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]ouinal ol English anu Gcimanic Philology-]uly

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Thc Wcicwoll in Mcuicval Icclanuic Iiiciaiuic
1
Analheinur Gunmundsdttir, University of Iceland
Pcolc ihioughoui ihc woilu havc long lccn lascinaicu ly ihc iuca ol
shac-shiliing. In all coincis ol ihc woilu ihcic aic sioiics aloui colc
who havc ihc aliliiy io iiansloim ihcmsclvcs inio animals. Thc aliliiy is
gcncially vicwcu ncgaiivcly, anu ihosc wiih such owcis aic olicn soicci-
cis oi wiichcs. Whilc ihc cnviionmcni may uciciminc ihc sccics inio
which human lcings aic iiansloimcu, ihc icsulis aic mosi olicn laigc
icuaioiy animals, loi cxamlc, lcoaius, lions, hycnas, |aguais, iigcis,
anu-noi lcasi-wolvcs anu lcais.
2
Tiauiiions aloui shac-shiliing havc
lccn siuuicu liom vaiious ciscciivcs: liiciaiy, lolIloiic, hisioiical, an-
ihioological, anu cvcn ciymological.
S
Thc lollowing aiiiclc will locus on
sioiics aloui wcicwolvcs in a woll-licc couniiy, Icclanu.
In noiihcin icgions much iomincncc is givcn io iwo Iinus ol shac-
shiliing: ihc aliliiy io changc inio ciihci a lcai oi a woll, alihough ihc
laiici sccms io havc lccn moic oulai.
4
In Icclanuic naiiaiivc iiauiiion,
1. This aiiiclc is lascu on a chaici in my cuiiion ol UILn nn RcyI|avI: Siolnun ina
Magnssonai Islanui, 2001). I am giaiclul io Di. Phili Roughion, who uiu mosi ol ihc
English iianslaiion, as wcll as Di. Maigaici CoimacI, who also mauc scvcial usclul commcnis.
I also wish io ihanI Valgciui Biyn|llsuiiii, who icau an cailici uiali ol ihc aiiiclc.
2. Aloui hycna colc, lion colc, anu similai cicaiuics, scc Rolcii Eislci, Anr .ro
VoI Ionuon: Siing BooIs, 1951), . 152-53.
3. Scc, c.g., Gciaiu Biccn, Thc Woll Is ai ihc Dooi` Ouilaws, Assassins, anu Avcngcis
Who Ciy Woll!`," in A.I.. o. ro.J.I IoIo., 114 1999), 31-43, Ella Ousicui, Vn.uI.er .
S.erI oII.nJ..or, SIiilici uigivna gcnom Ianusmls- och IolIcminncsaiIivci i Usala,
sci. B:1 Usala, 1943), Moniaguc Summcis, TLe Ve.ewoI Ncw YoiI: E. P. Duiion, 1934),
Maiy Rochc Gcisicin, Waig: Thc Ouilaw as Wcicwoll in Gcimanic Myih, Iaw, anu Mcui-
cinc," PhD uiss., Univcisiiy ol Caliloinia, Ios Angclcs, 1972, Sii IicuciicI Mauucn, Noic
on ihc Woiu Wcicwoll`," in Walici W. SIcai, TLe Fonre o V.II.n o PnIe.re Ionuon: N.
Tiulnci, 1867), . xxv-xxix.
4. Ioi wcicwolvcs in laici Scanuinavian lolI lclicl, scc Ousicui, Vn.uI.er . .erI oII.nJ..or;
Knui Hcimunusiau, T.ue. o ..IIJ,., nr o Ie, NoisI IolIcminnclags SIiilici, 99 Oslo:
Univcisiicisloilagci, 1967). Conccining lclicl in wcicwolvcs among Noiwcgians, Ronalu
Giamlo wiiics: Tiocn vaiulv og mannl|in ci vcl loisvunnci i uag, mcn s scni som i
loiiigc ihunuic vai ucn cn icaliici llani lolI" Bclicl in wcicwolvcs anu wciclcais is ncaily
gonc iouay, lui cvcn as laic as lasi ccniuiy ii was a icaliiy amongsi colc, Ioiiiollci vili. Vaiulv
og mannl|in," .bo o. No.I SIob.uI ueu ]1954-57|, . 75-81). Danish lcgcnus aic
iinicu in Evalu Tang Kiisicnscn, DnrIe nr, II Aihus: ]acol Zcuncis BogiiyIIcii, 1893),
. 227-51. Vaiious aiiiclcs ol a lioau naiuic mcniion anu iclci io sioiics ol ihc samc iyc
among ihc Ias, scc, c.g., Dag SiiomlacI, Om vaiulvcn," EoIIIo.e oL E.IoIo. Usala: AB
IunucquisisIa loghanucln, 1970), . 259, anu Asl|in Ncshcim, SamisI iiolluom," in KuI-
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 277 5/7/07 11:27:34 AM
accounis ol such cvcnis havc a sccial chaiacici, anu ii is inicicsiing io
comaic ihcsc souiccs wiih ihc sioiics in oihci Euiocan naiions. In whai
lollows, an accouni will lc givcn ol ihc sioiics comoscu, icscivcu, oi
icau in Icclanu ihai ucal in onc way oi anoihci wiih shac-changing ly
mcn who iooI on ihc acaiancc ol wolvcs anu livcu in ihc loicsi.
In Icclanu ihc wcicwoll moiil is lounu in louiiccn inuigcnous souiccs,
i.c., C,In.rr.r, H.nrnnIJu. On.r, VoIurn nn, HeInI..nn HurJ.r-
bnrn I VoIurnI..nn), C.bbor nn, S..n.n nn .nIrn, S..n.n nn oI
VnIb.nrJ, ihc SIoIJurn nn ol Aingimui ihc lcaincu," AIn eII nn,
UILn nn, TIoJeI nn, Jor nn Ie.In.n, Snnr n o.e.r. Io, anu H.nn
]n.. n.`:

In auuiiion, ihc moiil is lounu in iwo Noiwcgian icxis ihai


wcic loih Inown anu icau in Icclanu: a shoii cisouc in Korur Iun
anu ihc iianslaiion ol ihc 1n. Je B.In..e B.In.e. Ion) in S.erIe.In..
Thc closcly iclaicu moiil ol ihc man-lcai is lounu in 1nrJrnnboI
iwcllih ccniuiy), H.oI nn I.nIn louiiccnih ccniuiy), S.n.JnIn nn
louiiccnih ccniuiy), TIoJeI nn scc sulscqucni uiscussion), anu ihc
ialcs d..r..n u Bn.rJ.er, Snnr n He.on. o Hnn.o.u, H.nn ]n..
n.`: anu Bo.r n bo.r, which wcic collccicu in ihc ninciccnih ccniuiy.
6

