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AhlulBait(a.s.)intheQur'anandTheProphet'sTraditions(sunnah) Author:AlBalaghFoundation Presentation AhlulBait(a.s.

)intheQur'anandtheProphet'sTraditions(sunnah) TheQur'anintheSchooloftheAhlulBait MemorizingtheQur'an PrinciplesforUnderstandingtheQur'an ThePropheticTraditions(Sunnah)intheSchooloftheAhlulBait MonotheismAccordingtotheSchoolofAhlulBait DivineJustice AhlulBaitandthePervertedGroups TheAhlulBait'sMethodinthePoliticalField TheAhlulBait'sMethodinEducatingtheirCompanions ALookattheIslamicSchool,Jurisprudence

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"...AllahdesiresonlytokeepawayuncleannessfromyouOpeopleoftheHouse(AhlulBait) andmakeyouaspureascanbe." HolyQur'an(33:33) WhoeverstudiesthelivesoftheAhlulBait(peacebeuponthemall)willatOncerecognize thepivotalroletheyplayedandthegreattasktheyshoulderedinshapingthedestinyof Islam.TheirgloriousliveshavealwaysbeenasourceofinspirationtotheMuslimsineveryera andplace,interactingwiththeirconsciousness,enrichingtheirprogressandupholdingtheir Islamicheritage. TheAhlulBait(theProphet'sholyfamily)haveformedahistoricalmovementandimpulsive forceinthehistoryofIslamandcausedgreatsocialchanges. ThisisworthmentioningtounderstandtherightpathoftheImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)andto comprehendthefeaturesoftheirschoolwhichcontainsthespiritoforiginalityandmotives. TheHolyQur'ansinglesoutthisterm'AhlulBait'whereastheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.) specifiesitsconfirmation.Ononeside,thisentityisdiagnosedafterthedisappearanceofthe periodofprophethoodwhichwasledtogrowideologicalandpoliticalallegianceforthe familymembersoftheHolyProphetandontheotherside,someconfrontationsandconflicts fromdifferentfrontsandcoalitions,inthearenaofpoliticallifeoftheMuslimsociety,started toappearagainstthem.Consequently,ideological,politicalandbloodywarwaswaged againstthem.Therefore,theImams:Ali,HasanandHuseinandtheirgrandsonsbecame victimsbysuchtragediesinwhichtheMuslimnationlosttheenlightenedpioneersofits straightpathandwereforbiddenfromthegiftsoftruthandawareness. AlBalaghFoundation;apartofitsmission,hopes,topresenttoitsdearreaderstheholy familyoftheProphet,toremovefictionfromluminousfactsinthehistoryofourMuslim nation,toacquainttheummahwiththeirstraightpathandtomakethemchoosethetrue guidancewithitsmanyfeaturesandprinciples. WebeseechAllah,theMostHigh,toaidandgrantussuccesstoaccomplishthisblessedduty. Heisthebestofhelpers. AlBalaghFoundation

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AhlulBait(a.s.)intheQur'anandtheProphet'sTraditions(sunnah) TheQur'anemphasizestheloftypositionandsignificanceoftheAhlulBaitsoastomakemankind followtheirrightpath,consultthemwhentheiropiniondiffersortheirfaith,situationand conceptscontradict.InvestigatingtheverseofRevelation,wewillfindthattheQur'ansometimes addressesthemas'AhlulBait',liketheAlmighty'ssaying:"..Allahdesiresonlytokeepaway uncleannessfromyouOpeopleoftheHouse(AhlulBait)andmakeyouaspureascanbe." HolyQur'an(33:33) Sometimesas'relative'(Qurba)likeHissaying: "...Say(O'Muhammaduntomankind):Idonotaskofyouanyrewardforit(preachingthe message)'butloveformyrelatives(AhlulBait)..."HolyQur'an(42:23) TheHolyQur'an,also,focusesontheirmeritsandtheirvirtuesthroughvariousverseswithout usingthesetwotermsforindicatingthemlikeitsaddressconcerningAli,Fatimah,Hasanand HuseininChapter(Dahr)andtheMubahalaverseoritsdescriptionofAliinmanyverseslikethe WilayaandTablighversesandotherverses.Itdescribesthemasbeingthebestamongmankind, thepiousand...etc.Thecommentatorsandnarratorssingleoutthecausesfortherevelationof theseversesandacknowledgewhatismeantbythem,thenitwillbeclearedforusthroughsome samplesoftheinterpretationoftheAlmighty'sversesandexplainthecausesfortheirrevelation: 1.TheVerseofPurity(Tathir): "..AllahdesiresonlytokeepawayuncleannessfromyouOpeopleoftheHouse(AhlulBait)and makeyouaspureascanbe."HolyQur'an(33:33) AllexegistsoftheHolyQur'anandnarratorsoftheProphet'straditions,unanimouslyagreethat thewordAhlulBait,ortheHouseholdoftheProphet(s.a.w.)asusedbyAlmightyAllahinthe Qur'an,refersonlytothefollowingpersons:TheProphet'sdaughterFatima,herhusbandAliand theirtwochildrenHasanandHusein(peacebeuponthemall).ThefamousexegistSuyutiinhis renownedcommentary'DuralManthur'citesTabarani'snarrationfromUmmSalamathatthe MessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)oncetoldhisbeloveddaughter,Fatima,tocallherhusbandAliand twooftheirsons;HasanandHusein.Whentheycame,theMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)covered themwithaFadak(aplacenearMadina)cloakandputhishandonthem,andsaid: "OAllah!thesearetheAhlMuhammad(anotherversionsaysaal(family)Muhammad,so,shower yourblessingsandfavoursonaalMuhammadasyoushoweredthemonaalAbraham;Youarethe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Praiseworthy,theGlorious." UmmSalamasaidthatsheraisedthecloaktojointhem,buttheProphetpulleditoutofherhand andsaid:"Youare(also)ontheright."(1)OnmanyoccasionsProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.) explainedthemeaningofthisverse(ofpurity)totheMuslimsanddrewtheirattentiontoits significanceinordertobeenlightenedwiththem(AhlulBait)byfollowingtheirstraightpath. Once,ithappenedthattheProphetwhilepassinghisdaughterFatima's(a.s.)houseonhiswayto themosqueforthe(lawnprayers,usedtocall:"Toprayer,OAhlulBait,toprayer;Allahdesiresto keepawayuncleannessfromyou,peopleoftheHouseandmakeyoupureaspureascanbe."(2) AnasbinMaliknarratedthattheProphet(s.a.w.)usedtogotoFatima'shouseforsixmonths wheneverhewentoutforprayer.Heusedtosay:"Toprayer,OAhlulBait,toprayer;Allahdesires tokeepawayuncleannessfromyou,peopleoftheHouseandmakeyoupureaspureascan be."(3) 2.TheVerseofAffection(Mawadah): "...Say(O'Muhammaduntomankind):Idonotaskofyouanyrewardforit(preachingthe message),butloveformyrelatives(AhlulBait)..."HolyQur'an(42:23)TheMessengerofAllah (s.a.w.)explicitlytoldtheMuslimsthatthisblessedversereferstohisAhlulBait,thatis;Ali, Fatima,HasanandHuseinandurgedthemtoobeyandfollowtheseillustriouspersonalitiesafter him.Allcommentators,traditionistsandbiographerssaidthattheword'nearrelativesofthe Prophet'asused,here,refersexclusivelytohisAhlulBaitthatisAli,Fatima,HasanandHusein. FakhruddinRazi,whileexplainingthisverse,says:"...andwithoutdoubtnoonewassoneartothe ProphetthanFatima,Ali,HasanandHusein.Thisisawellknownfactofallchainsofnarrations, andthesearetheywhoarehis'aal'". Thus,itisanundisputedfactthatthewordsAhlulBaitoraalMuhammad(s.a.w.)referonlytothe immediatefamilyoftheProphet;hisdaughterFatima,soninlawAliandhistwosonsHasanand Huseinandnooneelse.First:WehavealreadycitedsomeinstancesoftheProphet'sloveforhis family.Second:Nodoubtbeinghisonlysurvivingchild,Fatimawasintenselylovedbyherfather. TheProphet'sfamouswordsareatestimonytothisfact."Fatimaisapartofmeandwhoever makesherangry,makesmeangry." ThetraditionsalsoconfirmthisandalsohisnaturalinclinationtowardsAliandhisgrandchildren, HasanandHusein.Therefore,itbecomesadutyfortheProphet'snationtofollowtheProphet's traditionsinrespecttohisAhlulBait.TheAlmightysays:"...Say(OMuhammadsayuntomankind) ifyouloveAllah,thenfollowme,Allahwillloveyou..."HolyQur'an(3:31) 3.TheVerseofMalediction(Mubahala): Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"Butwhoeverdisputeswithyou(O'Muhammad)inthismatterafterwhathascometoyouof knowledgethensay:Come,letuscalloursonsandyoursonsandourwomenandyourwomen andourselvesandyourselves,thenletusbeseechAllahandinvokeHiscurseupontheliars." HolyQur'an(3:61) Thisversepointstowardsanepochmakingevent,narratedbyallhistoriansandcommentators; aneventwhichrevealedtotheMuslimsthestatusofthefamilyoftheProphet(AhlulBait)(a.s.) (Ali,Fatima,HasanandHusein),andhownearanddeartheyaretoAllah,theExalted.Itis narratedthatadeputation*fromtheChristiansofNajrancametotheProphetofIslamtoargue themeritsoftheirfaithandalsotodiscusswithhimconcerninghisprophethood.TheHoly ProphetadvancedtothemargumentsshowingthatJesus,thesonMary,wasahumanbeinganda Prophet,anditwasblasphemytoregardhimasasonofAllah,becauseAllah,theExalted,ishigh aboveallsuchhumancharacteristics.ItwaswhentheProphet,havingarguedthepointfullyand convincingly,foundthemstilldeliberatelypersistingintheirfalsebeliefinthedeityofProphet Jesus,thatAllahrevealedthisverse.ItwasachallengetotheChristians,toprayandinvokeAllah thatthecursemayovertakethepartythatinsisteduponfalsehood. __________________ *ThedeputationwascomprisedofthreeprominantChristianleadersofArabia,AbdulMasih,the politicalleader;alAyhaminchargeoftheirAgroPastoralaffairs;andAbuHatamibnAlqama, whowasaBishoporPontiff. Earlythenextmorningonthe24thofthelunarmonthofDhilhijja,theProphet,inaccordance withAllah'scommand,cameouttothemeetinggrounds,carryingHuseininhisarmsandleading Hasan"oursons"byhishand,followedbyhisbeloveddaughterFatima"ourwomen",behind whomcameAli"ourselves"carryingthebannerofIslam.SeeingtheProphetwasaccompaniedby hisimmediatefamilyandconvincedthatMuhammad(s.a.w.)wastruthful,otherwisehewould nothavedaredtobringhisdearestofkinalong,theChristiansbackedawayfromthemaledictory confrontationandagreedtopayJizyainstead. Zamakhsharisaysinhisbook'alKashshaf': That(whenthisversewasrevealed)theProphetaskedtheChristianstoaMubahala(malediction) toinvokethecurseofAllahontheliars.TheChristiansheldadiscourseamongthemselvesthat night,inwhichtheirleaderAbdulMassihstatedhisviewsasfollows."ByGod,OChristians,you knowthatMuhammadisaGodsentProphet,whohasbroughttoyouthefinalmessagefrom yourLord.ByGod,nonationeverdaredtochallengeaProphetwithmalediction,butthatwoe befellthem.Notonlywilltheyperish,but,theirchildrenwillalsobeafflictedwiththecurse." Sayingthis,thatitisbettertoreachacompromisewiththeProphet,ratherthanchallengehis Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

