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Chapter 5 Exercises and Answers

Answers are in blue.

For exercises 1- 16, match the power of ten to its name or use. A. 10-12 B. 10 -9 C. 10 -6 D. 10-3 . 103 F. 106 !. 109 ". 1012 #. 101$ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Nano B Pico A Micro C Milli D Tera H Giga G Kilo E Mega F Often used to describe processor speed G Often used to describe si!e of "e"or# F $sed in relation to %nternet speeds E &atin for t'ousandit' D %talian for little A Peta % (oug'l# e)ui*alent to +,E (oug'l# e)ui*alent to +.%

For exercises 1% - 23, match the acron&m with its most accurate 'efinition. A. CD-()* B. CD-DA C. CD-( D. D+D

. CD-(, F. D- D+. !. B/ue-(a& 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. For"at using t/o la#ers F Data is stored in t'e sectors reser*ed for ti"ing infor"ation in anot'er *ariant A Can be read "an# ti"es0 but /ritten after its "anufacture onl# once C Can be bot' read fro" and /ritten to an# nu"ber of ti"es E For"at used in audio recordings B A ne/ tec'nolog# storing up to .- GB G T'e "ost popular for"at for distributing "o*ies D

xercises 20 1 66 are pro2/ems or short answer exercises. 24. Define t'e follo/ing ter"s a Core + processor Core + is a popular central processing unit "ade b# %ntel b 'ert! A 'ert! is a unit of fre)uenc# e)ual to one c#cle per second c rando" access "e"or# (ando" access "e"or# is "e"or# in /'ic' eac' /ord 'as an address b# /'ic' t'e /ord can be directl# accessed 1'at does F2B stand for3 F2B stands for front side bus0 t'e pri"ar# connection bet/een "ain "e"or# and input4output de*ises 1'at does it "ean to sa# t'at a processor is , 5 GH63 T'e speed of t'e processor is ,0 5--0---0-- c#cles per second 1'at does it "ean to sa# t'at "e"or# is ,77MH!3 2a#ing a "e"or# is ,77M'! "eans t'at t'e "e"or# can be accessed at ,770---0--- c#cles per second Ho/ "an# b#tes of "e"or# are t'ere in t'e follo/ing "ac'ines3 a .,+MB "ac'ine .,+ 8 ++b +GB "ac'ine + 8 +7Define (PM and discuss /'at it "eans in ter"s of speed of access to a dis9 (PM stands for re*olutions per "inute T'is is a "easure of 'o/ fast a dis9 re*ol*es Data can onl# be accessed /'en t'e reading 'ead is o*er t'e data T'erefore t'e (PM indicates 'o/ fast eac' piece of data can be accessed 1'at is t'e stored:progra" concept and /'# is it i"portant3 T'e stored progra" concept "eans t'at data and instructions are bot' logicall# t'e sa"e and can bot' be stored in "e"or# T'e *on Neu"ann arc'itecture is built around t'is principle %t is i"portant because t'e 'u"an does not 'a*e to e;ecute instruction fro" /it'out t'e "ac'ine %nstructions can be stored in "e"or# and e;ecuted in se)uence referencing t'e data *alues it needs on /'ic' to operate 1'at does <units t'at process infor"ation are separate fro" t'e units t'at store infor"ation< "ean in ter"s of a co"puter arc'itecture3


26. 27.





32. 33. 34.








42. 43.