u.L.o..I IeI.Ior o. ro.J.I .JJeInIJe. .n ..I.re..J .I .eo.n.orer RcyI|avI: BIavcizlun
Isaloluai, 1970), XV, 7-14. Scc also Nils Iiu, Til vaiulvcns hisioiic," in T.oIIJo. EeI.. .I
eI.n.Jner 16. nrun. 1950 Oslo: Cammcimcycis loghanucl, 1950), . 82-108.
5. Thc souiccs ciicu hcic maIc uiicci mcniion ol shac-shiliing, in which a man changcs
inio a woll, in ihis conicxi, onc shoulu also mcniion iwo IIerJ.rnou.. Iiisi, in E.I nn,
ihc shac-shilici Ulli B|llason Kvclu-Ulli) is saiu io havc lccomc ill-icmcicu as cvcning
aioachcu. Hc hau a icnucncy io slcc in ihc cvcning I.oIJ.nu.), which has lccn sccn
as suggcsiing ihai his soul lcli his louy whcn hc slci anu cnicicu a woll`s shac. Scc E.I
nn, IslcnzI loiniii, II RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1933), ch. 1, . 4 sulscqucni
iclcicnccs aic io ihis cuiiion), anu also Annc HolismaiI, On ihc Wcicwoll Moiil in E.I
nn SInIIn.Iorn.," in S.er.n IInrJ.n-S.ere .r IeInrJ, I 1968), . 7-9. As ihcic is
no uiicci mcniion ol Kvclu-Ulli`s shac-shiliing, ihc cxisicncc ol a wcicwoll moiil in E.I
nn musi uccnu on iniciiciaiion, lui ii shoulu lc loinc in minu ihai his namc siiongly
inuicaics ihai hc hau shac-shiliing aliliiy. Scconu, in CIIn nn S.orn., Gsli uicams ol
a man wiih a woll`s hcau. CIIn nn S.orn., IslcnzI loiniii, VI RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa
loiniiiallag, 1943), ch. 33, . 105.
6. 1nrJrnnboI, IslcnzI loiniii, I RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1968), . 355-56
S 350, H 309), Snn H.oI Iorur I.nIn, in Eo.rnIJn. ou. No.J.InrJn, I-III, cu. C. C. Raln
Cocnhagcn, 1929-1930), I, ch. 25 anu 50, . 50 anu 103, S.n.JnIn nn, IslcnzI loiniii,
IX RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1956), ch. 19, . 181-82, TIoJeI nn, loi insiancc
in AM 578g 4io scc lclow). Thc laic ialc d..r..n u Bn.rJ.er in ]n inason, IIer.In.
]onou. o n..r.., I-VI, cu. ini Bovaisson anu B|aini Vilh|lmsson RcyI|avI: BIai-
glan |saga, 1961), IV, . 650-53, incluucs a similai man-lcai moiil as H.oI nn I.nIn;
Snnr n He.on. o Hnn.o.u in Olalui Davsson, IIer.In. ]onou. RcyI|avI: BIaiglan
|saga, 1980), IV, 10-23, H.nn ]n.. n.`:, Bo.r n bo.r in ]n inason, IIer.In. ]onou. o
n..r.., I, 606. Scc also n. o.e.r u:no, in EIne,n.boI, cu. Gulianuui Viglsson anu
C. R. Ungci Chiisiiania, 1860), I, ch. 209, . 257, anu Snn n Pn.e 1on.rb..r. RcyI|avI:
Picniu Iosina ]ns Sighvaisonai, 1884), ch. 2, . 4-5.
278 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 278 5/7/07 11:27:35 AM
Thc man-lcai moiil will noi lc uiscusscu in ihis aiiiclc, alihough somc
ol ihcsc sioiics may lc iclciicu io.
7
Thc wcicwoll moiil in Icclanuic liiciaiuic was liicuy uiscusscu ly Einai
Ol. Svcinsson in iclcicncc io hvc ol ihc alovc mcniioncu sagas: H.oI nn
I.nIn, VoIurn nn, AIn eII nn, UILn nn, anu Jor nn Ie.In.n.
S
Einai
Ol. Svcinsson consiucicu ii liIcly ihai ihc moiil, as ii cxisis in Icclanuic
sagas, can lc uiviucu inio iwo caicgoiics/vaiianis. Hc lclicvcu ihai ihc
oluci vaiiani is chaiaciciizcu ly ihc innaic aliliiy io shac-shili, which is
usually associaicu wiih wai anu wailiIc aciiviiics. Hc oinis oui ihai iiaccs
ol ihis ancicni lclicl aic siill lounu in sioiics aloui lcisciIs ihai wcic mosi
liIcly lioughi io Icclanu wiih ihc oiiginal sciilcis. Thc Gciman scholai
Wollgang Golihci hau icviously mauc a similai aigumcni in HnrJbuL
Je. e.nr.Ler A,LoIo.e in 1895.
9
Iuiihcimoic, Einai Ol. Svcinsson lc-
licvcu ihai ihc moic icccni vaiiani camc io Icclanu wiih Iicnch iomanccs
in ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy anu ihai ii iolally hau a Ccliic oiigin, in ihis
vaiiani ihc woll naiuic is in mosi cascs a icsuli ol a scll. In ihc vaiious
uiscussions ol wcicwolvcs anu shac-changing, ihc lollowing sagas havc noi
icviously lccn consiucicu: HeInI..nn HurJ.rbnrn I, H.nrnnIJu. On.r,
SIoIJurn nn, S..n.n nn .nIrn, S..n.n nn oI VnIb.nrJ, Snnr n
o.e.r. Io, anu H.nn ]n.. n.`:
10
Thcsc souiccs will lc cxamincu loi ihc
cviucncc ihcy can ioviuc conccining ihc wcicwoll moiil in lighi ol Einai
Ol. Svcinsson`s ihcoiy. Thcy icvcal how ihc iwo vaiianis wcic ucvclocu
anu comlincu, cach inuucncing ihc oihci.
VOCABUIARY AND CONCEPTS
In ihc mcuicval Icclanuic souiccs, onc hnus iclcicnccs io mcn anu gous
changing ihcii loim ly uiiing on ihc Ln. ol a cciiain animal, lui ihc
woiu Ln. can mcan loih a cli/sIin anu a shac. Thc gouucss Iicy|a has
a lcaihci Ln. anu ihc swan maiucns in VoIurJn.I..nn iaIc uon ihcm-
sclvcs ihc Ln. ol swans.
11
This Iinu ol lcaihci Ln. ihai lunciions liIc a
7. Ioi ihc man-lcai moiil in Scanuinavia, scc, c.g., Rolanu Giamlo, Ioiiiollci vili."
8. Einai Ol. Svcinsson, KclincsI hiil slcnzIai I|usogui," SII.r.., 106 1932), 118-
19.
9. Wollgang Golihci, HnrJbuL Je. e.nr.Ler A,LoIo.e Icizig: S. Hiizcl, 1895), .
102-103.
10. Similaily, ihc man-lcai moiil in ihc lolIialcs d..r..n u Bn.rJ.er, Snnr n He.on.
o Hnn.o.u, H.nn ]n.. n.`: anu Bo.r n bo.r has noi lccn mcniioncu oi consiucicu icvi-
ously in uiscussions ol shac-shiliing sioiics.
11. iymsIvia,", si. 3-5, in EJJnJ.e, cu. ]n Hclgason, NoiuisI hlologi Oslo: Dicycis
loilag, 1971), III, 58, anu VolunuaiIvia," loicwoiu anu si. 1, in EJJnJ.e, III, 1-2.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 279
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 279 5/7/07 11:27:35 AM
vcsimcni is quiic common,
12
as is ihc woll`s Ln., which is lounu, c.g., in
VoIurn nn. Thc Icy icim in ihis conicxi is Ln.. Onc hnus iclcicnccs
io mcn changing inio wolvcs ly iaIing uon ihcmsclvcs a .n.Ln. a
woll`s shac) anu lccoming .n.n. wolvcs).
1S
Thc Icclanuic icims loi woll aic .n.. anu I.-icims ihai aic also uscu
loi whai wc now call .n.Iu. wcicwoll).
14
Oihci iclaicu icims connccicu
io wcicwolvcs oi shac-shiliing lcings aic .n.nII. woll coai), ILn.
woll sIin), ILen.rr woll sIin/cli) anu be.e.I. lcai coai).
In a naiiowci scnsc, howcvci, ILenrn. anu be.e.I.. aic iwo Iinus ol
animal-waiiiois, hisi mcniioncu in Hn.nIJI.nn. H.nrnI), in which
ihcy consianily accomany King Haialui. Thc ocm is ihoughi io havc
lccn comoscu ly oil|oin hoinIloh, who livcu aiounu ihc ycai 900.
As wc can scc liom ihc sianza lclow, ihcii icscciivc ciics aic uisiinci:
.er.unu be.e.I.., Thc lcisciIs wcic ioaiing
un. .n. ]e. n .rru, Ioi ihis was ihcii laiilc,
e.unu ILenrn. Thc woll-coaicu waiiiois howling,
oI I,.r Jnu. Anu ihc iions claiiciing.
1
12. Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu., UILn nn, . ccvii-ccviii.
13. Scc, loi cxamlc, AIn eII nn, cu. AIc Iagciholm, in D.e. I,.,u. Hallc: Max
Nicmcyci Vcilag, 1927), . 99: lcgg cI ai iI, ai vciii ai vaigi" ihis I casi uon
you-you will lccomc a woll). Thc sagas gcncially uo noi ucsciilc how colc ui on ihc
woll`s Ln.; ihc icims uscu aic io iuin inio" .e.nn nn) oi iaIc on" b.enn n .) a aiiiculai
loim. Ii is also common loi ihc Ln. io comc uon ihcm, oi loi ihcm ihcii louics) io slcc
whilc ihcii soul iaIcs on ihc liIcncss III.) oi Ln. ol ihc animal. In somc souiccs, which aic
mcniioncu laici in ihis scciion, sclls aic casi on colc, siaiing ihai ihcy aic io icscmllc
wolvcs" IIIn .o.u). Womcn changc inio shc-wolvcs, scc VoIurn nn, in Eo.rnIJn. ou.
No.J.InrJn, I, ch. 5, . 126, anu S..n.n nn .nIrn, in 1ne AeJ.e.nI IeInrJ. Fonre, cu.
Agncic Ioih, Euiiioncs Ainamagnaana, B, 24 Cocnhagcn, 1965), V, ch. 11, . 83. Thc
woiuing in oihci souiccs is lcss clcai: colc iaIc on .n.Ln. oi .n.III. oi simly uon
woll clis .n.beI./InLn.). In many sioiics ol shac-shiliing, ihc Ln. is ucsciilcu as a
soii ol cosiumc, c.g., in onc laiiy ialc, a loy liccs his sillings liom a scll in which ihcy aic
caughi in ihc shacs Ln..) ol a lcai, a uog, anu a lalcon. In iciuin, ihcy givc him ihcsc
shacs, which hc can usc whcncvci hc wanis, scc ]n inason, IIer.In. ]onou. o n..r..,
IV, 617.
14. Thc woiu .n.I. has aiallcls in mosi all Inuo-Euiocan languagcs, loi insiancc,
vaiulv" in Danish, vaiia-ull" in Goihic, wcicwull" in Saxon, Wciwoll" in Gciman, wai-
woll" in Scoiiish, waigus" in olu Noiman, vlIoulaI" in SlovaIian, wawIalaI" in Russian,
vaicolaci" in Romanian, lou-gaiou" in Iicnch, anu luo manaio" in Iialian. Ii is inici-
csiing io noic ihai Icclanuic sioiics ai lcasi iioi io ihc scvcniccnih ccniuiy) icicscni an
cxcciion hcic, ihc icims uscu lcing ihc simlc clcmcnis I. anu .n..; ihc comounu
.n.I. uocs noi sccm io havc lccomc csiallishcu in usc. Ioi moic aloui ihc woiu .n.I.,
scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu., UILn nn, . clxxxiii-clxxxv.
15. HaialusIvai," si. 8, in SInIJe.e., cu. ]n Hclgason, NoiuisI hlologi, 12 Cocnha-
gcn: MunIsgaaiu, 1968), . 17 also Hn.nIJ nn Ln.n.n, IslcnzI loiniii, XXVI ]RcyI|avI:
Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1941|, ch. 18). Thc iianslaiion is ihai in Snoiic Siuilason, He.-
I..rIn o. TLe 1..e o Le No.e K.r, cu. Eiling Monscn Camliiugc: Hcllci anu Sons, 1932),
. 56. An oluci iianslaiion ly Thomas Pcicy has cihas a moic accuiaic icnuciing ol ihc
scconu linc: ihcy hau wai in ihcii hcaiis", scc Maigaici Clunics Ross, cu., TLe OIJ No.e
280 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 280 5/7/07 11:27:36 AM
Scholais havc uisagiccu aloui ihc mcaning ol ihc woiu be.e.I.,
16
lui sincc
ihc ocm namcs be.e.I.. anu ILenrn. as aiallcl hguics who hghi siuc
ly siuc, ii musi lc consiucicu liIcly ihai ihc woiu lcisciIi" is uciivcu
liom lcai sIin, |usi as llhinn" is uciivcu liom woll sIin. Sianzas 20-21
cxlain ihai ILenrn. wcic lcisciIs who hau uisiinguishcu ihcmsclvcs in
laiilc, i.c., waiiiois.
17
Accoiuingly, ihc woiu lcisciIii" is ihc namc ol a
caicgoiy, anu llhnai" a sulcaicgoiy.
1S
Onc ol ihc mosi iccognizallc aiiiiluics ol ihc lcisciIs is ihai ihcy lall
inio a lcisciI licnzy." Thcy iun wilu in laiilc, lccomc ciazcu, anu ioai
oi howl. No wcaons can haim ihcm anu ihcy iolciaic wounus lciici ihan
oihci mcn. Thc lcisciI licnzy is aciually closcly iclaicu io shac-shiliing,
loi in loih cascs mcn acquiic ihc aiiiiluics ol animals. Thc main uillci-
cncc icsiucs, cihas, in ihc laci ihai wiih shac-shiliing ii is assumcu ihai
ciihci ihc soul is iiansoiicu io anoihci louy, ihai is, inio an animal`s
louy anu ihus colc aic ucsciilcu as e.. e.rLn.., noi icsiiicicu io
Poe. T.nrIn.or o TLon Pe., Tuinhoui: Bicols 2001), . 242. Thc ocm is gcncially
ihoughi io havc lccn comoscu ly oil|oin, lui ihc sianzas aloui ihc laiilc ai Halisl|oiuui
among ihcm sianza 8) havc also lccn asciilcu io |lli liom Hvin. On cviucncc loi
uaiing ihc ocm, scc, loi cxamlc, Vsicinn Olason, DiiiIvai," in IIerI boIerrnnn
RcyI|avI: Ml og mcnning 1992), I, 203 anu 364, anu ]n Hclgason, HaialusIvai,"
TIn.. AnI o err.rn., 2 1946), csccially . 142.
16. Scholais uisagicc as io whcihci ihc ichx be.- inuicaics lcai" cl. ihc lcmininc loim
be.n) oi laic" cl. be.). BcisciIs havc ihcicloic lccn vaiiously uchncu as waiiiois in lcai
clis oi waiiiois wiihoui aimoi. Scc csccially Hcimann Gunicii, Ube. nI.InrJ.Le Be.e.Ie.-
CeL.Ler Hciucllcig: Univcisiiais-BuchuiucIcici ]. Hoining, 1912), IicuiiI Gin, Be.e.I-
nrer .eer o n.nIo.LoIJ, Dci Kgl. NoisIc ViucnsIalcis SclsIals SIiilici, 4 Tionuhcim,
1929), EiiI Noiccn, Oiuci laisaiI," in A.I.. o. ro.J.I IoIo., 48 1932), 242-54, Hans
Kuhn, Kaai og lcisciIii," in SII.r.., 123 1949), 98-113, Klaus von Scc, Siuuicn zum
HaialusIvai," in A.I.. o. ro.J.I IoIo., 76 1961), 96-111, Oiio Houci, BcisciIci," in
FenIIe:.Ior Je. e.nr.Ler AIe.uIurJe Bcilin, Ncw YoiI: Walici uc Giuyici, 1976 ]2nu.
cu.|), Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, UILn nn, . ccxi-ccxv.
17. Klaus von Scc consiucis sianzas 20-21 io lc ol a moic icccni uaic ihan sianza 8, scc
Siuuicn zum HaialusIvai."
18. Oihci souiccs show ihai ihcic wcic waiiiois who iucniihcu ihcmsclvcs wiih wolvcs
ly uonning woll coais, loi cxamlc, in T.ounrrn nn, whcic a woll-sIin coai is uscu as a
miliiaiy uniloim in laiilc T.ounrrn nn L.r o.rn, icniu cliii iglu ]ns Siguissonai
loiscia uonsIum annlum 1848 ]RcyI|avI: Picnismi|a D. Osilunus, 1913|, ch. 13). In
VnrJnIn nn, wc icau: oI cii lcisciIii, ci Ullhcnai viu Iallaii, cii hlu vaigsiaIIa
lyiii liyn|ui oI viu liamsialn Ionungs sIiinu" anu ihosc lcisciIs Inown as Woll-
sIins"-ihcy uscu woll-sIin cloaIs loi coisclcis anu uclcnucu ihc low ol ihc Iing`s shi),
IslcnzI loiniii, VIII RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1939), ch. 9, . 24-25, anu TLe
CoIee Snn o IeInrJe., cu. Viai Hicinsson RcyI|avI: Icilui EiiIsson, 1997), IV, ch.
9. Cl. E.I nn, ch. 9, . 22-23, OIn nn LeIn, IslcnzI loiniii, XXVII RcyI|avI: Hi
slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1927), ch. 193 anu 228, . 345 anu 384, in which icinucci sIins aic
mauc siiongci ly magic loi iii hunui anu his mcn. Accoiuing io anoihci vcision ol ihc
saga, ihcsc wcic woll-sIin coais, scc Gciaiu Biccn, Pcisonal Namcs anu ihc Rc-cicaiion ol
BcisciIii anu Ullhcnai," SuJ.n ArL.oor,.n SnrJ.rn..n, TiusIiili loi noiuisI cison-
namnsloisIning, 15 Usala, 1997), . 19, BIo..nIInnn, cu. Thcouoi Molius Icizig:
Wilh. Engclmannum, 1855), ch. 10, . 17, Hynulul|," si. 24, in EJJnJ.e, II, 84.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 281
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 281 5/7/07 11:27:37 AM
onc loim"), oi ihai ihc louy unucigocs a iiansloimaiion, whcicas in ihc
lcisciI licnzy mcn acquiic ihc aiiiiluics ol wilu animals, onc coulu ihus
say ihai ihc lcisciI is a wilu animal in ihc shac ol a man. Thc conuiiion
is ihcicloic sychological in ihc casc ol ihc lcisciI, lui hysical in ihc
casc ol wcicwolvcs anu oihci shac-shilicis.
As mighi lc cxccicu, ihc uisiinciion lciwccn ihc sychological anu
hysical conuiiion is noi always clcai-cui anu somciimcs uccnus on inici-
iciaiion. In ihc liiciaiuic, wc havc cascs whcic inuiviuuals aciually unucigo
iiansloimaiion, oi whcic ihcii souls ucaii liom ihcii louics anu iaIc on
ihc loim ol an animal. Thc laiici ossililiiy, cihas a loim ol shamanism,
is illusiiaicu, loi cxamlc, ly Bovai l|aiIi in H.oI nn I.nIn, whosc louy
lics quicsccni in his icni whilc a lcai hghis on ihc laiilchclu.
19
Pcolc who hau owci ovci ihcii souls ly lcing allc io shac-shili
wcic callcu Ln.n.. oi e.. e.rLn... Iinnui ]nsson, wiiiing aloui e.n.,
aigucu ihai mosi soiccicis anu shamans hau ihc aliliiy io changc ihcm-
sclvcs inio ihc shac ol any living cicaiuic.
20
Ii is clcai ihai ihc animal inio which a cison is iiansloimcu has a
symlolic valuc. This can lc sccn in shac-shiliing sioiics liom aiounu
ihc woilu, incluuing ihosc liom Icclanu, c.g., in ialcs in which lcauiilul
maiucns iuin inio aiiiaciivc liius such as swans oi ciancs. Wolvcs wcic
lcasis ol laiilc, wiih siiongly ncgaiivc associaiions. In laci, ihc Gcimanic
colcs uscu ihc icim .n.. loi ouilaws, ihosc who hau loilciicu ihcii
iighis io aiiiciaic in human sociciy.
21
Thc Olu-Icclanuic law couc C.nn,
which is icscivcu in a ihiiiccnih-ccniuiy manusciii, siaics: moi vaigi
sa ci mcnn hchi myia"
22
muiuci .n.. ihc onc who has muiucicu
19. Snn H.oI Iorur I.nIn, ch. 25 anu 50, . 50 anu 103, anu H.oI nn I.nIn o
Bn.In.Iu., VIII 7, cu. Iinnui ]nsson, STUAGNI, XXXII Cocnhagcn: S. I. Mllci, 1904),
. 161. Similai iycs ol shac-shiliing aic also ucsciilcu in Snoiii Siuiluson`s YrI.rn nn,
which siaics ihai Oinn iaIcs on ihc loims ol vaiious animals whilc his louy lics as il aslcc
oi ucau YrI.rn nn, IslcnzI loiniii, XXVI ]RcyI|avI: Hi slcnzIa loiniiiallag, 1941|,
ch. 7, . 18).
20. Iinnui ]nsson, Um galuia, sci, scimcnn og volui," in .n. ..o.n.., Iinnui ]ns-
son, Valiyi Gumunusson, anu Bogi Th. Mclsicu Cocnhagcn, 1892), . 21. Cl. Golihci,
HnrJbuL Je. e.nr.Ler A,LoIo.e, . 100-1. Ioi a uiscussion ol Ln.n.. in mcuicval
Icclanuic liiciaiuic, scc also Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, Um lcisciIi, lcisciIsganginn
og nnr.n un..n," in SII.r.., 175 2001), 317-53.
21. Thc noiion ol ihc ouilaw as a woll wcicwoll) was wiucsicau among ihc Gcimanic
anu iclaicu colcs anu can lc iiaccu lacI io ihc myihology ol aniiquiiy, wcll lcyonu ihc
lounus ol ihc Gcimanic culiuial hclu, cvcn as lai lacI as in Hiiiiic law ol ihc ihiiiccnih
ccniuiy BC. Scc Gcisicin, Waig: Thc Ouilaw as Wcicwoll," . 163.
22. C.nn ee. Je A.rnnrnnrIe HnnrJI.. N. 334 oI. Snnn.LoIboI, Kommissioncn
loi uci AinamagnaansIc Icgai Cocnhagcn: GylucnualsIc Boghanucl, 1879), . 348. Scc
Gcisicin, Waig: Thc Ouilaw as Wcicwoll," anu Michacl ]acoli, wn.u, .n.., Ve.b.eLe.`,
VoI` Usala: Siuuia Gcimanisiica Usalicnsia, 1974), ch. 2, I anu II.
282 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 282 5/7/07 11:27:37 AM
mcn"). Thc myihical-hcioic VoIurn nn, also wiiiicn in ihc ihiiiccnih
ccniuiy, iclaics ihai Sigi, a son ol ihc gou Oinn anu anccsioi ol ihc Vols-
ungs, was callcu a woll in ihc sanciuaiy" .n.. I .eu) anu was loiccu
io alanuon his aiiimony alici having muiucicu onc ol his ncighloi`s
scivanis.
2S
Such mcn aic also callcu sIggangsmcnn," which iclcis io
ihcii cxulsion liom sociciy, sincc ihcy wcic uiivcn io ihc loicsi as il
ihcy wcic wolvcs. Vn.. is uscu in ihis way loi ouilaws in oihci Icclanuic
souiccs, loih in ihc sagas anu ihc Euuic ocms.
24
In oluci Icclanuic, ihc
conncciion lciwccn .n.. anu ciiminal ouilaw) can also lc sccn in ihc
woius o.n.n.. muiucici), .n..e wolliicc, ihai is, gallows), .n..nI.
cxcllcu liIc a woll), anu .n.J.o./.n.J.n. woll cul, ihai is, son ol
an ouilaw, a lcgal icim),
2
anu cvcn in ihc moucin languagc in ihc woius
b.erru.n.u. aisonisi, yiomaniac), IeJn..n.u. vanual), anu .n.oIJ
iimcs ol wai anu ciucliy).
As has alicauy lccn noicu, ihc icim .n.. sccms io lc moic common
in sagas ol shac-shiliing, in which ii is ihc icim loi an ouilaw,
26
whilc I.
moic olicn iclcis io ihc animal iiscll. Siill, ihis is noi clcai-cui, anu ihc
iwo icims havc a similai lunciion, as wc shall scc.
THE WEREWOII MOTII IN ICEIANDIC IITERATURE:
THE OIDER VARIANT
Scholais who havc siuuicu ihc wcicwoll moiil lclicvc ihai ihc shac-shili-
ing aliliiy was oiiginally innaic anu ihai shac-shiliing as a icsuli ol a scll
oi cnchanimcni is a laici hcnomcnon.
27
In Icclanu, ihc sioiy ol Bovaii
l|aiIi in H.oI nn I.nIn icscivcs ihc moiil in iis oiiginal loim anu is in
many ways chaiaciciisiic ol ihc ancicni lclicls ol ihc Noisc colcs. Bo
vaii l|aiIi, in ihc loim ol a lcai a olai lcai, accoiuing io Bn.In.Iu.),
23. VoIurn nn, ch. 1.
24. In ihc Euuic ocm HeInI..nn HurJ.rbnrn II, ihc icim .n.. iclcis io an ouilaw,
anu ossillc cxulsion io ihc woous is sccn as a unishmcni loi a slaying. HclgaIvia
Hunuingslana II," si. 33, in EJJnJ.e, III, 38.
25. Thc son ol an ouilaw is always uisinhciiicu. Scc C.nn, . 68, anu Sigiuiluml," si.
35, in EJJnJ.e, III, 77. Vaiguiagi" is a vaiiani ol vaiguioi", scc 1e:.or IInrJ.u. O.nnboI
CunurJn. ArJ.eorn., cu. Gunnlaugui Ingllsson anu ]aIol BcncuiIisson RcyI|avI:
OialI HsIlans, 1999), . 167.
26. Scc noics in Snoiii Siuiluson, EJJn. P.oIoue nrJ C,In.rr.r, cu. Anihony IaulIcs
Oxloiu: Claicnuon Picss, 1982), . 152.
27. Einai Ol. Svcinsson, KclincsI hiil slcnzIai I|usogui," . 118-19. Cl. G. I. Kiii-
icugc, Aiihui anu Goilagon," SuJ.e nrJ Noe .r PL.IoIo, nrJ 1.e.nu.e Bosion: Ginn,
1903), VIII, 170, n. 3, 262, anu 265.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 283
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 283 5/7/07 11:27:37 AM
laiilcs wiih his ooncnis whilc his louy slccs. His shac-shiliing aliliiy
is innaic anu cmcigcs in laiilc.
2S
Ioi a wcicwoll, iaihci ihan a man-lcai, wc iuin io VoIurn nn, a
lcgcnuaiy saga liom ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy. This saga sianus aaii liom
oihci Icclanuic souiccs in ihai ihc wcicwoll moiil occuis ihioughoui ihc
naiiaiivc, such as in ihc oiigin anu ucsccni ol ihc Volsungs also callcu
YIrn.-Woluings"),
29
ihcii lioihcihoou, Iinshi, anu iucniihcaiion
wiih wolvcs, anu vaiious aciions anu iiauiiions. Thc moiil acais in ihc
vciy hisi chaici ol ihc saga in ihc cison ol ihc aloicmcniioncu Sigi who
hguiaiivcly lccomcs a woll .n..). Thc hlih chaici incluucs ihc sioiy
ol ihc moihci ol King Siggciii, who changcs hciscll inio a woll anu cais
ihc ninc sons ol King Volsungi. Thc inciucni lcais a siiong icscmllancc
io similai oncs in sioiics ol icsiing in ihai ii is only Sigmunui, ihc icnih
son, who suivivcs.
Thc mosi lamous insiancc ol ihc moiil occuis, howcvci, in ihc sioiy ol
ihc laihci anu son Sigmunui anu Sinl|oili. Sinl|oili is ihc ihiiu son, whom
Sign scnus io Sigmunui loi losiciagc, anu ihc only onc who suivivcs
ihc oiucal. Thc laihci anu son hnu woll clis in a hui in ihc loicsi, ihcy
lclong io iwo cnchanicu Iing`s sons. Thcy aic magic clis, which can lc
icmovcu only cvciy icnih uay. Sigmunui anu Sinl|oili ui on ihc clis
anu livc as wolvcs in ihc loicsi loi icn uays. Thcy agicc io howl io cach
oihci il ihcy shoulu lc involvcu in hghis wiih moic ihan scvcn mcn ai
a iimc, lui Sinl|oili iovcs io lc ihc moic valiani, Iilling clcvcn mcn ai
onc iimc wiihoui lciiing his laihci Inow. Sigmunui is angcicu ai his son`s
aiiogancc anu inuicis a ucauly wounu on him, lui a iavcn, ihc liiu anu
mcsscngci ol Oinn, liings a lcal ihai hcals Sinl|oili`s wounus. Sigmunui
anu Sinl|oili aic iclicvcu whcn ihcy aic hnally allc io icmovc ihcii clis
anu luin ihcm.
Ii is olvious ihai Sigmunui iaIcs Sinl|oili oui io ihc woous on uiosc,
io accusiom him io haiushi anu ihai as a lully iiaincu waiiioi Volsungi)
Sinl|oili musi comc io Inow his animal naiuic, ihc wilu animal wiihin him:
oI cim sIoum unnu cii moig liagaivciI iIi Siggciis Ionngs.
OI ci Sinl|oili ci liumvaxii, iIIisi Sigmunui hala icyni hann m|oI"
Unuci ihai magic scll ihcy hau ciloimcu many lcais in King Siggciii`s
Iinguom. Whcn Sinl|oili was lully giown Sigmunu ihoughi hc hau icsicu
28. Snn H.oI Iorur I.nIn, chs. 25, 50, . 50, 103, anu H.oI nn I.nIn o Bn.In.Iu.,
VIII, 7, . 161. Wc may noic, howcvci, ihai B|oin, Bovaii`s laihci, was laccu unuci a scll
ly Quccn Hvi, anu Bovaii was ihcicloic aciually ihc son ol a man-lcai, an cnchanicu
lcing. Thus, ihc moiil is scll iclaicu.
29. HclgaIvia Hunuingslana II," in EJJnJ.e, III, 30. BeowuI iclcis io ihc samc colc
as Wylhngas", scc BeowuI nrJ Le E.L n E.rrbu., cu. Ii. Klaclci Bosion: D. C. Hcaih,
1950), . 18, ll. 461, anu 471.
284 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
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him lully).
S0
Thc cmhasis in ihis cisouc is on Sinl|oili`s ucvclomcni,
which sccms in mosi icsccis io icucci ihc conscciaioiy iiics ol aichaic
colcs-anu ihcicloic ihc inciucni in which ihc shc-woll cais his ai-
cnis` lioihcis is iclcvani in ihc samc way, loi in loih cascs only onc ol
ihc young mcn is ucsiincu io suivivc.
Thc sioiy iaiscs somc qucsiions icgaiuing ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn
ihc Volsungs anu wolvcs. Is ihcii aioximaiion io wolvcs anu ihcii woll
naiuic cihas a way io liing ihcmsclvcs closci io anu iucniily ihcm-
sclvcs wiih Oinn, ihcii anccsioi. Thc woll is Oinn`s animal anu as a
scavcngci-along wiih his iavcns-ihc aioiiaic symlol anu agcni ol
ihc gou ol wai. In ihis scnsc, ihc woll coulu also lc unucisioou as sym-
lolic ol ihc owci ihai liings vicioiy, accoiuing io ancicni Noisc anu
Gcimanic lclicl.
S1
In ihis lighi, ihc Volsungs can lc sccn as a soii ol woll
clan oi as ILenrn., i.c., a lamily oi waiiioi clan ihai ciloims iis uccus in
ihc namc ol ihc woll, ihc woll ihcn lunciioning as a soii ol ioicm ol ihc
clan. Iucniihcaiion wiih ihc wilu animal insiics ihcm io gicai uccus, anu
ihc naiuic ol ihc acI" givcs ihcm gicai siicngih, liIc wolvcs who |oin
iogcihci in acIs anu uigc cach oihci io aiiacI. Coulu ii lc claimcu ihai
ihc woll, as ihc choscn animal ol Oinn, is a soii ol moucl loi Sigmunui
anu Sinl|oili as valiani waiiiois anu waiiiois ol Oinn.
S2
Anu ihai ihcii
cxisicncc as wolvcs is ihcicloic a soii ol conscciaioiy iiic, in which ihc
laihci lcaus ihc son ihiough ihc mosi cxiicmc iiial.
Iaici in VoIurn nn, Siguii, anoihci son ol Iing Sigmunui, Iills
ihc uiagon Ilnii. Bcloic uying, Ilnii asIs Siguii his namc, io which
hc iclics: cI hciii golugi ui" I am callcu ihc nollc lcasi").
SS
Ii can
quiic ossilly lc assumcu ihai Siguii liIcns himscll io a woll,
S4
as ihc
30. VoIurn nn, ch. 8, . 132, anu TLe Snn o Le VoIur, iniio. anu iians. ]cssc I.
ByocI BciIclcy: Univ. ol Caliloinia Picss, 1990), . 45. Ioi ihc Volsungs as a woll acI,
scc Auam Douglas, TLe Ben V.L.r: Anr, A,L nrJ Ve.ewoI.e Ionuon: Oiion, 1993),
. 67 anu also . 25, Hilua R. Ellis Daviuson, Shac-Changing in ihc Olu Noisc Sagas,"
in A 1,nrL.o, FenJe., cu. Chailoiic I. Oiicn Ncw YoiI: Syiacusc Univ. Picss, 1986), .
151-53, also Gcisicin, Waig: Thc Ouilaw as Wcicwoll," . 81.
31. ]. C. Cooci, Ar IIIu.neJ Er,IoneJ.n o T.nJ..ornI S,boI, 3u cu. Ionuon: Thamcs
anu Huuson, 1990), . 194.
32. Conccining Sigmunuui anu Sinl|oili as waiiiois ol Oinn, scc Oiio Houci, KuI.Le
CeLe.burJe Je. Ce.nrer IianIluii am Main: Vcilag Moiiiz Dicsiciwcg, 1934), I, 197. Ii
has lccn oinicu oui ihai ihc namc Sinl|oili coulu ossilly mcan woll", scc HciIo UccIci,
Ce.nr.Le HeIJerne Siuiigaii: Mcizlci, 1972), . 24. Il ihis is so, ihcn ihc namc coniains
an uncquivocal iclcicncc io ihc ioicm animal ol ihc clan, as was a iiauiiional iaciicc, scc
Biccn, Pcisonal Namcs anu ihc Rc-Cicaiion ol BcisciIii anu Ullhcnai," . 11-12.
33. VoIurn nn, ch. 18, . 160, anu TLe Snn o Le VoIur, . 63. A comaiallc icly
can lc lounu in ihc Euuic ocm Ilnisml," si. 2, in EJJnJ.e, III, 62.
34. ]A|s hc is ol a nollc ihciiohoiic woll iiilc, ihc YIrn." Biccn, Thc Woll Is ai
ihc Dooi," . 35). Aumiiiculy, ihc noliliiy" ol wolvcs is uisuiallc, lui ii mighi lc oinicu
oui ihai in wcicwoll sioiics, ihc Icclanuic oncs ai lcasi, ii is mosi commonly nollc oi cvcn
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 285
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 285 5/7/07 11:27:38 AM
Volsungs sccm io uo. Ai lcasi wc shoulu noic ihai in anoihci sccnc-in
ihc Euuic ocm Fe.rnI, Rcginn, Ilnii`s lioihci, calls him .eInr I
an aggicssivc woll).
S
Thc woll imagciy coniinucs ihioughoui ihc saga, ihc aiallcl lciwccn
man anu woll aaicnily having mainly ncgaiivc connoiaiions oi iclciiing
io ihc qualiiics ol a waiiioi anu ihc iigois anu uangcis ol such a lilc. This
sccms also io lc ihc casc whcn Siguii mccis Biynhilui Bulauiiii loi
ihc hisi iimc, shc givcs him wisc counscl anu among oihci ihings auviscs
him io lcwaic ol ihc sons anu lioihcis ol ihc oncs hc slays, lccausc oi
ci lli ngum syni" olicn a woll lics in a young son).
S6
This iovcil
loicshauows loiihcoming cvcnis, such as whcn Biynhilui calls Siguii`s
son an IL.eI woll cul). This icsumally icuccis his innaic inhciiiancc,
along wiih ihc laci ihai il hc is noi io lc Iillcu along wiih his laihci, hc
will laici lccomc his icvcngci. Ii is also noicwoiihy ihai whcn Guiioimi
G|Iason is cisuaucu io slay Siguii anu his son ihc woll cul"), hc is
givcn loilcu woll mcai, which maIcs him so vchcmcni anu lciocious ihai
hc agiccs io commii ihc cvil uccu.
S7
Iinally, ihc woll symlolism acais again laic in ihc saga whcn ihc lioih-
cis Gunnaii anu Hogni ucciuc io visii ihcii lioihci-in-law Aili, Guin`s
iicachcious huslanu. Thcii sisici Guin anu ihcii wivcs iiy io wain ihcm
againsi going, Guin scnus ihcm a ioIcn, a golu iing, wiih a woll`s haii
aiounu ii, anu Gunnaii`s wilc iclls hci huslanu ihai shc uicamcu ol his
ucaih among howling wolvcs.
SS
Thai ihc Volsung conncciion wiih wolvcs is iiauiiional can lc sccn noi
only liom ihc saga lui also liom ihc laci ihai ihc saga is lascu on Euuic
ioyal) cisons who aic iiansloimcu inio wolvcs. Il Siguii is comaiing himscll io a woll,
ihcn ihis woulu coniain a iclcicncc io ihc Ylhngai, i.c., ihc Volsungs, ihus, Siguii is giving
Ilnii a hini ol his anccsiiy. Golugi ui" has also lccn iniciicicu as mcaning auiochs"
.u:.), ihc hisi ihicc lincs ol Ilnisml" ihcn lcing iniciicicu as coniaining a hiuucn
loim ol ihc namc Siguii: Glugi ui cI hciii, / cn cI gcngii hclI / inn muilausi mgi"
Pic-cmincni lcasi" I`m callcu, / anu I go aloui / as a moihcilcss loy, TLe Poe. EJJn,
iiansl. Caiolinc Iaiiingion ]Oxloiu: Oxloiu Univcisiiy Picss, 1996|), . 158). Scc Olalui
M. Olalsson, Siguiui uului nalns sns," ArJ.n.., 12 1970), csccially . 184-87, anu
Ilnisml," si. 2, in EJJnJ.e, III, 62.
35. Rcginsml,", si. 13, in EJJnJ.e, III, 56.
36. VoIurn nn, ch. 21, anu TLe Snn o Le VoIur, . 71, scc also ihc Euuic ocm
Sigiuiluml," si. 35, in EJJnJ.e, III, 77-78.
37. An oluci vaiiani ol ihc samc cisouc is lounu in ihc Euuic ocm Bioi al Siguiai-
Iviu," si. 4, in SnurJn. EJJn L.r .onn, cu. Sohus Buggc, No..nr o.rI.nn. Chiisiiania,
1867), . 238. A comaiallc moiil also occuis in Bn.In.Iu. IV, 63-66 anu V, 4), whcic
Bovaii cncouiagcs H|alii io uiinI ihc lloou liom a shc-woll, ai which his siicngih anu
owci gicw so gicaily ihai hc lccamc cqual io Bovaii in hysical iowcss. Scc H.oI nn
I.nIn o Bn.In.Iu., . 140-41.
38. VoIurn nn, ch. 33 anu 35, . 210 anu 213, anu TLe Snn o Le VoIur, . 96
anu 99. Thc loimci is comaiallc io ihc Euuic ocm AilaIvia," si. 8, in SnurJn. EJJn
L.r .onn, . 283-84.
286 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
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ocms, somc ol which havc alicauy lccn ciicu. Thc Euuic ocms consiiiuic
onc ol ihc iwo caicgoiics ol ociiy iaciiccu ly Noiscmcn sincc lcloic ihc
ViIing Agc. Thcy aic now icscivcu in manusciiis liom ihc ihiiiccnih
ccniuiy anu laici, ihc olucsi onc uaiing liom ciica 1270. In ihc ihiiiy-louiih
sianza ol ihc ocm HeInI..nn HurJ.rbnrn I, Sinl|oili is callcu YIr. a
woluing") anu shoiily alici, his ooncni Gumunui icminus him ol his
wcicwoll naiuic anu his associaiion wiih wolvcs. Hc says:
hchi cinai Thou hasi mauc ihy mcal
lla Iisii ol ihc mcai ol wolvcs,
oI lioi nom anu lccn ihc lanc
ai lana oiii, ol ihy lioihcis iwain,
oi si sogin wiih ihy colu snoui hasi
mc svlum munni, oli sucIcu mcn`s wounus,
hcli hicysi anu haiclul io all
hvailcii sIiiii! hasi hiu in ihc wasic.
S9
Hc also says:
Siii vaiiu Siggciis, As Siggcii`s sicson
lii unu siom hcima, `ncaih sioncs uiusi uwcll
vaigliom vani in woouy wasicu,
viom ii. wiih ihc wolvcs howling.
40
Thcsc iwo sianzas can lc comaicu io VoIurn nn, chaici 9, in which
Gumunui is callcu Gianmaii. Thc cic ocm inuicaics ihai ihc wcicwoll
moiil as uscu in VoIurn nn is olu, as uocs ihc laci ihai ihc moiil a-
cais io lc quiic uccly iooicu in ihc saga siiuciuic. Thcicloic, ii can lc
mainiaincu ihai lchinu ihc laiiyialc-liIc cisouc ol Sigmunui anu Sinl|oili
lics ihc ancicni wcicwoll moiil, which is closcly connccicu wiih Sinl|oili`s
lacIgiounu anu giowih io manhoou. Alihough wc can say ihai ihis cisouc
is closcly connccicu io ancicni iniiiaiion iaciiccs,
41
ii is noi clcai ai whai
39. HclgaIvia Hunuingslana I" VolsungaIvia,") si. 36, in EJJnJ.e, III, 15, anu Icc
M. Hollanuci, TLe Poe. EJJn Ausiin: Univ. ol Tcxas Picss, 1962), . 186. Thc iianslaiion ol
ihc scconu linc uocs noi givc ihc coiicci mcaning ol ihc Olu Noisc icxi, lccausc Sinl|oili
has caicn ihc loou lii. uclicacics) ol wolvcs as hc was onc himscll), noi ihcii mcai! Oihci
iianslaiions aic noi quiic accuiaic ciihci, c.g., Caiolinc Iaiiingion iianslaics: you havc
caicn ihc lcavings ol wolvcs", scc TLe Poe. EJJn, . 119.
40. HclgaIvia Hunuingslana I" VolsungaIvia"), si. 41, in EJJnJ.e, III, 16, anu
Hollanuci, TLe Poe. EJJn, . 187. Thc woiu vaigl|um" has lccn iaIcn ly iniciicicis
ol ihc Euuic ocms io mcan vaighl|" woll-sounus, howls), lui ihc mcaning vaigl|ai"
as vaigmcnn" woll-mcn) shoulu noi lc iulcu oui, as ii suiis ihc conicxi wcll accusiomcu
io lcing a wcicwoll oui in ihc woous). Thc woiu is, howcvci, noi aiicsicu clscwhcic, anu
ihcic aic no cxamlcs ol ihc woiu l|ai" lcing uscu loi mcn" anywhcic clsc in ihc Euuic
ocms.
41. Cl., loi cxamlc, Iily Wcisci, AIe.nr.Le JurI.rwe.Ler urJ Anrre.burJe, Bausicinc
zui VolIsIunuc unu Rcligionswisscnschali, 1 Buhl ]Baucn|: KonIoiuia A.-G., 1927), .
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 287
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 287 5/7/07 11:27:39 AM
siagc ihc symlolic iiiuals lccamc iciniciicicu as aciual iiansloimaiion,
in which ihc laihci anu son iaIc uon ihcmsclvcs ihc shac ol wolvcs. Thc
clis, which lclong io cnchanicu Iing`s sons, coulu suggcsi ihai ihc oiiginal
moiil shows laici Ccliic inuucncc. Bui ucsiic ihc vciy liIcly ossililiiy ihai
ihc ancicni wcicwoll moiil in VoIurn nn unuciwcni somc changcs ovci
iimc, iis symlolic mcaning can lc consiucicu unchangcu.
Examlcs ol ihc ncgaiivc connoiaiion ol wolvcs aic also lounu in oihci
Euuic maiciial. In C,In.rr.r in Sro..n EJJn, Snoiii Siuiluson 1241)
iclls how ihc sii changcu Vli inio ihc shac ol a woll, anu ihai in ihis
loim hc ioic aaii his lioihci Naih cl. ihc Euuic ocm 1oInerrn).
42
Iui-
ihcimoic, Snoiii mcniions cciiain gianis who aic loin as wolvcs, among
ihcm SIoll anu Haii Hioviinisson, who iun ahcau ol anu lchinu ihc sun,
anu Mnagaimi uog ol ihc moon), who swallows ihc moon ai Fnrn.oI.
Thc samc myihological maiciial is icscivcu in an oluci, lcss-uciailcu loim
in ihc Euuic ocm VoIun.
4S
Thc moiil also acais in H.nrnnIJu. On.r,
oi Iois|allsl|," which was iinicu along wiih oihci Euuic ocms in
Sohus Buggc`s cuiiion liom 1867. Thc ocm is only icscivcu in laic
aci manusciiis, anu in ihc iniiouuciion io his cuiiion, Buggc suggcsis
ihai ii shoulu lc cxcluucu liom laici cuiiions, as ii is ol a moic icccni uaic
ihan oihci Euuic ocms anu is wiiiicn in a uillcicni siylc. Hc lclicvcs ihai
ii was wiiiicn in ihc scvcniccnih ccniuiy, lui ]nas Kiisi|nsson is ol ihc
oinion ihai ii is olu, lui vciy coiiui. In ihc cighih sianza ol ihis ocm,
ihc gouucss Iunn is givcn a woll`s cli, so ihai shc can changc shac:
Si sigivai Thc uiviniiics scc
syigia naunno Nauma giicving
Viggiai ai vcom, in ihc woll`s homc
vaigslclg scluo, givcn a woll-sIin,
lci laiaz, shc clau hciscll ihcicin,
lynui licyiii, changcu uisosiiion,
lcI ai lavsi, uclighicu in guilc,
liiom sIiii. shilicu hci shac.
44
70-71, anu ]cns Pcici Sch|ui, Ir..n.or, I..rnI.e o .IereIe n ru.r ..Jer Aihus: Dci
TcologisIc IaIulici, Aaihus Univcisiici, 2003), . 315-18.
42. Scc Gyllaginning," in Snoiii Siuiluson, EJJn. P.oIoue nrJ C,In.rr.r, . 49. Ac-
coiuing io Gyllaginning," ihc sii iooI Naih`s inicsiincs anu uscu ihcm io linu his laihci,
IoIi. Thc Euuic ocm 1oInerrn iclaics ihc samc inciucnis, lui in a uillcicni way. Ii siaics
ihai ihc sii lounu IoIi wiih ihc inicsiincs ol his son Naii, auuing: En Naih soni hans
vai ai vaigi" lui his son Naih lccamc a woll"). Scc EJJnJ.e, II, ihc iosc ai ihc cnu ol
ihc ocm, . 57, anu Hollanuci, TLe Poe. EJJn, . 103. This icisc assagc is amliguous,
Naih ciihci iooI on ihc shac ol a woll oi hc simly lccamc an ouilaw scc ihc uiscussion
ol ihc amlivalcncc ol ihc icim .n.. cailici in ihis aiiiclc).
43. Gyllaginning," . 49, anu Volus," si. 40 anu 41, in EJJnJ.e, I.
44. Hialnagaluui Oins," si. 8, in SnurJn. EJJn L.r .onn, . 372. English iianslaiion
ly Eysicinn B|oinsson anu William P. Rcavcs, ullishcu ai hii://www.hi.is/~cyl|oin/ugm/
hig/hig.himl. Nauma" in l. 2 ol ihc iianslaiion is a vaiiani ol naunno" in somc ol ihc
288 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 288 5/7/07 11:27:39 AM
Iunn`s woll-owci comcs liom a cli shc uons. Thc woll`s shac changcs
hci cisonaliiy: shc noi only looIs liIc a woll lui acis liIc onc as wcll,
shc lccomcs guilclul.
In auuiiion io ihc alovc-mcniioncu cisouc in H.oI nn I.nIn, VoI-
urn nn, anu ihc Euuic maiciial-anu ihc iclaicu sioiics ol lcisciIs ihai
Einai Ol. Svcinsson mcniioncu as icmnanis ol ihc ancicni lclicl-ihc
wcicwoll is ucicicu ncgaiivcly in scvcial laic mcuicval iomanccs. In C.bb-
or nn, an Icclanuic iomancc liom ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy, icscivcu in
ihc manusciii AM 335 4io liom ciica 1400, ihc uwail Asci iuins himscll
inio a hugc woll, llacI as coal anu cvil-looIing as ihc ucvil. In his luinc
shac, Asci hghis ihc ogicss Olscuia, anu loi his valoi hc is icwaiucu
wiih loui casilcs anu an cailuom.
4
S..n.n nn .nIrn, anoihci Icclanuic
iomancc iolally liom ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy) anu icscivcu in AM
556 a 4io liom ihc laic hliccnih ccniuiy, lcaiuics ihc wiich Hlgcii,
who can changc hciscll inio vaiious animals anu iiansloims hciscll inio
a shc-woll io aiiacI a man callcu Knii in his slcc. Alici a hghi, uuiing
which ihc shc-woll icais ihc ucsh liom Knii`s loncs, hc anu his iwo
comanions licaI hci sinc anu icai oui hci cniiails. Thcn Hlgcii
icacais anu whcn Knii siiiIcs ai hci, shc iuins inio a ciow anu uics
u inio ihc aii.
46
An cisouc similai io ihc onc in C.bbor nn occuis in
S..n.n nn oI VnIb.nrJ, an Icclanuic iomancc liom ihc louiiccnih
ccniuiy, icscivcu in Holm cig 10 II 8vo liom ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy.
Thc sioiy mcniions a cciiain Gusii, who iuins himscll inio a llacI woll,
|usi liIc Asci, anu aiiacIs wiih his sioium Il om, og laungum i nnum"
lig claws anu long iccih) ihc villain Vallianui, who has alicauy iuincu
himscll inio a uiagon.
47
In his SIoIJurn nn, Aingimui ]nsson ihc lcaincu" 1568-1648)
mcniions HciicIi Ullhami, who was suoscu io lc allc io iiansloim
himscll inio a woll:
Hciuiicus cognomcnio Ulllhamui, co qvou sc in luum iiansloimaic novciii,
vcl csi iioicc uicium io savo.
4S
manusciiis. Iinc 3 coniains ihc vaiiani ai Ygg|ai vcum` ai Oinn`s homc, scc SnurJn.
EJJn L.r .onn, ln., . 372. Scc also ]nas Kiisi|nsson, Ii Iicmsia-Iclli iil Hialnagaluuis
Oins," in SIoIJu., 8 1995), 8, anu Hialnagaluui Oins-Iois|allsl|: loinIvai icisi i
osIu," in Ao.urbInn.n," IcslI, Aiil 27 2002), 4-6. Gunnai Plsson aigucu ihai ihc coiicci
iiilc ol ihc ocm is Hiavagaluui" anu ihai ii consiiiuics an iniiouuciion io VcgiamsIvia",
scc B.e Currn. PnIorn., cu. Gunnai Svcinsson RcyI|avI: Siolnun ina Magnssonai
Islanui, 1984), I, 378.
45. C.bbor nn, cu. R. I. Pagc, Euiiioncs Ainamagnaana, B, 2 Cocnhagcn: E|nai
MunIsgaaiu, 1960), ch. 17, . 87-88.
46. S..n.n nn .nIrn, in 1ne AeJ.e.nI IeInrJ. Fonre, V, ch. 11, . 83.
47. S..n.n nn oI VnIb.nrJ, in 1ne AeJ.e.nI IeInrJ. Fonre, V, ch. 22, . 181.
48. Aingimui ]nsson, Rcium Danicaium Iiagmcnia," in A.r... Jorne Oe.n 1n.re
Cor..n, cu. ]aIol BcncuiIisson, Billioihcca Ainamagnaana, IX Cocnhagcn: E|nai

