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IS : 12235 (Parts 1 to 11) - 1986

(Reaffirmed 1998) Edition 1.1 (1999-08)

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

UDC 621.643.2 [678.743.22] : 628.1 : 620.1

BIS 2003

BUREAU

OF INDIAN

STANDARDS

MANAK BHAVAN , 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

Price Group 8

IS : 12235 (Parts 1 to 11) - 1986 CONTENTS


Page FOREWORD IS : 12235 METHODS WATER SUPPLIES Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9
OF

3 TEST
FOR

UNPLASTICIZED

PVC

PIPES

FOR

POTABLE 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17

Measurement of Outside Diameter Measurement of Wall Thickness Test for Opacity Determining the Detrimental Effect on the Composition of Water Reversion Test Stress Relief Test Resistance to Sulphuric Acid Internal Hydrostatic Pressure Test Impact Strength at 0C

Part 10 Method for Determination of Organotin as Tin Aqueous Solution Part 11 Extractability of Cadmium and Mercury Occurring as Impurities

As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank

IS : 12235 (Parts 1 to 11) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
0. FOREWORD
has been done by basing Part 11 on the following International publication. ISO/DIS 6992 Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water supply Extractability of cadmium and mercury occurring as impurities, issued by International Organization for Standardization. 0.4 This edition 1.1 incorporates Amendment No. 1 (August 1999). Side bar indicates modification of the text as the result of incorporation of the amendment. 0.5 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 0.1 This Indian Standard (Parts 1 to 11) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 20 August 1986, after the draft finalized by the Sanitary Appliances and Water Fittings Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. 0.2 This standard has been formulated to specify methods of test for evaluating physical and mechanical properties of unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies. The first ten parts of this standard were earlier included in IS : 4985-1988*. For the sake of convenience as well as for keeping them up to date, these test methods have been separated from IS : 4985. Part 11 is newly added method of test. 0.3 In formulating this standard due weightage has been given to international co-ordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. This

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

*Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ).

IS : 12235 (Part 1) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 1 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 1) covers the method for measurement of outside diameter of unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. MEAN OUTSIDE DIAMETER 2.1 Required Precision The precision required in each measurement is 0.1 mm. 2.2 Principle The determination of the circumference of the pipe and division by 3.142 . 2.2.1 A Pitape with an accuracy of at least 0.05 mm shall be used for the direct measurement of the mean outside diameter. 2.3 Measuring apparatus shall be an ordinary flexible tape or flexible tape suitably calibrated to read diameters directly. This tape shall comply with the following requirements: a) It shall be made of stainless steel or some other suitable material, b) It shall permit the reading to the nearest 0.05 mm, c) It shall be graduated in such a way that neither its own thickness nor the thickness of the graduation has any influence on the result of the measurement, and d) It shall have sufficient flexibility to conform exactly to the circumference of the pipe. 2.4 Procedure Apply the tape on the whole of the circumference perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. The reading shall be taken only under these conditions. MEASUREMENT OF OUTSIDE DIAMETER 2.5 Expression of the Result Round off the reading or calculate the mean outside diameter to the next higher 0.1 mm.
NOTE The measurement of diameters less than or equivalent to 40 mm may be obtained from the average of 4 uniformly distributed measurements of diameters using vernier calipers. For higher diameters up to 110 mm pitapes or vernier calipers shall be used, taking the average of two measurements at right angle.

3. OUTSIDE DIAMETER AT ANY POINT 3.1 Required Precision The precision required in each measurement is 0.05 mm. 3.2 Principle Determination of the maximum and minimum outside diameters of cross-section, several outside diameters being measured until maximum and minimum values are found. 3.3 Measuring Apparatus Slide calipers permitting a reading to the nearest 0.05 mm. 3.4 Procedure Place the fixed jaw of the slide calipers on one side of the pipe and the moving jaw on the other side, perpendicular to the axis of the pipe, and move the calipers along until both jaws make a clean contact with the surface of the pipe. Take the reading after checking that the instrument is in correct position in relation to the pipe. Take measurement around the same cross-section, turning the calipers in the plane of this section until the maximum and minimum values are obtained. 3.5 Expression of the Results Round off the reading to the next higher 0.1 mm and note the readings of the largest and the smallest values measured for the same cross-section.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

