leadership.
There are five components of emotional intelligence: self-
awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and
social skill…

Self-Awareness Empathy
Self-awareness means having a deep understanding of Empathy means thoughtfully considering others’ feelings,
one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and along with other factors, in a process of making intelligent
drives…as well as their effect on others… honest with decisions… knowing intuitively what other people are
themselves and with others… extends to one persons feeling… hearing the message beneath the words being
understanding of his or her values or goals… know where spoken… understanding the emotional makeup of
one is headed and why… show itself as candor and… other people… treating people according to their
assess oneself realistically… speak accurately and emotional reactions…
openly, also not necessarily effusively or confessionally,
about ones emotions and the impact they have on their Social Skill
work… know ones limitations and strengths… Social skill is friendliness with a purpose… moving
demonstrate a thirst for constructive criticism… knowing people in the direction one desire… having a circle of
when to ask for help… acquaintance… a knack for finding common ground with
people of all kinds… a knack of building rapport…
Self–Regulation having a network in place when the time for action
Self-regulation, which is like an ongoing inner comes… the culmination of the other dimensions of
conversation, is the component of emotional intelligence emotional intelligence: people tend to be very effective at
that frees us from being prisoners of our feelings… managing relationship when they can understand and
biological impulses drive our emotions... we cannot do control their own emotions and can empathize with the
away with them… but we can do much to manage them… feeling of others… even motivation contributes to social
finding ways to control… bad moods and emotional skill… social skilled people… are adept at managing
impulses… channel them in useful ways… being in teams…are expert persuades… know when to make an
control of ones feelings and impulses… step back and emotional plea… are excellent collaborators… build
consider the reasons… create an environment of trust bonds widely because they know in this fluid times, they
and fairness… don’t panic… suspend judgment, seek out may need help someday from people they are just getting
information, and listen… a propensity for reflection and to know today…
thoughtfulness, comfort with ambiguity and change, Social intelligence allows leaders to put their
integrity, and an ability to say no to impulsive urges… emotional intelligence to work: manage relationship…
think before acting… express his or her empathy… communicate his or her
passion… no leader is an island… after all, the leader’s
Motivation task is to get work done through other people, and social
skill makes that possible…
Motivation means driven to achieve beyond expectations,
ones own and everyone else’s… motivated by deeply
embedded desire to achieve for the sake of
achievement… rather than external rewards… a passion
for work itself… love to learn… displaying an unflagging
energy to do things better… restless with the status
quo… forever raising the performance bar… like to keep
score… tracking progress… remain optimistic… seeing
opportunities… loving ones job for the job itself… feeling
committed to the organization that makes the work
possible…