The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 289


00.i-iv,277-416.indd 289 5/7/07 11:27:40 AM
Hciuiicus was callcu Ullhami lccausc hc was allc io iiansloim himscll inio
a woll, as is saiu, mciahoiically, ol a ciucl cison.)
This HciicIi Ullhami alicinaiivcly ihc son ol Ullhami) is also mcn-
iioncu in ihc myihical-hcioic sagas He..n.n. nn ihiiiccnih ccniuiy),
So.In ]n. iolally liom ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy), anu o.e.r ]n. bnn.-
nr louiiccnih ccniuiy), whcic hc is saiu io lc a son ol ihc lcgcnuaiy
chicliain Gomunui liom Glasisvcllii anu gianuson ol UILen.rr iiausii,
who was also callcu Gomunui. Thcsc souiccs, howcvci, uo noi mcniion
HciicIi`s shac-shiliing aliliiics, anu ihc iclcicncc coulu havc lccn
auucu ly Aingimui, sincc ii is a naiuial conclusion io lc uiawn liom
ihc namc UILn.. This may cihas lc a laic sixiccnih-ccniuiy iaiional-
izaiion.
In ihicc ol ihc loui alovc-mcniioncu souiccs, Asci, Hlgcii, anu
Gusii changc inio wolvcs uuiing a hghi/laiilc, anu ihcicloic ihcsc vaii-
anis icscmllc ihc oiiginal moiil in H.oI nn I.nIn, ihough aumiiiculy
wiih ihc uillcicncc ihai ihcy uo noi lcavc ihcii own louics.
WEREWOIVES OUTSIDE ICEIAND
Wcicwolvcs wcic also lounu in ihc ancicni naiiaiivcs ol GiccI, Roman,
anu Ccliic sociciy anu ucvclocu in vaiying ways.
49
In ihc song Alhcsi-
locus" liom 39 BC, ihc Roman oci Viigil wiiics aloui Mociis, who is
iiansloimcu inio a woll anu hiucs in ihc woous.
0
A slighily moic icccni
souicc, lui siill ihc olucsi mosi lully ucvclocu Euiocan wcicwoll sioiy,
is lounu in ihc Sn,..or ol ihc Roman wiiici Pciionius, who livcu in ihc
hisi ccniuiy AD.
1
Dcsiic lcing quiic ancicni, ihcsc iwo woiIs sccm
noi io havc ihc olucsi aiicsiaiions ol ihc wcicwoll moiil in Euioc, sincc
ihc hisioiian Hciouoius 484.-425. BC) iccoiucu ihai cciiain soiccicis
MunIsgaaiu, 1950), . 353. Scc also He..n.n. nn o He.n.eI Iorur, in Eo.rnIJn. ou.
No.J.InrJn, I, ch. 20, . 509, So.In ]nu., in Eo.rnIJn. ou. No.J.InrJn, I, 399, anu Snn n
o.e.r. bnn.nr., in Eo.rnrrnou., III Cocnhagcn: Hi noiiana loinliaa llag,
1827), ch. 5 anu 12, . 183 anu 197.
49. Ioi ihc oiigin ol ihc moiil, scc IicuiiI Gin, Be.e.Inrer .eer o n.nIo.LoIJ, . 43
ll., anu ]ohn Gianlunu, Vaiulv" in KuIu.L.o..I IeI.Ior, XIX, 559. Scc also Wilhcm Hciiz,
De. Ve.woI Siuiigaii: A. Kionci, 1862), Summcis, TLe Ve.ewoI; Douglas, TLe Ben V.L.r,
. 41-63, Salinc Baiing-Goulu, TLe BooI o Ve.ewoI.e; anu SiiomlacI, Om vaiulvcn."
Numcious ciiaiions in Siiih Thomson`s icgisici, Ao. IrJe: o EoII 1.e.nu.e, 1-6 Cocn-
hagcn: RoscnIiluc og Baggci, 1955-58) givc a goou iuca ol ihc gcogiahical uiscision ol
ihc moiil scc D 113.1, D 113.1.1).
50. Viigil, EIoue; Ceo..; Aere.J I-IV Camliiugc, Mass.: Haivaiu Univcisiiy Picss,
1999), . 81-83.
51. Pciionius, Sn,..n, cu. anu iiansl. ly R. Biachi Bianham anu Danicl Kinncy Ios
Angclcs: Univ. ol Caliloinia Picss, 1996), . 56-57.
290 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 290 5/7/07 11:27:40 AM
among ihc Scyihians changcu inio ihc loim ol a woll loi a lcw uays cach
ycai.
2
Anoihci hisioiian, Pliny, who livcu in ihc hisi ccniuiy AD, siaics
ihai sioiics aloui wcicwolvcs hau lccn ciiculaiing loi ccniuiics lcloic
his iimc. Pliny quoics ihc GiccI hisioiian Evanics, who wioic aloui a
cciiain Aicauian iiilc: cvciy ninc ycais, ihcsc Aicauians hau io choosc
onc mcmlci who woulu lc iiansloimcu inio a woll. Alici ihis iimc, hc
woulu changc lacI.
S
Aicauia also lcaiuics in ihc GiccI myih ol IyIaon,
Iing ol ihc Aicauians, who was iiansloimcu inio a woll alici ollcnuing
Zcus ly saciihcing a loy io him.
4
Thc sioiy ol ihc Aicauian wolvcs as iclaicu ly Evanics closcly icscmllcs
an cisouc lounu in ihc Noiwcgian Korur Iun liom ihc ihiiiccnih
ccniuiy icscivcu in Noiwcgian as wcll as numcious Icclanuic manu-
sciiis). In a sioiy aloui Si. PaiiicI, icsumally uciivcu liom an Iiish
souicc,