T'is e;pression "eans t'at "e"or# is separate fro" t'e central processing unit Na"e t'e co"ponents of a *on Neu"ann "ac'ine "e"or#0 arit'"etic4logic unit0 input4output units0 t'e control unit 1'at is t'e addressabilit# of an =:bit "ac'ine3 = 1'at is t'e function of t'e A&$3 T'e A&$ perfor"s basic arit'"etic operations >addition0 subtraction0 "ultiplication0 and di*idion? and logical operations >AND0 O(0 NOT? 1'ic' co"ponent in t'e *on Neu"ann arc'itecture /ould #ou sa# acts as t'e stage "anager E;plain T'e co"puter co"ponent t'at acts as t'e state "anager is t'e control unit %t controls t'e actions of t'e ot'er co"ponents in order to e;ecute instructions in se)uence Punc'ed cards and paper tape /ere earl# input4output "ediu"s Discuss t'eir ad*antages and disad*antages Punc'ed cards and paper tape used for input /ere prepared on separate "ac'ines and t'en read into t'e co"puter %nput fro" cards and paper tape is slo/0 but t'e# pro*ided a per"anent record of t'e input 1'en used for output0 cards and paper tape 'ad to be transferred to anot'er de*ice to get a 'u"an readable cop# of t'e infor"ation@ 'o/e*er0 t'e output could be stored per"anentl# on cards and paper tape 1'at is an instruction register0 and /'at is its function3 T'e instruction register is a special register in t'e control unit %t 'olds t'e instruction being e;ecuted 1'at is a progra" counter0 and /'at is its function3 T'e progra" counter is a special register in t'e control unit %t 'olds t'e address of t'e ne;t instruction to be e;ecuted &ist t'e steps in t'e fetc':e;ecute c#cle Fetc' t'e ne;t instruction fro" t'e address in t'e progra" counter Decode t'e instruction E;ecute t'e instruction E;plain /'at is "eant b# <fetc' an instruction < T'e control unit goes to t'e address na"ed in t'e progra" counter0 "a9es a cop# of t'e contents of t'at address0 puts t'e cop# into t'e instruction register0 and incre"ents t'e progra" counter E;plain /'at is "eant b# <decode and instruction < T'e control unit deter"ines /'at t'e instruction is and accesses an# "e"or# locations t'at contain operands for t'e instruction E;plain /'at is "eant b# <e;ecute an instruction < 2ignals are sent to t'e arit'"etic4logic unit to carr# out t'e processing Co"pare and contrast (AM and (OM "e"or# (AM is an acron#" for (ando" Access Me"or#@ (OM is an acron#" for (ead Onl# Me"or# Bot' (AM and (OM are rando" access@ t'at is0 eac' cell in "e"or# is directl# accessible T'e cells in (AM can be bot' read fro" and /ritten to T'e cells in (OM can onl# be read fro" T'e bit pattern in (OM is deter"ined at t'e ti"e of "anufacture or burned /'en t'e co"puter is asse"bled Once a (OM 'as been burned >/ritten?0 it cannot be c'anged Anot'er "aAor difference is t'at (AM is *olatile and (OM is not T'is "eans t'at (AM does not "aintain its bit patterns /'en t'e po/er is turned off0 but (OM does 1'at is a secondar# storage de*ice0 and /'# are suc' de*ices i"portant3 Because (AM is *olatile and (OM cannot be c'anged0 t'ere "ust be places to store data and progra"s outside of t'e co"puterBs "ain "e"or# 2uc' places are called secondar# storage de*ices Discuss t'e pros and cons of using "agnetic tape as a storage "ediu" Magnetic tape is a c'eap "ediu" for storing great )uantities of data Ho/e*er0 data ite"s cannot be directl# addressed on tape To reac' a data obAect0 all infor"ation recorded before t'e one #ou /ant "ust be read and discarded 1'at are t'e four "easures of a dis9 dri*eBs efficienc#3

47. 48. 49.


51. 52.


54. 55. 56. 57.




61. 62. 63. 64. 65.