15 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

strategic data bank of the organisation is not in the


The Manager’s job: memory of its computers but in the minds of its
Folklore and fact managers… they are damned by their own information
By Henry Mintzberg (hrb classics) system to a "dilemma of delegation"… to do too much or
to delegate to subordinates with inadequate briefing.
If you ask managers what they do, they will most likely tell
you that they plan, organise, co-ordinate, and control… Folklore: Management is, or at least is quickly becoming,
watch what they do... don't be surprised if you can't relate a science and a profession…
what you see to these words… it is time to strip away the Fact: By almost any definition of science and profession,
folklore about managerial work and study it realistically so this statement is false… science involves the usage of
that we can begin the difficult task of making significant systematic, analytically determined procedures or
improvements in its performance. programs… if we do not even know what procedures
managers use, how can we prescribe them by scientific
Folklore and Facts About analysis?… how can we call management a profession if
Managerial Work we cannot specify what managers are to learn?… the
managers' programs-to schedule time, process
Folklore: The manager is a reflective, systematic
information, make decisions, and so on-remain locked
planner.
deep inside their brains… to describe these programs, we
Fact: Managers work at an unrelenting pace… their rely on words like judgement and intuition… seldom
activities are characterized by brevity, variety, and stopping to realize that they are merely labels for our
discontinuity… they are strongly oriented to action and ignorance.
dislike reflective activities… chief executives met a steady
stream of callers and mails… coffee breaks and lunches The Managers Roles
were inevitably work related… the manager is simply
responding to the pressures of the job… terminating I defined the manager as that person in charge of an
many of their own activities.. leaving meetings before the organization or sub-unit… all these managers are vested
end… interrupting their desk work to call in with formal authority over an organizational unit… from
subordinates… they seemed to be conditioned by their formal authority comes status, which leads to various
own work loads… when managers must plan, they seem interpersonal relations… from these comes access to
to do so implicitly in the context of daily actions… the information… information enables the manager to make
plans only in their heads… as flexible, but often specific, decisions and strategies for the unit. The manager’s roles
intentions. comprises ten roles…three interpersonal roles… three
informational roles… four decisional roles:
Folklore: The effective manager has no regular duties to
perform… managers are constantly being told to spend Interpersonal Roles… arise directly from formal
more time planning and delegating and less time seeing authority and involve basic interpersonal relationships.
customers and engaging in negotiations. Figurehead role... every manager must perform some
Fact: The managerial work involves performing a number ceremonial duties.. Duties that involve interpersonal roles
of regular duties, including ritual and ceremony, may sometimes be routine, involving little serious
negotiations, and processing of soft information that links communication and no important decision making… they
the organisation with its environment… managers play a are important to the smooth functioning of an organization
key role in securing soft external information and in and cannot be ignored.
passing it along to their subordinates. Leader role… managers are responsible for the work of
Folklore: The senior manager needs aggregated the people of their unit... every manager must motivate
information, which a formal management information and encourage employees… reconciling their individual
system best provides… the literature’s manager was to needs with the goals of the organization…the influence of
receive all important information from a giant, managers is most clearly seen in the leader role...
comprehensive MIS (management information system). literature of management has always recognized the
leader role.
Fact: These giant MIS systems are not working…
managers are simply not using them… managers strongly Liaison role… the manager makes contacts outside the
favour verbal media, telephone calls and meetings, over vertical chain of command… managers spend as much
documents… managers seem to cherish “soft” time with peers and other people outside their units as
information, especially gossip, hearsay, and they do with their own subordinates…and spend very little
speculation… why?... today’s gossip may be tomorrow’s time with their own superiors.
fact… the manager identifies decision situations and
builds models not with the aggregated abstractions an Informational Roles… the manager emerges as the
MIS provides but with specific tidbits of data… the odds nerve center of the organizational unit… the manager
and ends of tangible detail that pieced together in his may not know everything but typically knows more than
mind illuminate the underside the issues put before him… subordinates do… processing information is a key part of
verbal information is stored in the brains of people… the the manager’s job