truthandperishAbdulMassihadvisedhispartytostophostilitiesandretaintheirreligionby submittingtotheProphet'sterms."So,ifyoupersist(foraconfrontation),wewillallperish.But,if you,tokeepyourfaith,shouldrefuse(tohaveashowdown)andremainasyouare,then,make peacewiththeman(theProphet)andreturntoyourland." Zamakhsharicontinues:"ThenextdaytheProphet,carryingHuseininhisarms,leadingHasanby thehand;followedbyhisdaughterFatima,behindwhomcameAli,enteredtheappointedplace andwasheardsaying(tohisAhlulBait):"WhenIinvokeAllah,youallsay:Amen." ThepontiffofNajranonseeingtheProphetandhisAhlulBait,addressedtheChristians:"O' Christians,IambeholdingsuchfacesthatifGodwishes(fortheirsake),Hewouldmove mountainsfromtheirplaces.DonotaccepttheirchallengeforMubahalaforifyoudoyouwould allperishandtherewouldremainnoChristianonthefaceoftheearthtilltheDayof Resurrection."HeedinghisadvicetheChristianssaidtotheProphet:"OAbdulQasim,wedecided nottoholdMubahalawithyou.Youkeepyourreligionandwewillkeepours." TheProphettoldthem: "Ifyourefusetohold(Mubahala),thensubmit,(acceptIslam)andyouwillreceivewhatthe Muslimsreceive,andcontributewhattheMuslimscontribute." TheChristianssayingtheyhadnodesiretofighttheArabs,proposedatreatyaskingforpeace, andfreedfromforcedcompulsiontomakethemforsaketheirreligion.Inreturntheyagreedto paytheMuslimsanannualtributeoftwothousandssuits;onethousandofwhichtobepaidin themonthofSafarandtheremainingonethousandinRajab,besidesthirtycoatsofironmail. AcceptingtheproposaltheProphetremarked:"BytheOneWhohasmysoulinHishanddeath wasloominglargeoverthepeopleofNajran.(Hadtheydaredtoacceptthechallengeof 'Mubahala').Theywouldhavebeentransformedintoapesandswines,andthevalleywouldhave beensetablaze.AllahwouldhavedestroyedNajranwithitspeople,sparingnoteventhebirdson thetreetops,andbeforethepassingoftheyeartheChristianswouldhaveallbeendead." ContinuinghiscommentsontheMubahalaverse,Zamakhsharilaysemphasisonthepositionof theAhlulBaitbyquotingthefollowingnarrationfromtheProphet'swifeAa'isha:"Hementioned them,AhlulBait,beforementioningtheword'selves'inordertohighlighttheirpositionandtheir proximity(toAllah),andtostresstheirpreferenceto'selves'whichcouldbesacrificedforthem. ThereisnostrongerevidencethanthisregardingthemeritsoftheAhlKisa*.Itistheproofofthe truthfulnessoftheProphet'smission,becausenoonehoweverbiased,hasnarratedthatthey(the Christians)daredtoacceptthat(challengeforMubahala)"(4). SurelythisstatusoftheAhlulBaitindicatestheappearanceofthecampofbelief(representedby Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theProphet(s.a.w.)andhisholyfamily(AhlulBait))againstthecampofidolatoryanddisbelief, because __________________________ *AhlalKasaisatermdenotingthosewhogatheredwiththeProphetundertheKisa(cloak) whereupontheverseofpuritywasrevealed.TheyareAll,Fatima,Hasan,Husein,ashasbeen alreadydiscussed,earlier. thosewhocameouttothemeetinggroundswerethebestexamplesofguidanceandtheleaders ofthenationandthepuristamongtheselveswhomAllahkeptuncleannessawayfromthemand madethempureaspureascanbe.Therefore,weunderstandthatwhateverwereceivefromthe HouseholdoftheProphet(AhlulBait)(a.s.)oftheirthoughts,laws,narrations,jurisprudence, interpretations,andguidancecomesfromthiscourseandthattheyaretruthfulintheir utterances,biographyandpath.TheQur'anchallengestheenemiesofIslambythemandcalls theirenemiesliarsandsaysthattheyshouldbefacedwithcurseandpunishment.TheAlmighty says: "...thenletusbeseechAllahandinyokeHiscurseupon,heliars."HolyQur'an(3:61)Withouttheir (AhlulBait)truthfulnessandrighteousness,Allahwouldnotgivethemsuchstatusandposition norwouldtheQur'anhaveutteredanythingconcerningthem.FakhruddinRazi,inhis'alTafsiral Kabir',givesanidenticalnarrationandafterhavingstatedwhatZamakhsharihassaid;adds:'Mind you,thatallinterpreters(oftheQur'an)andnarrators(oftheProphet'straditions)areunanimous abouttheauthenticityofthisnarration."Butbytakingalongonlythesefourandnooneelse besides,theMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)wasshowingtheMuslims,thatthebestexamplefor womenisFatimaandthebestexampleforboysareHasanandHusein,accordingtotheQur'an's wordings,which,also,delicatelyusedtheword'ourselves'forAli,therebypointingtohisclose proximitywiththeProphet,andsolvingthequestionofsuccessiononceandforall. 4.TheVerseofPrayer(Salat): "SurelyAllahandHisangelsblesstheProphet;Oyouwhobelieve!Callfor(divine)blessingson himandsalutehimwitha(becoming)salutation." HolyQur'an(33:56)Thepreviousverses,oftheHolyQur'an,revealedtousastowhoarethe Prophet'sAhlulBait,theirpurityofcharacterandthecommandforMuslimstoloveandobey them.Thisversereferstothesalutationsalawat,whichaMuslimisobligedtosendonthe Prophetandhisprogenyduringthefivedailyprayers. Inthisverse,theMuslimsareorderedheretosendblessingsontheProphetandhis"aal" (progeny),atermexclusivelyreservedforAli,Fatima,HasanandHuseinandtheirrighteous Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

descendants.TheemphasisontheProphet's"aal",insalutation,isyetanotherindicationoftheir pivotalpositionaftertheProphet.ByaskingtheMuslimstoexaltthem,Allah,theExalted,was remindingtheMuslimcommunitiesthatHehadchosentheAhlulBait,fortheroleofleadingthe Muslimnation. Inhis'TafsiralKabir',FakhruddinRazi,commentingontheaboveverse,narratesthefollowing quotationfromtheProphet,whowasaskedbysomeofhiscompanionsonhowtosendblessings uponhim.TheProphetreplied: "Say:'OAllah,sendblessingsonMuhammadandonMuhammad'sprogenyasYousentblessings onAbrahamandonAbraham'sprogeny;andsendgraceonMuhammadandonMuhammad's progeny,asYousentgraceonAbrahamandonAbraham'sprogeny,YouarethePraiseworthy,the Glorious."'Beforegivingthisnarration,Raziinterpretstheverseandcomments:'Thisisaproofof theShafi'ischool,becauseordermeansanobligation*;so,tosendblessingsontheProphet (s.a.w.)isobligatory,atleastintheTashahhud(testimonyduringtheprayers)ifnot elsewhere."'(5) ___________________ *Famousjuristshadconcludedthatwhenthereisan'order'intheQur'anortheTraditions,then carryingitoutisobligatory;unlesstheRazifurtherargues:'IfAllahandHisangelssendtheir blessingsonhim(theProphet),thenwhatneedisthereforourblessings?"He,himself,provides theanswer:'Whenwesendblessingsonhim,itisnotbecauseheisinneedofthem,but,because ofalreadyhavingAllah'sblessings,hedoesnotevenrequiretheblessingsoftheangels.Whenwe send,wesendtoglorifyAllah,and,also,it(sendingblessings)revealsourgratitudetowardsAllah, sothatHemayhavecompassiononusandrewardus.ThatiswhytheProphetsaid;"Whoever sendsblessingsonmeonce,Allahwillsendblessingsonhimtentimes." Itwillnotbeoutofcontext,here,tociteImamShafi'i'sfamousquatrainonthissubject: "O'HouseholdoftheMessengerofAllah,loveforyou IsanobligationfromAllah,revealedintheQur'an.Itsufficesasthegreatesthonourbestowedon youThathisprayercomesofnothingwhodoesnotsaluteyou." _____________ contexttellsclearlythatitisarecommendation. Suyuti,inhis,DuralManthur',citingAbdulRazzaq,IbnAbiShaiba,AhmadibnHanbal,Abdibn Hamid,Bukhari,Muslim,AbuDawud,Tirmidhi,Nisa'i,ibnMaja,ibnMardawaya,whohaveall narratedfromKa'bibnUjra,says:amanoncesaidtotheProphetthatgreetinghimisclearto everyone,but,howdoesonesendblessingsonhim.TheProphetreplied: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"OAllah,sendblessingsonMuhammadandonMuhammad'sprogenyasYousentblessingson AbrahamandonAbraham'sprogeny,YouarethePraiseworthy,theGlorious."'Suyutihascited eighteendifferentnarrationsotherthanthis,withslightvariations,stressingthattheblessingson theProphetshouldincludehisprogeny,also.Thesamehasbeennarratedbycompilersofall "Sunan"and"Jawami",booksquotinganumberoftheProphet'scompanions,suchas;Abdullaibn Abbas,Talha,AbuSa'idKhidri,AbuHuraira,AbuMas'udAnsari,Buraida,ibnMas'ud,Ka'bibn Amra,andlast,butnottheleast,AliibnAbiTalib,himself.Similarly,ithasbeennarrated byAhmadibnHanbalandTirmidhiwhohavequotedImamHasanibnAlifromtheProphetas follows: "Heisamiserwho,onthementionofmynametohim,doesnotsendblessingsonme."(6)Thus, alljurisprudentsagreethatitisobligatoryforMuslimstosendblessingsonMuhammad(s.a.w.) andhisprogenyduringtheTashahud(Testimony)inthefivedailyprayers.(7) Byanalyzingthisverseweeasilydiscovertherealobjectivebehindthisobligatorycommand; whichistorevereMuhammad's(s.a.w.)pureprogeny,fromwhomAllahhaskeptawayall uncleannessanderror,andmadethempureaspurecanbe.Theemphasisonhis"aal"bythe Prophet,isyetanotherindicationtotheMuslimsoftheirpivotalpositionafterhim.By commandingMuslims,tosendtheirblessingsonthem,Allah,theExalted,wasremindingMuslims oftheAhlulBait'seventualleadership.Inotherwords,bytakingthemasexemplarsandaccepting theirleadership,theMuslimswouldbesparedfromtrialsandcontroversies. So,itisclearthatAllahhasnotmentionedthemintheprayersfornought.Haditnotbeenfor theirprobitythatwasprovedtimeandagainandfortheirmagnanimityofcharacter,aswellas, theirdeepknowledge,AllahwouldnothaveorderedtheMuslimstoadheretotheirstraight courseandseekblessingsforthemineveryprayer.Theveryfactthatthisblessingshouldbe invokedeverydayineachprayeraMuslimperformswasbuttodrawtheattentionoftheMuslim communitiestowardsthesignificanceoftheAhlulBait;whichshouldserveasaconstant reminderthatitistheywhoareMuhammad's(s.a.w.)rightfulheirs.Ortoputitmoreclearly, anyoneignoringtheirstatusdeliberatelyorotherwise,hasnoexcuses,whatsover,andis deceivinghisownselftobeastrayfromAllah'scommand. 5.TheVerseofFeeding: "TherighteoustrulydrinkofacuptemperedwithcamphorAfountainfromwhichtheservants ofAllahdrink,makingitflowinabundance.Theyfulfilvowsandfearaday,theevilofwhichis widespread.Andtheygivefood,outofloveforHim,tothepoorandtheorphanandthecaptive. Wefeedyou,forAllah'spleasureonlyWedesirefromyouneitherrewardnorthanks.Surelywe fearfromourLordastem,distressfulday.SoAllahwillwardofffromthemtheevilofthatday, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