IS : 12235 (Part 2) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 2 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 2) covers the method of measurement of wall thickness of unplasticised plastic pipes manufactured in accordance with IS : 4985-1988*. 2. METHOD OF MEASUREMENT 2.1 The wall thickness shall be measured by any of the two methods given in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2. 2.1.1 Dial Gauge Method 2.1.1.1 Required precision The precision required in each measurement of wall thickness is 0.05 mm. 2.1.1.2 Measurement apparatus The wall thickness shall be measured with a dial gauge complying with the following measurements: a) It shall permit a reading up to 0.01 mm, b) It shall be equipped with a fixed rod forming a rigid unit with the apparatus, c) The extremity of the plunger (movable contact point) shall be hemispherical in shape with a radius of approximately 1.0 mm, and MEASUREMENT OF WALL THICKNESS d) The surface of the fixed and movable contact points shall be made of hard steel. 2.1.1.3 Procedure After introducing the fixed contact point inside and perpendicular to the axis of the pipe and applying it without force on to the internal surface of the wall, free the plunger and seek a position for the apparatus which provides the lowest reading. 2.1.1.4 Expression of the result Round off the lowest reading so obtained to the nearest 0.1 mm. 2.1.2 Micrometer Method 2.1.2.1 The precision in each measurement of wall thickness is 0.05 mm. 2.1.2.2 Measuring apparatus The wall thickness shall be measured with a ball-ended micrometer permitting a reading to the accuracy of 0.01 mm. 2.1.2.3 Expression of the result Round off the reading obtained to the nearest 0.1 mm.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

IS : 12235 (Part 3) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 3 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 3) specifies a method for the determination of the opacity of plastics pipes and fittings. 1.2 It lays down the maximum acceptable limit for light which may pass through the wall of the pipe or fitting, if the particular standard specifies that they be opaque. 2. TEST METHOD 1 2.1 Principle Measurement of the light flux passing through a test piece cut from a pipe of fitting. 2.2 Apparatus The comprise the following. apparatus shall TEST FOR OPACITY standard lenses that give an absorption percentage of about 0.2 percent; and d) Check the alignment of the installation. 2.4.2 Measurement 2.4.2.1 Adjust the apparatus to obtain a maximum reading, carefully arranging the light sensor in such a way that it receives the maximum light flux and record the maximum deviation DM. 2.4.2.2 Place the test piece on the support and position the whole ensuring that the test piece is centred and perpendicular to the light beam. 2.4.2.3 Read the indicated maximum deviation ( D ) produced by the light beam. This deviation corresponds to the light flux which has passed through the wall of the test piece. 2.5 Calculation and Expression of Results Calculate the percentage of light which has passed through the wall of the test piece using the formula: D - 100 -------DM where D = maximum deviation produced by the light flux from the source which has passed through the wall of the test piece, and DM = maximum deflection produced directly by the light from the source. 2.6 Test Report The test report shall indicate the percentage of light that passed through the wall of the test piece and whether or not the result complies with the requirement specified in 3. 3. SPECIFICATION 3.1 If the particular standard specifies that the pipe or fittings shall be opaque, the percentage of light which passes the wall of the pipe or the fittings, determined according to 2 of this standard, shall not exceed 0.2 percent. 4. TEST METHOD 2 4.1 Apparatus 4.1.1 The following are the apparatus required: a) Source of light (Halogen Lamp 1 000 W), 6

2.2.1 Adjustable power arc or incandescent lamp, the intensity of light of which is constant to 1 percent. When an arc lamp is used, a suitable filter shall be provided to limit the spectrum to 0.40 to 0.50 mm. 2.2.2 Diaphragm and optical lenses; adjusted to obtain a parallel and symmetrical incident beams. The diaphragm shall be circular. 2.2.3 Support, arranged so that it maintains the surface of the test piece to be examined perpendicular to the optical axis and at a fixed distance from the diaphragm of the cell. 2.2.4 Photoelectric cell, used such that the response of the reading or recording apparatus is a linear and uniform function of the light intensity, from a maximum incidence I0 up to at least 0.01 I0. 2.3 Test Pieces Take section of convenient length from the pipe or a sample of suitable dimensions and the original thickness from the wall of the fitting. 2.4 Procedure 2.4.1 Calibration a) Check that the equipment indicators are at zero, in the absence of light. Ensure that the photoelectric cell is protected from incident daylight; b) Check that the indicators reach 100 percent, in the light emitted by the luminous source in the absence of the test piece; c) Check the precision of the reading using