2ee9 ti"e0 latenc#0 assess ti"e0 and transfer rate Define /'at is "eant b# a bloc9 of data 2ee9 ti"e0 latenc#0 access ti"e0 transfer rate 1'at is a c#linder3 A c#linder is a set of concentric trac9s@ t'at is0 trac9s t'at line up under one anot'er Define t'e steps t'at a 'ard dis9 dri*e goes t'roug' to transfer a bloc9 of data fro" t'e dis9 to "e"or# To access a bloc9 of data0 t'e read4/rite 'ead "o*es to t'e proper trac90 /aits until t'e proper sector rotates beneat' it0 and t'en accesses t'e data Distinguis' bet/een a co"pact dis9 and a "agnetic dis9 Data is stored opticall# on a co"pact dis9 and "agneticall# on a "agnetic dis9 (at'er t'an 'a*ing a series of concentric trac9s0 a co"pact dis9 'as one trac9 t'at spirals fro" inside out Bot' dis9s 'a*e t'e trac9 bro9en into sectors T'e densit# at /'ic' t'e data is pac9ed *aries in a "agnetic dis90 but does not in a co"pact dis9 T'e rotation speed of a "agnetic dis9 reader is constant0 but t'e rotation speed of a co"pact dis9 *aries depending on t'e position of t'e laser bea" Describe a parallel arc'itecture t'at uses s#nc'ronous processing T'ere are "ultiple processors appl#ing t'e sa"e progra" to "ultiple data sets Describe a parallel arc'itecture t'at uses pipeline processing Multiple processors are arranged in tande" Eac' processor contributes one part of t'e o*erall processing Ho/ does a s'ared "e"or# parallel configuration /or93 Multiple processors do different processing /it' different data but co""unicate t'roug' t'e use of s'ared global "e"or# Ho/ "an# different "e"or# locations can a ,C:bit processor access3 +,C different "e"or# locations 1'# is a faster cloc9 not al/a#s better3 A faster cloc9 consu"es "ore po/er0 /'ic' can cause a circuitr# o*erload 1'# is a larger cac'e not necessaril# better3 As a cac'e gets bigger0 accesses to its data beco"e slo/er %n t'e ad0 /'# is t'e ,-=-p specification for t'e screen not entirel# true3 T'e 'ig' definition tele*ision standard 'as ,-=- 'ori!ontal lines of displa# ele"ents T'e screen in t'e ad is DC= 'ig'0 "eaning t'at ,-=- lines are co"pressed into DC= lines Keep a diar# for a /ee9 of 'o/ "an# ti"es t'e ter"s hardware and software appear in tele*ision co""ercials No ans/er e;pected Ta9e a current ad for a laptop co"puter and co"pare t'at ad /it' t'e one s'o/n at t'e beginning of t'is c'apter Ans/er *aries /it' eac' student 1'at is t'e co""on na"e for t'e dis9 t'at is a secondar# storage de*ice3 Alt'oug' t'ere are a *ariet# of dis9s t'at are secondar# storage de*ices0 t'e 'ard dis9 dri*e is t'e one t'at co"es /it' t'e "ac'ine To /'at does t'e e;pression pixels refer3 T'e distance bet/een t'e dots on t'e screen 1'at is a GP$3 A GP$ is a grap'ics processor %f a batter# in a laptop is rated for =- 1Hr0 and t'e laptop dra/s +- /atts0 'o/ long /ill it run3 5 'ours 1'at is t'e difference bet/een ,K of "e"or# and ,K transfer rate ,K of "e"or# is ,-+5 b#tes of "e"or#@ ,K transfer rate is ,---4bits per so"e ti"e "easure Co"pare and contrast a CD:(OM and a flas' dri*e A CD:(OM is a co"pact disc t'at0 /'en /ritten upon0 cannot be c'anged A CD:(OM is good for per"anent storage and for trans"itting data to anot'er "ac'ine A flals' dri*e uses flas' "e"or# t'at can be erased and re/ritten %t also is good for per"anent storage but is "uc' "ore


fle;ible as it can be used to store corrected data as /ell as for trans"itting data to anot'er "ac'ine <Giga< can "ean bot' ,-E and +7- E;plain to /'ic' eac' refers Can t'is cause confusion /'en reading a co"puter ad*ertise"ent3 Ti"e is e;pressed in deci"al units0 to giga "eans ,-E /'en referring to ti"e Me"or# is e;pressed in po/ers of +0 so giga "eans +7- /'en referring to "e"or# 2ince ,-E and +7- are not t'e sa"e *alue0 t'is can be confusing