a cciiain Iiish iiilc ic|ccicu ihc aosilc`s mission anu, in oiuci


io mocI him, siaiicu io howl liIc wolvcs againsi ihc woiu ol Gou.
6
Si. Pai-
iicI lccamc angiy anu asIcu Gou io unish ihcm loi ihcii uisolcuicncc.
Iiom ihcn on ihc iiilc livcu unuci a cuisc, in ihai cvciy mcmlci woulu
loi a ciiou ol scvcn ycais lccomc a woll, livc oui in ihc loicsi, anu cai
ihc loou ol wolvcs. Thcsc colc wcic consiucicu io lc cvcn woisc ihan
ical wolvcs, sincc ihcy osscsscu human unucisianuing anu ihcicloic uiu
haim io loih humans anu oihci animals ihiough ihcii iaaciiy anu giccu.
In ihis sioiy, ihc iiansloimaiion ol mcn inio wolvcs is a unishmcni liom
Gou, |usi as in ihc GiccI myih whcic Zcus unishcs IyIaon ly iuining
him inio a woll.
Thc uisiiiluiion ol ihc wcicwoll moiil shows ihai ii was wiucly Inown
anu aiicsicu, anu ii may salcly lc assumcu ihai wiiiicn souiccs icicscni
only a liaciion ol ihc iiauiiion ihai oncc lay lchinu ihcm. Naiuially, inui-
viuual sioiics anu vaiianis ol ihis wiucsicau moiil aic ol vaiying signih-
cancc whcn ii comcs io ihc oiigin ol ihc moiil anu iis occuiicncc in Noisc
liiciaiuic. Thc iclaiionshi lciwccn ihc Icclanuic sioiics anu Gcimanic
cusioms, which acai io loim ihcii lacIgiounu, has alicauy lccn oinicu
52. Baiing-Goulu, TLe BooI o Ve.ewoI.e, . 9.
53. Plinius Sccunuus, TLe H.o., o Le Vo.IJ Ionuon: Ccniaui Picss, 1962), . 95.
54. Rolcii Giavcs, TLe C.eeI A,L Haimonuswoiih: Pcnguin BooIs, 1960), I, 138.
55. Korur Iun, cu. Iuuvig Holm-Olscn Oslo: K|clucsIiililonuci, 1945), . 25. Cl.
]ohn Caicy, Wcicwolvcs in Mcuicval Iiclanu," Cnb..nr AeJ.e.nI CeI. SuJ.e, 44 Winici
2002), cs. . 48ll. Caicy uiscusscs Korur Iun, as wcll as ihicc oluci, closcly iclaicu
Iiish sioiics in Too.nL.n H.be.r.ne iwcllih ccniuiy), De A..nb.I.bu H.be.r.e clcvcnih
ccniuiy), anu ihc Miuulc Iiish icxi De Irnrn.b E.er On ihc Wonucis ol Iiclanu").
56. Thcic is a aiallcl io Kn.Innr nn ihiiiccnih ccniuiy), whcic ihc hcaihcn mcn
uigu siI laI oI luu sv scm vaigai" ihcn iciicaicu anu howlcu liIcu wolvcs), Kn.In-
nr nn oI Inn Lnr, cu. C. R. Ungci Chiisiiania: H. ]. ]cnscn, 1860), . 352. Hcaihcns
wcic also commonly ucsciilcu as laiIing uogs, scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, hva
iia hunuai." in o.InIIn.. RcyI|avI), . 7-10.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 291
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 291 5/7/07 11:27:41 AM
oui, lui in auuiiion ii may lc inloimaiivc io cxaminc ihcii iclaiionshi
io mcuicval Iiish souiccs. Thc Iiish souiccs, which iclci io cvcnis uaiing
liom lciwccn ihc scvcnih anu ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiics, coniain somc vaii-
anis ol ihc moiil ihai aic comaiallc io ihc Icclanuic vaiianis uiscusscu
alovc. Among oihci ihings, ihcy incluuc: 1) ihc symlolic associaiion ol
hounus anu wolvcs wiih waiiiois comaiallc io ILenrn.), 2) a soul ihai
iaIcs on ihc loim ol a woll whilc ihc louy slccs comaiallc io H.oI
nn I.nIn), 3) a saini who unishcs colc ly iuining ihcm inio wolvcs
comaiallc io Korur Iun), anu hnally 4) aggicssivc lcmalc wcic-
wolvcs comaiallc io Hlgcii in S..n.n nn .nIrn). Thcsc moiils aic
uiscusscu ly ]ohn Caicy, who lclicvcs ihai ihc wcicwoll lcgcnu in Iiclanu
is naiivc. Hc claims ihai uiicci cviucncc loi wcicwolvcs in Scanuinavian
souiccs is scaiccly cailici ihan ihc ihiiiccnih-ccniuiy VoIurn nn, anu
ihcicloic ihai ihc Iiish maiciial iolally inuucnccu ihc Scanuinavian.
Bui ihc wcicwoll moiil is alicauy lounu in oluci Euuic maiciial, anu ii is
ossillc ihai Noisc ViIings inuucnccu ihc Ccliic iiauiiion, csccially sincc
ihc iichcsi wcicwoll iiauiiion in Iiclanu lics aiounu Ossoiy, whosc iulcis
hau closc coniacis wiih ihc ViIings.
7
Alihough ii is uilhculi io say anyihing uchniic aloui ihcsc inuucnccs, wc
aic on himci giounu whcn ii comcs io a aiiiculai loim ol ihc wcicwoll
lcgcnu in which ihc chaiaciciisiic clcmcni is a uccciilul wilc who changcs
hci huslanu inio an animal, ihc iiansloimaiion ihus lcing ihc icsuli
ol a magic scll. Sioiics ol ihis iyc acai io havc lccn oulai in ihc
Biiiish Islcs anu Biiiiany in ihc iwcllih ccniuiy, liom whcic ihcy sicau
io noiihcin Euioc ihiough ihc mcuium ol ihc In., naiiaiivc ocms
ihai wcic siiongly inuucnccu ly couiily culiuic. This mcuicval Euiocan
naiiaiivc iiauiiion coniains lully loimcu iomaniic noiions conccining
wcicwolvcs, cvcn ihough ihc lasic clcmcnis aic in mosi cascs similai io
ihc ancicni moiil as lounu in ihc GiccI anu Roman ialcs. Thcsc sioiics,
chaiaciciizcu ly chivaliic iucals anu a laniasiic sciiing oi aimoshcic,
coniain vaiious similai moiils.
Thc Bicion" oiigin ol ihc naiiaiivcs has lccn uisuicu, lui mosi iol-
ally ihcy icucci an Oiicnial sioiy iyc, incluuing ihc scll.
S
Thc csscniial
clcmcnis aic icscivcu in loui mcuicval iomanccs: Cu.IInue Je PnIe.re
57. Caicy, Wcicwolvcs in Mcuicval Iiclanu," . 71. Ioi wcicwolvcs in Iiclanu, scc also
Kiiiicugc, Aiihui anu Goilagon," . 257-60, anu ]ohn R. Rcinhaiu anu Vcinam E. Hull,
Bian anu Sccolang," SeuIu, 11 1936), 42-58. Ioi lclicl in wcicwolvcs in Englanu anu
Iiclanu in ihc iwcllih anu ihiiiccnih ccniuiics, scc Summcis, TLe Ve.ewoI, . 185-86, anu
206-7. Ioi ihc licqucncy anu uisiiiluiion ol ihc moiil in Iiish liiciaiuic, scc Tom Pccic
Cioss, Ao.-IrJe: o En.I, I..L 1.e.nu.e, IolIloic Sciics, 7 Bloomingion, IN: Inuiana Univ.
Pullicaiions, 1952), D 113.1 anu D 113.1.1.
58. Caicy, Wcicwolvcs in Mcuicval Iiclanu," . 43. Cl. Kiiiicugc, Aiihui anu Goilagon,"
cs. . 170, n. 3, 262, 265. Scc also Douglas, TLe Ben V.L.r, . 41-63, cs. . 42, 45.
292 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
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liom ihc laiici aii ol ihc iwcllih ccniuiy, lui also icscivcu in an Eng-
lish iianslaiion ol ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy, V.II.n o PnIe.re),
9
ihc 1n. Je
B.In..e comoscu in ihc laic iwcllih ccniuiy anu iianslaicu inio Olu
Noisc, along wiih oihci In., in ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy), ihc 1n. Je AeI.or
comoscu in ihc miu-ihiiiccnih ccniuiy), anu A.Lu. nrJ Co.Inor lounu
in manusciiis liom ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy). Thc sioiics unuci uiscussion
comc liom ihc iclaiivcly gcogiahically icsiiicicu Ccliic culiuial icgion,
which incluucs Iiclanu, Englanu, Walcs, Biiiiany, anu Iiancc.
60
Thc couiily" wcicwolvcs ol ihcsc sioiics aic highly inicicsiing wiih
icgaiu io ihc ucvclomcni ol ihc wcicwoll moiil in Icclanu anu aic ihcic-
loic woiih cxamining liicuy.
Cu.IInue Je PnIe.re iclls ol an cvil sicmoihci who changcs a Iing`s
son inio a woll ly using a magic oinimcni. Alici numcious aiicmis, ihc
quccn allcviaics ihc scll io somc ucgicc ly using a loimula shc hnus in
a magician`s looI. Thc wcicwoll is Chiisiian anu lchavcs wcll anu is in
no way connccicu wiih ihc uaiIci loiccs ol naiuic. Thc sioiy is concciv-
ally inuucnccu ly B.In..e. Thc 1n. Je AeI.or coniains ihc moiil ol ihc
uccciilul wilc. Hci huslanu is changcu inio a wcicwoll ly mcans ol a
magic iing, anu alici vaiious haiushis King Aiihui iaIcs ihc woll unuci
his ioicciion. Thc woll aiiacIs his wilc`s lovci anu is in ihc cnu sci licc.
Thc moiil icuccis ihai lounu in loih B.In..e anu Cu.IInue Je PnIe.re.
Thc hcio ol A.Lu. nrJ Co.Inor has owci ovci his wcicwoll naiuic anu
is allc io iiansloim himscll. A uccciilul wilc uiscovcis his sccici, iians-
loims hci huslanu, anu iuns oll wiih hci lovci. Thc wcicwoll uccs io ihc
loicsi anu iaiscs a lamily wiih a shc-woll. Hc Iills ihc Iing`s livcsiocI anu
is uisucu ly ihc Iing`s mcn, lui hc cnus u as ihc Iing`s ci. Thc Iing
hcls ihc wcicwoll hnu his uccciilul wilc anu loiccs hci io changc him
lacI inio his icvious loim.
Ol gicaici inicicsi, lccausc ii acais io havc inuucnccu Icclanuic
liiciaiuic, is B.In.e. Ion, a ihiiiccnih-ccniuiy Noisc iianslaiion ol ihc
aloicmcniioncu 1n. Je B.In..e.
61
Thc ioiagonisi, Bisclaici, is loin wiih
ihc hoiiillc naiuic ol a wcicwoll anu is iiansloimcu icgulaily inio a woll
loi ihicc uays cach wccI. Bcloic ihc iiansloimaiion can iaIc lacc, hc has
io uisiolc. Thc aniagonisi in ihc sioiy is Bisclaici`s unlaiihlul wilc who
59. Thc iosc vcision ol ihc sioiy was iinicu in Iiancc in 1552 anu ciiculaicu wiucly.
Thc sioiy was iianslaicu inio Iiish in ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, lascu on a iinicu vcision ol an
English iianslaiion liom ihc hisi aii ol ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy. Thc auihoi claims io havc
uciivcu his maiciial liom Iaiin souiccs. Scc Summcis, TLe Ve.ewoI, . 220-22.
60. Scc H. G. Icach, Are..r B..n.r nrJ SnrJ.rn..n Camliiugc: Haivaiu Univ. Picss,
1921), . 210-11, Kiiiicugc, Aiihui anu Goilagon," . 257-60, anu Caicy, Wcicwolvcs
in Mcuicval Iiclanu," . 40-43.
61. Scc Bisclaiciz l|," in S.erIe.In., cu. Rolcii CooI anu Maiiias Tvciianc, Noiinc
icIsici, 3 Oslo: NoisI HisioiisI K|clucsIiili-Insiiiuii, 1979), . 85-99.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 293
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 293 5/7/07 11:27:41 AM
hiucs his cloihcs, so ihai hc cannoi changc lacI inio his human loim.
Whilc hc is in his wcicwoll shac onc uay, Bisclaici is laggcu ly ihc Iing`s
mcn, lui hc managcs io gain ihc Iing`s symaihy anu cnus u as his ci.
Iaici, hc icvcals his uccciilul wilc anu hci lovci, who aic ihcn unishcu
accoiuingly.
Thc sioiy is icscivcu in a Noiwcgian manusciii iogcihci wiih oihci
iianslaiions ol In.; ihc collcciion is Inown as S.erIe.In.. Alihough ihc
In. is noi icscivcu in an Icclanuic manusciii, ihcic is cviucncc ihai
ihc sioiy was Inown in Icclanu in ihc laic Miuulc Agcs, sincc much ol
iis maiciial icacais in an Icclanuic iomancc, TIoJeI nn, as will lc
uiscusscu in moic uciail lclow. An inicicsiing auuiiion io B.In.e. Ion is
ioviucu ly ihc Noisc iianslaioi, who alhims ihc naiiaiivc`s cicuililiiy
on ihc giounus ihai hc cisonally Incw a wcicwoll!
maii gaiczi Iynlcgi i lyinsIonnc. ai ci angi hoyiii nu gaici. En sa ci cssa
loI noiionac hann sa i lainsIo sinni ainn riIan lonua ci hamsIiliisI
siunuum vai hann mai siunuum i vaigs ham. oI ialuc alli ai ci vaigai ai
holuzi maan.
]M|any siiangc ihings hacncu in olucn iimcs ihai no onc hcais mcn-
iioncu now. Hc who iianslaicu ihis looI inio Noisc saw in his chiluhoou
a wcalihy laimci who shilicu his shac, anu hc iolu cvciyihing ihai wolvcs
uiu in ihc mcaniimc.)
62
As wc can scc liom ihcsc cxamlcs, ihc mosi uisiinciivc lcaiuic ol ihc
iomaniic" wcicwolvcs is ihai ihcy aic symaihciic, sincc ihcy aic mosi
commonly ihc viciims ol an cvil villain. Oihci common moiils aic ihai
ihc mcn ciihci iiansloim ihcmsclvcs alici uisioling alicauy in Pciionius
anu Evanics) oi aic viciims ol sclls oi cnchanimcni, usually, ihcii iians-
loimaiion is icmoiaiy ihis alicauy occuis in ihc sioiy ly Evanics). In
somc ol ihcsc sioiics, ihc wcicwolvcs aic ihc viciims ol uccciilul womcn
anu mosi ol ihcm ihcicloic icucci a misogynisiic aiiiiuuc. Scvcial ol ihcsc
wcicwolvcs aic uisucu in ihcii woll`s shac anu somc ol ihcm managc
io cn|oy ihc mcicy ol chicliains, which lcaus io ihcii icucmiion anu ihc
vinuicaiion ol ihcii honoi.
THE MORE RECENT VARIANT IN ICEIAND:
CEITIC-INIIUENCED STORIES
Thc Ccliic In. aic commonly chaiaciciizcu ly ihc usc ol vaiious loimu-
lac, as has lccn noicu. Thc wcicwolvcs in ihc lollowing Icclanuic sioiics
icscmllc ihosc in Ccliic naiiaiivcs in many ways. Thc wcicwoll moiil in
62. Bisclaiciz l|," in S.erIe.In., . 98-99.
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AIn eII nn, a louiiccnih-ccniuiy inuigcnous iomancc, icscivcu in
AM 589 c 4io liom ciica 1450-1500, is consiucicu olu anu ii has lccn
suggcsicu ihai iis oiigin lics in a losi Iiish ialc.
6S
Thc cxisicncc ol Iiish
moiils in AIn eII nn, howcvci, may cihas also lc cxlaincu in icims
ol oial iiauiiion in Icclanu, which was cxiicmcly iich in Ccliic moiils. li,
ihc ioiagonisi ol AIn eII nn, changcs inio a woll lccausc ol a slavc`s
scll, which is woiucu as lollows:
lcgg cI ai iI, ai vciii ai vaigi oI laiii sIg oI uicii lai mcnn oI
l]|, oI ai l giimmasii, ci mcyIonungi , oI ai v mcsi lcgg|az. ]. . .| ai
lcgg cI cnn iil vi iI, li! ai ci hchi cyii llu l ]iIi| oinl|aigai
uiiiningai, sIynuii iIi lui ns oI ciiii ai hviIi l n mnnum,
oI cIIi sIal i iil unua]n|lausnai annai um na ah, ncma ai nIIui Iona
vcii iil ai li|a giia lyiii iI, ci vcii hanuicIinn, oI vciii al v
lauss, cn ai mun aluii vcia.
64
]T|his I casi uon you-you will lccomc a woll anu iun io ihc woous anu
Iill loih mcn anu shcc, anu lc hciccsi iowaiu anu aiiacI mosi hciccly ihc
shcc ihai ihc maiucn-Iing owns. ]. . .| Again I casi ihis uon you, li! ihai
whcn you havc ucsiioycu all ihc shcc in Quccn oinl|oig`s Iinguom, you
will iush lacI io youi laihci`s Iinguom anu ihcic show mcicy io nciihci
shcc noi man, anu noihing will licc you youi wholc lilc, unlcss a woman
lcgs loi mcicy loi you il you aic caiuicu. Only in ihis way can you lc sci
licc, lui ihis will ncvci hacn.)
li`s cxisicncc as a woll is noi ncccssaiily cimancni: hc can lc liccu
whcn cciiain conuiiions aic lulhllcu. Thc Iing, li`s laihci, ollcis a icwaiu
loi ihc woll, which is hnally caughi, lui li`s losici-moihci, who iccognizcs
his cycs ucsiic ihc woll-shac, lcaus loi mcicy loi him. Shc iaIcs ihc
woll inio hci cusiouy anu whilc shc slccs li cmcigcs liom ihc woll`s
Ln., which is, in ihc cnu, luincu.
6
Ii is common ihai mcn in animal
loim iciain ihc acaiancc ol human cycs. Accoiuing io cciiain lclicls
conccining shac-shiliing, ihc soul sciilcs inio ihc animal loim, ihai is,
ihc animal`s louy, lui ii mainiains iis own loim unchangcu. Thc man
wiihin ihc animal can ihcicloic lc iccognizcu ly his cycs, which aic a
miiioi ol ihc soul. This occuis in oihci Icclanuic sagas as wcll, such as in
H.oI nn I.nIn, anu can lc usclul loi licaIing sclls, lui clscwhcic ii is
ihoughi io lc cnough simly io scaI ihc namc ol ihc lycanihioc.
66
In
63. Scc Kiiiicugc, Aiihui anu Goilagon," . 256.
64. AIn eII nn, . 99.
65. In ialcs ol shac-shiliing, colc commonly luin ihc animal sIin, anu ihis acais
io lc ihc mosi sccuic way ol cimancnily hnuing liccuom. Iiic lays a vciy imoiiani iolc
hcic, as clscwhcic, in climinaiing imuiiiics, anu ii is olicn ihc only ihing cllcciivc againsi
soicciy anu soiccicis as wcll as hauniings cl. wiich luinings anu luinings ol giavcmounu
uwcllcis).
66. Accoiuing io laic Scanuinavian wcicwoll ialcs, ihcic aic vaiious ways ol licaIing
wcicwoll sclls, scc, loi insiancc, Ousicui, Vn.uI.er . S.erI oII.nJ..or.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 295
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 295 5/7/07 11:27:42 AM
loih cascs, ii is ncccssaiy io iccognizc ihc human in ihc animal. Whilc li
icccivcu his woll shac as ihc icsuli ol a cuisc, Low hc iuincu inio a woll
is noi ucicicu, noi cxacily how hc cmcigcu liom his lycanihioic loim.
Bui sincc ihc cli Ln.) is luincu, as is common, ii can lc assumcu ihis
is ihc casc ol a cli ihai has lccn ihiown ovci" li sicyisi yhi") anu
ihai ihcn lalls oll, as occuis in TIoJeI nn lclow.
Thc sioiy ol UILn. is a lcgcnuaiy saga liom ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy.
Ii is icscivcu in a louiiccnih-ccniuiy naiiaiivc ocm in sianzas .Iu.)
in AM 604 h 4io liom ciica 1550), anu ihc naiiaiivc is also iiansmiiicu
in vcisc-uciivcu iosc vcisions liom ihc scvcniccnih, cighiccnih, anu
ninciccnih ccniuiics.
67
UILn nn coniains an cxiicmcly inicicsiing
vaiiani ol ihc wcicwoll moiil. Ii ucals in aii wiih Hlluan GauiaIonungi,
also callcu Vn.nII.. An cvil scll casi ly Voin, whom hc has uclcaicu in
laiilc, ioclaims ihai hc, along wiih his mcn, will iiansloim ihcmsclvcs
inio wolvcs anu wanuci aiounu in ihc loicsi cvciy winici. Duiing ihc
siing hc gains his liccuom anu iaIcs ovci ihc managcmcni ol ihc gov-
cinmcni ai homc uniil ihc cnu ol ihc summci.
Thcic aic cciiain uillcicnccs lciwccn ihc vcisc anu iosc vcisions.
In ihc imui, ihc iiansloimaiion is amliguous, sincc VaigsiaIIi is I.Ie
a woll sIylui hann voigum lIui"), whcicas in ihc iosc vcisions hc
aciually has ihc shac ol a woll. Thc mosi iomincni chaiaciciisiics ol
ihc wcicwoll ialc sccn hcic aic ihc scll anu ihc scasonal iiansloimaiion
liom man inio woll anu vicc vcisa. VaigsiaIIi`s scasonal iiansloima-
iion is uniquc, lui comaiallc io oihci iclaicu sioiics, loi insiancc ihc
man-lcai moiil in H.oI nn I.nIn, whcic B|oin is a man uuiing ihc
nighi anu a lcai uuiing ihc uay.
6S
Auuiiionally, ihc scll allccis his closc
comanions, which is a uniquc iwisi among comaiallc naiivc Icclan-
uic sioiics anu mcuicval Euiocan naiiaiivcs. Bccausc ol Voin`s uclcai
anu ucaih), ihc iiansloimaiion iaIcs on ihc qualiiy ol unishmcni oi
vcngcancc anu is ihcicloic closcly iclaicu io ihc iuca ol ihc ouilaw as a
woll. Dcsiic ihc laci ihai Hlluan anu his mcn aic wiihoui any uouli
viciims, ihc saga icuccis ihc moiil ol ihc woll as an animal ol winici anu
a cicaiuic ol uaiIncss. Thcicloic, ihc sioiy casis lighi on Hlluan anu his
waiiiois as loih human anu animalisiic ai oncc, as aciually lchis goou"
waiiiois.
67. Scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu. UILn nn, in which all icxis aic cuiicu uilo-
maiically. UILn .Iu. aic also iinicu in FIrnnr II, cu. ly Iinnui ]nsson Cocnhagcn:
Samlunu iil uugivclsc al gammcl noiuisI liiiciaiui, 1913-22), . 133-69, anu in a looI
accomanying a CD wiih a iccoiuing ol ihc imui. Scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu.,
UILn .Iu.. Sicinui Anuciscn Ivcui RcyI|avI: 12 inai, 2004), iclcicnccs io ihc
imui aic io ihis cuiiion, which has moucin Icclanuic sclling. Thc lollowing quoiaiions
liom ihc A, B, anu C vcisions aic liom UILn nn, hcic iinicu wiih moucin sclling.
68. Snn H.oI Iorur I.nIn, . 50-51.
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Iuiihcimoic, Hilui, Hlluan`s uccciilul quccn, sccms io osscss a woll-
ish naiuic. Noi only is ihis icuccicu in hci aciions anu manncis, lui also
in a uicam in which shc acais as a shc-woll, lcauing a acI ol wolvcs.
Shc is cvcn uiiccily liIcncu io a woll si. I, 20.2) anu hci aimy is ucsciilcu
as an aimy ol wolvcs, which icais aaii ihcii cncmics` louics si. II, 32.2).
Ii shoulu comc as no suiiisc ihai ihc son ol ihis woll-naiuicu coulc is
namcu Ullhami woll-sIin/cli"), inuicaiing ihai ihc son has inhciiicu
his laihci`s aliliiy io changc shac, |usi as Bovai l|aiIi, in H.oI nn
I.nIn, inhciiis ihc samc aliliiy liom his laihci. Ullhami`s aliliiy io changc
shac, ly coniiasi, is nowhcic ucsciilcu.
69
Iinally, ii shoulu lc mcniioncu ihai .n.n. i.c., aciual wolvcs) aic ncvci
lai oll whcn laiilcs aic loughi in UILn nn, anu commonly ihc ucau
soluicis aic caicn ly ihcm. This moiil acais licqucnily in Icclanuic nai-
iaiivc iiauiiion, ii is common in ihc Icnnings ol J.oI.n ociiy, which
may havc scivcu as a moucl hcic. This can lc sccn, loi insiancc, in sianzas
V, 26-27, which ucici a laiilc wiih lcisciIs anu ihcii icam:
Allan uag gcII oiva hi, Aiiows showcicu all uay long,
gn ci miIil a hcyia. ihc noisc insiicu uicau,
Vaigai Ioma ai vsi sii Wolvcs, aiouscu ly laiilc`s song,
og vcl|a um manna uicyia. savoicu ihc lloou ol ihc ucau.
ann vcg lyIiai unuai svcim, This, ihcn, was ihc laiilc`s cnu:
cgnai uauii ligg|a. ihc hclu`s siicwn wiih slain.
Ylgui lau cim ollum hcim, Thc shc-woll lauc ihcm liIc a liicnu,
iai ciia igg|a. hci ollci nonc uiu uisuain.
70
Scvcial lcaiuics ol ihc wcicwoll moiil hini ai a iclaiionshi io ihc Ccliic
sioiics, among ihcm ihc scll anu Hlluan`s icmoiaiy cxisicncc as a woll,
which ossilly has iis oiigin in ihc samc souicc as ihc sioiics ol B.In.e
anu A.Lu. nrJ Co.Inor. Bcsiucs ihis, ihc uccciilul wilc, who is uissaiishcu
wiih ihc woll naiuic ol hci huslanu anu has hci cyc on a youngci man,
is icscni in all ihicc ol ihcsc sioiics. UILn nn, howcvci, also cmloys
Gcimanic naiiaiivc iiauiiions anu icscmllcs VoIurn nn in somc ways,
loi insiancc, in ihc comlinaiion ol wcicwolvcs anu waiiiois. In siic ol
ihcsc olvious similaiiiics, VaigsiaIIi`s sioiy uillcis liom oihci Icclanuic
wcicwoll sioiics in ihai ii ncvci mcniions ihai as a woll hc is ciucl-insicau
hc lics oui in ihc loicsi in ucsaii." His misloiiunc is iiagic anu lcaus io his
ucaih, which also scis UILn nn shaily aaii liom ihc Ccliic sioiics. In
all, UILn nn auus an inicicsiing vaiiani io ihc wcicwoll moiil, uiawing
69. On ihc namc Ullhami," scc Biccn, Pcisonal Namcs anu ihc Rc-cicaiion ol BcisciIii
anu Ullhcnai," csccially . 28-31.
70. Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu. UILn .Iu., si. V, 26 anu 27, . 24, English iians-
laiion ly ]cllicy Cossci. Ioi moic cxamlcs, scc, loi insiancc, vciscs II, 32.2, III, 32.1, III,
41.4, V, 11.3-4, anu V, 26.3-4.
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aiily on Ccliic maiciial anu aiily on Olu Noisc, along wiih somc oiiginal
auuiiions, icsumally ly iis louiiccnih-ccniuiy auihoi.
Along wiih AIn eII nn anu UILn nn, iwo oihci ialcs, TIoJeI nn
anu Jor nn Ie.In.n, aic uisiincily inuucnccu ly ihc Ccliic sioiics.
TIoJeI nn is cxiani only in laic manusciiis, ol which ihc olucsi uaics
liom ciica 1600. Thc saga coniains a moiil similai io ihai ol ihc sioiy ol
Bisclaici, anu cvcn ihough ihc maiciial is cxloiicu in quiic uissimilai
ways, much ol iis maiciial musi uoulilcssly uciivc liom B.In.e. Ion.
Ii is unliIcly, howcvci, ihai ihc auihoi ol TIoJeI nn uscu ihc vcision
ihai is cxiani in ihc Noisc iianslaiion as a souicc, ii is moic liIcly ihai
hc uscu anoihci, inuccnucni souicc.
71
Tucl iiansloims himscll, lui
his shac-shiliing aliliiy is noi limiicu io onc loim, loi hc can changc
himscll inio a gicy lcai, a whiic lcai, a woll .n.u.), oi oihci animals.
Hc usually changcs shac anu uwclls in ihc loicsi ihicc oi loui uays cach
wccI. Thc sioiy, howcvci, iclls ol ihc occasion on which his uccciilul wilc
managcu io iia him in his whiic lcai shac. In ihc cnu, his shac lalls
liom him in a sianuaiu way, as is common in laiiy ialcs ol moic icccni
uaic:
Og scm Ionungui gcngui iil hcilcigis sins sici hann huai mauui sclui |
sanginnc lauc liiuui oc lagui, oc ai Icnnci Ionungui sinn gamlan vin
Thucl iiuuaia. En ouium mcginn | hcilciginu sici hann huiiann oc lciu-
inlcgann ham.
72
Anu whcn ihc Iing walIs inio his ioom, hc sccs a man lying in ihc lcu, laii
anu hanusomc, anu ihcic ihc Iing iccognizcs his olu liicnu Tucl ihc Inighi.
On ihc oihci siuc ol ihc ioom hc sccs a whiic anu unloiiunaic Ln..)
Jor nn Ie.In.n is a chivaliic ialc liom aiounu 1400, icscivcu in AM
174 lol. liom ihc scvcniccnih ccniuiy. Thc sioiy incluucs an cvil sic-
moihci who changcs ihc ioiagonisi, ihc Iing`s son Siguii, inio a woll ly
siiiIing him wiih wollsIin glovcs. Thc llow sccms io gcnciaic ihc chaim,
anu ihc iiansloimaiion inio a woll lollows as a uiicci icsuli: oc si|nuisi
hann all vi vaigui vcia"
7S
anu lccausc ol ihis hc acaicu io lc a woll).
This ioccuuic, io hii ihc viciim wiih a wollsIin glovc, alicauy acaicu
in ihc man-lcai moiil in H.oI nn I.nIn anu sccms io havc ioois ihai
can lc iiaccu io ihc iuca ihai shac-shiliing lollows in ihc waIc ol lcing
71. Scc Icach, Are..r B..n.r nrJ SnrJ.rn..n, . 212, anu Maiiannc E. KalinIc, A
Wcicwoll in Bcai`s Cloihing," AnnI o A.rre, 3-4 1981), 139-44. Conccining TIoJeI nn,
scc also E. Kolling, Ulci islanuischc Bcailciiungcn licmuci Siollc," Ce.nr.n, 17 1872),
196, R. Mcissnci, Dic gcschichic vom iiiici Tioucl unu scinci ungciicucn liau," Ze.L..
u. JeuLe AIe.u, 47 1904), 247-67.
72. Tcxiual iclcicnccs io AM 578g 4io. Scc . 7v.
73. Ciicu liom AM 174 lol., . 10i. Thc sioiy has noi lccn ullishcu.
298 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 298 5/7/07 11:27:43 AM
cloihcu in an animal`s cli-sulhcicni hcic is ihc iouch ol a cli, along
wiih ihc sicmoihci`s magic aiis.
74
A uiicci oi inuiicci conncciion lciwccn ihc woll anu ihc sicmoihci
occuis in scvcial Icclanuic sioiics anu ii sccms ihai ihc iclaiionshi has
a long hisioiy. Mosi ol ihc Icclanuic sicmoihcis in ihc sicmoihci
ialcs")
7
lclong io ihc iacc ol iiolls who aic vciscu in soicciy), anu ihc
iclaiionshi lciwccn iioll womcn anu wolvcs gocs lacI io ancicni Noisc
lolI lclicls. In ihc Euuic ocm HeIn I..nn Ho..n.norn., a iioll woman
iiucs a woll, anu ihcic aic numcious oihci sioiics ihai mcniion a conncc-
iion lciwccn wolvcs anu iioll womcn.
76
Somc colc lclicvcu ihai iioll
womcn coulu changc ihcmsclvcs inio ihc shac ol wolvcs. Picsumally ihis
lays a aii in ihc laci ihai ihc magic aiis ol ihc iiollish sicmoihcis havc
a icnucncy io lc connccicu wiih wolvcs in onc way oi anoihci. Maigaici
Schlauch lclicvcu ihai ihc conncciion lciwccn ihc cvil sicmoihci anu
ihc wcicwoll moiils coulu havc hau iis oiigin in Iiclanu anu comc liom
ihcic inio ihc Icclanuic naiiaiivcs.
77
Howcvci, ihc moiil ol ihc sicmoihci
changing hci sicson inio a wcicwoll is lounu in many laccs aaii liom
Iiclanu, ii acais, loi cxamlc, in sioiics liom almosi all ihc Noiuic
couniiics. Thcsc sioiics aic ol icccni uaic anu loi ihc mosi aii uissimilai
io ihc Iiish sioiics. Ii is iaihci unliIcly ihai oihci Noiuic naiions uciivcu
ihc moiil liom Iiclanu, loi il ihis hau lccn ihc casc, ihc Noiuic sioiics
woulu iolally coniain Iiish moiils in auuiiion io ihai ol ihc wcicwoll.
Thcicloic, ihc ossililiiy ihai Icclanucis iccognizcu ihc conncciion lc-
iwccn ihcsc moiils, i.c., ihc wcicwoll moiil anu ihc wicIcu sicmoihci
moiil, iioi io ihc ciiou ol Ccliic inuucncc, cannoi lc cxcluucu, sincc
74. Snn H.oI Iorur I.nIn, ch. 25, . 50, anu Jor nn Ie.In.n. Scc AIc Iagciholm, cu.
D.e. I,.,u., . lxiii, anu also . lxv, whcic Iagciholm oinis oui a aiallcl in a Noiwcgian
lolI song aloui ihc loy Iavians. Ii shoulu also lc mcniioncu ihai glovcs mauc ol animal
sIin wcic uscu in magic ccicmonics, loih in e.n. anu oihci shamanasiic iaciiccs, scc Hilua
R. Ellis Daviuson, TLe V.I.r FonJ o B,.nr.u Ionuon: Gcoigc Allcn anu Unwin, 1976),
. 287. Iuiihcimoic, Ccliic sioiics coniain insianccs ol cisons lacing sclls on oihcis ly
siiiIing ihcm wiih a wanu, scc Caicy, Wcicwolvcs in Mcuicval Iiclanu," . 39.
75. Scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, Si|ui vonuu sIai," TIn.. AnI o err.rn.,
3 1995), 25-36, anu UILn nn, . clxvii-clxxxi.
76. HclgaIvia H|oivaissonai," si. 35, anu ihc iosc icxi lciwccn sianzas 30 anu 31, in
EJJnJ.e, III, 26-28. Scc also ihc gianicss HyiioIIin in Gyllaginning," in Snoiii Siuiluson,
EJJn, . 46. Ioi moic cxamlcs ol ihc linI lciwccn wolvcs anu iioll womcn, scc Knui Iicsil,
Snn o oIIe.rre, . 112-13, anu Hcimann Plsson, Vaigui iolii: Diog a noiianni
iiollaliai," in He.n.r .rr.. C.e.rn. u o.rn. boIerr.., cus. Haialui Bcssason anu Baluui
Halsia RcyI|avI: HcimsIiingla, 1999), . 141-57. Ii shoulu lc noicu ihai, accoiuing io
iiials in Swiizcilanu in icvious ccniuiics, wiichcs wcic suoscu io havc iiuucn on wolvcs.
Scc Douglas, TLe Ben V.L.r, . 159.
77. Maigaici Schlauch, Fonre .r IeInrJ Ionuon: Gcoigc Allcn anu Unwin, 1934), .
102. Cl. Caicy, Wcicwolvcs in Mcuicval Iiclanu," . 40.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 299
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 299 5/7/07 11:27:43 AM
a ma|oiiiy ol ihc Icclanucis oiiginally camc liom Scanuinavia, i.c., ihc
iciiiioiy ol ihc woll, anu ii is liIcly ihai sioiics aloui wolvcs wcic lioughi
ly ihc sciilcis io ihcii ncw homc.
7S
A uniquc vaiiani, in which ihc sicmoihci moiil, ihc scll moiil, anu
ihc wcicwoll moiil aic comlincu, occuis in Snnr n o.e.r. Io, a lolI
ialc ol iclaiivcly icccni uaic ihai was iccoiucu ai ihc lcginning ol ihc
iwcniicih ccniuiy. Ii is unusual in ihai ihc sicmoihci hciscll, Hclga,
is ihc viciim ol a scll casi ly hci own moihci, a iioll woman. Thc scll
iiansloims hci inio ihc mosi savagc woll-liich" hin giimmasia lliI)
who Iills loih colc anu livcsiocI anu is io lc luincu ai ihc siaIc alici
ihc Iing`s mcn havc managcu io ovciowci hci. oisicinn gloii, Hclga`s
sicson, who also sullcis liom ihc ill will ol ihc iioll woman, icsoiis io
counici-sclls anu hnally managcs io savc his sicmoihci ai ihc momcni
whcn loui mcn aic loicing hci iowaius ihc hic.
79
Iinally, ihc moiil is lounu in anoihci lolIialc ol icccni uaic callcu H.nn
]n.. n.`: This iclls ol Vilh|lmui, a cuiious loy who has a scll casi on
him lccausc ol his cuiiosiiy. Vilh|lmui, who is always asIing qucsiions,
onc uay hnus himscll asIcu a qucsiion ihai hc is unallc io answci. Ioi ihis,
ihc qucsiionci changcs him inio a woll, hc is io icmain a woll loi onc ycai.
Ai ihc cnu ol ihc ycai hc mccis ihc qucsiionci lui is siill unallc io answci
ihc qucsiion, anu hc is now changcu inio a lcai loi a ycai. Evciyonc is
aliaiu ol ihc lcai, ai ihc cnu ol ihc ycai hc is siill unallc io answci ihc
qucsiion anu is changcu inio a liiu. His oiucal cnus wcll, howcvci, anu
laici, whcn hc has io ucal wiih a uilhculi siiuaiion, hc acais io havc
gaincu coniiol ol his shac-shiliing anu is allc io changc himscll inio a
woll, a lcai, oi a liiu ai will.
S0
Ol couisc ihc iwo lolI ialcs alovc cannoi lc consiucicu mcuicval, cvcn
ihough ihc main lcaiuics ol ihc wcicwoll moiil, incluuing ihc sclls,
cisccuiion ly ihc Iing`s mcn, anu ihc icmoiaiy iiansloimaiion inio
an animal, can cciiainly lc iiaccu lacI io mcuicval Icclanuic maiciial. Ii
is noicwoiihy ihai in loih ialcs colc changc inio In., noi .n.n..
78. Ioi an cxamlc ol Ccliic inuucncc on Danish naiiaiivc, scc Kiisicnscn, DnrI Snr
II, . 239. In ihc lolI lallau Jo.uer . UI.eLn, which is cxiani in Danish, Noiwcgian, anu
Swcuish vcisions, a sicmoihci iuins hci sicuaughici -son) inio a woll. Scc Dnrn.I nIe
oIIe..e. II, cu. Svcnu Giunuivig Cocnhagcn: Univcisiicis-]ulilacis DansIc Samlunu,
1966), . 156-58, anu TLe T,e o Le SnrJ.rn..nr AeJ.e.nI BnIInJ, cu. Bcngi R. ]onsson
ci al. SiocIholm: SvcnsIi visaiIiv anu Oslo: Univcisiicisloilagci, 1978), . 30.
79. Ouuui B|oinsson, on. o ]onnr.., I AIuicyii: BIavcizlun og icnismi|a Ouus
B|oinssonai, 1908), I, 310-16. On ihc iccoiuing ol ihc ialc, scc . 13-14. A vaiiani ol ihc
ialc, iinicu in ]n inason, IIer.In. ]onou. o n..r.., IV, 580-82, uocs noi incluuc ihc
shac-changing cisouc.
80. B|oin R. Siclnsson, Se: ]onou. RcyI|avI: BIavcizlun isals inasonai, 1926),
. 7-28.
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Thc wcicwoll moiil as lounu in ihc alovcmcniioncu sioiics can lc sccn
io lc closcly iclaicu io ihc vaiiani lounu in mcuicval Ccliic liiciaiuic.
Thc main chaiaciciisiic ol ihc iomaniic" oi couiily" wcicwoll-ihai
hc cn|oys oihcis` symaihy-is icscni in ihc aloicmcniioncu Icclanuic
souiccs, in which ihc wcicwolvcs aic, mosi ol ihc iimc, viciims ol an
cviluoci.
A MORE RECENT VARIANT WITH NATIVE ROOTS
Dcsiic ihc laci ihai wcicwolvcs in mcuicval Icclanuic liiciaiuic can lc
iiaccu lacI io iwo uillcicni oiigins, an Iiish anu a Noiuic oiigin, ihc moiil
in ihc Icclanuic ialcs unuci uiscussion has common lcaiuics. Thc wcic-
wolvcs aic usually mcn who aic ui unuci a scll oi ucccivcu ly womcn.
Only loui womcn, ihc moihci ol King Siggciii in VoIurn nn, Iunn in
H.nrnnIJu. On.r, Hlgcii in S..n.n nn .nIrn, anu Hclga in Snnr n
o.e.r. Io, changc inio wolvcs. In ihc hisi ihicc cascs, ihc iiansloimaiion
is voluniaiy, as ihcy all changc ihcmsclvcs, anu ihus ihis acais io hi wiih
ihc oluci, Olu Noisc/Gcimanic vaiiani ol ihc wcicwoll moiil.
In sioiics ol Olu Noisc oiigin, ihc wcicwoll is an cviluoci anu icuccis
ihc Gcimanic iuca ol ihc ouilaw as a woll, oi .n... Vli, Iunn, Sigmunui,
anu Sinl|oili changc ihcii shac as wcll as ihcii naiuic anu lccomc moic
ciucl alici ihc iiansloimaiion, whilc Asci, Gusii, Siggciii`s moihci, anu
Hlgcii iuin ihcmsclvcs inio wolvcs in oiuci io aiiacI anu hghi oihci
colc.
Cciiainly, ihc wcicwolvcs wiih ioioiycs in Ccliic sioiics aic also ciucl.
Bisclaici, li, anu Siguii livc as wolvcs in ihc loicsi anu ihcicloic Iill
animals loi loou, lui ihcy scluom Iill humans. Thcii wolhsh naiuic is noi
uccly iooicu, anu ihcii lciici" human) naiuic is always siiongci. Thcy
aic ihcmsclvcs viciims ol ciicumsianccs oi cuiscs anu ihcicloic cn|oy a
cciiain symaihy. Thcy aic cxiicmcly uisconicni as wolvcs anu long io
lc liccu, lui ihis always uccnus uon ihc Iinuncss ol oihcis. Iuiihci-
moic, ihcsc wolvcs aic no longci lcasis ol laiilc, as aic ihc oncs in ihc
Olu Noisc/Gcimanic vaiiani ol ihc moiil. Common io ihc Icclanuic anu
Ccliic-inuucnccu maiciial aic cciiain loimulaic hiascs ihai lcai wiincss
io ihc moiil`s sianuaiuizaiion, loi cxamlc, ihc wcicwolvcs` uisacaiancc
inio ihc woous. Thcy iun aloui viom," mciIi," um moiIcna," anu
sIg." Iuiihcimoic, wcicwolvcs icai ila") ihcii icy aaii. Whilc
hiascs aic loimulaic as wcll as naiuialisiic, sincc all wolvcs iun oll io ihc
loicsi anu icai aaii ihcii icy, ihcy ncvciihclcss show similaiiiics in loih
ihc uciciion ol ihc wcicwolvcs anu ihc vocalulaiy uscu.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 301
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CONCIUSION
Now, having uiscusscu ihc Icclanuic souiccs ihai icscivc ihc wcicwoll
moiil, ii is aioiiaic io asI whai iolc ii laycu in ihc liiciaiuic ol a
colc who, as has lccn mcniioncu, ncvci cxciicnccu any ical lcai ol
wolvcs, sincc ihcy aic noi lounu in ihc launa ol ihc couniiy. Il wc coulu
asI ihc icllcis ol ialcs liom asi ccniuiics whai ihcy wcic aiming ai whcn
ihcy iolu sioiics ol wcicwolvcs, ii is noi cciiain ihai ihcy woulu havc icauy
answcis availallc, oi ihai ihcii answcis woulu ially, ihcy wcic simly ai-
iicianis in a naiiaiivc iiauiiion, anu conscqucnily ihcii sioiics anu ihc
moiils ihcy coniaincu ncccssaiily icuccicu ihc imagcs anu symlols in usc
in Olu Noisc/Icclanuic culiuic.
Thc imagc ol ihc woll in ihc liiciaiuic ol asi agcs is a comlcx onc,
icucciing loih osiiivc anu ncgaiivc aiiiiuucs on ihc aii ol man iowaius
ihc animal. This uualiiy ol aiiiiuuc icuccis lcai, on ihc onc hanu, anu a
iyc ol icscci, on ihc oihci. Touay, aumiiiculy, wc aic uscu io sccing ihc
woll as a symlol ol cvil iaihci ihan goou, a symlol ol hungci anu giccu
anu aggicssion. Thc iolc ol ihc insaiiallc woll in Iiiilc Rcu Riuing Hoou is
io swallow ihc liiilc giil iaaciously, anu ihis connccis him io ihc Eer..I.
ol Noisc myihology, which swallows ihc sun ai RagnaioI. Thc icason why
mcn iucniily wiih ihc woll may lic icciscly hcic: ihai ihcsc chaiaciciisiics
ol ihc woll, hungci anu giccu, aic loih human chaiaciciisiics. Hungci
can aiousc iimiiivc uigcs in man, anu a iough siiugglc loi loou cncoui-
agcs lchavioi ihai is icminisccni ol ihai ol ihc woll. Thus, giccu is a ucc-
iooicu chaiaciciisiic in man, ihough ii may lic closci oi ncaici io ihc
suilacc, anu giccuy colc wcic liIcncu io wolvcs liom caily iimcs. Thc
qualiiics symlolizcu ly ihc woll woulu sccm io lc innaic in man ioo, in
sioiics aloui wcicwolvcs ihcy can lc saiu io lccomc incainaic, iaIing on
a alallc loim in ihc visillc wilu animal, ihus lccoming uisianccu liom
human naiuic. Bui ihc iuca ihai ihc unconscious-oi whai is conccalcu
in ihc ucihs ol consciousncss-can iaIc coniiol in ihis way is liighicning
anu holus a lascinaiion loi colc iouay |usi as ii hau in cailici agcs.
As has lccn sccn, ihc wcicwoll moiil in Icclanuic liiciaiuic lays iwo
iolcs. In ihc oluci sioiics, ihcic is a uiicci iclaiionshi lciwccn man anu
woll, anu ihc moiil is closcly connccicu wiih Gcimanic laiilc iiauiiions.
Sioiics ol ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy anu ol moic icccni uaic iolally laycu
a iaihci uillcicni iolc liom ihc lcginning, lcing iooicu in ihc naiiaiivc
aii ol ihc mcuicval couiis, liom which ihcii aimoshcic anu iomaniic
ouilooI siang. Thcsc sioiics wcic iolally valucu iimaiily as cniciiain-
mcni valuc, ncvciihclcss, ihc comaiison lciwccn man anu woll musi
havc acalcu io ihc auuicncc`s imaginaiion in ihc samc way as lcloic.
Mcuicval Icclanuic liiciaiuic icscivcs ancicni iucas ol shac-shiliing
302 Analheinur Gunmundsdttir
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in sioiics ol wcicwolvcs. This ancicni moiil, lounu in ihc Euuic ocms as
wcll as Sro..n EJJn, was icloin" in lcgcnuaiy sagas anu iomanccs liom
ihc ihiiiccnih ccniuiy anu laici anu was iimaiily inuucnccu ly loicign
liiciaiuic, such as ihc sioiy ol B.In.e anu cihas oihci ialcs ol Ccliic oii-
gin. As naiivc Icclanuic sioiics ol wcicwolvcs alicauy cxisicu, cvcn ihough
ihcy wcic ol uillcicni Iinu, ihc naiivc anu imoiicu iiauiiions camc io
minglc, cach inuucncing ihc oihci, ihus lcauing io a comlinaiion ol iwo
vaiianis ol onc moiil. Sioiics iooicu in ihc Ccliic hciiiagc wcic coloicu
ly ihc naiivc Noisc iiauiiion, whilc ihc oluci Noisc sioiics camc unuci
ihc inuucncc ol ihc Ccliic ialcs. This cioss-lciiilizaiion alicauy acais
in ihc ihiiiccnih-ccniuiy VoIurn nn, anu cvcn moic uisiincily in ihc
louiiccnih-ccniuiy UILn nn, which uiaws uon ihc Olu Noisc vaiiani
ol ihc moiil, ihai ol ihc ILenrn. animal waiiiois) anu ouilaws, whilc ai
ihc samc iimc ii icuccis ihc Ccliic maiciial. This ialc, along wiih oihci
Ccliic-inuucnccu sioiics, shows how ihc concciual woilu ol chivaliic
liiciaiuic inuucnccu an ancicni moiil.
Thc Olu Noisc lclicl in wcicwolvcs sccms io havc uisacaicu among
Icclanucis in ihc hliccnih/sixiccnih ccniuiy, loi ihc wcicwoll moiil haiu-
ly acais in ihc liiciaiuic liom ihai iimc on, aaii liom ihc iwo lolIialcs
mcniioncu alovc.
S1
Wc may suimisc ihai ihc Ccliic maiciial laycu iis
aii in ihis, ly iomaniicizing" ihc iuca ol ihc wcicwoll anu hnally maI-
ing him moic liIc a laiiy-ialc hguic ihan ihc aciual shac-shilici ihai
colc oiiginally lclicvcu in, wiih his conncciion io animal waiiiois anu
ouilaws.
81. Ioi iclcicnccs io moic icccni souiccs, scc Aalhciui Gumunusuiiii, cu., UILn
nn, . ccvi.
The Werewolf in Medieval Icelandic Literature 303
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]ouinal ol English anu Gcimanic Philology-]uly
2007 ly ihc Boaiu ol Tiusiccs ol ihc Univcisiiy ol Illinois
Olu English Mcici anu Oial Tiauiiion:
Thicc Issucs Bcaiing on Pociic Chionology
R. D. Fulk, Indiana University
Thc siuuy ol mciiical mcans ol gauging ihc iclaiivc aniiquiiy ol Olu Eng-
lish ocms is lounucu on ihc assumiion ihai languagc changc shoulu
lc icuccicu in scansional uillcicnccs among ocms ol vaiious agcs. Thc
iclaiion lciwccn mcici anu chionology, howcvci, is noi an unmcuiaicu
onc: mciiical conscivaiism uocs noi unamliguously inuicaic aichaic com-
osiiion, lccausc in icscci io ncaily cvciy chionological vaiiallc ihai has
lccn iooscu, ihc inuucncc ol oial iiauiiion musi lc iaIcn inio accouni.
Ii is ihis icmaiIally conscivaiivc iiauiiion ihai insulaics ihc languagc ol
vcisc liom ihc immcuiaic cllccis ol changc, allowing aichaic languagc
loims io cisisi in ociiy long alici ihcy havc lccn losi liom cvciyuay
sccch, uisacaiing slowly as ihc iiauiiion cvolvcs. Thc imlicaiions ol
ihis mcuiaiing iolc ol ociic iiauiiion musi coniinually lc Ici in minu
in conncciion wiih chionological siuuics.
Ii is ihc uiosc ol ihis cssay io cxaminc somc ossillc mciiical ciiiciia
loi csiallishing a ociic chionology. In ihc couisc ol ihis uiscussion, ai-
icmis will lc mauc io illusiiaic somc ol ihc ways ihai an unucisianuing
ol ihc iolc ol oial iiauiiion is ciucial anu also io sci a cciiain limii on
ihai iolc ly showing ihai in somc ocms, mosi noially Beowulf, ihcic aic
signs ol mciiical conscivaiism ihai cannoi lausilly lc aiiiiluicu io ihc
icscivaiivc cllcci ol ihc ociic iiauiiion. Thai is, ihcy musi icucci living
linguisiic oosiiions ihai moic uiiccily aiicsi caily comosiiion. Thc Icy
io unucisianuing ihc icscivaiivc cllcci ol oial iiauiiion, ii will lc sccn,
is ihc linguisiic vaiiaiion ihai ii iouuccs. Alici all, such a iiauiiion can-
noi icscivc aichaic linguisiic lcaiuics loicvci in an immuiallc siaic: a
iiauiiion ihai cxcluucu changc cniiicly, icsciving aichaisms wiihoui any
signs ol uccay io ihc iiauiiion ovci iimc, woulu lc incicuillc.
I. TERASAWA`S IAW AND NONPARASITING
In 1905, Hans Wcyhc olscivcu ihai in Olu English ociiy, hild- laiilc` as
ihc iniiial consiiiucni ol a comounu licqucnily iaIcs ihc loim hilde-, anu
ihai ihc iwo loims ol ihc consiiiucni aic in ncaily cilcci comlcmcniaiy
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 304 5/7/07 11:27:45 AM
uisiiiluiion on ihc lasis ol moihology.
1
Whcn ihc scconu consiiiucni ol
ihc comounu lcgins wiih a lighi syllallc, ihc conncciing vowcl is alscni,
as in hild-fruma wai-chicl`, hild-lata cowaiu`, anu so loiih. Oihciwisc ihc
loim hilde- is uscu, as in hilde-bord laiilc-shiclu`, hilde-mece laiilc-swoiu`,
anu hilde-mcg waiiioi`. In ihc coius ol Olu English ociiy ihcic aic
ninciy-hvc insianccs ol hilde- as ihc iniiial consiiiucni ol a comounu,
hliy-iwo ol ihcm in Beowulf. Thc only unucniallc cxcciions io ihc ai-
icin aic hildbedd styred ai Andreas 1092l anu hearde hildefrecan ai Beowulf
2205a.
2
Ii. Klaclci anu scvcial moic icccni cuiiois, incluuing ihc icxiu-
ally vciy conscivaiivc Elsc von Schaulcii, icgaiu ihc laiici comounu as
a sciilal aliciaiion anu cmcnu io hildfrecan, as hisi suggcsicu ly N. I. S.
Giunuivig.
S
Thcy aic iolally |usiihcu in uoing so, noi only lccausc ol
ihc gicai icgulaiiiy ol ihc aiicin, lui also lccausc hildfreca is ihc icgu-
lai loim ol ihc woiu clscwhcic in vcisc, ai Beowulf 2366a anu Andreas
126a, 1070a. Wcyhc icgaius ihis icgulaiiiy as a moihological aichaism
icscivcu in ihc conscivaiivc languagc ol vcisc, anu hc is mosi liIcly
iighi. Comaiison cannoi lc uiawn io iosc uisiiiluiions, sincc hild is an
cxclusivcly ociic woiu, lui Hilde- is lounu in cisonal namcs, anu ihcy
show no uisiiiluiional icnucncy comaiallc io ihai in vcisc-ihough, io
lc suic, ihc cviucncc is slcnuci.
4
Moic icccnily, ]un Tciasawa has noicu ihai ihis moihological aiicin
is onc cxicssion ol a gcncial mciiical icgulaiiiy.