andcausethemtomeetwithsplendourandhappiness;Andrewardthem,fortheirsteadfastness, withaGardenandwithsilk."HolyQur'an(76:513) TheseversesoftheHolyQur'anspeakoftheAhlulBait,andplacesthematthetopofpreference andpietyandshowsthemasexamplarsandmodelsformankindsothatthegenerationsare rightlyguidedthroughthemandfollowtheirrightway.Thehistoricaloccasiontowhichthese blessedversesreferisthegreatstatusofAhlulBait(a.s.).WhenAli,Fatimaandtheirtwosons HasanandHusein(peacebeuponthemall)fastedforthreeconsecutivedays,andeachdayatthe timeofbreakingthefastsomeneedyperson,asversenumbereightindicates,appearedandthe AhlulBaitgladlyfedhim,andthemselvespassedthenightswithoutfood.Allahwassopleasedby thegenerosityoftheProphet'sHouseholdthatHeconvertedtheiractionsintoversesofthe GloriousQur'antoserveasguidancefortheMuslims.TheseversesnotonlyportraytheAhlul Bait'stotalsubmissiontoAllah'sWill,but,also,revealthemaspureandspotlesspersonalities; promisedesteemandadmirationamongthedwellersofParadise.Theyareshownasimmaculate modelsofemulationsothatwhoever,amongtheMuslimcommunities,followstheirglowingpath willachievesalvationandwillbeassembledintheirillustriouscompanyontheResurrectionDay. Zamakhshari,inhis'Kashshaf'commentingonthisverse,narratesfromAbdullahbinAbbasthat onceHasanandHuseinfellsickandtheProphet,togetherwithsomeofhiscompanions,visited hissickgrandsons.HesuggestedthatAlishouldmakeavowtoAllahforhissons'health.Heeding theProphet'ssuggestionAli,Fatimaalongwiththeirmaid,Fidha,tookavowthatiftheboys recovered,theywouldfastforthreeconsecutivedays.Eventually,HasanandHuseinrecovered andtofulfillthevowtheyalsofastedalongwiththeirparentsandmaid.Sincetherewasnothing inthehousetoeat,AliborrowedfromSham'un,aKhaibarianJew,threemeasuresofbarely. Fatimagroundedonemeasureintoflourandbakeditintofiveloaves(ofbread)equaltotheir number,andplacedthesebeforethemforbreakingthefast.Justthenabeggarstoppedattheir doorandsaid:"alSalaamAlaikum(peacebeuponyou),OAhlulBaitofMuhammad(s.a.w.),(I am)oneofthepoorestofMuslims(so),feedme,mayAllahfeedyouofthefoodofParadise!"So theygladlygavehimallthefoodandsleptthatnight,tastingnothingbutwater."Theyfasted againthenextdayandatsunsetastheyplacedthebreadbeforethemtobreakthefast,an orphanknockedonthedooraskingforfoodandtheycheerfullyfedhim,themselvesgoing withoutfoodforyetanotherday.Onthethirddayofthefast,asthebreakingtimeapproached, andthefoodwasspread,aprisoner(ofwar)suddenlyappearedattheirdoorandthesame scenariowasrepeated,withtheProphet'sAhlulBaitpassingthethirdsuccessivenightwithout tastingamorseloffood.ZamakhsharicontinuesthatwhendawnbrokeAliholdingthehandsof HasanandHuseincametotheProphet'shouse.TheProphetseeingtheirpalecountenancesand notingthattheyweretremblingfromhunger,expresseddismayandatonceaccompaniedthem totheirhouse.Onenteringthehouse,hewasshockedtoseethesightofhisdaughterFatima, sittingholloweyedonherprayermat,herstomachsunkintoherback.Itwas,then,thattheangel Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Gabrielcamedownwiththisverse,saying: "OMuhammad,Allahcongratulatesyoufor(thesacrificeof)yourhousehold.Thenherecitedthe (verse)."(8) 6.TheVerseofGuardianship(Wilaya): "OnlyAllahisyourGuardianandHisApostleandthosewhobelieve,thosewhokeepupprayers andpaythepoorratewhilein(Ruku').AndwhoevertakesAllahandHisApostleandthosewho believeashisguardian,thensurelythepartyofAllaharetheythatshallbetriumphant"Holy Qur'an(5:555) ThereareothernumerousverseswhichextollImamAli's(a.s.)virtue,generosity,bravery, patience,piety,hissacrificinginAllah'swayandsupportingAllah'sApostle(s.a.w.)andhisbeing themostrighteousamongthebelieversandthebestamongHiscreatures...etc.Theabove mentionedversesfromtheBookofAllahareasexamples: Zamakhshari,inhis'alKashshaf',saysthefollowingaboutthisverse:"Itwasrevealedinfavourof Ali(MayAllahenlightenhisface)whenabeggaraskedhim(foralms)whilehewasintheposition ofRuku'duringprayer,andhegaveawayhisring(inthesameposition).Itseemsitwaslooseon hislittlefinger,forhedidnotexertanyeffortintakingitoff,whichwouldhavenullifiedhis prayer.Ifyouask:'HowcoulditbeinfavourofAli(mayAllahbepleasedwithhim),whenthe wordingsareinthecollectiveform?'Isay.Theformiscollective,thoughitsinstigatorisasingle man,becausethisistoencouragepeopletofollowhisexampleandearnasimilarreward,and, also,todrawattentiontothefactthatthebelieversmustbeextremelymindfulandbenevolent, towardsthepoor,inasmuchas,ifasituationcouldnotbepostponeduntilaftertheprayer,it maynothedelayedtillhavingfinishedit."(9) Wahidi,in'AsbabalNuzul',citingKalbi'snarrationconcerningthecausefortherevelationofthis versesays:"SurelyAllahisyourGuardianandHisApostleandthosewhobelieve,thosewhokeep upprayersandpaythepoorratewhileinprostration(Ruku').""Thelatterpartofthisverseisin favourofAlibinAbiTalib(mayAllahbegracioustohim)becausehegavearingtoabeggarwhile inRuku'duringprayer."(10) 7.TheVerseofProclamation(Tabligh): "OProphetproclaimwhathasbeenrevealedtoyoufromyourLord,forifyoudoitnotyouhave notconveyedHismessage,andAllahwillprotectyoufromthe(evildesignsof)people..."(11)Holy Qur'an(5:67) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

PerhapsthemostclearportentofImamAli'sexcellenceovertheMuslimsaftertheProphet,isthe aboveverse,whichmakesadecisivephaseinthehistoryofdivinerevelation.Aftercreatingthis wideandwonderfulworld,theAlmightyhadsentanunbrokenchainofprophetstoguide mankindtowardsdivinebliss.ThelastandthegreatestlinkinthiseternalchainwasMuhammad alMustafa(s.a.w.),whowasentrustedwiththemostcomprehensivecodeoflaws,capableof solvingmankind'sneedstilldoomsday.Now,therenolongerwasneedofanynewmessenger. Butnonetheless,theWiseCreatorcannotleavemankind'sstruggleofthousandsofyearstothe whimsandfanciesoffallibleArabs,whohadspentthegreaterpartoftheirlivesinidolataryand sin.Therefore,toensurethesafetyofIslamandMuslims,Allahsentdownthisverse,appointing ImamAliastheProphet'svicegerent.Narratorsandhistorianshavetestifiedtothatgreatevent. WhentheMessengerofAllahleftMeccaaftertheHajjceremoniesalltheMuslimsfollowedhim, withtheintentionofleavinghimataplacenearJuhfawhichwasatthecrossroadsforthe caravansofMadinah,EgyptandSyria.Onthe18thDhilhijja,(12)alittlebeforenoon,whenthey reachedGhadirKhumnearJuhfa,hestoppedandorderedallthepeopleaheadtocomenearand waitforthosefollowing(13)...Whenallthecaravanhadgathered,hecalledforacongregational prayer(14),and,then,heofferedmiddayprayersinthemiddayheat(15),thenhestoodup addressingthepeople,andstartedhisspeechbypraisingandgivingthankstoHim.Thenhesaid: "Opeople!IamabouttobecalledtoAllah,anddeparttoHim.Iamresponsibleandsoareyou. Whatdoyousay?" "WebearwitnessthatyouhavedeliveredtheDivineMessage,andtriedyourbesttoguideuson therightpath,andalwaysgaveusgoodcounsel.MayAllahblessyouwithagoodreward,"they replied.TheProphetproceeded:'Don'tyou,'hesaid,'bearwitnessthatthereisnogodbutAllah, MuhammadisHisservantandMessenger,Hisparadiseistrue,Hishellistrue?'"OYes!Webear witnesstoallthis,"theysaid,"OAllah!Bearwitness,"hesaid.Thenhesaid:"Donotyouhear?" Theyreplied,"Yes."Thenhewentonsaying: 'Opeople!Iwillprecedeyouandyoushallarriveatthepool(Kawther):thepoolwiderthanthe distancebetweenBasrahandSan'aandwhichhastwogobletsofsilveraslargeasthespacein whichthestarsareswimming.WhenyoushallreachmeIshallinterrogateyouaboutyour behaviourtowardsthetwoweightythingsaftermydeath.Thenacallercalled:'matarethetwo weightythings,OAllah'sMessenger?'He(s.a.w.)said:TheweightieroneistheBookofAllah,the MightyandGlorified,whichhastwobonds,oneisinthehandsofAllah,theMostHigh,andthe otherinyourhands.Soholdtighttoit,don'tgoastrayanddon'tchangeyourfaith.Theother mightythingismyprogeny,myhousehold.TheKnowerofsubtleties,theAwarehastoldmethat theywilljoinmeatthepoolassoonastheirlifeonearthexpires."(16) Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Then,he(s.a.w.)said: "Don'tyouknowthatIammoreappropriateforauthorityoverthebelieversthanthemselves?" "Yes,OtheMessengerofAllah"(17)theyanswered.He(s.a.w.)said:"Don'tyouknoworwitness thatIammoreappropriateforauthorityovereverybelieverthanhimself?""Yes,OMessengerof Allah"(18),theyreplied. Then,he(s.a.w.)bentdownandliftingupAlibinAbiTalib(a.s.)inhishands,showedhimtothe vastcrowdwholookedonhisarmpits'swhiteness(19)andproclaimedthosefamouswords,which guaranteedthecontinuationofdivineleadership:"Opeople!AllahismyMasterandIamyour master(20).forwhomseoverIammaster,this,Ali,ishismasterOAllah!Befriendwhoever befriendshimandbehostiletowhoeverishostiletohim(21).helphimwhohelpshim,forsake himwhoforsakeshim,andlovehimwholoveshimandhatehimwhohateshim." Then,he(s.a.w.)said: "OAllah!Bearwitness."Then,they(theMessengerofAllahandAli)didnotseparateuntilthe followingverseswererevealed:"...todayhaveIperfecteduntoyouyourreligionandcompleted uponyouMyblessingsandapprovedforyouIslamasyourreligion..."HolyQur'an(5:3) TherearenumerousotherversesinthebookofAllah,whichelucidatetheposition,dignityand honourofImamAli;hishighstatusamongtheMuslimsandhe(a.s.)isthebestafterthe MessengerofAllah(s.a.w.).Thefollowingversecertifiesthismore:"(Asfor)thosewhobelieve anddogood,surelytheyarethebestofpeople."HolyQur'an(98:7) Alltheinterpretersandnarratorshavetestifiedthattheabovementionedversewasrevealedin favourofAlibinAbiTalibandAllah,theAlmighty,Himself,describedhimasthebestofpeople. Ontherevelationofthisverse,theMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)said: "OAli,theseareyouandyourfollowers."(22)Whoevergoesthroughthetraditionsofthe Prophet,hisdailybehaviour,andhisrelationwithhisAhlulBait,whosepuritytheHolyQur'an, itself,hastestifiedto,onerealizesthatAhlulBait(Ali,Fatima,andtheirtwosons,Hasanand Husein)hadauniqueroleandagreatresponsibilityinthehistoryoftheMuslimNation.So,the Prophet'sfrequentstressonthesefourluminarieswasnotwithoutmeaning,norwasitmere emotionalbehaviourtowardshisfamily.Infact,hewasonlyobeyingAllah'scommandstoprepare andguidetheMuslimstowardsacceptanceoftheirleadership,afterhiseventualdeparture.Only SuyuticollectedaboutsixtyProphetictraditions(hadiths)stressingthelovetowardstheAhlulBait (a.s.);acknowledgetheirleadershipsoastomaketheMuslimNationfollowtheirperfectexample andilluminatedpath;lookforguidancetowardsthemandnotinblindobedience,but,byawayof discerningcomparisonwithothers. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ThefirststepwhichtheProphettooktowardstheformalbuildingofthisblessedfamilywasthe marriageofhisdaughter,Fatima,(a.s.)tohisbelovedcousinAlibinAbiTalib(a.s.)atthe Almighty'scommand.Thus,becameimplementedthisblessed'tree'whichwouldeventually extenditsshadybranchesovertheMuslimsanditshistoricalprogress.Itisnarratedthatthe Prophet(s.a.w.)said:"AllahhasorderedmetomarryFatimatoyou."(23) Whenthismarriagehadoccured,theblessedfamilywasformedandthetwosons(Hasanand Husein)wereborn,theProphetusedtocaressthem,saying: "Allsonsaretheirfathers'astheiragnationreturnstotheirfathers,exceptthesonsofFatima,asI amtheirfatherandagnation."(NarratedbyAhmadbinHanbalin'alManaqib').(24)