IS : 12235 (Part 3) - 1986


b) Photo-electric cell (with filter correction to match eye response), and c) Digital current meter. 4.2 Procedure 4.2.1 The light source and photo-electric cell shall be set up at a distance to get maximum reading in the galvanometer in the absence of sample and also in the absence of day light. Connect the galvanometer to the photoelectric cell and the maximum deflection produced by the light flux of the source falling on the photo-electric cell shall be noted. 4.2.2 Place the test piece on the photo-electric cell in such a manner that one wall is touching the photo cell surface between the light source and the cell (distance between source and from cell remaining constant). 4.2.3 Read on the spot light galvanometer the maximum deflection produced by the light flux of the source. The deflection corresponds to the light flux passing through the wall of the test piece. 4.2.4 The second deflection expressed as a percentage of the first shall give the measure of visible light transmitted.

IS : 12235 (Part 4) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 4 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 4) covers the methods of test for determining the deterimental effect on the composition of water flowing through plastic pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. PROCEDURE 2.1 Three pieces of pipe, as received, each of a length to contain when stoppered not less than the quantity of extractant required for subsequent analysis, are plugged at one end with a stopper of polyethylene (or some other non-interfering material), fitted with a glass cock and clamped to a stand with open end upwards. Tap water is poured into the pipes until it overflows slightly. Then the cock shall be opened just sufficiently for a velocity of 3 m/min to be maintained inside the pipe. The pipe shall be kept continuously filled with water. After a period of 6 hours, the pre-washing is discontinued, the stopper removed and the interior of the pipe rinsed out with a little distilled water ( see IS : 1070-1977 ) to remove any remnants of tap water. During pre-washing (but not subsequently), the pipe sample may be fitted with a non-interfering core so as to reduce the quantity of washing water required, provided the water velocity of 3 m/min is maintained. 2.1.1 After the test pieces have been cleaned as described above, close one end of each sample tightly with a material that does not contain any toxic substances and also does not interfere with the determination of such constituents in the aqueous samples. 2.1.2 Fill each pipe with distilled water ( see IS : 1070-1977 ) containing added carbonic acid equivalent to 150 mg CO2/litre. A freshly DETERMINING THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF WATER made solution shall be used for each series of tests ( see 2.1.6 ). 2.1.3 Close the other end of each pipe. 2.1.4 Maintain the pipes and contents at room temperature for 48 hours, then empty the water into suitable containers and retain for analysis. This is the sample for lead determination (first extraction). 2.1.5 Refill the pipes with the standard solution as in 2.1.2, close and allow to stand as above for 48 hours. Empty and reject the solution. Refill and repeat for a further 48 hours and retain this third sample of solution for analysis. This is the sample for analysis for lead (third extraction), tin and any other toxic substances. 2.1.6 The water containing the desired quantity of carbon dioxide may conveniently be prepared by saturating a large bulk of water with carbon dioxide, determining the carbon dioxide content by a standard method such as that given in IS : 3025-1964* (with suitable adjustment of quantities) and then mixing with the calculated quantity of carbon dioxide free water. 2.1.7 The metals present shall now be determined. Determine the contents of lead and organotin by the methods described in IS : 3025-1964* and Part 10/Sec 1 and Sec 2 respectively or by any other suitable method. The arithmetic average of the triplicate determinations shall be reported in milligrams per litre of the standard solution. 2.2 Assessment of Results 2.2.1 The specimens, when tested as above, shall meet the requirements given in 6.3 of IS : 4985-1988.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ). Specification for water for general laboratory use ( second revision ).