Olu English ocis icnu


io avoiu consiiuciing vciscs wiih ihc moihology anu ihc uisiiiluiion ol
siicss anu syllallc quaniiiics lounu in hearde hildefrecan, icgaiulcss ol whcihci
1. Hans Wcyhc, Bciiiagc zui wcsigcimanischcn GiammaiiI," Beitrge zur Geschichte der
deutschen Sprache und Literatur, 30 1905), 79-83.
2. Thc vcisc hildegicelum 1606l is only a sccming cxcciion: ihc scconu vowcl in -gicelum
is analogically icsioicu alici having lccn syncoaicu, anu in mciiically conscivaiivc com-
osiiions liIc Beowulf, such vowcls may always lc ignoicu in scansion alici a hcavy syllallc,
anu olicn alici a lighi, lcing laic sciilal auuiiions. Scc Euuaiu Sicvcis, Zui RhyihmiI ucs
gcimanischcn Alliiciaiionsvciscs," Beitrge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur,
10 1885), 459-64. Hcic anu ihioughoui, ociiy is ciicu liom ihc cuiiion ol Gcoigc Phili
Kia anu Ellioii Van KiiI Dollic, The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 6 vols. Ncw YoiI: Colum-
lia Univ. Picss, 1931-53), ihough loi mciiical convcnicncc, macions havc lccn auucu io
inuicaic vowcl quaniiiics.
3. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg, cu. Ii. Klaclci, 3u cu. wiih 1si anu 2u sulcmcnis
Bosion: Hcaih, 1950), Heyne-Schckings Beowulf, cu. Elsc von Schaulcii, 18ih cu. ol vol.
1, 17ih ol vols. 2-3) Pauciloin: Schoningh, 1961-63), Beowulfes beorh, eller Bjovulfs-drapen,
det old-angelske heltedigt, cu. N. I. S. Giunuivig Cocnhagcn: Schonlcig, 1861).
4. Hilde- is wcll aiicsicu in namcs, lui ihcic aic |usi iwo iccoiucu Olu English namcs in
which ii icccucs a lighi syllallc, Hildesige anu Hildewine: scc William Gcoigc Scailc, Ono-
masticon Anglo-Saxonicum Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1897), . 297-98.
5. ]un Tciasawa, Nominal Compounds in Old English: A Metrical Approach, Anglisiica, 27
Cocnhagcn: RoscnIiluc anu Baggci, 1994). Thc csscniials ol his hnuings aic icscnicu
in an cailici aiiiclc, Mciiical Consiiainis on Olu English Comounus," Poetica ToIyo), 31
1989), 1-16.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 305
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 305 5/7/07 11:27:45 AM
ihc comounu clcmcni hilde- is in usc. Thai is, ihcy avoiu comounus ihai
icquiic icsoluiion ai ihc siaii ol ihc scconu consiiiucni il ii lollows an
unsiicsscu syllallc. Thus, comounus liIc fter-cwe]endra Seafarer 72) anu
dryhten-bealu Guthlac B 1349a) aic quiic unusual. This iincilc may con-
vcnicnily lc iclciicu io as Tciasawa`s law.
6
Ii shoulu lc noicu ihai ihc law
is consiiucicu on loih mciiical anu moihological iincilcs. Ii is mciiical
lccausc ii uocs noi aly in iosc, in which comounus liIc heafod-cwide
chaici` anu hnlig-waras sainis` aic noihing oui ol ihc oiuinaiy. Yci moi-
hology, in ihc loim ol |unciuic, also lays a iolc, sincc ihc law aaicnily
is noi licachcu whcn an unsiicsscu syllallc lciwccn ihc iwo consiiiucnis
lclongs io ihc scconu iaihci ihan ihc hisi: gun-getawa wai-cquimcni` anu
forn-gewitenum ucccascu`, loi cxamlc, aic noi uisallowcu.
A usclul lcaiuic ol Tciasawa`s law is ihai ii cimiis uisamliguaiion ol
cciiain comounus in which ii is noi oihciwisc lain whcihci a icsonani
consonani ai ihc cnu ol ihc hisi consiiiucni is io lc icgaiucu as syllalic
oi nonsyllalic. Syllaliciiy in such icsonanis is ihc icsuli ol Wcsi Gcimanic
aiasiiing. A Gcimanic loim such as *wepnam MnE weapon) losi ihc cnuing
*-am caily, anu in Wcsi Gcimanic, ihc icsuliing *wnpn icmaincu monosyl-
lalic loi a iimc, |usi as ihc Olu Icclanuic cognaic vpn musi lc scanncu
as a monosyllallc in vcisc,
7
anu, inuccu, Moucin Icclanuic vopn icmains
a monosyllallc io ihis uay. Evcniually ihc hnal -n lccamc syllalic in Wcsi
Gcimanic, anu ii is olicn wiiiicn wiih a aiasiic vowcl as -en oi -un in Olu
English, hcncc Olu English wnpen lcsiuc wnpn. Ai lcasi somc ol ihc icso-
nanis involvcu musi havc lccomc syllalic long lcloic ihc comosiiion ol
ihc cailicsi icscivcu Olu English ociiy, lui ihc languagc ol vcisc is so
conscivaiivc in iis icscivaiion ol ociic iiauiiions ihai cvcn in a ocm
comoscu as laic as The Battle of Maldon A.D. 991 oi laici) ihcic is an
cxamlc ol monosyllalic scansion ol a loim wiiiicn wiih a aiasiic vowcl
wnpen 130l). Thc iooiiion ol loims wiihoui mciiically ucicciallc aia-
siiing io loims wiih ii vaiics wiucly liom onc Olu English ocm io ihc ncxi,
anu nonaiasiicu loims aic commoncsi in ocms ihai havc iiauiiionally
lccn icgaiucu as liIclicsi io lc iclaiivcly caily comosiiions. Thc uaia aic
cxamincu, anu an ovcivicw ol ihc scholaishi ollcicu, in A History of Old
English Meter hcicinalici ciicu as HOEM).
S
Thc iooiiions ol mciiically
6. Tciasawa also hnus ihai icsolvallc scconu consiiiucnis aic avoiucu immcuiaicly alici
a icsolvcu consiiiucni: c.g., comounus liIc winer-breca auvcisaiy` anu fore-spreca auvocaic`
sccm iollcmaiic in vcisc. Sincc ihis is an aioximaiion ol onc ol Sicvcis` iincilcs, anu
sincc ii is ol no aiiiculai iclcvancc io ihc icscni conicxi, ii sccms lcsi io cxcluuc ihis
iincilc whcn iclcicncc is mauc io Tciasawa`s law.
7. Ioi cxamlc, in ihc vcisc drt vpn fela Hervararkvina 11, ciicu liom Eddukvni, cu.
Guni ]nsson, 2 vols. ]RcyI|avI: Islcnuingasagnaiglan, 1949|). Noic ihai hnal icsolu-
iion is uisallowcu in fornyrnislag.
8. R. D. IulI, A History of Old English Meter Philauclhia: Univ. ol Pcnnsylvania Picss,
1992), cha. 1 hcicinalici HOEM). Thc hnuings aloui aiasiiing in HOEM wcic iniiially
306 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 306 5/7/07 11:27:46 AM
unamliguous vciscs in ihosc ocms siuuicu in HOEM aic givcn in Tallc 1,
in which a clcai uisiinciion in ihc inciucncc ol nonaiasiiing is cviucni lc-
iwccn Genesis A, Daniel, anu Beowulf, on ihc onc hanu, anu icsumally laici
ocms cxcciing Maldon, which yiclus insulhcicni uaia), on ihc oihci.
9

Thc numlcis alonc suoii iiauiiional assumiions aloui uaiing, lui ii
shoulu lc noicu ihai sincc whai is aciually lcing mcasuicu is cach oci`s
awaicncss ol ociic iiauiiions, ihc vaiiciy ol lcxical iicms involvcu is also
signihcani. Thus, alihough ihcic aic six insianccs ol nonaiasiiing in ihc
Meters of Boethius, ihcy all ciiain io a singlc iicm ol vocalulaiy, tungol siai`,
whilc ihc lcxical iicms involvcu aic quiic vaiious in ihc hisi ihicc ocms
in ihc iallc.
Many vciscs aic cxcluucu liom ihc hguics in Tallc 1 lccausc ol mciiical
amliguiiy. Thus, loi cxamlc, ac me sceal wnpen niman Maldon 252l) may
icicscni a vcisc ol ciihci Sicvcis`s iyc B1, wiih icsoluiion ol niman, oi
iyc C3, wiih wnpen icgaiucu as a monosyllallc. Tciasawa`s law cimiis uis-
amliguaiion ol many vciscs in which ihc hisi consiiiucni ol a comounu
cnus in a syllalic icsonani. An cxamlc is herede hleonorcwidum Andreas
819a), which cannoi lc scanncu as iyc D*4 wiihoui licach ol ihc law.
icoiicu in Wcsi Gcimanic Paiasiiing, Sicvcis` Iaw, anu ihc Daiing ol Olu English Vcisc,"
Studies in Philology, 86 1989), 117-38. Sulscqucni siuuics ihai ucal wiih ihc hcnomcnon
aic B. R. Huichcson, Old English Poetic Metre Camliiugc: Bicwci, 1995), . 45-62, anu
Sciichi SuzuIi, The Metrical Organization of Beowulf: Prototype and Isomorphism Bcilin: Mouion
uc Giuyici, 1996), . 19-20.
9. Thc hguics in ihc iallc comlinc ihc uaia icscnicu in HOEM 88 anu 91, anu as
cxlaincu ihcic, ihcy conccin only loims wiih an ciymologically hcavy syllallc lcloic ihc
icsonani. In Beowulf, ihc vcisc ppelfealuwe 2165a, ovcilooIcu in HOEM) has lccn auucu,
in which loih -el- anu -uw- show aiasiiing, lui only ihc loimci is ol ihc caily, Wcsi Gci-
manic iyc. Thc insulhcicncy ol ihc uaia loi Maldon is uuc io an alnoimally low inciucncc
ol iclcvani, mciiically unamliguous vciscs in ihc ocm. Thc onc cxamlc icicscnis 0.15
ciccni ol ihc ioial numlci ol vciscs in ihc ocm. Thc ncxi lowcsi inciucncc is io lc lounu
in Daniel 0.39 ciccni), ihc highcsi in Judith 1.00 ciccni). Thc low inciucncc in Maldon
is vciy liIcly an cxicssion ol ihc laicncss ol ihc ocm`s comosiiion.
TnbIe 1. Thc iooiiion ol mciiically conhimallc
insianccs ol nonaiasiiing io insianccs ol aiasiiing
in somc Olu English ocms.
Genesis A 2,S19 lincs) 1S:10
Daniel 774 lincs) S:S
Beowulf S,1S2 lincs) 24:7
Exodus 90 lincs) 2:9
WoiIs ol Cyncwull 2,601 lincs) 1:S1
Andreas 1,722 lincs) 6:2S
WoiIs ol King Allicu 1,796 lincs) 6:1S
Pocms liom ihc Chronicle 17S lincs) 1:2
Judith S49 lincs) 0:7
The Battle of Maldon S2 lincs) 1:0
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 307
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 307 5/7/07 11:27:46 AM
Thcicloic, hleonor- musi lc a monosyllallc. Yci Tciasawa`s law aumiis a
numlci ol cxcciions. Ioi cxamlc, ihc vcisc ]t us gystrandge Andreas
852a) is an unmisiaIallc violaiion, suggcsiing ihai ihc oci ol Andreas
coulu in laci havc inicnucu uisyllalic hleonor- in herede hleonorcwidum. Thc
ucgicc ol iolaliliiy uciivallc liom such vciscs is ihus smallci ihan ihai
ol ihc uaia in Tallc 1, anu loi ihai icason ii was cxcluucu liom HOEM.
10

Thc uaia uciivallc liom ihc alicaiion ol Tciasawa`s law oughi, howcvci,
io lc ol somc lcssci) iolalilisiic valuc, anu so ihcy aic woiih cxamin-
ing. Thcy aic summaiizcu in Tallc 2, in which ihc numlci ol auuiiional
vciscs in cach ociic comosiiion io lc scanncu wiihoui aiasiiing is
sulicu.
11
Alicaiion ol ihc law, ii shoulu lc noicu, ncvci inuicaics
insianccs ol aiasiiing, only ol nonaiasiiing.)
Whai is suiiising aloui Tallc 2 is ihai ii coniiauicis ihc cxcciaiions
iaiscu ly Tallc 1. Onc woulu havc aniiciaicu ihai ihcic woulu lc a high
inciucncc ol auuiiional nonaiasiicu loims only in ihc hisi ihicc ocms,
lui ihis is noi ihc casc. Ai hisi ihis mighi acai io scivc as counicicvi-
ucncc io ihc chionological imlicaiions ol Tallc 1. Onc mighi assumc
ihai ly somc acciucni ncaily all ihc ucicciallc insianccs ol nonaiasii-
ing in ihc Cyncwull canon hacn io lc ucicciallc only on ihc lasis ol
10. Scc HOEM 88, n. 33 ad n.
11. Excluucu liom ihc hguics in ihc iallc aic vciscs liIc ], lns him westengryre Exodus
117l), sincc westen- is ciymologically uisyllalic. Thc incluucu vciscs aic ihcsc: Genesis A 2a,
103l, 111l, 165l, 1033l, 1384l, 2292l, 2340a, 2384a, 2401a, 2514l, 2521l, Daniel 139a,
155a, 308a, 315l, 337l, 378l, 426a, 605l, 709a, Beowulf 46l, 718a, 757a, 906l, 1018l,
1079a, 1105a, 1162a, 1187a, 1301a, 1676a, 1681a, 1979a, 2742a, 2750a, 2795a, 2839a,
Exodus 43a, 548a, Fates of the Apostles 74a, 80a, Elene 42a, 106l, 291l, 485a, 681a, 763a,
832a, 962a, 1071a, 1303a, 1304a, 1321a, Christ II 450a, Juliana 199a, 238l, 248l, 395a,
428a, 461l, 637a, Andreas 144l, 160l, 418a, 801a, 819a, 893l, 938a, 1004l, 1005l, 1021a,
1101a, 1237a, 1253l, 1417a, 1430a, 1447l, 1527a, 1621a, 1646a, The Meters of Boethius
4.20a, 20.162a, Judith 243l, 259l.
TnbIe 2. Insianccs ol nonaiasiiing uiscovci-
allc liom ihc alicaiion ol Tciasawa`s law.
Genesis A 12
Daniel 9
Beowulf 17
Exodus 2
WoiIs ol Cyncwull 22
Andreas 19
WoiIs ol King Allicu 2
Pocms liom ihc Chronicle 0
Judith 2
The Battle of Maldon 0
308 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 308 5/7/07 11:27:47 AM
Tciasawa`s law. Il ihai acciucni sccms susicious, ii is lain how much lcss
lausillc ii woulu lc io suosc ihai ihc samc acciucni hacns io havc
occuiicu in Andreas. Raihci, ihis musi noi lc hacnsiancc, ihcic musi
lc a iincilcu cxlanaiion loi ihc uisiiiluiional uillcicncc cviucnccu
ly ihc iwo iallcs.
Thc mosi lausillc cxlanaiion suicly musi uccnu on ihc olscivaiion
ihai ihc uaia in Tallc 2 ciiain solcly io ociic comounus, anu in a singlc
mciiical conicxi, whilc ihis is noi so in icgaiu io Tallc 1. Alihough many ol
ihc nonaiasiicu loims unucilying ihc hguics in Tallc 1 aic comounucu,
many aic noi, loi cxamlc in Beowulf), hleahtor laughici` 611a), wun-
dor maivcl` 840l, 3032l, 3062l), winter winici` 1128a, 1132l), baldor
loiu` 2428l), frofor solacc` 2941l), anu becn sign` 3160a). Moicovci,
ly ihc naiuic ol Tciasawa`s law, vciscs uisamliguaicu ly ii musi cnu in a
comounu showing ihc samc mciiical aiicin as hleonorcwidum oi wuldor-
cyninges-ihai is, in cciiain suliycs ol C anu D. In ihc uaia ol Tallc 1, ly
coniiasi, ol ihc hvc iycs, only C is noi icicscnicu. Thc liIclicsi cxla-
naiion, ihcn, is ihai laici ocis wcic allc io usc nonaiasiicu loims only
whcn ihcy acaicu in ihc guisc ol loimulaic uiciion. Nciihci Cyncwull
noi ihc Andreas oci, loi cxamlc, cvci uscs a nonaiasiicu loim in any
iyc ol vcisc cxcci as ihc hisi consiiiucni ol a ociic comounu. This
also cxlains why ihc hguic loi ihc ociic woiIs ol Allicu ihc Gicai in
Tallc 2 is so much lowci ihan loi oihci icsumally laic ocms: Allicu`s
woiIs aic noioiiously iosaic, cmloying lai lcwci comounus ihan ihc
oihci woiIs on ihc lisi.
Il ihis cxlanaiion is coiicci, ii shoulu lc lain ihai ihc alicaiion ol
Tciasawa`s law ai lcasi io icsumally laici ocms ioviucs only amliguous
inloimaiion aloui laici ocis` aliliiy io usc nonaiasiicu loims. Il ihcy
hau Inowlcugc ol such loims only ihiough ihcii lamiliaiiiy wiih ociic
comounus liIc hleonorcwidum, anu yci ihcy coulu unucisianu comaiallc
vciscs as showing hnal icsoluiion as wiih ]t us gystrandge in Andreas,
alovc, similai aic dreogan dryhtenbealu ai Guthlac B 1349a, in hellebryne ai
Judith 116l, anu oihcis),
12
ihcn wc havc no assuiancc ihai ihcy hau any
ical awaicncss ol nonaiasiiing in such loimulaic uiciion.
12. This vcisc musi lclong io Sicvcis` iyc B, sincc anaciusis is mciiically uisallowcu hcic:
scc A. ]. Bliss, The Metre of Beowulf, icv. cu. Oxloiu: BlacIwcll, 1967), 46-48. In any casc,
icosiiions aic noi usually lounu in anaciusis: scc Thomas Callc, The Meter and Melody of
Beowulf Uilana: Univ. ol Illinois Picss, 1974), . 35-37, Gcollicy Russom, Old English
Meter and Linguistic Theory Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1987), . 33-34, SuzuIi,
Metrical Organization of Beowulf, . 319-22. As loi ihc cxamlc liom Guthlac B, noic ihai
ihis ocm is vciy ossilly a Cyncwulhan comosiiion: scc ihc auihoi`s Cyncwull: Canon,
Dialcci, anu Daic," in The Cynewulf Reader, cu. Rolcii B|oiI Ncw YoiI: Rouilcugc, 2001),
. 5-6.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 309
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 309 5/7/07 11:27:47 AM
Ii mighi lc ol|ccicu ihai ihis linc ol icasoning lcavcs uncxlaincu why
laici ocis coulu usc nonaiasiicu loims wiih somc licqucncy in vciscs io
which Tciasawa`s law is iclcvani, lui noi in oihci mciiical iycs. Why is ii
ihai Cyncwull cmloys iwcniy-iwo vciscs coniaining uiciion liIc hleonorcwi-
dum ai ihc cnu ol ihc vcisc lui |usi onc oihci ociic comounu wiih non-
aiasiiing in his cniiic ocuvic wuldorfste gife, ai Elene 966a). This woulu
sccm io miliiaic againsi ihc cxlanaiion ihai hc Incw ol nonaiasiiing only
ihiough ociic uiciion: il hc uiu so, suicly comounus liIc wuldorfste wiih
nonaiasiiing woulu lc much moic common in nonhnal osiiion in his
woiIs. To ihc coniiaiy, ihc ucaiih ol such cxamlcs is noiallc conhimaiion
ol ihc analysis ollcicu hcic. A vcisc such as herede hleonorcwidum icmaincu
mciiical alici aiasiiing, oncc Tciasawa`s law no longci ociaicu, anu
ihus ii coulu icmain aii ol ihc oci`s icciioiic, now as iyc D*4 iaihci
ihan D*2 i.c., liIc eode yrremod iaihci ihan helpan hildfruman). A vcisc liIc
wuldorfste gife, howcvci, oncc -or- lccamc syllalic, uiu noi icscmllc any
oihci accciallc vcisc iyc, anu ihus ii gicw uislavoicu ovci iimc.
1S
Thc
ucaiih ol such vciscs in laici ociiy ihus lcnus imoiiani suoii io ihc
assumiion ihai laic ocis unucisioou a vcisc liIc herede hleonorcwidum io
havc aiasiiing anu hnal icsoluiion. To suosc anyihing clsc is, oncc
again, io assumc a iaihci unliIcly coinciucncc: ihai ihc ucaiih ol vciscs
liIc wuldorfste gife, ucsiic ihc iclaiivcly high inciucncc ol vciscs liIc herede
hleonorcwidum, is simly an incxlicallc acciucni, anu noi |usi in Andreas
lui in ihc Cyncwull canon. Coiioloiaiion loi ihis cxlanaiion may lc
uciivcu liom cviucncc loi oihci soiis ol mciiical icanalysis icsuliing liom
languagc changc, noi |usi in Olu English lui also in iclaicu alliiciaiivc
iiauiiions.
14
Uliimaicly, ihcn, ihc alicaiion ol Tciasawa`s law uocs noi auu icli-
13. Picsumally Cyncwull uscs ihis iyc oncc as a cculiai anu uislavoicu aichaism. By
coniiasi, ihc oci ol Genesis A sccms io havc uscu similai aiasiicu loims as ihc lasis loi
consiiuciing ncw vcisc iycs noi gcncially lounu in oihci ocms, loi cxamlc earfonsina
bot 1476a, similaily, io wuldorgnst godes 2913a comaic neorxnawong stod 208l anu e]elstol
heold 1129l ihc laiici aii ol vciscs coniiiluiing io ihc cviucncc ihai Genesis A 1-234 anu
852-2936 aic onc comosiiion).
14. Evcn clcaici ihan ihc cviucncc liom Genesis A in ihc icccuing noic is ihc ucvclo-
mcni in ihc Olu Saxon Heliand ol ihc ncw mciiical iyc icicscnicu ly s endilsan uuelon
2529a) on ihc lasis ol ihc ucvclomcni ol an cxcicsccni vowcl in similai vciscs liIc uuan-
darlc giuuaraht 5622a): scc Sciichi SuzuIi, The Metre of Old Saxon Poetry: The Remaking of
Alliterative Tradition Camliiugc: Bicwci, 2004), . 156-60. Similai analogizing accounis loi
vciscs liIc .renbendum fst Beowulf 998l), in which ihc scconu vowcl is ciymological iaihci
ihan cxcicsccni: cl. ntertnnum fnh 1459l), in which ihc scconu vowcl is cxcicsccni, anu scc
HOEM, 95-98. Among ihc sIaluic mcicis, ihc caialcciic on-lincs ol Iviuhiii sccm io
havc aiiscn as a icsuli ol syncoc anu aococ, which in laci acai io lc ihc moiivaiing
lacioi in ihc iisc ol Noisc syllallc-couniing mcicis: scc Kaii Ellcn Gauc, Hisioiy ol Olu
Noisc Mciiics," in The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North
Germanic Languages, vol. 1 Bcilin: uc Giuyici, 2002), . 863.
310 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 310 5/7/07 11:27:47 AM
ally io oui uaia on nonaiasiiing in conncciion wiih ihc uaiing ol vcisc.
Thc loicgoing cxaminaiion ol ihc law anu iis alicaiion is noi, howcvci,
ucvoiu ol signihcancc loi ihc uaiing ol ocms, csccially ol Beowulf. Thc
wiuc iangc ol mciiical conicxis anu uncomounucu lcxical iicms in which
nonaiasiiing is cncounicicu in ihai ocm, as icvcalcu ly comaiison
wiih icsumally laici ocms whcn ihc law is alicu, lcscaIs a oci
lai moic Inowlcugcallc aloui aichaisms in ihc languagc ol vcisc. This
uocs noi, ol couisc, iovc ihai Beowulf is an caily comosiiion, lui ii
iaiscs a ucgicc ol iolaliliiy ihai can haiuly lc ignoicu whcn vicwcu in
conncciion wiih similai inuicaiois. A luiihci such inuicaioi is ihai, whilc
laici ocis sccm io havc icgaiucu vciscs liIc ]t us gystrandge, which
unamliguously licach Tciasawa`s law, as noimal, ihc conscivaiivc oci
ol Beowulf consisicnily avoius ihcm.
1
Anu hnally, ihc ncaily consisicni
inaliliiy ol sccmingly laic ocis io cmloy vciscs wiih aiasiiing cxcci
in ociic comounus, anu ihcn only whcn ihc vcisc icmains a iccogniz-
allc mciiical iyc oncc aiasiiing has alicu, is a siiong inuicaiion ol
an oial iiauiiion ihai has cvolvcu signihcanily liom ihc moucl cmloycu
in Beowulf anu ihus is mosi liIcly ol laici comosiiion.
This lasi oini suggcsis a moic aiiiculai chionological signihcancc io
ihcsc hnuings. Thc imlicaiions ol Tciasawa`s law scivc io imiovc oui
unucisianuing ol ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn aichaisms in ociic languagc
anu ihc uaiing ol ocms. Thc law shows ihai sccmingly laici ocis wcic allc
io cmloy cciiain aichaisms only whcn ihcy wcic cmlcuucu in loimulaic
uiciion, in such a way as io imly ihai ihc ocis wcic ihcmsclvcs unawaic
ol ihc naiuic ol ihc aichaism. On onc hanu, Cyncwull anu ihc Andreas
oci almosi cciiainly wcic noi awaic ol ihc ossililiiy ol iicaiing aiasiicu
loims liIc wundor- anu hleonor- as monosyllallcs, whcn ihcy sccm io lc us-
ing ihcm as monosyllallcs, ihcy aic mosi liIcly insicau simly ucloying
iiauiiional loimulas. Thc ocis ol Genesis A, Daniel, anu Beowulf, on ihc
oihci hanu, wcic lainly awaic ol ihc oiion ol iicaiing such woius oi
consiiiucnis ol comounus as monosyllallcs in vcisc, sincc ihcy cmloy
ihcm ouisiuc ol loimulaic uiciion. Boih ihc icsumally cailici anu laici
ocis, ihcn, hau an csiimallc commanu ol ihc ociic iiauiiion: ii cannoi
lc saiu, loi insiancc, ihai ihc icason Beowulf uislays moic aichaic mciiical
aiicins ihan Cyncwull`s vcisc is ihai Cyncwull uiu noi Inow ihc ociic
iiauiiion. Clcaily hc uiu, lui ihc iiauiiion hc Incw sccms io havc cvolvcu
quiic a way liom ihc iiauiiion ihai ihc Beowulf oci Incw. Thc uillcicncc
lciwccn ihc iwo ocis is ihus noi onc ol Inowlcugc vcisus ignoiancc lui
15. Thai is, il Klaclci`s cmcnuaiion io hildfrecan 2205a is acccicu, as uiscusscu alovc.
Thc sccming cxcciion ne ]urh inwitsearo 1101a is iolally cxlaincu ly ihc ucgicc ol siicss
on -wit-, as ucmonsiiaicu ly ihc laci ihai i is noi icuuccu io e.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 311
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 311 5/7/07 11:27:48 AM
ol hisioiical changc: Cyncwull is allc io usc somc ol ihc ancicni loimulas,
lui hc has losi ihc Icy io unucisianuing ihcii siiuciuic. This sccms aic-
ciallc counicicviucncc io ihc suosiiion ihai ihc mcici anu languagc ol
Beowulf aic moic aichaic noi lccausc ihc oci livcu cailici ihan Cyncwull
lui lccausc hc simly Incw ihc ociic iiauiiion lciici. Raihci, in conncc-
iion wiih Tciasawa`s law, wc scc Cyncwull gialing wiih a changcu sci ol
ciicumsianccs, noi |usi an inlciioi Inowlcugc ol ihc iiauiiion. Anu ihai
imlics a chionological uillcicncc lciwccn ihc iwo ocis.
II. USE OI THE PREIIX CE- IN
CONNECTION WITH NONPARASITING
Mciiical amliguiiy in icgaiu io nonaiasiiing also aiiscs occasionally in
ihc hisi consiiiucni ol a comounu in which ihc scconu consiiiucni lc-
gins wiih an unsiicsscu ichx, almosi always ge-. Thc insianccs in Beowulf
aic ihcsc:
scolde his aldorgednl 805l
eaxlgestealla 1326a
eaxlgesteallan 1714a
wom wundorbebodum 1747a
mn]mgestreona 1931a
ealdorgewinna 2903l
In such vciscs ihc syllalihcu icsonani may lc ignoicu in scansion, lui
couniing ii as a syllallc woulu noi uisiui ihc mcici. Thc qucsiion aiiscs,
ihcn, whcihci ihc ichx on ihc scconu consiiiucni ol ihc comounu is
inicgial io ihc mcaning oi whcihci ii scivcs a iimaiily mciiical lunc-
iion-mcaning, in ihc laiici casc, ihai ihc icsonani shoulu lc icgaiucu
as nonsyllalic. In ncaily cvciy oihci insiancc in ihc ocm in which a
scconu consiiiucni lcgins wiih -ge-, ihc ichx is csscniial io ihc mcici:
lcaving ii oui woulu icsuli in an unmciiical vcisc. Thcic aic ninciy-onc
such insianccs in ihc ocm: cxamlcs aic wilges.]as 23a, ]eodgestreonum
44a, anu healsgebedda 63l.
16
Among ihcsc ninciy-onc, ihc only cxcciions
16. Thc insianccs aic lisicu ly ]. B. Bcssingci ]i. anu Phili H. Smiih ]i., cus., A Concordance
to Beowulf Iihaca: Coincll Univ. Picss, 1969), s.v. -ge-. Excluucu aic insianccs ihai uo noi
involvc iiuc comounus: wyrd ungemete neah 2420l similaily 1792l, 2721l, 2728l) anu
ungedefel.ce 2435l. In ihc vcisc dogorger.mes 2728a, dogor- in oiigin lclongs io ihc s-sicms, anu
so ciymologically ii is uisyllalic. Yci lccausc ihc Beowulf oci iicais a lcw oiganic uisyllallcs
as monosyllallcs scc HOEM, 95-98), ihis vcisc coulu havc lccn iicaicu ly ihc oci as
showing nonaiasiiing. Duc io iis amliguiiy, ihcn, ii will lc lcsi io lcavc ii oui ol consiu-
ciaiion, as wcll as similai loims in ihc ocms uiscusscu lclow. Thc loim suhtergefderan in
1164a is iiiclcvani, as ihc hisi consiiiucni is suhterge-.
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aic ihc vciscs seon sibbegedriht 387a anu swefan sibbegedriht 729a. Is ihcic
a aiiiculai icason ihai only ihc consiiiucni sibbe- causcs cxcciions io
such a icgulai uisiiiluiion.
In ihc couisc ol his cxaminaiion ol hilde- in comounus as uiscusscu
alovc), Wcyhc icmaiIs ihai ol ihc many oihci jo-sicm nouns, |usi iwo,
hell hcll` anu sibb Iinshi, liicnushi, cacc`, havc alicinaic loims wiih
anu wiihoui sicm-hnal -e whcn ihcy aic uscu as iniiial consiiiucnis in
comounus. Howcvci, hc says, nciihci shows ihc uisiiiluiion in vcisc
ihai hilde- uocs, wiih hild- lcloic a lighi syllallc anu hilde- lcloic a hcavy.
Ioi ihc mosi aii, wc uo hnu cxccicu comounus liIc hellscea]um anu
helledeofol, lui ihcic aic scvcial cxcciions: comaic hellebryne Judith
116l), helleduru Christ and Satan 720a), hellescea]an Elene 956l), hellfuse
Andreas 50a, Christ III 1123a), helcrftum Andreas 1102a), helbendum
Beowulf 3072l), anu helrunan Beowulf 163a), as comaicu wiih a ioial
ol ihiiiy-six conloiming cxamlcs.
17
Tciasawa iccommcnus iicaiing ihc
hisi ihicc ol ihcsc as coniaining hiascs iaihci ihan comounus, loi
cxamlc, in helle duru; ihcic sccms no icmcuy loi ihc icmainuci.
1S
Thc
ucgicc ol conloimiiy is ioo gicai io lc an acciucni, lui cvcn so consci-
vaiivc a comosci as ihc Beowulf oci uocs noi icgaiu ihc iulc as him.
Thc liIclicsi cxlanaiion loi ihc uillcicni iicaimcni ol hilde- anu helle- is
ihai whilc ihc loimci is lounu only in vcisc, ihc laiici acais also in
iosc, in which ihc mciiico-moihological icsiiiciion uocs noi aly:
comaic, in iosc, hellcniht ucmon`, hellcund hcllish`, hellemere Siygian
laIc`, anu so loiih. Thc iosc usagc has ihus allccicu ihc ociic in icgaiu
io helle-, whilc ihcic wcic no iosc cxamlcs ol hilde- io allcci ihc usagc
in ociiy.
17. Thc icmaining cxamlcs: Genesis 38a, 73l, 303a, 380l, 447a, 694l, Christ and Satan
132l, 429a, 694a, 699a, Andreas 1171a, 1691l, Soul and Body I 104a II 98a), Elene 900l,
1305l, Christ 286l, 364a, 731a, 1189a, Guthlac A 559l, 572l, Juliana 157l, 322a, 437a,
544l cmcnucu), The Partridge 6l, Riddle 55.6l, The Descent into Hell 21a, 24a, 123a, Psalms
85.12.3a, 87.3.3a, 140.9.4a, Maldon 180a, The Lords Prayer II 95l, III 36l. Comaic also
hellge]wing ai Genesis B 696l cmcnucu).
18. Tciasawa, Nominal Compounds, . 22-23. Moic icccnily, Tciasawa has aigucu iaihci
cisuasivcly ihai helle shoulu ncvci lc iicaicu as ihc hisi consiiiucni ol a comounu: scc
Thc helle Scqucncc in Olu English Pociiy," in English Historical Linguistics and Philology in
Japan, cu. ]accI IisiaI anu AIio Oizumi Bcilin: Mouion uc Giuyici, 1998), . 387-99. Ii
has cvcn lccn aigucu ihai hilde shoulu always lc icgaiucu as a scaiaic woiu iaihci ihan
a comounucu clcmcni: scc Gcihaiu NicIcl, Piollcms ol Beowulf-Rcscaich wiih Sccial
Rclcicncc io Euiioiial Qucsiions," Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 73 1972), 264. This sccms
iaihci unliIcly, as Hilde- is lainly noi a scaiaic woiu in cisonal namcs. Scc also ihc ol-
|cciions ol Allicu Bammcslcigci, Alicnglischc Komosiia mii hilde)-," Mnchener Studien
zur Sprachwissenschaft, 39 1980), 7-9, anu scc luiihci Hans Sauci, Dic Daisicllung von
Komosiia in alicnglischcn Woiiciluchcin," in Problems of Old English Lexicography: Studies
in Memory of Angus Cameron, cu. Allicu Bammcslcigci Rcgcnsluig: Pusici, 1985), .
276-77.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 313
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 313 5/7/07 11:27:49 AM
In iosc, sibb liIcwisc olicn lails io conloim: comaic sibgeorness am-
iiy`, sibling iclaiivc`, sibreden alhniiy`, anu sibsumness concoiu`.
19
Thc
loims in vcisc aic ihcsc: sibbegedriht, sibnelingas, sibblufan, sibgebyrdum,
sibgedriht, sibgemngas, sibsuma, anu sybcwide, occuiiing in a ioial ol louiiccn
insianccs.
20
Alihough ihc ichx ge- aiiachcu io scconu consiiiucnis usu-
ally iaIcs ihc lacc ol ihc hnal e ol sibbe-, ihc mciiical icsuli is ihc samc,
avoiuing a hcavy, siicsscu syllallc immcuiaicly alici sibb- anu a icsolvallc
aii ol syllallcs in ihc scconu consiiiucni il ii is icccucu ly an unsiicsscu
syllallc. Thc only cxcciion is ihc hisi woiu, sibbegedriht, icicscnicu only
ly ihc iwo cxamlcs in Beowulf uiscusscu alovc. By coniiasi, ihc cxccicu
loim ol ihc woiu, sibgedriht oi -gedryht), occuis ai ihicc oihci laccs.
21