TheQur'anintheSchooloftheAhlulBait AstudyofthenarrativeandthetraditionsthathavereachedusontheauthorityoftheAhlulBait andaglanceattheirlivesandworks,revealsthatthemessageoftheHolyQur'anandthe safeguardingofitsletterandspirit,wastheprimeconcernoftheseluminaries. ImamJa'feralSadiq,thesixthImamoftheProphet'sinfallibleHousehold,quoteshisgrandfather, theMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)assaying:"WhoevermemorizestheQur'anandpracticesits teachings,willbeamongtheranksofthehonourableandtherighteous"(25)Narratedtheforth ImamAlibinHusein(a.s.):theMessengerofAllah(a.s.w.)said: "WhoeverisgiventheQur'anbyAllah,butthinksthatsomeoneelseisgivenabetterthingthan heis,wouldbebelittingthegreatandmagnifyingthelittle."(26)ThefifthImamMuhammadal Baqir(a.s.)isquotedtohavesaid:TheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)said: "OreadersoftheQur'an,fearAllahforhavingchargedyouwithHisBook,asIamresponsibleand youareresponsible.IamresponsibleforcommunicatingtheMessage,whileyouwillbe questionedaboutwhatyouhavebeenchargedwiththeBookofAllahandmytraditions."(27) ImamalSadiq(a.s.)said: "AbelievershouldnotdiebeforelearningtheQur'an,ortryingtolearnit."(28)Heisalsoquoted tohavesaid: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"TheQur'anisAllah'scovenanttoHiscreatures.So,aMuslimisoughttolookintohiscovenant andreadsoversesofiteveryday."(29)Againhe(a.s.)said: "ThreewillcomplaintoAllah,theExalted:Adesertedmosquewherelocalpeopledonotprayin it;alearnedmanamongtheignorant;andtheScripture(theQur'an)whichiscoveredwithdustas nobodyreadsit."(30)He(a.s.)alsosaid: "TheQur'anisalive,itneverdies.Itgoesonasthenightandthedaygoon,andasthesunandthe moongoon..."Thus,werecognizethevalueandthesignificanceoftheQur'anasseenbythe AhlulBait(a.s.)whonotonlydedicatedtheirlivestoitspracticalrendering,but,also,encouraged theMuslimstofollowitsprinciples,memorizeit,andbuildtheirlivesonitsfoundations.

MemorizingtheQur'an AmongtheblessingsofAllahonmankindisthatHe,Himself,hasguaranteedtoguardthis everlastingDivineMessageagainstanyformofdistortion,forgeryanddisfigurement,insucha waythatfalsehoodcannotapproachitfromanydirection.Remarkably,theQur'an,today,isthe sametextwhichwasrevealedfourteencenturiesagototheProphet,andisfreefromany additionsordeletions. Thereligiousscholars(ulama)andresearchers,intheschoolofAhlulBait,certifythisgreatfact. WementiononlywhatSheikhTabarasi(oneoftheprominentinterpretersandgreatShi'ite scholarsofthesixthcenturyA.H.)(mayAllahblesshim)said:"WhatisknownamongtheShi'a scholarsandresearchers,orwhattheyevenpositivelytakeforgranted,istherejectionoftheidea ofanyfalsification."(31)Healsosaid: "...ofsuch(baseless)talkaboutadditionsanddeletions,intheQur'an,isunbecomingofany interpretation.Astotheadditions,itisunanimouslyregardedtobeafalseassumption;and concerningdeletions,agroupofourpeoplethinkofsomealterationsanddeletionsintheQur'an, whilethetruebeliefofourpeopleistothecontrary.Thishasbeensupportedby(Sherif) Murtadha(mayAllahblesshissoul),who,extensivelydiscoursedonit..."(32) SheikhalBalaghi(mayAllahglorifyhisstatus)said:TheQur'ancontinuestoenjoygreat venerationamongtheMuslims,generationaftergeneration.Everywhereyouwouldencounter Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

thousandsofcopiesoftheBookandthousandsofthosewholearnitbyheart.Theystudiously copyfromoneanotherandtheMuslimsreciteittooneanotherforverification.Thousandsofits copiesstandassentinelsoverthelearners,andthousandsoflearnersstandassentriesoverthe copiesoftheQur'an,andthousandsofthembothstandasguardianoverthenewcopies.Wesay thousands,whileactuallytheyarehundredsofthousands.Nay!Thousandsofthousands,because nohistoricaleventreceivedsuchakindofperpetuityandunquestionableeternityastheQur'an did,aspromisedbyAllah,theExalted: "SurelyWehaverevealedtheReminderandWewillmostsurelybeitsguardians."HolyQur'an (15:9) "SurelyonUs(devolves)thecollectingofitandtherecitingofit."HolyQur'an(75:17) "Therefore,ifyouhappentoheardubiousnarrativesthatsomethingoftheQur'anwasdistorted andsomeofitwaslost,donotheedsuchtalk,asscholarlyresearcheshaveprovedhow disordered,shakyandweaktheirnarratersare,andhowcontradictorytheyaretothe Muslims..."(33)Inachaptertitled'TheImamiya'sopinionrejectingdeletionsintheQur'an', Balaghifurtherstatesinhis'Tafsir'."ItisnosecretthatSaduq(mayAllahblesshim)whoisknown forthegreatcarehetookinwhathenarrated,saysinhisbook'Iqtiqad'.OurbeliefintheQur'an, whichwassentdownbyAllahtoHisProphet,Muhammad(s.a.w.),isthatitconsistsofallthatis inbetweenitstwocovers,anditiswhatisincirculationamongthepeople,nomore...Whoever ascribestousthatwesayitwasmorethanthat,isbutaliar." AnothergreatShi'itischolar,SheikhMufid,writesinhisbook'Maqalat'that: "AgroupoftheImamiyasaythatnothingwasdeletedfromit(theQur'an)notevenasingleword, verse,chapter,butwhatwasomittedwerethenotes,explanationsandinterpretations concerningthemeaningsandthetruthofitsrevelation,whichhadbeenwrittenbythe CommanderoftheFaithfulAli(a.s.)onhisowncompilationoftheBook"In'KashfalGhitafikittab alQur'an',chaptereight,concerningthedeletion,itissaid: "NodoubtthatitisprotectedagainstanyalterationbytheSovereign,theAlmighty,asisproved bytheevidenceoftheQur'anandthescholars'unanimityofopinion." SheikhBahauddinAmilisays: "...theyalsodifferedconcerningadditionsanddeletionsinit,butthetruthisthattheGlorious Qur'anisprotectedagainstallthat,beitadditionordeletion.ThisisprovedbyAllah'ssaying:"We surelyareitsguardians."MuqaddasBaghdadi,in'SharhalWafiya'says: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"...thetalkaboutdeletionwhichisincirculationamongourcompanions,isincontrasttothe unanimoustalkofnoninterferenceinit...itissaidthatSheikhAlibinAbdulAalihadwrittenan exclusivebookrefutingthedeletiontheory',quotingtheaforementionedspeechofSaduq."(34) Thelatecontemporaryscholar,SheikhMuhammadHuseinAalKashifalGhita',inhisbook'Aslal Shi'awaUsuliha',says:"TheBookwhichis(incirculation)amongtheMuslimsistheBookwhich AllahhadsentdowntoHisProphetamiracleandchallengeandthereisnodeletion,distortion, noradditionsinit." TashisisthepositionoftheShi'atischolars,regardingtheQur'annowinthehandsofthe Muslims.Itis,itwasrevealedtotheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),anditwillremainpureand unadulterated,aslongasmanremainsonthefaceoftheearth,guidinghumanitytowardsvirtue andhappiness.Certaindubiousnarrationswhichallegedlyspeakaboutdeletionsintheholytext, and,sometimes,claimofaQur'anotherthanthis,havebeenexploitedbypurposefuloffenders andhaveobviouslymisledsomepeople.Thesesimplemindedsoulscitethefollowingnarration fromImamJa'farbinMuhammadalSadiqtosupporttheirmisconstruedviews: "...butbyAllah(pointingtohischest)wehavetheweaponoftheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),his swordandhisarmour.ByAllahwehaveFatima's'Mashaf'(book),whereinarenotanyofthe versesofAllah'sBook.ItisadictationoftheMessengerofAllah,writtenbyAliwithhishand."(35) TheyhavemisunderstoodtheImam,andwithoutgoingintothelexicalmeaningoftheword MashafthoughtthathewasindicatingaQur'anotherthantheoneincirculation.Itwasagrave mistakeonthepartofthesepeople.However,acarefulscrutinyofthenarrative,willhelpreveal theactualmeaningofthewordMashaf:"ByAllahwehaveFatima's'Mashaf'(book)," BylookingupthewordMashafinArabiclexicons,wediscoverwhatImamalSadiq(a.s.)actually meant.RaghibIsfahanisays:"(AlSahifameansanyflatthingsuchastheflatnessofthecheck,a leafapage,orasheetwhichisusedforwriting.ItspluralisSaha'iforSuhufastheAlmightysays; "'Suhuf'ofAbrahamandMoses,andalso...receivingpure'Suhuf'(pages)whereinareallthe correctbooks."HolyQur'an(87:19) ItissaidthatitmeanstheQur'anandthatbyusingthepluralSuhufinwhichare'Books',itis meanttosaythattheyincludemorethanwhatisinAllah'sBooks.Hence,aMashafisacollection ofwrittenSuhuf,anditspluralformisMasahif.(36)Therefore,thewordMashafmeansanybook andisnotaspecialtermfor"theBookofAllah".ItcanmeananycollectionofSuhuf(leavesof paperorskin),andonlyinthiscontextcantheQur'analsobecalledMashafbecauseitisa collectionofSuhuf. TheexclusivenamesfortheBookofAllahare:AlQur'an,alDhikr,alFurqanandalKitab(37),as mentionedintheholytext,itself.Allahdidnotcallit"Mashaf",but,itwerethelaterMuslimswho Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