*Methods of sampling and test (physical and chemical) for water used in industry. Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

IS : 12235 (Part 5) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 5 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 5) covers the method of test for reversion test performed on unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. GENERAL 2.1 This test may be carried out either in an air oven or alternatively in a bath of ethylene glycol, glycerol or mineral oil free from aromatic hydrocarbons. 2.2 Form of Test Specimen The test specimen shall consist of a length of pipe 200 20 mm long. Two circumferential marks shall be scribed on the test specimen 100 mm apart and in such a way that one of these marks is approximately 15 mm from one end of the specimen. 3. IMMERSION METHOD 3.1 Apparatus The apparatus shall consist of a thermostatically controlled bath in which heat transfer medium is ethylene glycol, glycerol or mineral oil free from aromatic hydrocarbons. The bath is stirred continuously and maintained automatically at a temperature of 150 2C. 3.2 Procedure The test specimen shall be suspended in the heat transfer medium by the end farther from the scribed marks in such a way that both scribed marks are completely immersed. Care shall be taken to ensure that the specimen does not touch the sides or bottom of the bath. The test specimen shall be immersed in the bath for a time determined as follows: a) For pipe of wall thickness not greater than 8.6 mm 15 minutes, b) For pipe of wall thickness greater than 8.6 mm but not greater than 14.1 mm 30 minutes, and REVERSION TEST c) For pipe of wall thickness greater than 14.1 mm 60 minutes. After the specified immersion period, the specimen shall be removed from the bath, laid on its side and allowed to cool to room temperature. The distance between the two scribed marks shall be measured along the surface of the pipe and the percentage change in length calculated. 4. OVEN METHOD 4.1 Apparatus An electrically heated air oven with circulating fan, the whole interior of which is maintained automatically at a temperature of 150 2C. 4.2 Procedure The specimen shall be placed in the oven and the time measured from the moment at which the oven regains a temperature of 150C. The test specimens shall be kept in the oven for a time determined as follows: a) For pipe of wall thickness not greater than 8.6 mm 60 minutes, b) For pipe of wall thickness greater than 8.6 mm but not greater than 14.1 mm 120 minutes, and c) For pipe of wall thickness greater than 14.1 mm 140 minutes. After the specified period, the specimen shall be removed from the oven, laid on its side and allowed to cool to room temperature. The distance between the two scribed marks shall be measured along the surface of the pipe and the percentage change in length calculated. 5. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS 5.1 The specimen, when tested as above, shall meet the requirements given in 6.4 of IS : 49851988*.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

IS : 12235 (Part 6) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 6 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 6) covers the method of test for stress relief test performed on the unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. TEST SPECIMENS 2.1 The specimen shall consist of full bell end portion with 100 mm length of plain pipe. 3. APPARATUS 3.1 An electrically heated air oven with circulating fan, the whole interior of which is maintained automatically at a temperature of 150 2C. 4. PROCEDURE 4.1 The specimen standing on its bell end shall STRESS RELIEF TEST be placed in the oven. The specimen may be supported, if necessary, by a simple jig that has been preheated in the oven. 4.2 The specimen shall be kept in the oven for 1 hour. The duration shall be measured from the time at which the oven regains the temperature of 150C. 4.3 After 1 hour, the specimen shall be removed from the oven and allowed to cool naturally in the air before examination. 5. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS 5.1 The sample shall meet the requirements specified in 6.5 of IS : 4985-1988*.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

10

IS : 12235 (Part 7) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 7 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 7) covers the method of test for resistance to sulphuric acid of unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. FORM OF TEST SPECIMEN 2.1 The test specimen shall be cut from the pipe and shall have a total surface area of 45 3 cm2. 3. PROCEDURE 3.1 The test specimen shall be cleaned, wiped RESISTANCE TO SULPHURIC ACID dry and weighed, then totally immersed in 93 0.5 percent (m/m) sulphuric acid for 14 days at 55 2C. Care shall be taken to avoid gradual concentration of the acid during the test due to evaporation losses, etc. After the specified time, the specimen shall be removed, washed in running water for 5 minutes wiped dry with a clean cloth and reweighed immediately. 4. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS 4.1 The average change in mass shall not exceed the value given in 6.6 of IS : 4985-1988*.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