Thcic aic, ihcn, giounus io suscci ihai ihc hisi sciilc ol ihc Beowulf
manusciii, oi cihas an cailici coyisi in ihc linc ol ihc manusciii`s
iiansmission, has alicicu usual sibbgedryht oi, ossilly, ihc moic aichaic
sibbedryht) io sibbegedriht.
22
Possilly hc unucisioou ii as a hiasc iaihci
ihan a comounu, yci cvcn il ihai wcic so, ii shoulu noi lc iicaicu as a
noncomounu in an cuiicu icxi ol ihc ocm, sincc ihcic aic giounus io
lclicvc ihai a coiiccily loimcu comounu was whai oiiginally sioou in
ihc icxi.
2S
To iciuin, ihcn, io ihc oiiginal issuc, il ihc iwo insianccs ol sibbegedriht
in Beowulf ically aic io lc cxlaincu ihis way, ihcn ihcic aic no gcnuinc
cxcciions io ihc aiicin ol woius liIc wilges.]as in ihc ocm: ihc only
iimc ihai a ichx on ihc scconu consiiiucni ol a comounu uocs noi im-
mcuiaicly lollow a lull lili is whcn a aiasiic vowcl is involvcu, as in woius
19. Scc also Chailcs T. Caii, Nominal Compounds in Germanic Ionuon: Oxloiu Univ. Picss,
1939), . 291, who icgaius woius in sibbe-, liIc ihosc in hilde-, as gcniiivc comounus. Anu
scc Kail IuicI, Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache, cu. Iiicuiich Wilu anu Hcilcii
Koziol, 2 vols. Siuiigaii: Tauchniiz, 1914-40, ii. 1964), 305 Anm. Ii may lc auucu ihai
incge-lnfe Bcowull 2577a) woulu acai, on ihc lasis ol moihology, io lc anoihci insiancc
ol a jo-sicm iniiial consiiiucni wiih conncciing vowcl. Bui ihc mcaning anu uciivaiion ol
incge- aic unInown ihough many gucsscs havc lccn hazaiucu), anu ii coulu insicau lc a
scaiaic noun in ihc gcniiivc singulai-cciiainly noi an au|cciivc, as has somciimcs lccn
suoscu, sincc ii woulu noi ihcn agicc wiih uai. sg. lcm. lnfe.
20. Genesis A 24l, 1901a, 2516l, Exodus 214a, 386a, Homiletic Fragment I 29a, Christ 214l,
635a, Guthlac B 1372a, The Phoenix 618a, The Partridge 8a, Beowulf 387a, 729a, 2708a.
21. Exodus 214a, Guthlac B 1372a, The Phoenix 618a.
22. On inuccnucni giounus, Gcollicy Russom hnus causc io icgaiu comounus liIc
sibbegedriht as uislavoicu: scc Mciiical Eviucncc loi Suloiuinaic Siicss in Olu English,"
Journal of Germanic Linguistics, 13 2001), 49, n. 8.
23. Ii woulu ol couisc lc simlc io iicai sibbegedriht as a hiasc anu ihus casily olviaic
ihc only cxcciions io ihc aiicin ol woius liIc wilges.]as in Beowulf. Yci ihc mcaning ol
sibbegedriht lanu ol Iinsmcn` is noi quiic cqual io ihc sum ol iis aiis sibbe gedriht lanu ol
Iinshi` oi lanu ol liicnushi`), anu ihus a comounu sccms liIclici. Caii . xxiii l.),
ii shoulu lc noicu, icgaius such a scmaniic uisiinciion as ihis onc as an imoiiani, ihough
noi invaiially icliallc, ciiiciion loi ucicimining comounuing.
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liIc aldorgednl. Yci cvcn il ihcsc insianccs ol sibbegedriht aic assumcu io lc
oiiginal, lainly ihc iyc is quiic iaic anu uislavoicu. This, ol couisc, iaiscs
a siiong susicion ihai in all vciscs liIc ealdorgewinna, ihc cxcicsccni vowcl
is io lc uisicgaiucu in scansion. To suosc oihciwisc is io cicuii a iaihci
suiiising coinciucncc: all ihc cxcciions oi ncaily all.) |usi hacn io
involvc aiasiiing. Onc woulu also havc io suosc ihai ihc ichx ge- is
uscu in such vciscs loi scmaniic iaihci ihan mciiical icasons. Thai is, il
ihc oci uiu noi usc ihc ichx lccausc ihc mcici ucmanucu ii, ihcic
musi lc a nonmciiical icason loi iis acaiancc. Ii cannoi lc ucnicu ihai
in many insianccs ihc ichx is csscniial io ihc mcaning. This is cciiainly
ihc casc wiih -gedal anu -bebod anu iolally wiih -gestreona anu -gewinna.
Ii is noi so, howcvci, wiih -gestealla: comaic oferstealla suivivoi` in iosc.
Nciihci is ii so wiih many ol ihc loims in ge- aiiachcu io iniiial consiiiucnis
wiihoui cxcicsccni vowcls. Ioi cxamlc, in Beowulf alonc, -geweorc is uscu
cighi iimcs in comounus wiih land-, nr-, fyrn-, gun-, n.]-, hond-) anu -weorc
is uscu cighi iimcs wiih ellen-, heano-, niht-), wiih no consisicni uisiinciion in
mcaning. Thc alicinanis -ge)wnd, -ge)hygd, -ge)dryht, -ge)blond, -ge)]onc,
anu -ge)sceaft lcm.), aic iicaicu similaily: ge- is uscu on a uicly mciiical
lasis.
Thc cviucncc is ihus ol a mixcu naiuic, anu yci cvcn in ihosc insianccs in
which ge- is csscniial io ihc scmaniics, ii musi noi lc assumcu ihai mciiics
laycu no iolc in ihc vcisc consiiuciion. This shoulu lc aaicni liom ihc
icmaiIally small numlci ol comounus in vcisc ihai involvc -ge- alici an ini-
iial consiiiucni ol ihc iyc heafod- ihai is, a lull lili lollowcu ly an unsiicsscu
syllallc oihci ihan onc aiising liom an ccnihciic vowcl, ical oi ciccivcu):
ihc only cxamlcs aic heafodger.m Judith 308l), ]usendger.m Solomon and
Saturn 291l), anu nrendgewrit Meters 1.63a, Preface to the Pastoral Care 1a),
cihas also inwitgecynd Solomon and Saturn 331l, lui scc n. 15).
24
All ol
ihcsc aic in ocms Inown oi gcncially icsumcu io lc iclaiivcly laic anu,
mosily, iclaiivcly iosaic) comosiiions. Moicovci, nrendgewrit oughi io lc
siiucI liom ihc lisi, sincc ii is noi a ociic comounu, lcing lounu moic
commonly in iosc. Ii is ihus iiiclcvani io ihc qucsiion whcihci ocis uc-
viscu ge-comounus wiih ihc mcici in minu. By comaiison io ihc iwo oi
ihicc icmaining cxamlcs, ihcn, ihcic aic loiiy insianccs in vcisc in which
-ge- lollows a ical oi oicniial aiasiicu loim i.c., incluuing ihosc ihai aic
mciiically amliguous). In iosc, howcvci, comounus liIc nrendgewrit aic
iclaiivcly common, c.g., hundredgemot, eoredger.d, rndinggewrit, h.redgerefa,
24. Excluucu is ]eodengednl Guthlac B 1350a), cvcn ihough ihc vowcl ol ihc scconu syllallc
ol ]eoden- is noi cxcicsccni, lccausc, again, cvcn in ihc conscivaiivc languagc ol Beowulf ihc
vowcl is somciimcs iicaicu mciiically as il ii wcic cxcicsccni: scc 1675a, 1871a, 2032l.),
anu ihc uiscussion in HOEM, 95-98.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 315
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 315 5/7/07 11:27:50 AM
ceapunggemot, heafodgewnde, hnlsunggebed, ]usendgetele, monangecynd. Thc
conclusion sccms incscaallc ihai ihc ocis uiu noi noimally usc -ge- in
comounus cxcci in laccs whcic ii was mciiically inuiscnsallc-cvcn
il ii was also icquiicu on a scmaniic lasis. Thc laigci conclusion liom all
ol ihis, ihai ihc six Bcowulhan vciscs liIc eaxlgestealla 1326a lisicu alovc
almosi cciiainly shoulu lc scanncu wiihoui iaIing inio accouni cxcicsccni
vowcls, uciivcs signihcani suoii liom ihc olscivaiion ihai in hall ihc
insianccs ihc cxcicsccni vowcl is noi cvcn wiiiicn ly ihc hisi sciilc.
Il -ge- is iaIcn io inuicaic consisicnily ihai a icccuing syllalic icsonani
is io lc icgaiucu as nonsyllalic loi ihc saIc ol ihc mcici, comounus in
a vaiiciy ol ocms aic ihus uisamliguaicu. Thc hguics aic icscnicu in
Tallc 3, in which ihc numlcis in column II icicscni ihc inciucncc ol
such uisamliguaicu comounus.
2
Ii may lc wonucicu, ihcn, whcihci ge-
inuicaics ihai a icccuing icsonani is nonsyllalic cvcn whcn a comounu
is noi involvcu. Thcic aic |usi iwo iclcvani insianccs in Beowulf: mn]num
gesealde 1052l anu sundur gednlan 2422l, in which ge- is incsscniial io
ihc mcaning. Thc inciucncc ol woiu-iniiial ge- alici a aiasiicu loim in a
iangc ol ocms is ialulaicu in column III ol Tallc 3.
26
In icgaiu io iniiial
ichxcs oihci ihan ge-, much moic commonly ihc ichx is scmaniically
ncccssaiy, as, loi cxamlc, in ihc iwo insianccs in Beowulf: hleorbolster onfeng
688l anu hleahtor nlegde 3020l. Vciscs liIc ihcsc aic iolally iiiclcvani,
lui ihc hguics aic icscnicu in column IV ol Tallc 3, anu ii will lc noicu
25. Scc Genesis A 64l, 1071l, 1959a, Daniel 599l, Exodus 589a, Elene 64a, 654a, Juliana
36l, Andreas 1256a, 1686l, Brunanburh 49l, 51a.
26. Scc Genesis A 1312l, 1613l, 2326l, Daniel 466l, 652l, 759l, Exodus 387l, Elene 132l,
841l, Andreas 730a.
TnbIe . In vaiious comosiiions I), ihc inciucncc, alici a
syllalic icsonani, ol II) inicinal -ge-; III) iniiial ge-; anu IV)
oihci iniiial ichxcs on vcils.
I II III IV
Genesis A S S
Daniel 1 S S
Beowulf 6 2 2
Exodus 1 1 4
WoiIs ol Cyncwull S 2 6
Andreas 2 1 S
WoiIs ol King Allicu 0 0 0
Pocms liom ihc Chronicle 2 0 0
Judith 0 0 1
The Battle of Maldon 0 0 0
316 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 316 5/7/07 11:27:50 AM
ihai, coniiaiy io cxcciaiion, scmaniically uiscnsallc ichxcs aic com-
monci in icsumally laici comosiiions.
27
Thc hguics in Tallc 3 icgaiuing inicinal anu iniiial -)ge- icnu io con-
loim io ihc aiicin illusiiaicu alovc in icgaiu io ihc imlicaiions ol Tcia-
sawa`s law loi vciscs liIc weoruda wuldorgeofa. Thai is, iolallc insianccs ol
nonaiasiiing aic noi, comaiaiivcly scaIing, uncommon in icsumally
laici ocms whcn ihcy occui in ociic comounus, oiniing io loimulaic
languagc as ihc iolallc causc. Thcy aic as common in laici ocms as in
caily oncs, wiih ihc cxcciion ol Beowulf. By coniiasi, nonaiasiiing lcloic
iniiial ge- i.c., whcn ii is noi lounu in comounus) is noially commonci in
ihc cailici giou ihan ihc laici. Thc congiucncc ol ihcsc hnuings wiih ihc
cailici oncs suggcsis ihai ihcic is iolally somc |usiihcaiion in icgaiuing
vciscs liIc scolde his aldorgednl as showing nonaiasiiing in sccmingly caily
ocms, lui noi ncccssaiily so in laici oncs. This conclusion naiuially woulu
uisqualily ihc uciivcu hguics liom lcing comilcu wiih ihc oihci uaia on
aiasiiing Tallc 1 alovc) loi ihc uiosc ol uaiing ol ocms on ihc lasis
ol nonaiasiiing, sincc in such a conicxi ii woulu lc ic|uuicial io uisqualily
ihc uaia only liom icsumally laici ocms. Ii may lc ol somc usc, ihough,
in conncciion wiih cuiiions ol Olu English ocms, liIc Klaclci`s, ihai usc
unucioiniing io inuicaic nonaiasiiing.
III. KAIUZA`S IAW AND ORAI TRADITION
Unuci a vaiiously loimulaicu iincilc now iclciicu io as Kaluza`s law,
icsoluiion unuci scconuaiy siicss in Beowulf occuis only whcn ihc scconu
ol ihc icsolvcu syllallcs was shoii in caily Olu English. Thus, loi cxamlc,
icsoluiion is lounu in ihc vciscs freawine folca 2357a, wiih -wine -wini)
anu modceare micle 1778a, wiih -ceare *-cr, shoiicncu liom *-krn).
Ioi icscni uioscs, ihis iincilc may lc iclciicu io as aii onc ol ihc
iulc. In comlcmcniaiy lashion, unuci aii iwo, nonicsoluiion unuci
scconuaiy siicss is accomanicu ly ciymologically long hnal syllallcs,
ihosc ihai ciihci cnu in a consonani oi loic ciicumucx acccni in caily
Gcimanic ihc laiici comiising mosily ihc cnuing -a, ihough -e is also
lounu). Thus, ihcic is no icsoluiion in beaghroden cwen 623l) oi in mund-
bora ws 2779l, wiih -bora *-bor). In Beowulf ihcic aic no cxcciions
27. Scc Genesis A 1093a, 1502l, 1523a, 1807l, 1887l, Daniel 459, 487l, 653l*, Exodus
107l,* 115a,* 320l,* 552l, Elene 17l,* 407a,* 603l,* 812a, 1018a*, Juliana 500l, Andreas
712l,* 729l, 1191l*, Judith 185l. An asiciisI alici a numlci inuicaics ihai ihc ichx is
oiiosc in icgaiu io ihc mcaning ol ihc vcil.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 317
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 317 5/7/07 11:27:51 AM
io aii onc ol ihc iulc as icscnicu hcic, oui ol sixiy-iwo unamliguous
cxamlcs. Thc numlci ol cxcciions io aii iwo is uilhculi io uciciminc,
sincc ii uccnus uon ihc iccisc loimulaiion ol Kaluza`s law, lui ii is
iolally iclaiivcly small.
2S
In HOEM cha. 6) ii is aigucu ihai ihcsc icgulaiiiics aic govcincu in
Beowulf on a honological lasis. Il ihis is so, Beowulf musi lc a laiily caily
comosiiion, sincc a honological uisiinciion ciucial io ihc ociaiion ol
ihc law musi havc lccn uisiuicu in ihc hisi hall ol ihc cighih ccniuiy
souih ol ihc Humlci anu ihc hisi hall ol ihc ninih noiih ol ii. Rcccnily,
in ihc agcs ol ihis |ouinal, B. R. Huichcson has challcngcu ihis linc ol
aigumcni.
29
Hc oinis oui ihai alihough in ihc laicsi uaiallc Olu Eng-
lish ocms ihcic is ncgligillc cviucncc in icgaiu io aii onc ol ihc iulc,
ihcsc ocms show a ucgicc ol conloimiiy io aii iwo comaiallc io ihai
in Beowulf. Hcncc, hc concluucs, Kaluza`s law, ci sc, iclls us noihing
aloui ihc uaic ol Beowulf."
S0
Thc challcngc is suoiicu ly caiclul siaiisiics, lui ii is a qucsiion woiih
cxloiing whcihci ii can lc saiu ihai ihc conclusion lollows uiiccily liom
ihc cviucncc. Ii is lain ihai ocms Inown oi icsumcu io osiuaic Beowulf
show a high ucgicc ol conloimiiy io ihc law in icscci io ciymologically
long ucsincnccs-loih inucciional anu noninucciional woiu cnuings-in
vcisc-hnal osiiion. This has lccn Inown anu conccucu loi somc iimc,
S1