nameditso,afterhavingcompileditonleavesorsheets.Thus,itisclearthatthemistakearose fromthelinguisticuseofthewordduringtheearlydaysofIslam,whenpeopledidnottake 'Mashaf'tomeanQur'an,asitmayimplyinpresentdayusage. AcloserlookatImamalSadiq'snarration,itself,willhelpclarifythemisconception.Hesaysthat: "InFatima'sMashaftherearenoneoftheversesofAllah'sBook"Itobviouslymeansthatitis neithertheQur'annoranypartofit.Norisitadivinerevelation,butitisadictationofthe MessengerofAllahwritteninImamAli'shandwriting. Accordingtosomescholars'theMashafFatima'wasacollectionofsupplicationsandinstructions whichProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.)dictatedforthebenefitofhisbeloveddaughterFatima(ass.).

PrinciplesforUnderstandingtheQur'an TheQur'anistheBookofAllahWhosentitdownasaRevelationtoHisProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.). Allahprotectedit(theQur'an)againstanydistortion,forgeryanddisfigurement,additionsand deletions.PraisebetoAllahthatalltheMuslimsagreewiththepurityandthesafetyofthe Qur'an,butthereisascientificproblemwhichistheproblemofunderstandingtheQur'anandits explanation.Mostofthedifferencesinideological,andjurisprudentialopinionsbelongtothe differencethatexistinunderstandingandexplainingtheQur'an. InordertogiveacorrectexplanationtotheQur'an,theImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)usedtofollowa scholarlymethodinexplainingtheQur'an,theseare: 1.TheexplanationoftheQur'anbytheQur'an,thatis;someQur'anicversesexplainsomeothers. 2.TheexplanationoftheQur'anbytrueandauthentictraditionsandnarrations.Surelythe MessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)explainedwhatwasinneedofexplanationthroughhissayingsand actions,liketheversesofprayer,payingthepoorrate(zakat),pilgrimageandvariousother Qur'anicconceptsandlaws. 3.Explainingtheverses,whoseexplanationdoesnotreachusfromthepureProphetictraditions (sunnah),andwerenotclear,becauseofotherverses,fromthelinguisticunderstandingofthe Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Arabiclanguage.IndeedAllah'sBookisaclearArabicBook;whatisunderstoodfromitsliteral meaningisanexcuseupontheMuslims. 4.Theexplanationdependsonthereasonfortherevelationinexplainingmostoftheversesof theQur'anandthisshouldbedonewithintheframeworkoftheQur'anandtheTraditionsin ordertogivetheirtrueandrealmeanings. ThePropheticTraditions(Sunnah)intheSchooloftheAhlulBait ItisnarratedthattheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)said: "MayAllahprosperthepersonwhoheardmysaying,memorizedit,comprehendeditandretoldit (toothers)ashehadheardit,sinceacarrierofknowledgemaynotbeascholarandperhapsone maytransportknowledgetoamorelearnedone."(38)TheProphetictraditionmeansthespecific actions,sayingsandthedeclarations(confirmations)*oftheProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.).Allah, theAlmightyorderedustofollowtheProphet(s.a.w.)andpractisehistraditions(sunnah)by saying: "...whatevertheApostlegivesyouacceptit,andwhateverheforbidsyouabstain(fromit)."Holy Qur'an(59:7) "CertainlyyouhaveintheApostleofAllahanexcellentexamplarforhimwhohopesinAllahand theLastDay..."HolyQur'an(33:21) "...andIfyouhaveadisputeconcerninganymatterreferittoAllahandtheApostle."HolyQur'an (4:59) *TaqririnArabicmeans"confirmation".itisadeclaration,approvalandsignatureandmeans thattheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),himselfhadawitnessfortheactionspractisedbythe Muslimsbut,didnotforbidthem.ThesedivineinstructionswerestrictlyadheredtobytheAhlul BaitandthosewhofollowedtheirradiantpathandadvocatedsincereadherencetotheBookof AllahandthePropheticsunnahininterpretation,narration,jurisprudence,legislationand ideologyandotherIslamicknowledgeandsciences. Thus,thePropheticsunnahisthesecondsourceamongthesourcesofthoughtandlegislationon whichtheMuslimsdependedforjudgement,lawsandvalues. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

MostoftheShari'ahlaws,andtheirconceptswerenotclearlydetailedintheBookofAllahlike thelawsconcerningthepayingofpoorrate(zakat),prayer,wealth,holystruggle(jihad),family, andinternationalrelationsandothers.Therefore,theMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)started explainingthemandclarifyingtheirrulestotheMuslimsthroughhissayingsandactions.He (s.a.ws)toldtheImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)toreturntotheQur'anandtheProphetictraditionsas twomainsourcesforexplainingIslamiclawsandrulesandtorefuseanalogy,opinion,approval andothersourcesuponwhichsomejuristsofIslamicsectsdependedintheirinductionsand inferences. ItisnarratedthatImamalSadiq(a.s.)said: "NeveristhereanythingbutthatismentionedeitherintheBookofAllahorintheProphetic tradition."(39) Sama'ahaskedImamMusabinJa'far:"Isaidtohim:'IseverythingfoundintheBookofAllahand thetraditionofHisProphet(s.a.w.);ordoyoucommentonthem?'He(a.s.)replied:'Yes,all thingsarefoundintheBookofAllahandthesunnahofHisProphet'".(40) NarratedImamAlibinMusaalRidha(a.s.)said: "Donotacceptanysaying(relatingthemtous)whichdisagreeswiththeQur'an;surelyour sayingsshouldagreewiththeQur'anandtheProphetictraditions;wespeakeitherquotingthem fromAllahorHisMessenger."(41) ItisnarratedthatImamJa'faralSadiq(a.s.)said: "DonotacceptanynarrativerelatedtousunlesstheyagreewiththeQur'anandthesunnah."(42) IndeedtheImamsofAhlulBaitmemorizedtheProphetictraditionsquotingthemfromtheir fatherswhoquotethemfromtheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)andcalledpeopletowritethem downfromtheperiod(ofrule)ofAliandhissonHasan(a.s.)whilethecaliphsforbidthewriting downofthesunnahandtheycontinuedsotilltheperiodofUmarbinAbdulAziz(43)who ordered,again,towritedowntheProphetictraditionsintheyearof99A.H.(44) ImamalSadiq(a.s.)said: "Mynarrationismyfather's,andmyfather'sismygrandfather's,andmygrandfather'sishis father's,andhis;father'sisthenarrativeofAlibinAbiTalib,andthenarrativeofAliisthe narrativeoftheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),andthenarrativeoftheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),is thewordsofAllah.theExalted."(45)TheImamsofAhlulBaitwerethosewhocomprehendedand Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

understoodthesunnahoftheMessengerofAllah,memorized,narratedthemtoothers,and explainedtheircontentstotheMuslimnation. ScholarlyMethodsforProvingthetrueSunnah:Inordertodistinguishthetruenarratives (sunnah)fromtheinterpolatedandfalseones,thescholarsoftheschoolofAhlulBaitplaced somescholarlyandideologicalbasesandmeasuresforprovingtruesunnah.Themostprominant ofthemare: 1.Anyhadith(theProphet'ssayings)shouldbecheckedwiththeBookofAllahtoseewhetheritis correctornot.IfitconformswiththeQur'an,then,itisoftruehadith,but,ifitcontradictsthe divinetext,thenitisafalseone.2.Allhadithsmentionedinthebooksofhadith,disregardingthe reliabilityoftheirnarrators,shouldbecheckedandinvestigatedbythescholarsinordertobe sureofthereliabilityofthenarratorandhistruthfulness. 3.Thescholarsshouldnotacceptanynarrationunlesstheirnarratorsaredescribedbypietyand truthfulness,disregardingthesectorthegrouptowhichthenarratorbelonged.Therefore,the methodofthejuristsofAhlulBait(a.s.)isnottoviewabookofhadithascompletelycorrectoras completelyfalse.

MonotheismAccordingtotheSchoolofAhlulBait ImamAli(a.s.)inNahjulBalaghasays: "TheforemostinreligionistheknowingofHim,theperfectionofknowingHimistobelieveinHis Oneness,andtheperfectionofbelievinginHisOnenessistobesinceretoHim."(46)Beliefin Allah,theOne,andtheOnly,toWhomalltheattributesofperfectnessareascribedandWhois abovealltheattributesofimperfection,isthemainoriginandbaseoftheIslamicfaith,thought, legislationandconduct...etc.Therefore,theImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)gavemoreimportanceto formapureconceptofmonotheismfreefromdoubts,perversions,anddisbeliefofpreIslamic ignoranceandtheremnantsofpaganthoughtandstrivedhardtowardscorrectingsuchthought byexplainingthetruemeaningsandfaithofmonotheismasprovedbytheQur'an. Formoredetails,wecitesomenarrationsofAhlulBait(ass.)concerningthetruemeaningsof monotheismanditsconcepts.ImamMusabinJa'far(a.s.)wrotetooneofhiscompanionsand said: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"Verily,AllahisHigh,andMighty(Sublime)andGreatandfarabovethattherealityofHis attributesshouldbecomprehensible.AssigntoHimonlythoseattributesthatHehasassignedto HimselfandrefrainfromqualifyingAllahwithanythingbesidesthoseattributes."(47)Regarding theAlmighty'sintegrityandthepurityofIslamicthoughtfrompolytheismandpaganism,the AhlulBait(a.s.)narrated:"WhoeverlikensAllahwithHiscreaturesisapolytheist;surelyAllahis theAlmightyandHigh.NothingresemblesHimandnothingislikeHim,andHeistotallythe reverseofwhateverisimagined."(48) OneofthecompanionsofImamJa'farbinMuhammadalSadiq(a.s.)askedhimaboutthecorrect sectinmonotheism,He(a.s.)said: "YoumayAllahbemercifultoyouaskedmeaboutmonotheismandwhatthatgroupofpeople believein.ExaltedisAllah,thelikeofwhomthereisnaught,andHeisAllHearingandAllSeeing: AllahisabovewhatisattributedtoHimbythosedescriberswholikenAllahtoHiscreatures,those whoareslanderoustoAllah.KnowyoumayAllahbemercifultoyouthatinrespectto monotheism,thetruedoctrineiswhatisrevealedintheQur'anabouttheattributesofAllah,the Almighty,theExalted.AttributednottoAllah,theSublime,anyideasofnihilismandsimilitude. NeithershouldHisexistencebenegatednorshouldHebelikened(toanything).HeisAllah,the EstablishedtheExistent.ExaltedisHefarabovewhatthefalseinterpretersattributetoHim. ExceednottheQur'anoryouwillgoastrayaftertheclearexpositionoftruth."(49) Thus,theImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)explainthatthetruemonotheismistheonecalleduponby theQur'anwhichunifiedAllahinHisSelf,Hisattributes,HisdeedsandHisworships.