11

IS : 12235 (Part 8) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 8 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 8) covers the method of test for internal hydrostatic pressure test carried out on unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. GENERAL 2.1 The test shall be carried out not earlier than 24 hour after the pipes have been manufactured. 3. TEST SPECIMENS 3.1 A sample of pipe having free length between the end fittings equal to ten times the outside diameter but not less than 250 mm or greater than 750 mm shall be taken for every testing from each pipe to be tested. 4. APPARATUS 4.1 Equipment which permits the application of controlled internal hydraulic pressure to the specimen which is immersed in a thermostatically controlled water-bath. 5. PROCEDURE 5.1 The pipe shall be fitted with the locking plugs at both ends in such a way that the axial forces coming from the internal pressure are transmitted to the pipe. The pipe shall remain free to move in longitudinal direction. 5.2 Through a closable opening in one of the locking plugs, the pipe shall be filled with INTERNAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST water at ambient temperature. It shall be then put in a water-bath at the test temperature (permissible deviation 1C) and kept in the bath for 1 hour to adjust the temperature. 5.3 The pressure in the pipe shall then be increased to the test pressure ( p ) gradually and without shock, preferably within 10 to 30 seconds in the bath whose temperature has been adjusted in accordance with 5.2. The pressure with a permissible deviation of 2.5 percent shall be maintained for the test period laid down in Table 4 of IS : 4985-1988*. The test pressure ( p ) shall be calculated as follows from the induced stress values in Table 4 and dimensions given in Table 1 of IS : 4985-1988*: 2 s p = ----------ds where p = test pressure in MPa, = induced stress in MPa, s = minimum wall thickness nominal and d = outside diameter in mm. 6. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS 6.1 The sample shall not rupture during the prescribed test period. The test showing bursts within a distance d from the end cap, where d is the mean outside diameter, shall be disregarded and the test repeated.

in

mm,

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

12

IS : 12235 (Part 9) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 9 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 9) covers the method of test of impact strength of unplasticized PVC pipes at 0C manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. SPECIMEN 2.1 Each specimen 300 mm long shall be a complete section of pipe. The ends of each specimen shall be cut clean and square to the axis of the pipe. 3. CONDITIONING OF TEST SPECIMEN 3.1 Each specimen shall be conditioned for at least 1 hour prior to test at a temperature of 0 1C. Individual specimens shall be tested within 10 seconds of removal from the conditioner. For round the clock ( see 5.1.1.2 ) testing, when the test might not be completed within 10 seconds, the specimen shall be reconditioned for a further period of at least 10 minutes. 4. APPARATUS 4.1 An impact testing machine (falling weight machine), a suitable form of which is shown in Fig. 1, shall be used which shall consist essentially of the following: a) A main frame which may be rigidly fixed in a true vertical position. b) Guiderails carried from the inside of the main frame on side bearings which may be adjusted to keep them parallel and vertical. c) A striker which may fall freely within the guiderails and which is equipped with a hardened hemispherical striking surface of 25 1 mm diameter. The striking surface shall be free from flats and/or other imperfections. d) An appropriate set of mass which may be firmly attached to the striker to enable the combined mass of striker and mass attached to be adjusted to the values given in Table 1. e) A specimen support comprising a 120 cast steel Vee block at least 250 mm in
*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

IMPACT STRENGTH AT 0C length which is positioned below the guidelines so that the tip of the impact striker is not more than 2.5 mm from the axis of the Vee block. f) A release mechanism such that a striker may fall through the height as required in Table 1 on the top surface of the pipe specimen. g) Means for maintaining a constant height of fall by vertical movement of either the Vee block, the release mechanism or the main frame in order to accommodate various diameters of pipe.