ihough Huichcson`s cxlicii ucmonsiiaiion ihai ihis is iiuc ol ihc laicsi
uaiallc ocms is a wclcomc auuiiion io oui Inowlcugc ol ihc law. Yci
Huichcson`s giou ol laic ocms, uaiing liom aioximaicly 937 io 1104,
ollcis no aicciallc cviucncc in icgaiu io aii onc ol ihc iulc-ihai is,
in icgaiu io ciymologically shoii cnuings vcisc-inicinally. Thcic is |usi onc
iclcvani vcisc Maldon 322a: wlspere windan) in ihis coius ol 523 lincs
ol laic ociiy, an inciucncc ioo small io suoii any icliallc conclusions
iclcvani io Huichcson`s icasoning. Thc aigumcni icscnicu in HOEM
aloui ihc iclcvancc ol Kaluza`s law io ihc uaiing ol Beowulf is lounucu
ciucially on ihc iicaimcni ol vcisc-inicinal shoii cnuings, as uiscusscu
lclow, aloui which Huichcson`s uaia on laic vcisc havc noihing sulsianiial
io say. Thcicloic, ioving ihai laic comosiiions conloim wcll io aii iwo
28. A clcai cxcciion is steap stnnhlino 1409a. Somc aicas ol uisagiccmcni in icgaiu io ihc
loimulaiion ol ihc law aic whcihci ii alics unuci iimaiy siicss anu whcihci ii alics
in all vcisc iycs. Somc ol ihcsc issucs aic uiscusscu in HOEM, cha. 6, also in Huichcson,
Metre, . 78-96, SuzuIi, Metre, . 205-38, 259-62, anu Thomas Callc, Kaluza`s Iaw anu
ihc Piogicss ol Olu English Mciiics," in Development in Prosodic Systems, cu. Paula IiIIcii anu
HaiIc ]acols Bcilin: Mouion uc Giuyici, 2003), . 145-58.
29. B. R. Huichcson, Kaluza`s Iaw, Thc Daiing ol Beowulf, anu ihc Olu English Pociic
Tiauiiion," JEGP, 103 2004), 297-322.
30. Huichcson, Kaluza`s Iaw," . 317.
31. Scc HOEM, 180.
318 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 318 5/7/07 11:27:51 AM
ol ihc law uocs noi iovc ihai Kaluza`s law, ci sc, iclls us noihing aloui
ihc uaic ol Beowulf." Inuccu, siiicily scaIing, ihai is a conclusion ihai ii
is logically imossillc io iovc.)
Thc mosi icmaiIallc ihing aloui Beowulf in icscci io ihc law is ihc
cxiiaoiuinaiy numlci ol vciscs ol ihc iyc freowine folca ihai ii coniains-
vciscs ol Sicvcis`s iyc A wiih icsoluiion in ihc hisi uio. As ucmonsiiaicu
in Tallc 4, whcic ihc hguic on ihc iighi icicscnis ihc iooiiion ol
insianccs io ihc lcngih ol ihc comosiiion, no oihci ocm, oi coius ol
vcisc ly a singlc oci, aioachcs Beowulf in ihc inciucncc ol ihis iyc.
Closcsi io Beowulf is Exodus, which has consiucially lcss ihan hall iis io-
oiiional inciucncc, mosi unliIc Beowulf is Genesis A, wiih lcss ihan onc-
iwcniicih ol iis inciucncc. Huichcson`s giou ol laic ocms has lcss ihan
onc-icnih ihc inciucncc in Beowulf. Ii is noi, howcvci, only ihc licqucncy
ol ihc iyc ihai is icmaiIallc lui also ihc alsoluic conloimiiy ol ihc iyc
io Kaluza`s law. As noicu alovc, ihcic is noi a singlc cxcciion in Beowulf,
whilc cxcciions aic io lc lounu in all ihc oihci comosiiions lisicu in
ihc iallc cxcci loi Genesis A anu Huichcson`s laic giou ol ocms, in
loih ol which ihc inciucncc is ioo small loi ihc alscncc ol cxcciions
io lc siaiisiically signihcani. Thcsc uaia suggcsi ihai ihc Beowulf oci was
awaic ol ihc uisiinciion lciwccn long anu shoii ucsincnccs in a way ihai
oihci ocis wcic noi.
S2
Thai oihci ocis wcic noi awaic ol ihc uisiinc-
iion, ii is iiuc, cannoi lc iovcu: ihcy may havc lccn awaic ol ii anu yci
uisicgaiucu ii. Uliimaicly, howcvci, ii maIcs no uillcicncc in icgaiu io
ihc uaiing ol Beowulf whcihci oihci ocis simly aiu ihc uisiinciion no
hccu: ii is sulhcicni loi icscni uioscs mcicly io csiallish ihai ihc uil-
lcicncc is olscivcu in Beowulf on a lasis ihai cannoi lc icgaiucu as ihc
icsuli ol acciucni. Beowulf woulu ihcn sccm io havc lccn comoscu ai
a iimc whcn ihcsc ciymologically shoii cnuings wcic siill uisiincily uil-
lcicniiaicu liom long oncs, anu ihai woulu imly a uaic ol comosiiion
no laici ihan aloui A.D. 725 il ihc ocm is noi Noiihumliian in oiigin,
oihciwisc no laici ihan aloui A.D. 825.
Sciichi SuzuIi, ichning an aigumcni ollcicu cailici ly A. ]. Bliss, woulu
unuciminc ihis linc ol icasoning ly ihc suosiiion ihai ihc ciymologi-
cal uisiinciion lciwccn long anu shoii cnuings was io somc cxicni moi-
hologizcu, anu ihus ii icmaincu iccognizallc cvcn alici ihc hono-
logical uisiinciion was loi ihc mosi aii) climinaicu.
SS
This aigumcni
32. Ioi ihc saIc ol ihc icscni aigumcni, ihis loimulaiion will iovc usclul io avoiu con-
iinual qualihcaiion. Yci ii shoulu lc iccognizcu ihai Exodus shows a iclaiivcly high inciucncc
ol iclcvani vciscs scc HOEM 176, 179), anu sincc ii coniains |usi onc violaiion ol ihc
law 240a), ii may lc ihai Beowulf is noi ihc only ocm ihai conloims in ihis icgaiu, sincc
sciilal changc io a singlc vcisc in Exodus woulu maIc a woilu ol uillcicncc.
33. SuzuIi, Metre, . 207-33, Bliss, Metre, . 118-21.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 319
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 319 5/7/07 11:27:51 AM
laccs scvcial uilhculiics, anu sincc ihc issucs aic comlcx, ii will lc lcsi
noi io iccaiiulaic all ihc olsiaclcs lui io iclci ihc icauci io an cailici,
uciailcu icluiial.
S4
Mcniion ol onc such uilhculiy will sulhcc, sincc ii is
iclcvani io Huichcson`s aigumcni. In hvc vciscs 1122a, 1243a, 1534a,
1778a, 3149a), SuzuIi`s analysis maIcs ihc wiong icuiciion, calling loi
nonicsoluiion whcic icsoluiion is mciiically icquiicu. Thai is, guiucu ly
moihological iaihci ihan honological consiuciaiions, ihc oci shoulu
havc avoiucu consiiuciing such vciscs. By SuzuIi`s iccIoning, an inci-
ucncc ol |usi hvc cxcciions is siaiisiically accciallc. Thc iollcm is,
howcvci, ihai ihcsc hvc vciscs aic ihc only oncs in ihc ocm in which
SuzuIi`s analysis can lc icsicu againsi ihc honological analysis, sincc
ihcy aic ihc only oncs in which his moihological cxlanaiion maIcs a
icuiciion uillcicni liom ihai ol ihc honological accouni. In ihai cvcni,
hvc cxcciions lainly consiiiuic an unaccciallc iaic ol violaiion: 100
ciccni ol ihc icsiallc insianccs.
In oiuci io mainiain his osiiion ihai Kaluza`s law has no iclcvancc io
ihc uaiing ol Beowulf, Huichcson, ioo, musi cxlain ihc oci`s aliliiy io
conloim io ihc law on somc lasis oihci ihan honology. His acal is io
oial iiauiiion.
S
Thai is, ihc oci Incw ancicni ociic iiauiiions so wcll
TnbIe . Thc inciucncc ol vciscs ol iyc A wiih icsoluiion in ihc hisi uio in vaii-
ous ocms, wiih ihc iooiiion ol inciucncc io ihc numlci ol lincs ci ocm
oi giou ol ocms.
Comosiiion Icngih Inciucncc Piooiiion
Genesis A 2,S19 2 0.000S624
Daniel 774 0.006499
Beowulf S,1S2 61 0.019170S
Exodus 90 0.00S474
Cyncwull`s ocms 2,601 1S 0.00499S0
Andreas 1,722 S 0.004647
Allicu`s ocms 1,796 2 0.00111S
Judith S49 2 0.007S06
Huichcson`s laic coius 2S 1 0.0019120
34. Scc R. D. IulI, Scconuaiy Siicss Phcnomcna in ihc Mcici ol Beowulf," Interdisciplinary
Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Semiotic Analysis, 3 1998), 279-304. This is a icvicw aiiiclc
conccining SuzuIi`s 1996 looI. Huichcson was unloiiunaicly unawaic ol ihis cssay, which
cihas woulu havc inuucnccu his aigumcnis. Sincc hc was so Iinu as io acInowlcugc in
his aiiiclc auvicc ihai I ollcicu him iivaicly on maiicis conccining Kaluza`s law, I shoulu
say ihai ihc coiicsonucncc alluucu io anicuaicu ihc comosiiion ol ihc alovcmcniioncu
icvicw aiiiclc ly scvcial ycais. Hau I Inown hc inicnucu io ullish such a siuuy ol ihc law,
I woulu havc lioughi ihc icvicw aiiiclc io his aiicniion.
35. Moic icciscly, Huichcson`s osiiion is ihai oial iiauiiion is icquiicu io cxlain con-
320 Fulk
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ihai hc uiu noi icquiic ihc guiuancc ol honology oi moihology, hc
simly cmloycu ihc aichaic loimulas ihai hc hau lcaincu. This cxla-
naiion icscmllcs ihai csouscu ly Bliss anu ly Ashlcy Cianucll Amos,
who assumc a moihologizcu Kaluza`s law, icscivcu ly a giauually
wcaIcning) mciiical iiauiiion,"
S6
ihough somc havc lounu ihc icsonsc
ollcicu io ihis osiiion in HOEM convincing.
S7
Huichcson`s ichncmcni
ol ihc cxlanaiion ol Bliss anu Amos is his acal io loimulaic uiciion
iaihci ihan sccihcally io mciiical iiauiiion. Ii shoulu lc saiu ihai oial
iiauiiion is inuccu ihc only vciy icasonallc cxlanaiion loi somc ol ihc
mciiically aichaic lcaiuics ol Beowulf anu oihci Olu English ocms. Sincc,
loi cxamlc, aiasiic vowcls in conncciion wiih icsonani consonanis aic
iccoiucu alicauy in ihc cailicsi icscivcu icxis in Olu English, ii woulu noi
lc vciy icasonallc io insisi ihai cvcn in laic Olu English, a woiu such as
wnpn coulu siill lc a monosyllallc in cvciyuay sccch, on ihc lasis ol ihc
olscivaiion ihai a monosyllallc sccms io lc icquiicu, as noicu alovc, ly
ihc mcici in wnpen up nhof Maldon 130l). Ii is moic lausillc io suosc
ihai nonaiasiiing was iccognizcu ly ihc cicaioi ol Maldon as a ociic
oiion, onc aiiiculaily aioiiaic io ihc aichaic languagc ol hcioic
vcisc. This lcsi cxlains why ihcic is such vaiialiliiy in ihc inciucncc ol
nonaiasiiing liom onc Olu English ocm io anoihci. Ii is also inuiscns-
allc io any icasonallc cxlanaiion loi ihc occuiicncc ol nonaiasiiing in
woius anu consiiiucnis ihai wcic noi oiiginally monosyllalic, loi cxamlc,
morgen- in morgenlongne dg Beowulf 2894a). Anu oial iiauiiion, ii was ai-
gucu alovc, is ihc only vciy lausillc cxlanaiion loi ihc high inciucncc
ol vciscs liIc weoruda wuldorgeofa in Andreas anu ihc woiIs ol Cyncwull.
Yci conloimiiy io Kaluza`s law in Beowulf is ol a uillcicni oiuci. Ii is onc
ihing loi a oci io Inow ihai wnpen may lc monosyllalic in iiauiiional
vcisc, whilc morgen shoulu noi lc. Ii is anoihci loi ihc Beowulf oci io havc
Inown ihc icsolvaliliiy ol hliccn uillcicni ciymologically shoii cnuings
anu ihc iiicsolvaliliiy ol icn ciymologically long oncs), uisiiiluicu ian-
uomly in ihc aiauigms ol scvcial uillcicni sicm classcs, wiihoui ihc aiu
ol honological oi moihological clucs. How coulu hc havc lcaincu such
iulcs oncc ihc honological conuiiioning was climinaicu. Thai qucsiion is
all ihc moic insisicni lccausc oihci ocis uo noi sccm io havc lccn allc
loimiiy io ihc law noi |usi in Beowulf lui also in his laic giou ol ocms. I uo noi mcan io
misicicscni his vicws, lui sincc my aigumcni is ihai only ihc Beowulf oci`s cxiiaoiuinaiy
conloimiiy is iclcvani io ihc issuc ol uaiing vcisc, I auuicss his osiiion on oial iiauiiion
hcic, loi ihc mosi aii, only io ihc cxicni ihai ii conccins Beowulf.
36. Bliss, Metre, 40, ihc quoiaiion is liom Ashlcy Cianucll Amos, Linguistic Means of
Determining the Dates of Old English Literary Texts Camliiugc, Mass.: Mcuicval Acaucmy ol
Amciica, 1980), . 100.
37. Scc Calvin B. Kcnuall`s icvicw ol HOEM in Philological Quarterly, 72 1993), 381.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 321
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 321 5/7/07 11:27:52 AM
io lcain ihc iulcs accuiaicly cvcn in ihosc insianccs in which ihc hono-
logical conuiiioning icmains, loi cxamlc, in heahcyning heofones Daniel
407a) anu gylpplegan gnres Exodus 240a). Il ihc hcnomcnon in Beowulf is
uuc io ihc icscivaiivc cllcci ol oial iiauiiion, how is onc io cxlain ihc
siaiI uillcicncc lciwccn Beowulf anu oihci ocms. Shoulu onc noi cxcci
iaihci ihai no ocm woulu conloim so icgulaily, anu ihai ovci ihc couisc
ol iimc ihcic woulu lc gicai vaiialiliiy in uillcicni ocis` conloimiiy as
ihc ociic iiauiiion cvolvcu. Alihough loimulaic uiciion may havc laycu
a iolc in ihc oci`s commanu ol Kaluza`s law, suicly somc iulc musi lc
involvcu in his conloimiiy, sincc ihcic is liiilc cxaci icciiiion among ihc
vciscs involvcu, anu a vaiiciy ol moihcmcs. Thus, il ii wcic io lc suoscu
ihai ihc oci was simly cmloying mcmoiizcu loimulas, wc shoulu havc
io assumc ihai almosi no vcisc in Beowulf is noi simly a ucloymcni ol a
mcmoiizcu loimula. Moic icmaiIally, ihc oci ncvci ciis in icgaiu io
ihcsc shoii cnuings, ihough hc is conicni io iicai aiasiicu loims as vaii-
ally monosyllalic oi uisyllalic, anu hc ncvci analogizcs as hc uocs wiih
morgenlongne dg. Ii is ihus uilhculi io lclicvc ihai Kaluza`s law in Beowulf
is govcincu solcly ly calcihcu loimulaic uiciion iaihci ihan living linguis-
iic oosiiions. Yci cvcn il onc saw noihing io uislclicvc in ihc loimulaic
cxlanaiion, suicly ii woulu havc io lc conccucu ai lcasi ihai Beowulf was
comoscu noi long alici ihc climinaiion ol ihc honological uisiinciion,
so unciiing is iis auhcicncc: ihis aiiiculai ociic iiauiiion woulu suicly
havc io lc icgaiucu as young in ihis oci`s uay. To cxlain ihc siaiI uillci-
cncc lciwccn Beowulf anu oihci ocms in ihis icscci, howcvci, ii is suicly
moic icasonallc io assumc ihc inicivcniion ol a honological changc.
To lc suic, ihc conloimiiy ol laici ocms io aii iwo ol Kaluza`s law is
haiuly insignihcani. Bui ihis conloimiiy is in icscci almosi cxclusivcly
io ciymologically long cnuings in vcisc-hnal osiiion, anu ihus ii iclls us
noihing sulsianiially ncw aloui ihc uaiing ol Beowulf, sincc, as icmaiIcu
alovc, ii has lccn Inown loi somc iimc ihai ocms oihci ihan Beowulf
show a high mcasuic ol conloimiiy in icgaiu io ihc ciymologically long
cnuings. Ii uocs sccm cculiai ihai ocis oihci ihan ihc Beowulf oci
shoulu havc lccn allc io iccognizc long ucsincnccs lui noi, loi ihc mosi
aii, shoii oncs. Ii has, howcvci, lccn aigucu clscwhcic ihai somc long
cnuings coulu havc iciaincu lcngih anu ihus icmaincu uisiinci cvcn alici
ihc ciymologically shoii vocalic cnuings losi ihcii uisiinciivcncss anu lcll
iogcihci wiih somc ol ihc oiiginally long cnuings-loi cxamlc, whcn
long) a-sicm uaiivc singulai -n anu shoii) masculinc i-sicm nominaiivc
singulai -i lcll iogcihci as -e.
SS
This ossililiiy is suoiicu ly ihc olsciva-
iion ihai unsiicsscu a icmaincu uisiinci io ihc cnu ol ihc Olu English
38. IulI, Scconuaiy Siicss Phcnomcna," . 298.
322 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 322 5/7/07 11:27:53 AM
ciiou liom unsiicsscu , e, anu i, which all lcll iogcihci in e iclaiivcly
caily. This may also ioviuc a aiiial cxlanaiion loi ihc icicniion ol -e
in Miuulc English much laici whcn ii is a wcaI au|cciivc cnuing, icucci-
ing Olu English -an).
S9
Bccausc Huichcson`s aigumcnis uo noi auuicss
ihc cxiiaoiuinaiy iicaimcni ol vcisc-inicinal shoii ucsincnccs in Beowulf,
ihcy uo noi cllcciivcly counici ihc cviucncc ollcicu loi ihc iclcvancc
ol Kaluza`s law io ihc uaiing ol ihc ocm. Thai laici ocis cmloy long
ucsincnccs vcisc-hnally in ihc iclcvani iycs is iiuc, lui ii is an olscivaiion
ihai uocs noi alici oui unucisianuing ol ihc law anu iis imlicaiions in
a aiiiculaily ncw oi lunuamcnial mannci, anu ii uocs noi oini ihc way
io a lausillc cxlanaiion loi ihc moic claloiaic ucsincniial oosiiions
olscivallc in Beowulf.
IV. CONCIUSION
Unucnially, somc ol ihc aichaic linguisiic lcaiuics ol Olu English ociiy
aic cxlicallc only as uuc io ihc conscivaiism ol oial iiauiiion: only awaic-
ncss ol iiauiiional ociic uiciion on ihc ocis` aii will accouni wiih any
lausililiiy loi ihc acaiancc in vcisc ol somc lcaiuics ihai musi alicauy
havc lccn climinaicu liom cvciyuay sccch. In ocms ihai sccm io osi-
uaic Beowulf, ihc high inciucncc ol vciscs liIc herede hleonorcwidum, wiih
ihc sccming lui iolally only sccming) icscivaiion ol monosyllaliciiy
in wuldor-, is lcsi cxlaincu ihis way. This cxamlc in laci lcnus noiallc
suoii io ihc assumiion ol linguisiic conscivaiism ai woiI in oial iia-
uiiion, sincc monosyllaliciiy in ihcsc icsumally laici comosiiions is
cncounicicu only in a consiucially moic limiicu sci ol conicxis ihan in
sccmingly cailici vcisc, a sci ol conicxis chaiaciciizcu ly a high ucgicc
ol loimulism. Thc cxamlc ihus aiicsis io ihc giauual aiicnuaiion ol ihc
iiauiiion in ihc couisc ol iimc, as shoulu lc cxccicu. This olscivaiion
scivcs as a signihcani iccc ol counicicviucncc io ihc suosiiion ihai
ihc Beowulf oci`s conscivaiivc mciiical iaciiccs aic uuc io his lciici
Inowlcugc ol ociic iiauiiions iaihci ihan io a chionological uillcicncc:
ihc uisiinciion lciwccn ihis oci`s Inowlcugc ol ihai iiauiiion anu ihc
Inowlcugc cvinccu ly Cyncwull anu ihc Andreas oci is uilhculi io un-
ucisianu on any lasis oihci ihan ihc assumiion ol cvoluiion ovci iimc
in ihc ociic iiauiiion.
Ai all cvcnis, awaicncss ol ihc way ihai oial iiauiiion mcuiaics lciwccn
39. Ioi iclcicnccs ihough wiih a uillcicni conclusion), scc DonIa MinIova, The His-
tory of Final Vowels in English: The Sound of Muting Bcilin: Mouion uc Giuyici, 1991), .
171-72.
Old English Meter and Oral Tradition 323
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 323 5/7/07 11:27:53 AM
mciiical analysis anu assumiions aloui chionology is csscniial io ic-
laicu aigumcnis aloui ihc uaiing ol Olu English ocms. Yci in avoiuing
ihc ciioi ol suosing ihai oial iiauiiion laycu no iolc, an assumiion
unuci which cailici scholais gcncially laloicu, ii woulu lc an cqually
unloiiunaic misiaIc io cxicnu ihc inuucncc ol oial iiauiiion lcyonu whai
is gcnuincly lausillc. Thc aliliiy ol ihc Beowulf oci, anu sccmingly ol
him alonc, consisicnily io iccognizc ciymologically shoii ucsincnccs in
vciscs ol ihc iyc freawine folca is quiic icmaiIallc, anu no acal io oial
iiauiiion can convincingly cxlain how hc was allc io uo so. Thai laic
ocms shoulu conloim io oihci asccis ol Kaluza`s law as wcll as Beowulf
uocs shoulu noi lc icgaiucu as cviucncc loi ihc aliliiy ol oial iiauiiion
io icscivc quaniiiaiivc uillcicnccs climinaicu ccniuiics cailici, sincc ii is
ly no mcans imossillc ihai cciiain ol ihc ciymologically ciicumuccicu
vowcls iciaincu lcngih inio ihc clcvcnih ccniuiy, noially ihc low vowcl
-a. Inuccu, ihc vciy iuca ihai such a mciiical lcaiuic shoulu havc lccn
icscivcu io ihc cnu ol ihc Anglo-Saxon ciiou wiihoui any honologi-
cal lasis, uuc io oial iiauiiion alonc, wiihoui any ucicciallc ucclinc in
licqucncy, is io lc icgaiucu wiih susicion, sincc ii is ihc naiuic ol ihc
iiauiiion io havc cvolvcu, howcvci slowly. Ii coulu haiuly uo oihciwisc,
sincc ii was noi hxcu cimancnily in wiiiing, liIc a ucau languagc, lui
ii was a viial lcgacy ihai coulu lc iiansmiiicu only in ciloimancc, anu
ii was ihcicloic ly naiuic sul|cci io changc. In icgaiu io Kaluza`s law,
ihcn, icason ucmanus ihai an accciallc cxlanaiion acal noi io oial
iiauiiion lui io a living linguisiic oosiiion. Thai ihc oosiiion was
siill govcincu on a honological lasis in ihc oci`s uay coniinucs io havc
signihcani imlicaiions loi ihc uaiing ol Beowulf.
324 Fulk
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 324 5/7/07 11:27:53 AM
]ouinal ol English anu Gcimanic Philology-]uly
2007 ly ihc Boaiu ol Tiusiccs ol ihc Univcisiiy ol Illinois
Bcowull `s Roman Riics:
Roman Riiual anu Gcimanic Tiauiiion
Thomas D. Hill, Cornell University
Wiihoui luncial iiiuals how woulu oihcis Inow
ihai a cison is ucau. . . .
Whosc woius woulu wc iiusi io maIc
ihcsc ihings Inown io us.
1
Onc ol ihc mosi siiiIing anu lcsi Inown ol ihc souiccs anu analogucs"
ol Beowulf is ihc accouni ol ihc luncial ol Aiiila ihc Hun icscivcu in
]oiuancs` Getica.
2
Thc aiallcl is noi only wiucly ciicu in ihc vaiious cui-
iions anu commcniaiics,
S
lui Ii. Klaclci ihoughi ii imoiiani cnough io
iciini ihc Iaiin icxi in an acnuix io his cuiiion ol Beowulf in which hc
gaihcicu somc ol ihc mosi inicicsiing aiallcls io ihc ocm.
4
Thc mosi
siiiIing coiicsonucncc lciwccn ihcsc iwo iiiuals is ihai in loih luncials
choscn waiiiois iiuc aiounu ihc ucccascu, whilc commcmoiaiing anu
iaising ihc lallcn Iing in choial ociiy.