DivineJustice "Allah(Himself)iswitnessthatthereisnogodsaveHim,and(sodo)theangelsandthemenof learning,maintainingHiscreationinjustice.ThereisnogodsaveHim,theAlmighty,theWise." HolyQur'an(3:17) JusticeisoneoftheattributesofAllah,theExaltedanditseffectsarediscernedinallofHisacts. Itsmanifestationcanbeseenintheworldofcreationandinthedivinelegislationandlaw,aswell. It(DivineJustice)canbeseenintheobligationswhichHeassignsuponHisservantsascanbeseen Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

intheJudgementandPunishmentDay,andthecompensationofthesufferingsresultingfrom themwithoutpunishmentnorrevenge.Thus,theQur'antalksaboutAllah,theAlmighty'sJustice, andman'sresponsibilityofhisdeedsand,also,refusestheideaoffatalism.TheAlmightysays: "Allahenjoinsjusticeandkindness."HolyQur'an(16:90) "...andyourLordwrongsnoone."HolyQur'an(18:49) "...forit(isonly)thatwhichithasearned,andagainstit(only)thatwhichithasdeserved."Holy Qur'an(2:286) "Andwhoeverdoesgoodanatom'sweightwillseeitthen.Andwhoeverdoesillanatom'sweight willseeitthen."HolyQur'an(99:78) "Wehaveshownhimthewaywhetherhebegratefulordisbelieving."HolyQur'an(76:3) "Andpointedouttohimthetwoconspicuousways."HolyQur'an(90:10) "Corruptionhasappearedinthelandandtheseaonaccountofthatwhichmen'shandsban wrought,..."HolyQur'an(41:30) Differentopinions,amongtheMuslims,appearedinexplainingman'sactsandtheirrelationwith Allah,theAlmighty.EvensomeIslamicschoolsbelievethatmanhasnofreewillandnooptionof hisown,andallhisbehaviourandactionsarepredeterminedbyAllah,theAlmighty.Therefore,he isforcedtodowhathedoesandisnotfreeinhisacts. Otherssaythatmanhasfullchoicetodowhateverhewills,ashiswillisseparatefromAllah'swill, andthatmandoeswhateverhewillsandAllahisactuallyincapableofstoppingmanfromdoing whathewills.But,theImamsofAhlulBaitrefutebothofthesebeliefsandsay:NeitherFatalism norSelfDeterminationbecause,man,ifhewasforcedtodowhathedoes,hewouldnotdeserve punishmentandrewardandifmanhasfullchoicetodowhateverhewills,Allahwillnothave poweroverallthings.Thus,thefollowingthreeopinionsappearedtoexplainman'sactions: 1.Fatalism 2.SelfDeterminationorFreewill 3.NeitherFatalismnorSelfDeterminationMuhammadbinAjlan,oneofthosewholivedduring theperiodofImamalSadiq(a.s.)narratedtheexplanationoftheImam(a.s.)regardingman's actions:Hesaid:Iaskedhim(theImam): "DidAllahleaveHiscreaturestotheiraffairs?Hesaid:'Allahismoregenerousthantoleavetheir Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

affairstothem,'Iasked:'ThendidHeimposeonthemtheiractions?Hereplied:'Allahismorejust thantocompelaservanttodosomething,thentorturehimforthat."'(50) So,manisresponsibleforhisowndeeds,andtherefore,deservespunishmentandreward becausemannotonlyownsfreewillandoption,but,also,Allahgrantshimkindnessandhelpfor guidanceandsalvationfromerrorandmisguidanceifonechoosesthepathofguidance. AccordingtotheQur'an'sdeclaration,manisfreetochooseoneoftheways: "Andpointedouttohimthetwoconspicuousways.""Wehaveshownhimthewaywhetherhebe gratefulordisbelieving."

AhlulBaitandthePervertedGroups TheopponentsofIslamrealizedthattheImamofAhlulBait(a.s.)weretheveryembodimentof originalityandpurityandactedasarefugeforMuslimsintimeofdistressandcalamities.They haveaspecialstatusandrespectintheselfofeveryMuslimwholovestheMessengerofAllah (s.a.w.).Historytellsusthatdiverse,deviatedgroupsappeared,suchas;theZindiks,Exaggerators, Mazdakis,Jews,hypocrites,andeventhosewhoareaffectedwithpaganthoughtswhichcame eitherfromtheMagis,orfromthephilosophiesofIndia,China,andGreece,andthelikehave usedtheirdifferentdestructiveattemptstodeviateIslamanddefameitsilluminatedface. SomeofthesedeviatedgroupshaveevenslippedintotheranksoftheschoolofAhlulBaitand claimedattachmenttotheminordertodefameIslamandtopollutetherightcauseofAhlulBait anditspurity;liketheExaggeratorsandtheMazdakiswhodescribedtheImamsofAhlulBait throughtheattributesofDivinityandpretendedthatAllah,theMostGlorified,hadtransmigrated intothebodiesoftheImamsoftheAhlulBait(a.s.)andauthorizedtheaffairofthecreationto them.But,theImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)stoodfirmlyagainstsuchdestructiveanddeviatedbeliefs anddisclosedthemtothepeople;stronglyrepudiated,cursed,dismissedandrenouncedthem. Amongthesedeviatedgroupswere:'TheMughiraGroup',thefollowersofMughirabinSa'idand 'TheKattabiyah',thefollowersofAbiKhattabMuhammadbinAbiZainabalAssadi. ImamJa'faralSadiq,sonofImamalBaqir(a.s.),isquotedtohavesaid: "MayAllahcurseMughirabinSa'idasheusedtotellliesagainstmyfather,mayAllahmakehim Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

tastetheheatofburningiron,mayAllahcursethosewhosayaboutus,whatwedonotsay ourselves,mayAllahcursethosewhotrytotakeusawayfromtheservitudeofAllah,Who createdus,andtoHimisourreturnandinHishandisourcontrol."(51) He(a.s.)alsosaid: "Don'tacceptanysaying(hadith)relatingthemtousexceptthatwhichagreeswiththeQur'an andtheProphetictraditions(sunnah)unlessyouseeanevidenceofourprevioussayingswithit; indeedMughirabinSa'id,mayAllahcursehim,hasinterpolatedsayings(hadiths)inthebooksof thecompanionsofmyfatherofwhichhe(myfather)didnotnarratethem,so,fearAllahand don'tacceptanysayingrelatedtous,whichdisagreeswiththestatementofOurLord,the Exalted,andthetraditionsofourProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.)becausewe,ifwenarrateany hadith,wealwayssay:TheAlmightyAllahortheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w)saidsoandso."(52) He(a.s.)furthersaid: "MughirabinSa'idwasintentionallybelyingmyfather;heusedtotakethebooksofhis companions,whodisguisedthemselvestobeofthecompanionsofmyfather,andthen,theygave themtoMughirawhointerpolatedinthempervertedbeliefsofunbeliefandinfidelityand,then, attributedthemtomyfatherandtherefore,returnedthemtohiscompanionsandorderedthem todistributethemamongtheShi'a;wheneverthereisanyexaggerationinthebooksofthe companionsofmyfather,besurethatitistheactofMughirabinSa'idwhointerpolatedthemin hisbooks." RegardingtheexaggerationandtheinterpolationofAbiAlKhattabandhislieagainsttheImams ofAhlulBait,ImamAlibinMusaalRida(a.s.)said: "IndeedAbiKhattabusedtotellliesagainstAbiAbdullah(ImamalSadiq)(a.s.),mayAllahcurse AbiKhattab,whereashiscompanionsusedtointerpolatethesesayings(hadiths)upuntiltodayin thebooksofAbiAbdullah(a.s.);therefore,don'tacceptanysaying(hadith)relatedbythemtous iftheydisagreewiththeQur'an,because,alloursayingsshouldagreewithboththeQur'anand theProphetictraditions."(53) Thus,theImamsofAhlulBaitfoughttheExaggeratorsanddeviatedgroups.Theycalledonthe MuslimstoholdfasttotheBookofAllah(theQur'an)andthepureProphetictraditionssothat theycandifferentiatebetweentheilluminatedpathofAhlulBaittowhichthefollowersofthe schooloftheImamiyaShi'afirmlyadheredandthemisguidanceoftheExaggeratorsandtheir strayedbeliefs.

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TheAhlulBait'sMethodinthePoliticalField PoliticalactionandthoughtformsaprincipalbaseamongthepillarsofIslam;Islamisacreed, systemandlegislationanditsapplicationinitssocialfieldneedsapoliticalauthority,stateand legitimateleadership.Therefore,thispoliticalactionandthoughttakes,inthemethodofAhlul Bait,(a.s.)ahigh,importantpositionwhichisbasedonfoundationsandprinciples;amongthem are:1.ThenecessityofestablishinganIslamicstateandapplyingitslaws. 2.TheMuslimleader(Imam)isresponsibleforsafeguardingIslamiclaws,applyingthemand invitingotherstowardsthem.Heisthepoliticalleaderandguardianoftheideologicallineofthe ummah(Islamiccommunities). 3.TheMuslimleader(Imam)shouldbequalifiedwithpiety,behaviouralrighteousness,andbe familiarwithIslamiclaws. 4.Itisforbiddentoobeyorbefriendtheunjustruler. First,itisobligatoryfortheMuslimstoadvisehim;ifhedoesnotrespond,itbecomesobligatory fortheMuslimstoboycotthim,andifhedoesnotrespond,itbecomesobligatorytodeposehim andrevoltagainsthimandpledgeallegiancetoajustrulerwhoactsaccordingtotheprinciplesof theBookofAllahandthetraditionsofHisNobleProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.) ThesearetheclearfactsinthepracticallifeofAhlulBaitandtheirstruggleagainstthetyrannical rulers;theirguidingandeducatingthemassesoftheummah;preparingthemtobeconscious vanguardsandtheirsupportforthemovementsandrevolutionswhichadoptedreformand change. AmongtheprominantstateofrefusingoppressionandcorruptionisthestateofImamHuseinbin Ali(a.s.)againstthegovernmentofYazidbinMu'awiyahandhisdeclarationforanarmed revolutionagainsthim;thesupportofImamalSadiq(a.s.)fortherevolutionofZayidbinAlibin Huseinintheyear121A.H.againstHushambinAbdulMalik;andthesupportofImamMusabin Ja'farfortherevolutionofHuseinbinAliinMadinahintheyear169A.H.againsttheAbbasid caliphalMahdi. ThelifeofAhlulBait(a.s.)isacontinuationofthewayinwhichtheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.) tookand,also,aconfirmationforit.ImamHusein,themartyr(a.s.)narratesfromhisgrandfather, Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

theProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.),thathesaid:"Whoeverwitnessesanunjustrulerconsideringthe prohibitionsofAllah,theAlmightyaspermissible,breakingthecovenantofAllah,opposingthe practicesoftheApostleofAllah(s.a.w.),treatinghisservantssinfullyandcruellyandhadseenall thesemisdeeds,but,didnotopposehimbywordsoractions,Allahsurelywillpunishhimashe wills..."(54) Thelifeofthe(AhlulBait)(a.s.)andtheirwordsareacorrectionforthedeviatedwayandfalsified linewhichwasfoundedbysomeunjustrulersandtheirpreacherswhosupportedandbowed downtothem.TheydependedonsomeforgedhadithswhichwerenarratedbyMusliminhis Sihah;forexample,thefollowingnarrationismentionedintheabovementionedbook,inthe chapterontheorderforthenecessityofperformingprayer,collectivelythattheMessengerof AllahMuhammad,(s.a.w.)said: "'Aftermetherewillberulerswhowouldnotbeguidedarightnorfollowmytraditionsand amongthemtherewillappearmenwhoseheartslookliketheheartsofSatansbutinthebodyof humanbeings." Heasked:Isaid:O,MessengerofAllah,WhatshallIdo,ifIbecameawareofthis?He(s.a.w.)said: 'Youshouldlistenandobeysuchrulerseveniftheybeatyourbackortakeyourwealth,thenyou shouldlistenandobeythem'"(55) Alltheseforgedsayings(hadiths)writtenbythetyrants,andtheiragents,formsabasefor misunderstandingtotheextentthatsomeevenbuilttheirpoliticalviewsonthem.Nawawiinhis explanationofSahihMuslimsaid: "ThejuristsandthenarratorsofAhlulSunnahsay:Therulershouldnotbedeposedbecauseof doingcorrupt,oppressive,andwrongingother'srights.(Sucharuler)shouldnotbedeposednor revoltedagainst,butitisobligatorytoadvise,andfrightenhimwiththenarrationsconcerning that."(56) TheImamsofAhlulBait(a.s.)hadaspecialpositionagainstsuchunjustrulersandtheystood againstsuchdeviatedpoliticallines,therefore,theserulersbegantousedifferentkindsoftactics againstthem.Their(AhlulBait)lifeisfilledofilluminatedimagesofsacrificeforthesakeoffaith andtheirhistoryisthehighestexamplaryofstruggleforthesakeoftruthandwhospenttheir bestdaysbetweeneitherbeingkilled,poisoned,pursuedontheearthorbeingpunishedinthe darknessofprisons.

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TheAhlulBait'sMethodinEducatingtheirCompanions ImamJa'faralSadiq(a.s.)isreportedtohavesaid: "IdislikeforamantodiewhilethereisstillahabitoftheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)whichhehas notyetpractised."(57)TheAhlulBaittookgreatcaretoeducatetheMuslimsinaccordancewith theBookofAllahandthetraditionsoftheProphet,withtheobjectiveofbuildingsoundIslamic personalitiesthatwouldholdaloftthetorchofguidance.ImamAlBaqir(a.s.)triedtoeffacethe doubtsinstigatedbysomeofhiscontemporarieswho,hadsomemischievousintentionsbehind theireffort.TheyusedtosaythatitsufficedaMuslimtolovetheAhlulBaitandtoregardthemas leaders,and,insuchacase,therewasnoneedtokeepuptheotherobligatorydutiesofwhathad commanded.TheImamexplainedthatthepathoftheAhlulBaitmeantputtingintopracticeall thathadbeenbroughtbytheQur'an,andshownbytheProphet(s.a.w.). "...byAllah,wehavenoabsolutionfromAllah,norarewerelativesofAllah,norhaveweany argumentagainstAllah.YoucannotbenearertoAllahexceptthroughobedience.So,whoeveris obedient(toAllah)willbebenefittedbyourfriendship,andwhoeverisdisobedient(toHim),our friendshipwillbenefithimnaught"(55) AmrubinSa'idbinHilalnarrates: "IsaidtoAbuJa'far(a.s.):MayIbeyourransom,Ionlyseeyouveryrarely,afteryears.Pleasegive meapieceofadvicewhichImayfollow.'ImamAIBaqirreplied:'IadviseyoutofearAllah,tobe piousanddiligent.Doknowthattherecanbenopietywithoutdiligent..."'(59)Healsoadvised oneofhisfollowers,namedAbuUsama,andtoldhimtoconveyittohisfriends.Hereisanextract ofthesaidadvice:"...fearAllahandbegood,anddonotbebad,directtowardsuseveryaffection, andwardofffromuseveryabomination,forwearenotastheysay.Wehaveourrightsinthe BookofAllah,whichwererelatedtotheMessengerofAllahandhadbeenpurifiedbyAllahOur birthissonoblethatanyoneotherthanusclaimingthelike,isaliar.*Increaseyourremembrance ofAllah,ofdeath,ofrecitingtheQur'anandofsendingblessingsupontheProphet(s.a.w.)as sendingblessingsonhimisrewardedtenfold."(60) *ThisreferstotheirnoblerelationstotheProphetMuhammad(s.a.w.)throughtheirmother, FatimaalZahra'(a.s.),theProphet'sdaughter.ImamalSadiqinstructedoneofhiscompanions, IsmailbinAmmar,asfollows: "IadviseyoutofearAllah,tobepious,tobetruthful,topayyourtrusts,tobegoodtoyour neighboursandtobefrequentinyourprostration(prayers).SuchweretheordersofMuhammad Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

(s.a.w.)tous."(61)HishambinSalimsaysthatheheardImamalSadiq(a.s.)tellamancalled Hamranthis: "Lookattheonewhoislowerthanyou(inposition)anddonotlookattheonewhoishigherthan you,asinthiswayyouwillbemoresatisfiedwithwhatisyourlot,andmoredeservingofAllah's bounty.Doknowthat(good)routinedeedseveniffewareworthierthanaregulardeedlacking certainty.DoknowthatnopietyismorebeneficialthanavoidingtheprohibitionsofAllahand refrainingfromwrongingthepeople.Nothingismorepleasingthanagoodtemper.Nowealthis betterthanbeingcontentwiththelittlewhichsuffices.Noignoranceismorebitterthan conceit."(62) ImamAlSadiq(a.s.)alsocitestheMessengerofAllahasdescribingthebelievers:"Whoeveris displeasedwithhisevildeedwhilebeingpleasedwithhisgooddeed,isafaithfulman."(63)These arethetrueattributesofagoodMuslimonthebasesofAhlulBaitwhostrivedhardtoeducate andestablishthem.ThisistheirtruemethodinbuildingandeducatingtheMuslimsocietyand ummah.ThisistheirtruecallthroughwhichtheyaddressedthefollowersoftheProphet Muhammad(s.a.w.)whichwastofollowtheBookofAllah(theQur'an)andthetraditionsofthe MessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)andtobuildlifeontheirprinciples.HowbeautifulitiswhenaMuslim isguidedarightthroughtheirguidanceandfollowstheirwillandlistenstotheremembranceof them.

ALookattheIslamicSchool,Jurisprudence DuringthedaysoftheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.),Muslimsusedtoreceivetheregulationsand preceptsconcerningworship,dealings,andjudgementsandothersocialissues,fromtheProphet, himself,andhadnoprobleminunderstandingIslamandobtainingshari'ahlawsandregulations. Afterhisdemise,peopleusedtorefertotheBookofAllahandthetraditionsofHisProphet, derivingfromthempercepts,lawsandreligioussituations,ontheauthorityoftheProphet's AhlulBaitandthoseofthereligiousscholarsofthecompanionswhocollectivelyagreedwiththe mostlearnedamongthem,ImamAli.TheMessengerofAllah(s.a.w.)said:"Iamleavingamong youtwopreciousthings:TheBookofAllahandmyProgeny,myHousehold.Andindeed,Allah,the Benign,theAllAwarehastoldmethatthese(two)willneverpartwitheachotheruntilthey returntomeatthePoolof'Kawther'inParadise." Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

He(s.a.w.)alsosaid: "Themostlearnedamongyou,judicially,isAli."Afterrecognizinghisknowledgeconcerningthe BookofAllahandtheProphet'stradition.A'isha,oneoftheProphet'swives,describeshim(Imam Ali)bysaying: "He(ImamAli)wasthebestinformed,amongthepeople,concerningtheProphet'straditions." ImamAliwasthefinalauthorityonderivingtheIslamicrulesandsolvingtheirproblems. AsaresultofwhatIslamcausedofmovements,anddevelopmentsinthefieldsofsociety,state andthelifeofindividuals,newissuesandaffairsconcerningsuchfieldsappeared,andwhichlater on,neededanorganization,andadeclarationofIslamicregulations.Ananswertothoseneeds, theIslamicsocietywitnessedamovementandadevelopmentinthefieldsofjurisprudence, legislation,theappearanceofjurisprudence,andinductioninadevelopedway,therefore, differentschools,viewsandsectsofjurisprudenceappeared.Thishappenedinitsdistinguished formattheendofthefirstandsecondcenturyofHigra(emigration)attheperiodofthetwo Imams,MuhammadalBaqirandhisson,Ja'faralSadiq,uponwhomthenarratorsofHadiths, jurisprudents,commentators,andothers,witnessedtheirknowledge.Forinstance,AbuHanifa, MalikandothersstudiedatthehandsofImamJa'farbinMuhammadalSadiq. TheImamsofAhlulBaitcalledonMuslimstofollowtheBookofAllahandtheProphet'straditions astheonlytwosourcesofIslamiclawsandlegislationswhileotherIslamicschoolsof jurisprudencedependedotheradditionalforthesourcesininductingoflawsotherthanthe abovementionedsources.Amongthemwere: 1.OpinionandAnalogy,whosecauseisinducted 2.Approval 3.TheClosingandOpeningofPretexts 4.SimpleInterests TheImams,ofAhlulBait,andtheirstudents,whowererelatedtotheirjurisprudentialschool, usedacademicwaysofdialogueswiththechiefsofotherdiverseschoolsofjurisprudenceand calledonthemtodependontheBookandthesunnahastheonlytwosources.Itisworth mentioning,here,thatotherIslamicschoolsdifferamongthemselvesinacceptingandrejecting suchsourceslikeanalogyandtoactwithopinion;uponwhichtheHanafisectdepended.Theone whostudiesthesediverseviewsofjurisprudence,andtheirprinciples;whichwereinductedfrom theminacomparativestudy,willfindthatthereasonofdifferencecanbefoundintwomain causes: 1.Thedifferenceinacceptingandrejectingsomenarrations,inaccordancewiththeconditionsof Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