FIG. 1 IMPACT TESTING MACHINE

13

IS : 12235 (Part 9) - 1986


5.1.1.1 Each specimen shall be marked with a longitudinal zero line positioned at random and from this line, further parallel lines shall be marked equidistantly at intervals of not less than 50 mm covering the circumference only once. The pipes shall be placed on the Vee block in such a way that one of the marked lines is uppermost. The striker shall then be allowed to fail freely on to the marked line on the pipe as described above. 5.1.1.2 If the specimen does not fail as a result of cracking or splitting, the specimen shall be rotated until the next marked line is uppermost in the Vee block, and a second blow made with the striker. The process shall then be repeated until all the marked lines have been tested or until a failure is recorded. (This procedure of impact testing a specimen more than once is known as round the clock testing.) 6. ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS 6.1 The sample, when tested as above, shall meet the requirements given in A-1.7.1 of IS : 4985-1988*.

TABLE 1

MASS OF STRIKER AND HEIGHT OF FREE FALL [Clauses 4.1 (d), (f) and 5.1] TOTAL MASS OF STRIKER kg 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.50 1.00 HEIGHT OF FREE FALL mm 500 10 1 000 10 2 000 10 2 000 10 2 000 10

MEAN OUTSIDE DIAMETER mm Up to and including 25 32 to 50 63 to 75 90 to 110 125 and above

5. PROCEDURE 5.1 The total mass of the striker and height of free fall shall be adjusted to the values appropriate to the diameter of the pipe under test according to Table 1. 5.1.1 The specimens up to and including 50 mm mean outside diameter shall be subjected to a single blow only. For pipes with mean outside diameter exceeding 50 mm size, the procedure given in 5.1.1.1 and 5.1.1.2 shall be adopted.

*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

14

IS : 12235 (Part 10) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 10 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 10) covers the method for determination of organotin as tin aqueous solution of unplasticized PVC pipes manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. PRINCIPLE 2.1 Toluene-3, 4-dithiol (dithiol) forms a coloured complex with an acid solution of divalent tin. This colloidally dispersed red compound is used for the determination of tin by a spectrophotometric method. 2.2 The lower limit of the determination is about 2 g of tin. 3. APPARATUS 3.1 Spectrophotometer suitable for use in the visible region of the spectrum with 1 and 4 cm cells. 4. REAGENTS 4.1 The reagents used shall be of. recognized analytical reagents quality. Water complying with IS : 1070-1977 shall be used throughout. a) Concentrated density 1.42. Nitric Acid relative METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ORGANOTIN AS TIN AQUEOUS SOLUTION 100 ml with water. Filter, if necessary. This solution should be prepared fresh daily.
NOTE The life of this solution may be extended to about one week if it is stored under refrigeration conditions.

g) Standard Tin Solution 0.2 mg Sn/ml. Dissolve 0.200 g of tin in 100 ml of 50 percent ( v/v ) hydrochloric acid and dilute with the same acid to 1 000 ml. h) Standard Tin Solution 0.02 mg Sn/ml. Prepare by diluting the 0.2 mg Sn/ml standard solution [reagent (g)] as required with 25 percent ( v/v ) hydrochloric acid. j) Standard Tin Solution 0.004 mg Sn/ml. Prepare by diluting the 0.02 mg Sn/ml standard solution [reagent (h)] as required with 25 percent ( v/v ) hydrochloric acid. 5. PROCEDURE 5.1 Preparation of Colour Standards a) High Range ( 100-500 m Tin per Test ) Into six 25-ml one-mark volumetric flasks ( see IS : 915-1975* ) transfer volumes of the 0.004 mg/ml standard tin solution [reagent (j)] from 0 to 5.0 ml increasing by stages of 1.0 ml. Treat each in the following manner: Dilute with water to about 6 ml, add 2 drops of thioglycollic acid [reagent (c)] followed by 2 ml of the dilute sulphuric acid [reagent (d)] and mix thoroughly. Cautiously add 0.4 ml of the dodecyl sodium sulphate solution [reagent (e)] with constant swirling; avoid shaking which creates foam. Continue to swirl the contents of the flask while adding 0.2 ml of the toluene-3, 4-dithiol solution [reagent (f)]. Dilute to 25 ml, stopper the flask and shake thoroughly. Fifteen minutes after the addition of toluene-3, 4-dithiol solution, measure the optical density of each solution in a 1-cm cell at a wavelength of 535 m and with water in the matched comparison cell. Prepare graph of the optical density readings against micrograms of tin present.
*Specification for one-mark volumetric flask ( first revision ).