16 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Monitor role… the manager is perpetually scanning the be introspective about their work are likely to be effective
environment for information… interrogating liaison at their jobs.
contacts and subordinates… a good part of the The manager is challenged to find systematic ways to
information the manager collects in the monitor role share privileged information… share the database
arrives in verbal form, often as gossip, hearsay, and centralised in his or her brain… deal consciously with the
speculation. pressures of superficiality (take on took much work,
Disseminator role… the manager passes some encourage interruption, respond quickly to every stimulus,
privileged information directly to subordinates. seek the tangible and avoid the abstract)… supplement
Spokesperson role… the manager sends some their own models with those of specialists (describe the
information to people outside the unit. functioning of markets, simulate financial flow processes,
explain the needs and goals of people… the best of these
models can be searched out and learned)… gain from a
Decisional Roles… information is not an end in close relationship with the organsation’s own
itself… it is the basic input to decision making… the management scientists / analysts (managers have the
manager plays the major role in the unit's decision- information and the authority; analysts have the time and
making system. the technology)… gain control of his or her own time by
Entrepreneur role… the manager seeks to improve the turning obligations into advantages and by turning those
unit, to adapt it to changing conditions in the things he or she wishes to do into obligations
environment… initiates a development project that he (unsuccessful managers blame failure on the
may supervise himself or delegate to an employee. obligations… effective managers turn obligations to
Disturbance handler role… the managers involuntarily advantages)… frees some time to do the things that he or
responding to pressures... change is beyond the she thinks important by turning them into obligations (free
manager’s control... the pressures of a situation are too time is made, not found).
severe to be ignored… the manager must act… every Managers who …want to innovate initiate projects and
manager must spend a considerable amount of time obligate others to report back to them …need certain
responding to high-pressure disturbances. environmental information establish channels that will
Resource allocator role… the manager is responsible automatically keep them informed …have to tour facilities
for deciding who will get what… the most important commit themselves publicly.
resource the manager allocates is his or her own time...
the manager authorises the important decisions of the Retrospective Commentary by Henry
unit before they are implemented… executives made a Mintzberg
great many authorisation decisions on an ad hoc basis... In practice, management has to be two-faced… there has
faced incredibly complex choices…they had to ensure to be a balance between the insightful face and the
that the decisions would be acceptable… that resources cerebral face… one stresses commitment, the other
would not be overextended… the delay could lose time… calculation… one sees the world with integrated
quick approval could be ill-considered… quick rejection perspective, the other figures it as the components of
might discourage the subordinates… one common portfolio… the insightful face is rooted in the images and
solution to approving projects is to pick the person feel of a manager’s integrity… the cerebral face operates
instead of the proposal… people whose judgement he or with the words and numbers of rationality… managerial
she trusts. communication was largely oral… the advent of the
Negotiator role... managers spend considerable time in computer had not changed anything fundamental… the
negotiations… an integral part of the manager’s job…only greatest threat the personal computer poses is that
he or she has the authority to commit organisational managers will take it seriously and come to believe that
resources in "real time" and the nerve-center information they can manage by remaining in their offices and looking
that important negotiations require. at displays of digital characters… managers need more
ways to convey the images and impressions they carry
The Integrated Job Toward More inside of them… managing insightfully depends on the
Effective Management direct experience and personal knowledge that come
from intimate contact… organisations grown larger and
It should be clear that these ten roles are not easily
more diversified… so managers turn increasingly to the
separable… they form a gestalt… an integrated whole…
cerebral face, and the delicate balance between the two
managers give different attention to each role.. in all
faces is lost.
cases the interpersonal, information, and decisional roles
remain inseparable. No job is more vital to our society than that of the
manager. The manager determines whether our social
The managers' effectiveness is significantly influenced by
institutions will serve us well or whether they will
their insight into their own work… performance depends
squander our talents and resources.
on how well a manager understands and responds to the
pressures and dilemmas of the job… managers who can

17 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Self-Study Questions for Managers


From “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact”, by Henry
Mintzberg, hbr classics

1. Where do I get my information, and how? Can I make 9. Is there any system to my time scheduling, or an I just
greater use of my contacts? Can other people do some of reacting to the pressures of the moment? Do I find the
my scanning? In what areas is my knowledge weakest, appropriate mix of activities or concentrate on one
and how can I get others to provide me with the particular function or problem just because I find it
information I need? Do I have sufficiently powerful mental interesting? Am I more efficient with particular kinds of
models of those things I must understand within the work, at special times of the day or week? Does my
organisation and in its environment? schedule reflect this? Can someone else schedule my
time (besides my secretary)?
2. What information do I disseminate? How important is
that information to my subordinates? Do I keep too much 10. Do I overwork? What effect does my work load have
information to myself because disseminating it is time on my efficiency? Should I force myself to take breaks or
consuming or inconvenient? How can I get more to reduce the pace of my activity?
information to others so they can make better decisions?
11. Am I too superficial in what I do? Can I really shift
3. Do I tend to act before information is in? Or do I wait so moods as quickly and frequently as my work requires?
long for all the information that opportunities pass me by? Should I decrease the amount of fragmentation and
interruption in my work?
4. What pace of change am I asking my organisation to
tolerate? Is this change balanced so that our operations 12. Do I spend too much time on current, tangible
are neither excessively static nor overly disrupted? Have activities? Am I a slave to the action and excitement of
we sufficiently analysed the impact of this change on the my work, so that I am no longer able to concentrate on
future of our organisation? issues? Do key problems receive the attention they
deserve? Should I spend more time reading and probing
5. Am I sufficiently well-informed to pass judgement on
deeply into certain issues? Could I be more reflective?
subordinates’ proposals? Can I leave final authorisation
Should I be?
for more of the proposals with subordinates? Do we have
problems of coordination because subordinates already 13. Do I use the different media appropriately? Do I know
make too many decisions independently? how to make the most of written communication? Do I
rely excessively on face-to-face communication, thereby
6. What is my vision for this organisation? Are these
putting all but a few of my subordinates at an
plans primarily in my own mind in loose form? Should I
informational disadvantage? Do I schedule enough of my
make them explicit to guide the decisions of others
meetings on a regular basis? Do I spend enough time
better? Or do I need flexibility to change them at will?
observing activities first-hand, or am I detached from the
7. How do my subordinates react to my managerial style? heart of my organisation’s activities.
Am I sufficiently sensitive to the powerful influence of my
14. How do I blend my personal rights and duties? Do my
actions? Do I fully understand their reactions to my
obligations consume all my time? How can I free myself
actions? Do I find an appropriate balance between
from obligations to ensure that I am taking this
encouragement and pressure? Do I stifle their initiative?
organisation where I want it to go? How can I turn my
8. What kind of external relationships do I maintain, and obligations to my advantages?
how? Do I spend too much of my time maintaining them?
Are there certain people who I should get to know better?