acceptingthenarration,withanemphasisonthereliabilityofthenarration. 2.TheacceptanceofcertainIslamicschoolsofjurisprudenceassourcesoflegislation,otherthan theQur'anandtheProphet'straditions;likeanalogy,approval...etc.andrefusingthem.For example,eachoftheHanafi,Shafi'i,Maliki,Hanbali,Zaydi,Shi'aImamiyajurists,...etc.hasitsown wayandconditionsforacceptingthenarrationsprovedbytheProphetictraditions. Thisdifferencecausedbythesetwofoundationsaffectsthejurists'sviewsandopinions.This,in return,leadstotheappearanceofjurisprudentialdifferenceamongthem.Thus,itisnota differencebetweenthetwosects(theSunnisandtheShi'as)assometrytopretendinorderto sowtheseedofdisunityanddiscordamongtheMuslims.Intruth,itisonlyascholarlydifference amongtheMuslimjurists,altogether.Therefore,itisnottruethatthisscholarlydifferencebea causeofdiscordanddisunityamongtheMuslims.Thus,itisobligatoryforalltheMuslimstohave scholarlydialogesandunderstandingsandtoopenthedoorofIjtihad(endeavouringtodiscover anddeducetheIslamiclawsandregulationsfromtheirsources)bythoseofthesectswhoclosed it,sothatthescholarscanreachasatisfiedanswerandasafe,lawfulposition.Surely,the scholarlydifferencesbased,onsafefoundations,shouldnotbeconsideredasamaincausefor socialandpoliticaldifferencenortoisolatetheMuslimswhoareonesinglenationandwho, altogether,agreethattheBookofAllahandthetraditionsofHisnobleProphetMuhammad (s.a.w.)aretheoriginandmainsourceforIslamicknowledge,law,andthought. Hereunderareexamplesofthejuristsopinions,showingtheirpointsofagreementand disagreementinspiteofwhethertheybelongtotheSunnisortheShi'as: BoththeImamiyaandtheHanbalissaythatthe'FirstTestimony'(intheprayer)iscompulsory, whereastheHanafis,theShafi'isandtheMalikissaythatitisrecommended,andnotcompulsory. The'LastTestimony'issaidbytheShafi'is,theImamiyaandtheHanbalistobecompulsory, whereas,theMalikisandtheHanafissaythatitisrecommended,andnotcompulsory.(64) TheShafi'is,theMalikisandtheHanbalissay.TheTaslim(submissionintheprayer)iscompulsory. theHanafissay:Itisnotcompulsory,whiletheImamiyadifferamongthemselves:somesay:Itis compulsory,whereas,otherssay:Itisrecommended.Amongthosewhoregarditas recommendedwasMufid,SheikhTusiandAllamaHilli.(65) Inrespecttocollectiveprayer,theHanbalissay:Itiscompulsoryoneveryableperson,andifone leftitandprayedasanindividual,onewouldbeasinner,althoughhisprayeriscorrect.Onthe otherhand,theImamiya,theHanafis,theMalikisandthemajorityoftheShafi'isregarditasnot compulsoryoneveryone,noronafew,but,nonetheless,highlyrecommended. Concerningthosewhodeservethepoorrate(zakat),theShafi'isandtheHanbalissaythat Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

whoevergetshalfofhisrequirementsisnotregardedaspoor,anddeservesnotzakat(poorrate). TheImamiyaandtheMalikissaythatthepoor,accordingtothereligion,istheonewhodoesnot haveayear'sprovisionsforhimselfandhishousehold;so,whoeverhadafarm,apropertyor cattle,thatwasinsufficienttosustainhimandhisfamilyforawholeyear,deservedtoreceivea portionofthezakat.TheImamiya,theShaf'isandtheHanbalissaythatwhoeverwasabletoearn hisbreadisnotallowedtoreceivethezakat,whereas,theHanafisandtheMalikissay:Heis allowedtoreceivethezakatanditshouldbepaidtohim.Concerningstayingovernightin Muzdalifaduringthehajjrites,theHanafis,theShafi'isandtheHanbalissaythatitiscompulsory, andwhoeverdoesnotstaytherewillhavetoofferasacrificeasin'alMughni',whereasthe ImamiyaandtheMalikissay:itisnotcompulsorybutrecommended. RegardingthepeltinginJamrahalAqaba(itisthelargestsymbolofthedevilwhichissituatedon theoutskirtsofMinatowardsMecca,andsevenpebblesonthetenthdayshouldbethrownatit, andisconsideredamongtheobligationsofthepilgrimage(hajj)),theMalikis,theHanafis,the HanbalisandtheImamiyasay:ItisnotallowedtopelttheJamrahalAqababeforedawn,but,if thepilgrimthrowsbeforedawnwithouthavinganexcuse,heshouldrepeatit,again,whereas, theyallowedthepilgrimstodosoiftheyhaveexcuses,suchas,elderliness,sicknessandfear, whereas,theShafi'issay.Itisallowedtodosobecausetheabovementionedtimeis recommendedandnotobligatory. Concerningthecontractofmarriage,theImamiya,theHanbalis,andtheShafi'issay.Thecontract cannotbecorrectthroughcorrespondence,whereastheHanafissaythatitiscorrecttodosoif bothsidesengagedinmarriageareinoneplace. TheShafi'isandtheMalikissaythattheguardianisthesoleauthoritywhohastherightofconsent tothemarriageofamentallysanegrown,maturegirlifsheisvirgin,butifsheisawidow,he sharesinhermarriageconsent,andneitherofthemhasthesolerightofconsent.Moreover,itis hewhoconcludesthemarriagecontract,asitcanneverbeconcludedbythegirl'swordsalone, althoughhercontentisnecessary. TheHanafissaythatamature,sanegirlhastherighttochooseherhusbandandtoconductthe marriagecontractherself,irrespectiveofwhethersheisvirginorwidow,andnoonehasauthority uponher,northerighttoobject,providedthatshechoosesaworthysuitor.MostoftheImamiya juristsaythatthemature,sanegirlhastherighttoconductallkindsofproceduresanddeals, includingmarriagecontracts,bothasavirginandawidow.Shehas,thus,therighttoconclude contracts,onherownbehalfandonbehalfofotherthanherself,bothdirectlyandthrough agency,inconsentandacceptance,similartotheman,withouttheleastdifference.(66) Concerningdivorce,AbuZuhrasays: Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

"AccordingtotheHanafisect,thedivorceofeverybodyisvalid,exceptofthechild,theinsaneand theidiot.So,thedivorceislegalevenifdonejokingly,orbyadrunkard,orunwillinglyandbythe onewearingtheihram(pilgrimrobes)forhajjrites."(67) Headds: "AccordingtotheHanafisect,thedivorcedoneevenbymistakeorunintentionallyandbythe forgetfulisvalid."(68) Ofthesamebookshesays: "MalikandShafi'agreedwithAbuHanifaandhisfollowersinrespecttothevalidityofdivorce eveninjest,whileAhmad(binHanbal)didnotagree,regardingsuchadivorceasincorrect."(69) TheImamiya,ontheauthorityofAhlulBait(a.s.),say: "Nodivorce(isvalid)exceptfortheonewhowantsit."Theseweresomeexamplesof comparativejurisprudence,selectedtoshowthereadertherealscholarlycontroversyinthe Islamicsects,andhowthesesectsmeetinsomeinstancesanddifferinsomeothermatters, regardlessoftheirShi'ismorSunnism. WehavealreadyseentheHanafiandtheShaf'iagreeinginsomecaseswiththeImamiya,and differingfromtheHanbali,andtheMaliki,ortheMalikiagreeingwiththeImamiyaanddiffering fromotherSunnisects.Thisisanexplicitfactobservedinallthesubjectsofjurisprudenceandits differentbranches.ThejurisprudentaldisputecannotbetermedadiscordbetweentheShi'ites andtheSunnites.Itisascientific,methodicaldisputeamongthefiveschoolsofjurisprudence.We havetolookforthelegalreligiousproofs,andcommenceascientificdiscussionuntilwegettothe coreofthetruthregardingthecorrectnessoftheschool,asAllahhasonlyasingle,practical verdictforeverycase. ThosewhotrytoillustratethedisputebetweentheShi'itesandtheSunnisasiftheywereagainst oneanother,ortwocontradictorysects,arebutfalsifyingthetruth,gettingawayfromthe methodofsoundscientificobjectivity,andattemptingtoservetheenemiesoftheIslamic Ummah,bysowingtheseedsofdisunity. But,theneutral,doctrinal,scholarlymethodistheoneabletounifyalltheMuslimsandtobring themalltogether.SheikhMuhammadShaltut,therectorofAlAzharTheologicalUniversity(Cairo) hadissuedaverdictallowingthefollowersofdifferentIslamicsectstheHanafis,theHanbalis, theMalikisandtheShafi'istoactaccordingtotheImamiya(Shi'a)sect,aswellas,accordingto otherIslamicsects,asthis,hesaid,waslawfulandcorrect.Hewasfollowed,inhisopinion,bythe nextrectorofalAzhar,Dr.MuhammadFahham. Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

ItisworthwhiletostatethetextsoftheverdictsissuedbytheminthisrespectThefollowing verdictisissuedbyAlSayyid,Hishonour,therectorofAlAzharTheologicalUniversityaboutthe legalitytoworshipaccordingtotheImamiyaShi'aSect: SheikhShaltutwasaskedthat: "SomepeoplesaythatifaMuslimistoconducthisworshipandotherdealscorrectly,hemust followoneofthefourIslamicsects,amongwhicharenotthesectsoftheImamiyaShi'anorthe ZaidiShi'a.So,doesyourhonouracceptthisideainitsgenerality,andforbidfollowing,for example,theTwelvers(ImamiyaShi'ites)?" TheSheikhreplied: "1.Islamdoesnotcompelanyofitsfollowerstofollowaparticularsect,butwesay:EveryMuslim hastherightto'imitate'firstandforemost,anysectthathascorrectlybeenquotedandwhose relevantpreceptshavebeenrecordedinitsparticularbooks.Whoeverfollowsoneofthesesects maymovetoanyother,whicheverofthem,withoutanyrestrictions." 2.TheJa'fariSchoolknownastheImamiyaschoolofTwelversShi'ites,isaschoolaccordingto whichitislawfultoworship,thesameastheotherSunnitesects.ItisnecessaryfortheMuslims toknowthat,andtogetridofunjustprejudicetowardsparticularsectsBecause,neitherAllah's religionnorHisShari'ah(Islamiclaws)arerelatedtoaparticularsectorrestrictedtoaschool,so allofthemareabletodiscoverIslamicrulesandcodesfromtheQur'anandthesunnahandare acceptablebeforeAllah,theAlmighty;therefore,itislawfulforthosewhoarenotabletogive opinions,nortodoijtihadtofollowthemandpractisewhattheydecideintheirjurisprudenceand thereisnodifferenceconcerningthisinworshipanddealings." ThelateDr.MuhammadMuhammadFahham,therectorofalAzharcommentingonShaltut's verdict,said: "MayAllahhavemercyonSheikhShaltutwhoperceivedthissignificance,andinhisexplicit verdict,displayedcourage,asheallowedactingaccordingtotheImamiyaShi'aSchool, consideringitanIslamicjuristicschool,foundedontheBook,thesunnahandthemostcorrect proofIpraytoAllahtograntsuccesstothosewhoactuponthissoundcourseofintroduction amongthebrethren. "Andsay:Act!Allahwillbeholdyouractions,and(sowill)HisMessengerandthebelievers.Our lastinvocationis:PraisebetoAllah,Lordoftheworlds." Presentedbyhttp://www.alhassanain.com&http://www.islamicblessings.com

Itisobvious,then,thattheroadtotheunificationofthenationiswideopenbeforethefaithful believersofIslam.Theyhavetounitetheirranks,todiscardtheirpettycontroversiesand prejudices,touprootthecausesofdivision,andtosubjectthescientificpointsofviewtoresearch anddiscussion.WeaskMuslims,everywhere,tocomprehendthecritical,politicalandsocial situationthroughwhichtheummahispassing,andtolookatoneanotherwithaffectionand brotherhood,andtoidentifythosewhoinstigatebigotry,andtoputtheirscientificviewpointsfor scientificdialoguesandresearchwithoutanyinstigationandfanaticism,lesttheenemiesofIslam, inparticular,misusethemwhilewefaceZionismandimperialismandtheiragents. Finally,weimploreAllah,theHigh,theOmnipotent,forHishelptounifytheranksofthisnation, tokeepawaytheelementswhoagitatecommotionamongsttheMuslimsandwhopreventthe applicationofdivinelaws.WeakeningtheranksoftheMuslims,andcausingdivisionamongthem, cannotbebutasupporttotheenemiesofAllah,andaservicetothetyrantsandsuperpowers. PraisebetoAllah,LordoftheWorlds.

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