b) Perchloric Acid 600 g/litre solution. c) Thioglycollic Acid approximately 98 percent. d) Dilute Sulphuric Acid 25 percent (v/v) solution. e) Dodecyl Sodium Sulphate 20 g/litre solution. Dissolve 2 g of dodecyl sodium sulphate (sodium lauryl sulphate) in 100 ml of warm water. The solution may lose its clarity on cooling; gentle warming will restore it. f) Toluene-3, 4-dithiol 2 g/litre solution. Dissolve 0.2 g of toluene-3, 4-dithiol (dithiol) or 0.28 g of zinc toluene-3, 4-dithiol in 5 ml or 5 N sodium hydroxide. Add 1 ml of thioglycollic acid and dilute to
*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ). Specification for water for general laboratory use ( second revision ).

15

IS : 12235 (Part 10) - 1986


b) Low Range ( Up to 100 m Tin per Test ) Into six 50-ml one-mark volumetric flasks ( see IS : 915-1975* ) transfer volumes of the 0.02 mg/ml standard tin solution [reagent (h)] from 0 to 10.0 ml increasing by stages of 2.0 ml. Treat each in the following manner: Dilute with water to about 15 ml, add 2 drops of thioglycollic acid [reagent (c)] followed by 10 ml of the dilute sulphuric acid [reagent (d)] and mix thoroughly. Cautiously add 2.0 ml of dodecyl sodium sulphate solution [reagent (e)] with constant swirling; avoid shaking, which creates foam. Continue to swirl the contents of the flask while adding 1.0 ml of toluene-3, 4-dithoil solution [reagent (f)]. Dilute to 25 ml, stopper the flask and shake thoroughly. Fifteen minutes after the addition of toluene-3, 4-dithoil solution measure the optical density of each solution in a 4-cm cell at a wavelength of 535 m and with water in the matched comparison cell. Prepare a graph of the optical density readings against the micrograms of tin present. 5.2 Determination Evaporate a suitable volume of the test solution ( see Part 4 ) to dryness, add 2 ml of the diluted sulphuric acid [reagent (d)] and evaporate to fumes of sulphur trioxide. Add concentrated nitric acid [reagent (a)] dropwise until the oxidation is complete. Cool, add 1 ml of concentrated nitric acid [reagent (a)] followed by 0.2 ml of perchloric acid [reagent (b)] and evaporate to fumes of sulphur trioxide. Cool, transfer the contents of the basin quantitatively to 10 ml one-mark volumetric flask ( see IS : 915-1975* ) and dilute to about 8 ml with water. Add two drops of thioglycollic acid [reagent (c)] and, with constant swirling, 0.4 ml of the dodecyl sodium sulphate solution [reagent (e)]. Add 0.2 ml of the toluene-3, 4-dithiol solution [reagent (f)]; dilute to the mark, stopper the flask and shake thoroughly. Transfer a quantity to a suitable cell and 15 minutes after the addition of toluene-3, 4-dithoil solution, measure its optical density at a wave-length of 535 m, with water in the matched comparison cell, and read the amount of tin present from the appropriate calibration graph ( see 5.1 ).

*Specification for one-mark volumetric flasks ( first revision ).

*Specification for one-mark volumetric flasks ( first revision ).

16

IS : 12235 (Part 11) - 1986

Indian Standard

METHODS OF TEST FOR UNPLASTICIZED PVC PIPES FOR POTABLE WATER SUPPLIES
PART 11 EXTRACTABILITY OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY OCCURRING AS IMPURITIES 6.1.2 Clamp the test pieces vertically with open end upwards. 6.1.3 Pass tap water of pH 7 to 8 through the test pieces so that its linear rate of flow is 3 m/min, calculate from the average internal cross-sectional area of the pipe and the test pieces are continuously filled with water. 6.1.4 Maintain the water flow for a period of 60 +10 min. 0 6.1.5 At the end of this period, stop the water flow, remove the stoppers and rinse out the test pieces with distilled water. 6.2 Extractability Test 6.2.1 Close, with a stopper ( see 4.2 ) one end of each pre-washed test piece. 6.2.2 Fill each test piece with acidified water ( see 4.2 ), the temperature of which has been adjusted to approximately 20C.
NOTE For each series of tests, a freshly prepared solution of acidified water ( see 4.3 ) shall be used.