18 / 19
os, 29-Sep-09

Why Should Anyone Be Led by


You?
by Robert Goffee and Gareth Jones, HBR
Practice Tough Empathy
You can’t do anything in business without followers, and
followers in these empowered times are hard to find.. Inspirational leaders empathize passionately and
executives must find ways to engage people and rouse realistically with people, and they care intensely about the
their commitment to company goals… leaders need work employees do… real leaders don’t need a training
vision, energy, authority, and strategic direction but to be program to convince their employees that they care…
inspirational, leaders need four other qualities: empathy of inspirational leaders is not the soft kind
described in so much of the management literature… real
Reveal Weaknesses leaders manage trough tough empathy… means giving
people what they need, not what they want… “if I have to
By exposing some vulnerability, they reveal their
do, I can be ruthless, … but while they are with me, I
approachability and humanity… they show us who they
promise my people that they’ll learn”… tough empathy
are… people need to see leaders own up to some flaw
balances respect for the individual and for the task at
before they participate willingly in an endeavour… if
hand… caring leaders have to give selflessly to the
executives try to communicate that they are perfect at
people around them and know when to pull back… caring
everything, there will be no need for anyone to help them
with detachment is not easy… it is harder to you than on
with anything… exposing weakness established trust…
your employees… you have to do things you don’t want
builds solidarity… underscores a human being’s
to do… those more apt to use it are people who really
authenticity… offers a leader valuable protection – if you
care about something… people want executives who care
don’t show some weakness, then observers may invent
passionately about the people and the work…
one for you… the golden rule is never to expose a
weakness that will be seen as a fatal flaw that jeopardizes
Dare to Be Different
central aspects of your professional role… leaders should
reveal only a tangential flow, perhaps even several of They capitalize on what's unique about themselves…
them… this admission will help divert attention away from effective leaders deliberately use differences to keep a
major weaknesses… if the leader’s vulnerability is not social distance... by having a different dress style,
perceived to be genuine, he won’t gain anyone’s physical appearance, qualities like imagination, loyalty
support… expertise or even handshaking… anything can be a
difference, but it is important to communicate it… most
Become a Sensor leaders start off not knowing what their differences are
but eventually come to know and use them more
They rely heavily on intuition to gauge the appropriate
effectively over time… inspirational leaders use
timing and course of their actions… their ability to collect
separateness to motivate others to perform better… it is
and interpret soft data helps them know just when and
not that they are being Machiavellian but that they
how to act… when to reveal a weakness or a difference…
recognize instinctively that followers will push themselves
they can sniff out the signals in the environment and
if their leaders is just al little aloof… one danger, of
sense what’s going on without having anything spelt out
course, is that executives can overdifferentiate
for them… read the silence and pick up on nonverbal
themselves and lose contact with their followers…
cues in the organization… sensing can create problems…
in making fine judgments about how far they can go,
Leadership in action
leaders risk losing their followers… sensing capability
must always be framed by reality testing… validate the Make yourself increasingly aware of the four leadership
perception with a trusted adviser or a member of the inner qualities and manipulate these qualities to come up with a
team… personal style that works for you… be yourself – more -
with skill…

19 / 19