1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part 11) specifies a method of test for the determination of the extractability of cadmium and mercury occurring as impurities from unplasticized PVC pipe manufactured according to IS : 4985-1988*. 2. FIELD OF APPLICATION 2.1 This standard applies to unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes intended for the transport of drinking water. It only relates to the extractability of: a) cadmium and its derivatives, and b) mercury and its derivatives. 3. PRINCIPLE 3.1 Pre-washing of test pieces during a fixed time. Filling the test pieces with water acidified with carbon dioxide. Determination of the quantity of extracted impurity.
NOTE The analytical test methods to be used for the determination of the quantity of material taken into solution are not defined. They shall, however, allow the analysis to be carried out with an accuracy of 0.005 mg/l for cadmium and of 0.000 6 mg/l for mercury.

4. APPARATUS 4.1 Glass Tube with Glass Cock 4.2 Stoppers in polyethylene or any other material which has been shown not to effect the results. 4.3 Distilled water, acidified to a pH of 4.5 0.1 by bubbling a current carbon dioxide through it. 5. PREPARATION OF TEST PIECES 5.1 For each test, select three pieces of the pipe at random, each of which is 300 mm in length and has an internal volume at least equal to the volume of the extracting liquid required to determine with the required precision the amount of material which has migrated. 6. PROCEDURE 6.1 Pre-washing 6.1.1 Close one end of each test piece with a stopper ( see 4.2 ) fitted centrally with the lengths of glass tube ( see 4.1 ) fitted with a stopcock.
*Specification for unplasticized PVC pipes for potable water supplies ( second revision ).

6.2.3 Close the other end of each test piece by means of a stopper ( see 4.2 ) and maintain the filled test pieces at 20 2C for 48 hours. 6.2.4 First Extraction At the end of 48 hours, empty the water from the test pieces into suitable stoppered containers and determine the quantity of cadmium or mercury. 6.2.5 Second Extract Fill the same test pieces with the test water ( see 4.3 ) and, having closed them again, maintain them at 20 2C for 48 h. At the end of this period, transfer the test water from the test pieces to suitable stoppered containers and determine the quantity of cadmium and mercury in each. 6.2.6 Third Extract Fill the test pieces for a third time with the test water ( see 4.3 ) and having closed them again, maintain them at 20 2C for 48 h. At the end of this period, transfer the test water from the test pieces to suitable stoppered containers and determine the quantity of cadmium and mercury in each. 7. EXPRESSION OF RESULTS 7.1 Cadmium 7.1.1 Calculate for the three test pieces the arithmetic mean of the quantities of cadmium determined in the extracts for first, second and third extractions. 17

IS : 12235 (Part 11) - 1986


7.1.2 Express the results in milligrams per litre with an accuracy of 0.005 mg/l. 7.2 Mercury 7.2.1 Calculate for the three test pieces the arithmetic mean of the quantities of mercury determined in the extracts for first, second and third extractions. 7.2.2 Express the results in milligrams per litre with an accuracy of 0.000 5 mg/l. 8. TEST REPORT 8.1 The test report shall include the following information: a) Complete identification of the pipe tested; b) Number of test pieces; c) Analytical method used for the determination of the quantity of cadmium in aqueous solution; d) Analytical method used for the determination of the quantity of mercury in aqueous solution; e) Duration of pre-washing; f) Quantities of extracted cadmium found for each test piece for first, second and third extraction; g) Arithmetic mean of the quantities of extracted cadmium for the pipe for first, second and third extraction; h) Quantities of extracted mercury found for each test piece for first, second and third extraction; j) Arithmetic mean of the quantities of extracted mercury for the pipe for first, second and third extraction; and k) Details of the procedure which have not been provided for by this test method and also any accidental circumstance which might have attached the results.

18

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