Qucsiions havc lccn iaiscu


aloui ihc aiallcl,
6
lui mosi Beowulf scholais havc acccicu ihis accouni
1. Kalic inloimani, quoicu ly Chailcs Pioi, Remotely Global: Village Modernity in West Africa
Chicago anu Ionuon: Univ. ol Chicago Picss, 1999), . 77.
2. ]oiuancs, Getica xliv.254-59, cu. Thcouoi Mommscn, MGH Aucioics Aniiquissimi, 5/1
Bcilin: Wicumann, 1882), . 123-24.
3. All quoiaiions anu ciiaiions io Beowulf aic liom Beowulf: An Edition, cu. Biucc Miich-
cll anu Iicu C. Rolinson Oxloiu: BlacIwcll, 1998), ly linc numlci. Oihci cuiiions anu
commcniaiics ciicu anu consulicu incluuc ihai ol Ii. Klaclci, cu., Beowulf and the Fight at
Finnsburg, 3u cu. Bosion: D. C. Hcaih, 1953), C. I. Wicnn, cu., Beowulf and the Fight at
Finnsburh, icviscu anu cnlaigcu cu. Ionuon: Haiia, 1958), anu ]ohanncs Hoos, Kom-
mentar zum Beowulf Hciucllcig: Winicis, 1932). Ioi a icccni commcniaiy on ihc luncials
in Beowulf, scc Galc R. Owcn-CiocIci, The Four Funerals in Beowulf Manchcsici: Manchcsici
Univ. Picss, 2000), Owcn-CiocIci uiscusscs Bcowull`s luncial sccihcally . 85-113) anu
iclaics ihc accouni ol ihc ccicmonics in ihc ocm io iclcvani aichcological icscaich.
4. Klaclci, Beowulf, . 268-69.
5. Thc cxaci naiuic ol ihc imagincu) ciloimancc can only lc gucsscu ai, lui ihc OE
ocm Deor shows ihai OE ocis wcic lamiliai wiih ihc noiion ol sianzaic ociiy wiih a icliain,
a loim which woulu lc suiiallc loi ullic communal icscniaiion.
6. Maiiin Puhvcl, Thc Riuc Aiounu Bcowull`s Baiiow," Folklore, 94 1983), 108-12.
Puhvcl ciics insianccs ol ciicling a giavc oi a coisc aloui io lc luiicu in vaiious mcuicval
icxis anu moucin lolI iaciicc, lui hc has noi iucniihcu any ncw aiallcls ihai comlinc
cquiiaiion aloui ihc giavc, choial singing oi icciiaiion, anu iaisc ol ihc ucau. Thcic has,
ol couisc, lccn somc commcni on ihc aiallcls lciwccn ihc luncial ol Bcowull anu lunci-
als in classical aiiiculaily Iaiin) cic. Scc Richaiu ]. Schiauci, Bcowull`s Olscquics anu
ihc Roman Eic," Comparative Literature, 24 1972), 237-59.
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 325 5/7/07 11:27:53 AM
ol ihc luncial ol Aiiila as a lcgiiimaic anu icasonally closc analoguc io
ihc ocm-alihough io ihc lcsi ol my Inowlcugc no onc lclicvcs ihai
ihcic is any uiicci icxiual conncciion lciwccn ]oiuancs` Getica anu Beo-
wulf. Thc aiallcls aic asciilcu io shaicu iiauiiion"-in ihis casc ihc
iiauiiion ol lunciaiy iiics iaciiccu among ihc Gcimanic agan colcs
anu commcmoiaicu in iiauiiional Gcimanic ociiy ihai cvcniually was
uisscminaicu io ihc Beowulf-oci.
I am in csscniial agiccmcni wiih ihis quiic iiauiiional osiiion, lui I
woulu liIc io uiaw aiicniion io icccni scholaily woiI on ihis assagc in
]oiuancs` Getica, in iclaiion io Roman lunciaiy iiics, ihai has, in cllcci,
cxanucu ihc coius ol analogucs ol Bcowull`s luncial. Beowulf scholais
ihinI ol ihc luncial ol Aiiila as a iiauiiional," lailaiian," anu Gci-
manic" luncial. Thc laci ihai Aiiila was a Hun, noi a Gcimanic wailoiu,
comlicaics maiicis io somc ucgicc. Bui mosi scholais havc assumcu ihai,
sincc Aiiila iulcu ovci a Hunnish-Gcimanic conlcuciaiion anu ihcic aic
such siiiIing aiallcls lciwccn Aiiila`s luncial anu ihai ol Bcowull, ihc
luncial ol Aiiila was oichcsiiaicu ly his Gcimanic lollowcis oi alicina-
iivcly ihai Hunnish luncial iaciiccs wcic assimilaicu ly ihc waiiiois ol
Gcimania. Rcccnily, howcvci, ihc hisioiian ]avici Aicc has analyzcu ihc
accouni ol Aiiila`s luncial in ]oiuancs anu has concluucu ihai viiiually
cvciy uciail in ihc accouni ol ihis luncial is cxliciily aiallclcu in Roman
miliiaiy lunciaiy iiiuals:
All ihcsc lcaiuics ]ihc vaiious luncial iiics loi Aiiila| aic chaiaciciisiic ol
Roman luncials, csccially in miliiaiy conicxis. Thc iiics anu ccicmonics
aic iucniical. . . . Was ]oiuancs ucsciiling ihc luncial iiics ol a iomaniscu
lailaiian Iing. Oi uiu hc iiansosc ihc Roman ccicmonial io Aiiila`s lu-
ncial. Il ihc hisi hyoihcsis is iighi, ihai woulu lc iiuly signihcani loi ihc
hisioiy ol ihc iiansloimaiion ol ihc Roman woilu.
7
Dclciiing loi ihc momcni ihc imoiiani qucsiion wiih which Aicc
concluucs, wc may lcgin ly olsciving ihai ihc luncial ol Bcowull accoius
cvcn moic closcly wiih ihc iiauiiion ol Roman miliiaiy/imciial luncials
ihan Aiiila`s uocs. Thc hisi oini io cmhasizc is ihai whilc ihc louy ol
Aiiila was luiicu, Bcowull was cicmaicu. Cicmaiion as a ccicmonial way
ol uisosing ol ihc louy ol an imoiiani cison is a iiiual common io a
numlci ol wiucly uisciscu culiuics-inuccu givcn ihc hysical iollcm
ol how io uisosc ol a human louy, cicmaiion anu inhumaiion aic ci-
has ihc iwo mosi olvious anu immcuiaic soluiions. Bui ihc aiiiculai
iwo-lolu iiiual ihai ihc Beowulf-oci ucicis, in which a cicmaiion is lol-
7. ]avici Aicc, Imciial Iuncials in ihc Iaici Roman Emiic: Changc anu Coniinuiiy,"
in Rituals of Power, cu. Iians Thcuws anu ]anci I. Nclson Iciucn: Biill, 2000), . 115-129.
Ioi lullci uiscussion ol Roman lunciaiy cusioms, scc ]avici Aicc, Funus Imperatorum: Los
funerales de los imperadores romanos, 2u cu. Mauiiu: Alianza Euiioiial, 1990).
326 Hill
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 326 5/7/07 11:27:54 AM
lowcu ly an inhumaiion, has sccihc Roman aiallcls.
S
Monumcnis such
as ihc column ol Tia|an wcic, accoiuing io Aicc anu ihosc scholais on
whosc woiI hc lascs his conclusions, lunciaiy shiincs in which ihc ashcs
ol ihc ucccascu cmcioi anu his immcuiaic lamily wcic scalcu.
9
Again, il
ihc cmcioi uicu whilc camaigning, his louy woulu lc cicmaicu whcic
hc uicu, anu his ashcs woulu lc iciuincu io a lunciaiy siic in Romc. Thus
ihc accouni ol ihc luncial ol Bcowull, in which Bcowull is cicmaicu anu
his ashcs aic luiicu in a monumcni, coiicsonus moic closcly io Roman
icccucni ihan ihc inhumaiion ol ihc louy ol Aiiila in a sccici locaiion
as ucsciilcu ly ]oiuancs.
10
Thc iiiual ol Bcowull`s luncial, as ii is ucicicu in ihc ocm, lollows an
claloiaic anu caiclully scqucnccu ioccuuic. Iiisi ihc louy ol Bcowull
is laiu oui on a luncial yic anu ihc yic is hung aloui wiih aims, hcl-
mcis, shiclus, anu liighi luinics beorhtum byrnum, l. 3140). Thcsc aims
icsumally comc liom ihc Gcaiish iicasuic chamlci oi aimoiy, iaihci
ihan liom ihc uiagon`s hoaiu, sincc ihc wcaons ihai wcic aii ol ihai
hoaiu, as uisiinci liom ihc oinamcnis mauc liom iccious mcials, havc
long sincc iusicu anu uccaycu. Onc ihcicloic assumcs ihai ihcsc icla-
iivcly ncw wcaons comc liom ihc soils ihai Bcowull has won in laiilc
oi liom ihc Gcaiish iicasuic hoaiu. Bcowull`s louy is ihcn luincu whilc
a namclcss woman sings a song ol lamcniaiion anu oihci mouincis la-
mcni his ucaih. Thc Gcais ihcn luilu a laiiow on a hillsiuc ly ihc sca
hlaew on hline, l. 3157), in which ihcy lacc ihc icmains ol ihc lunciaiy
yic anu all ihc iicasuic ihai Bcowull won liom ihc uiagon. Thc iiiual
ihcn concluucs wiih Bcowull`s comanions iiuing aiounu ihc laiiow anu
simuliancously commcmoiaiing ihcii lallcn lcauci as ihc monna miluusi
onu monwaiusi / lcouum liosi onu lolgcoinosi" ll. 3181-82).
11
Viiiually cvciy sic in ihis ioccss is aiallclcu in ihc iiauiiion ol Ro-
man miliiaiy lunciaiy iiics. Thc iiiual ucsiiuciion ol wcaons won on ihc
yic ol a ucau cmcioi is a wcll-aiicsicu aii ol Roman iaciicc. Wcaons
anu sianuaius ihai ihc cmcioi oi ihc gcncial won on ihc hclu ol laiilc
wcic iiiually ucsiioycu on ihc yic as a gcsiuic ol icscci io ihc ucaiicu
anu an imlicii acInowlcugmcni ol his achicvcmcni.
12
Giavc goous anu
8. Scc ]. C. Richaiu, Inciniaiion ci inhumaiion aux luniaillcs imiialcs: Hisioiic uc
iiiucl uc l`aoihosc cnuani lc Haui-Emiic," Latomus, 25 1966), 784-803.
9. Aicc, Funus Imperatorum, . 80-83.
10. ]oiuancs` accouni ol ihc sccici" luiial ol Aiiila is imlausillc loi a vaiiciy ol icasons,
among ihcm ihc laci ihai ihc luiial aiiy woulu lcavc a clcai iiacI ihai cvcn unsIillcu iiacI-
cis coulu lollow.
11. Scc Chailcs D. Wiighi, Moscs, manna mildost Exodus 550a)," Notes and Queries, n.s
31 1984), 440-43, loi uiscussion ol ihis hiasc in ihc conicxi ol iaisc ociiy inicnucu
loi a Iing.
12. Ioi uiscussion anu cxamlcs, scc ]. C. Richaiu, Ics asccis miliiaiics ucs luniaillcs
imiialcs," Mlanges dArchologie et Histoire, 78 1966), 318-19.
Beowulfs Roman Rites: Roman Ritual and Germanic Tradition 327
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 327 5/7/07 11:27:54 AM
hcncc imliciily iicasuic luiial wcic aii ol Roman lunciaiy iiiual, lui
ii musi lc acInowlcugcu ihai ihc lavish noi io say cxiiavagani) luiial ol
iicasuic wiih Aiiila oi ihc luiial ol all ol ihc iicasuic ihai Bcowull won
liom ihc uiagon is noi aiallclcu, as lai as I Inow, in Roman iaciicc.
Thcic aic a vaiiciy ol iollcms in iniciiciing ihis iiiual aciion in ihc
ocm-wc can lcgin ly noiing ihai ihc Beowulf-oci cimiis himscll an
auihoiial" iniiusion in icmaiIing ihai ihc luiicu iicasuic was cluum
swa unnyi swa hii aioi was" l. 3168). Ticasuic luiial anu giavc goous
wcic scnsiiivc sul|ccis in ihc caily Anglo-Saxon woilu in ihai Chiisiians
uiu noi iaciicc iicasuic luiial ihcmsclvcs, lui onc woulu imaginc ihai
an Anglo-Saxon Iing oi aiisiociai woulu siill noi wish io uisiuil oi scc
anyonc clsc uisiuil ihc iomls ol his anccsiois. Thc vciy laci ihai somc
luiial hoaius havc suivivcu uniil iclaiivcly icccnily is in iiscll owcilul
cviucncc ol ihc ialoo againsi uisiuiling giavcs uuiing ihc Anglo-Saxon
ciiou anu cihas cvcn laici.
Ai any iaic ihc luiial ol massivc amounis ol iicasuic woulu sccm io
lc onc naiivc" lcaiuic ol ihc luncials ol Bcowull anu Aiiila ihai is noi
uiiccily aiallclcu in Roman luncials, alihough ihc icsouiccs ucvoicu io
ma|oi Roman imciial luncials woulu imly a comaiallc cxcnuiiuic
ol wcalih. Thc accouni ol ihc woman`s lamcni in Beowulf is vciy lauly
icscivcu in ihc manusciii so ihcic aic ma|oi iollcms in iniciiciing
ihis assagc.
1S
Bui cciiainly iiiualizcu lamcni was aii ol Roman imc-
iial luncials, anu womcn hau an imoiiani iolc io lay in luncical cci-
cmonics. Thc Iaiin icim loi a woman who lamcnicu ihc ucccascu was a
praecia,
14
anu ihc icim loi ihc luncial song shc sang was a nenia.
1
Thc
consiiuciion ol a laiiow also has immcuiaic Roman aiallcls-ihc Iaiin
hiasc loi such a consiiuciion was tumulus honorarius. Such a tumulus,
loi cxamlc, was ciccicu in honoi ol Diusus on ihc lanIs ol ihc Rhinc
ihai woulu havc lccn visillc io ihc Gcimanic colcs on ihc oihci siuc
ol ihc Rhinc oi io Gcimanic iiavclcis iocccuing uown ihc iivci.
16
Anu
13. Ioi a looI-lcngih siuuy ol ihis assagc anu ihc hisioiy ol iis vaiious icconsiiuciions,
scc Tilcn Wcsihalcn, Beowulf 315055: Textkritik und Editionsgeschichte, Bochhumci Ailci-
icn zui Siach unu Iiiciaiuiwisscnschali, 1 Munich: IinI, 1967). Ioi a usclul icvicw anu
summaiy ol ihc looI, scc Iicu C. Rolinson`s icvicw in Anglia, 88 1970), 363-65. Scc also
Hclcn Bcnncii, Thc Icmalc Mouinci ai Bcowull`s Iuncial: Iilling in ihc BlanIs, Hcaiing
ihc Saccs," Exemplaria, 4 1992), 35-50.
14. Ioi ihc uchniiion ol ihc icim praecia anu cxamlcs, scc Aicc, Funus Imperatorum, .
174.
15. Ioi ihc uchniiion ol ihc icim nenia anu cxamlcs, scc Aicc, Funus Imperatorum, .
46 anu 174. Thc Anglo-Saxon Coius Glossaiy, CoiGl2 Hcsscls), D4.2, glosscs nenia as
caimcn lunclic muliciium" ciicu liom ihc Dictionary of Old English Corpus, availallc io
sulsciilcis ai hii://cis.umul.umich.cuu/o/occ/).
16. Sucionius, De vita Caesarum I.6, Divus Clauuius," in Suetonius, cu. ]. C. Rollc, 2 vols.,
Iocl Classical Iiliaiy Ionuon: Hcincmann, 1930), II, 2-5: Richaiu, Ics asccis mili-
iaiics," . 314.
328 Hill
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 328 5/7/07 11:27:54 AM
hnally ihc iiiual ol iiuing aloui ihc luncial monumcni whilc lamcniing
ihc ucaiicu is aiallclcu in Roman imciial luncials: ii was callcu ihc
decursio equitum.
17
Iuncial iiiuals loi lcaucis liom uillcicni culiuics may icscmllc onc
anoihci io somc ucgicc, sincc ihc iaciical ucmanus ol uisosing ol ihc
louy ol ihc ucau loiu aic alici all similai anu cciiain sics in ihc iiiual
ioccss aic viiiually univcisal. Piaisc ol ihc ucau anu loimal lamcni aic,
onc woulu assumc, vciy common. Thc aiallcls lciwccn Bcowull`s luncial
anu ihc iiauiiion ol Roman miliiaiy luncials aic, howcvci, so siiiIing anu
cxicnsivc ihai ihcy aic lcsi cxlaincu ly ihc coniinuiiy ol iiauiiion lc-
iwccn ihc laic Roman anu caily Gcimanic woilu. Such coniinuiiy is haiuly
vciy suiiising-ihc Anglo-Saxon woilu owcu much io Roman icccucni.
Thc ocm is, alici all, icscivcu in a loim ol ihc Roman alhalci.
I woulu aiguc, ihcn, ihai in auuiiion io ihc luncial ol Aiiila, wc shoulu
incluuc oihci Roman luncials, oi moic accuiaicly ihc iiauiiion ol Roman
miliiaiy anu imciial luncials, icscivcu as ciihci culiuial mcmoiy oi
iaciicc oi in a vaiiciy ol oihci ossillc moucs) as a souicc" loi ihc hnal
luncial in Beowulf. Sincc oui Inowlcugc ol ihc ccicmonics ihcmsclvcs is
limiicu anu io somc ucgicc icconsiiucicu liom liiciaiy anu aichcological
cviucncc, ihc uciails ol ihc aigumcni aic, in somc insianccs, scculaiivc.
Bui ihc laigci oini ol ihc aigumcni is loih simlc anu, I woulu hoc,
lausillc. Thc univcisally iccognizcu anu wiucly acccicu aiallcls lc-
iwccn ]oiuancs` accouni ol ihc luncial ol Aiiila anu ihc luncial ol Bcowull
aic noi simly a icucciion ol ihc shaicu Gcimanic" culiuic common io
ihc couii ol Aiiila anu ihc imagincu couii ol ihc Gcais. Thcsc common-
aliiics uciivc liom ihc shaicu culiuial hciiiagc ol ihc Gcimanic anu ihc
Iaiin woilu ol laic aniiquiiy, a culiuic ihai incluucu loih Iaiin miliiaiy
iiiual anu Gcimanic iiauiiion.
Il ihc aiallcls lciwccn Iaiin imciial anu miliiaiy luncials anu ihc
luncial ol Bcowull aic ioo siiiIing io uismiss as coinciucnial, ii is also
iiuc ihai ihc iollcm ol cxlaining how ihc Beowulf-oci hau acccss io
ihc iiauiiions ol luncical ccicmony anu loic ihai Aicc anu oihci schol-
ais havc cxlicaicu is a uilhculi onc. Thc hisi oini io olscivc is ihai
ii sccms vciy unliIcly ihai ihc Beowulf-oci icau ihc Iaiin anu GiccI
hisioiians whom ihc moucin classicisis ciic as ihc wiiiicn souiccs loi
oui Inowlcugc ol Roman luncial iiics. Ii is noi ihai I havc any iollcm
wiih ihc iuca ol ihc Beowulf-oci as liiciaic anu lcaincu. Bui cvcn il wc
assumc a lcaincu oci suiiounucu ly lcaincu liicnus, ihc Iinu ol icau-
ing in GiccI anu Iaiin hisioiians ihai iclicaiing ihc woiI ol Aicc anu
oihci scholais woulu involvc sccms unliIcly. Wc woulu havc io assumc
17. Ioi ihc uchniiion ol ihc hiasc decursio equitum anu cxamlcs, scc Aicc, Funus Im-
peratorum, . 31, 52-53, anu 171.
Beowulfs Roman Rites: Roman Ritual and Germanic Tradition 329
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 329 5/7/07 11:27:55 AM
noi only ihai ihc oci hau icau a numlci ol icxis ihai no oihci Anglo-
Saxons sccm io havc icau, lui also ihai hc hau icau ihcm as a moucin
classical hisioiian mighi, locusing on a lcw uciails in onc naiiaiivc anu
a lcw in anoihci.
Thc aiallcls uo cxisi, howcvci, anu whilc ii may lc haiu oi cvcn ulii-
maicly imossillc io movc lcyonu icasonallc scculaiion aloui how ihis
loic was iiansmiiicu,
1S
such scculaiion can cimii us io liamc aioii-
aic qucsiions. To lcgin wiih, onc may olscivc ihai ihc aiallcls lciwccn
Bcowull`s anu Aiiila`s luncials havc lccn iccognizcu loi gcnciaiions ly
Beowulf scholais anu ihai no onc has cvci osiulaicu any uiicci conncc-
iion lciwccn ]oiuancs` Getica anu ihc Beowulf-oci. Whai is ai issuc is
how io cxlain ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn ihc iwo icxis. To scaI ol oial
iiauiiion" in ihis conncciion is lcgiiimaic anu inuccu may uliimaicly
lc ihc answci io ihc linI lciwccn ihc iwo icxis, lui oial iiauiiion" is a
lioau consiiuci anu ii is imoiiani io aiicmi io uiscuss moic sccih-
cally whai Iinus ol oial iiauiiional maiciial ihc Beowulf-oci mighi havc
uiawn on.
19
Thc hisi oini io cmhasizc is ihai ihc Wcsicin Roman cmiic anu
Gcimania wcic uccly iniciiwincu in ihc ciiou ol ihc laici cmiic. Onc
icccni looI on ihc ioic is cniiilcu The Roman Empire and Its Germanic
Peoples.
20
Thc Gcimanic naiions anu ihcii lcaucis wcic ncvci cncmics ol
ihc Roman cmiic oi Roman civilizaiion loi iucological oi naiionalisiic
icasons. Thcy wanicu io cn|oy, as mcmlcis ol ihc cliic io lc suic, ihc
lcnchis ol Roman civilizaiion, noi io ucsiioy ihc cmiic. Anu among
ihc lcnchis ol ihai civilizaiion wcic highly ucvclocu anu siiiIing civic
ccicmonials, somc ol ihc mosi imicssivc ol which wcic Roman mili-
iaiy/imciial luncials. Iunciaiy iiics aic loih siiiIing, mcmoiallc, anu
icauily iiansoiiallc.
Thc aciion ol Beowulf is caiclully, anu aaicnily accuiaicly, siiuaicu
in sixih-ccniuiy Scanuinavia, Hygclac`s Iiisian iaiu, loi cxamlc, is a ical
hisioiical cvcni ihai can lc uaicu as having occuiicu ciica 530 A.D.-ihai
is, wiihin living mcmoiy ol ihc laic Roman cmiic. Il ihc Beowulf-oci
Incw ol ihc hisioiy ol ihc Scanuinavian anu Mciovingian Iings in ihc
sixih ccniuiy, hc coulu havc lcaincu ol Roman lunciaiy iiiuals ihai wcic
18. Onc ossillc souicc loi somc inloimaiion aloui laic Roman luiial iaciiccs is Isiuoic ol
Scvillc`s Etymologiae sive Origines XV.xi.1-4, Dc Sculchiis," in Isidori Hispalensis Etymologiarum
sive Originum Libri XXI, cu. W. M. Iinusay, 2 vols. Oxloiu: Claicnuon Picss, 1911).
19. On ihcsc iollcms scc ]osch Haiiis, A Naiivisi Aioach io Bcowull: Thc Casc ol
Gcimanic Elcgy," in Companion to Old English Poetry, cu. HcnI Aciiscn anu Roll H. Bicmmci
Amsiciuam: VU Univ. Picss, 1994), . 45-62.
20. Hciwig Wolliam, The Roman Empire and Its Germanic Peoples, iians. Thomas Dunla
BciIclcy: Univ. ol Caliloinia Picss, 1997). Thc oiiginal Gciman iiilc Das Reich und die
Germanen is lcss siiiIing, lui ihc English iiilc cciiainly icuccis ihc aigumcni ol ihc looI.
330 Hill
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 330 5/7/07 11:27:55 AM
cciiainly iaciiccu a ccniuiy oi so cailici anu may wcll havc lccn auaicu
anu caiiicu on in ihc Gcimanic woilu.
Anoihci scculaiivc ossililiiy, which is ai lcasi woiih consiuciing, is
ihai iiiuals ol luiial woulu loim an aiiiaciivc anu aioiiaic sul|cci loi
visual icicscniaiion, so ihai in auuiiion io ociic accounis ol a luncial,
oi somc such mouc ol vcilal uisscminaiion, ii is ai lcasi imaginallc ihai
ihc Beowulf-oci gaincu his Inowlcugc ol how luncials wcic conuucicu
in ihc olu uays liom somc visual souicc." Onc ossililiiy woulu havc
lccn Roman oi Romano-Biiiish saicohagi. In icims ol ihc hisioiy ol
Gcimanic hcioic lcgcnu, ii is woiih icmcmlciing ihai ihc IianIs Au-
zon) CasIci is alici all loih ihc olucsi anu onc ol ihc lcsi iccoius ol ihc
Waylanu/Vlunui sioiy.
Anu hnally, ii shoulu lc olscivcu ihai |usi lccausc ihc Roman iiiuals
icuaic ihc similai iiiuals ol ihc ical luncial ol Aiiila anu ihc imagincu
luncial ol Bcowull, ii uocs noi lollow ihai ihcsc iiiuals aic oiiginally
Roman." Thai ihc Romans inuucnccu ihc Gcimanic-scaIing colcs
is lcyonu qucsiion, lui ii musi also lc icmcmlcicu ihai ihc culiuial
mixing ihai was so chaiaciciisiic ol ihc laic Roman woilu was conuucivc
io muiual inuucncc. Sincc Gcimanic waiiiois wcic such an imoiiani
aii ol ihc Roman miliiaiy csiallishmcni, ihcic wcic amlc ooiiuni-
iics loi Gcimanic lunciaiy iiiuals io lc assimilaicu inio Roman miliiaiy
iaciicc. Roman cmciois, loi cxamlc, wcic somciimcs iaiscu on ihc
shiclus ol ihcii suoiicis on ihcii acccssion io olhcc, a iiiual aci ihai a-
aicnily uciivcs liom Gcimanic iiauiiion. Onc ihinIs wiih somc sauncss
ol how wc havc lccn icminucu icccnily ihai lagic music, which in an
Amciican conicxi is a Ccliic Scois anu Iiish) musical loim, has lccomc
aii ol ihc lunciaiy iiiuals loi Ncw YoiI oliccmcn anu hichghicis ol
ihc mosi uivcisc cihnic lacIgiounus.
A qucsiion ihai I shoulu uiscuss il only liicuy) is ihc aigumcni ly
Iicu C. Rolinson ihai ihc accouni ol ihc luncial ol Bcowull suggcsis ihc
Gcais wcic in ihc ioccss ol uivinizing ihcii lallcn lcauci-ihai ihc oci
imlics ihc Gcais woishicu Bcowull alici his ucaih, |usi as accoiuing
io somc accounis) somc ol ihc gicai Scanuinavian Iings icccivcu uivinc
honois alici ihcii ucaih.
21
An immcuiaic commcni ihai onc can ollci
aloui ihis aci is ihai ii suggcsis how scnsiiivc anu shicwu a icauci ol
Olu English ociiy in gcncial, anu Beowulf in aiiiculai, Iicu C. Rolinson
is. Roman imciial luncials were ccicmonics ihai commcmoiaicu ihc
21. Iicu C. Rolinson, Thc Toml ol Bcowull," in Iicu C. Rolinson, The Tomb of Beowulf
and Other Essays on Old English Oxloiu: BlacIwcll, 1993), . 4-19. Ioi a uillcicni suggcs-
iion aloui ihc social imlicaiions ol Bcowull`s luncial, scc ]os Bazclmans, By Weapons Made
Worthy: Lords, Retainers and Their Relationship in Beowulf Amsiciuam: Amsiciuam Univ. Picss,
1999), . 188.
Beowulfs Roman Rites: Roman Ritual and Germanic Tradition 331
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 331 5/7/07 11:27:55 AM
aoihcosis ol ihc cmcioi. Roman cmciois wcic convcniionally assumcu
io havc iaIcn on uivinc siaius as a coclicola" alici ihcii ucaih. Thcy wcic
noi cqual in uigniiy io ihc ma|oi hguics ol ihc anihcon, lui ihcy wcic
ihoughi io havc lccn assumcu io ihc hcavcns anu mauc aii ol ihc com-
muniiy ol ihc uivinc lcings.
22
Anu ihcii luncial ccicmonics symlolizcu
ihis iiansiiion liom human io uivinc siaius. Thus, loi cxamlc, a iacioi ai
ihc luncial ol Augusius swoic ihai hc saw ihc soul ol ihc cmcioi assumcu
u inio ihc hcavcns,
2S
anu in somc luncial ccicmonics a cagcu caglc was
iclcascu ai ihc climaciic oini ol ihc ccicmony as a icicscniaiion ol ihc
siiiiual iclcasc anu asccni ihai ihc ccicmony ol ihc luncial cclcliaicu.
24

Cicmaiion iiscll can lc sccn as a way ol swilily uiscmlouying ihc cison
who has uicu anu ihus iclcasing ihc soul io asccnu io iis ncw siiiiual lilc.
Insolai as ihc iiiuals, which uchnc Bcowull`s luncial, uciivc uliimaicly
liom Roman imciial lunciaiy iiics, ihcy aic iiiuals conccincu wiih ihc
ioccss ol aoihcosis.
Bui ai ihc samc iimc, il ihc ccicmonics ihai ihc oci ucsciilcs ai ihis
oini in ihc ocm aic iiauiiional anu uliimaicly laic Roman luncial cci-
cmonics, as I havc lccn aiguing, onc musi lc cauiious in icauing" ioo
much inio ihcm. Consianiinc I, loi cxamlc, ihc hisi Chiisiian cmcioi
who Chiisiianizcu" ihc Roman cmiic anu who csiallishcu ihc lounua-
iions ol Wcsicin mcuicval Chiisiian oliiical oiuci, was aaicnily uivinizcu
ly ihc Scnaic alici his ucaih.
2
As lai as scholais can icll, his uivinizaiion
was ihc icsuli ol luicauciaiic inciiia anu uiu noi havc any aiiiculai iuco-
logical signihcancc. Siill, ii musi havc lccn cmlaiiassing loi Consianiinc
io havc io cxlain his ncwly uivinc siaius whcn hc aiiivcu in ihc hcavcn ol
ihc iulcis. Similaily, whcn ihc Beowulf-oci ucicicu ihc luncial ol Bcowull
as cxcmlilying iiauiiional luncial iiiuals ihai uliimaicly uciivc liom laic
Roman iaciicc, wc nccu noi assumc ihai hc ncccssaiily acccicu ihc ic-
ligious anu iucological imlicaiions ol ihcsc iiiuals. Thc issuc uliimaicly
uccnus on how onc iniciicis whai Klaclci callcu ihc cculiai siiiiual
aimoshcic ol ihc ocm,"
26
anu Rolinson`s vicws on ihc aoihcosis ol
Bcowull accoiu wiih his iaihci uaiI iniciiciaiion ol ihc Beowulf-oci`s
vision ol ihc agan" ichisioiy ol ihc Anglo-Saxon colcs.
27
22. Aicc, Imciial Iuncials in ihc Iaici Roman Emiic," . 117-18.
23. Sucionius, De vita Caesarum II.c, Divus Augusius," Suetonius, cu., I, 304-5.
24. Hciouian, History of the Empire IV.ii.11, iians. C. R. WhiiiaIci, Iocl Classical Iiliaiy
Camliiugc Mass.: Haivaiu Univ. Picss, 1969), I, 380-83.
25. Aicc, Imciial Iuncials in ihc Iaici Roman Emiic," . 124.
26. Klaclci, Beowulf, . cxxi, n. 2.
27. Scc Iicu C. Rolinson, Beowulf and the Appositive Style Knoxvillc: Univ. ol Tcnncsscc
Picss, 1985). Ioi a uillcicni anu moic osiiivc vicw ol ihc oci`s iicaimcni ol ic-Chiisiian
Anglo-Saxon hisioiy, scc Thomas D. Hill, Thc Chiisiian Ianguagc anu Thcmc ol Beowulf,"
in Companion to Old English Poetry, cu. Aciiscn anu Bicmmci, . 63-77, ici. in Beowulf: A
Verse Translation, iians. Scamus Hcancy, cu. Danicl Donoghuc Ncw YoiI: Noiion, 2002),
. 197-211.
332 Hill
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 332 5/7/07 11:27:55 AM
Thc aigumcni ol ihis aci, ii musi lc conlcsscu, uocs noi iauically allcci
oui iniciiciaiion ol ihc ocm. Thc oiigin ol ihcsc iiiuals uocs noi maiici
io ihc moucin auuicncc anu icsumally uiu noi maiici io ihc mcuicval
auuicncc ciihci. Thc hnal luncial ol Beowulf in ihc ocm is a slcnuiu anu
magnihccni luncial in ihc olu" mannci. Thc luncial woulu havc sccmcu
aichaic io ihc oiiginal auuicncc ol Beowulf cvcn il wc accci an caily uaiing
ol ihc ocm io ihc agc ol Bcuc. Chiisiians uiu noi cicmaic ihc Chiisiian
ucau-inuccu, uuiing ihc loiccu convcision ol ihc Saxons, Chailcmagnc
anu ihc IianIs lcgislaicu againsi Saxon) cicmaiion anu uchncu ii as a
caiial ciimc.
2S
Howcvci iigoiously anu consisicnily ihis law was cnloiccu,
ii uocs suggcsi ihc hosiiliiy wiih which somc Chiisiians vicwcu agan luiial
iaciiccs. Bui Bcowull is a wholly aumiiallc hcio whosc soul asccnus io
hcavcn,
29
anu Wiglal anu ihc oihci Gcais aic ucicicu symaihciically in
ihc ocm. Thc Beowulf-oci anu his icsumiivc auuicncc wcic aaicnily
willing io symaihizc ai lcasi imaginaiivcly wiih ihcii ic-Chiisiian anccs-
iois. Bui oihci ihan iccognizing Bcowull`s luncial as olu anu magnihccni
anu as iiauiiional anu so icsumally Gcimanic, nciihci Anglo-Saxon, onc
icsumcs, oi moic moucin aumiicis ol ihc ocm gavc much ihoughi io
ihc hisioiical anicccucnis ol ihc luncial wiih which ihc ocm concluucs.
Thc immcuiaic souicc is, alici all, Gcimanic iiauiiion," as ihc accouni ol
ihc luncial ol Aiiila ucmonsiiaics.
Iiom a liiciaiy-hisioiical oini ol vicw, howcvci, ihc uliimaic iovcnancc
ol Bcowull`s luncial iiics is moic inicicsiing. Iaccu wiih ihc siiiIing ai-
allcls ihai hc noiiccu lciwccn Roman imciial luncials anu ihc luncial
ol Aiiila, Aicc, wiih aioiiaic hisioiical cauiion, noics iwo ossililiiics.
Eiihci ]oiuancs oi his souicc)
S0
simly invcnicu a luncial loi Aiiila anu
lascu ihis hciion on Roman moucls, oi ihc aciual luncial ol Aiiila icuccicu
ihc laci ihai Aiiila`s couii, comiiscu ol Huns anu Gcimanic waiiiois,
was so uccly Romanizcu ihai ihc luncial ihcy ioviucu loi ihcii own
lclovcu loiu was aiicincu alici Roman moucls. Thc laiici ossililiiy
woulu lc iiuly signihcani loi ihc hisioiy ol ihc iiansloimaiion ol ihc Ro-
man woilu,"
S1
as Aicc icmaiIs, lui how can onc cxcluuc ihc ossililiiy ol
28. Si quis coius ucluncii hominis sccunuum iiium aganoium uamma consumi lccciii
ci ossa cius au cincicm icuiciii, caiiac uniciui." Caiiulaiio uc aiiiilus Saxoniac" 7,
in Capitularia Regum Francorum, cu. Allicuus Boiciius, MGH Icgcs, 2 Hannovci: Hahn,
1881), . 69. This caiiulaiy was issucu ly ihc couii ol Chailcmagnc unuci ihc namc ol
ihc cmcioi.
29. Scc Thomas D. Hill, Thc Vaiicgaicu Olii` as an Hisioiiogiahic Moiil in Olu Eng-
lish Pociiy anu Anglo-Iaiin Hisioiical Iiiciaiuic," Traditio, 44 1988), 101-24.
30. ]oiuancs` icxi is, ol couisc, an ciiomc ol a losi woiI ly Cassiouoius, who in iuin
was woiIing wiih wiiiicn anu cihas oial souiccs ol ihc hisioiy ol ihc Goihs. Anu in ihis
insiancc ]oiuancs says hc is lollowing Piiscus. Souicc ciiiicism ol ihc Getica is ihus aiiiculaily
uilhculi.
31. Aicc, Imciial Iuncials in ihc Iaici Roman Emiic," . 128.
Beowulfs Roman Rites: Roman Ritual and Germanic Tradition 333
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 333 5/7/07 11:27:56 AM
ihc loimci. Shoii ol icmaiIallc ncw cviucncc ol onc soii oi anoihci, ii
mighi sccm ihai wc havc no way ol choosing lciwccn ihcsc iwo oiions.
Thc Bcowulhan aiallcl, howcvci, uocs ucmonsiiaic ihai cvcn il ]oi-
uancs oi Cassiouoius) hciionalizcu ihc accouni ol ihc luncial ol Aiiila,
somc Gcimanic gesinas anu ocis hau lcaincu cnough aloui Roman im-
ciial luncials ihai Roman luiial cusioms hau lccomc assimilaicu inio
Gcimanic liiciaiy iiauiiion, ai lcasi, anu quiic ossilly inio Gcimanic
iaciicc as wcll. Ii is as I havc icmaiIcu) unliIcly ihai ihc Beowulf-oci
Incw ]oiuancs` Getica uiiccily, anu whilc ihc iiiuals ihai uchnc ihc luncial
ol Bcowull can lc aiallclcu in vaiious hisioiians` accounis ol ihc luncials
ol vaiious Roman cmciois anu gcncials, I havc lounu no singlc acccs-
sillc liiciaiy souicc ihai aiallcls ihc luncial ol Bcowull lully. Il no cxiani
souicc can icauily accouni loi ihc aiallcls ihai wc uisccin, ii woulu sccm
ncccssaiy io hyoihcsizc somc losi souicc oi souiccs ciihci liiciaiy oi oial.
Hyoihcsizing losi souiccs mighi sccm ovcily scculaiivc, lui ihc iiiual
aiallcls aic concicic cnough anu ii is ncccssaiy io hnu somc way io ac-
couni loi ihcm. Thc aniiquaiian chaiacici ol ihc Beowulf-oci`s inicicsis
anu ihc laci ihai hc alluucs io anu uiaws uon a vaiiciy ol losi liiciaiy
anu hisioiical icxis aic, inuccu, clichs ol Beowulf scholaishi. Thc oini
is ihai ihc Beowulf-oci`s accouni ol Bcowull`s Roman" luncial siiongly
suggcsis ihai Roman luncial iiiuals hau lccomc assimilaicu in Gcimanic
iiauiiion wiih all ihai ihai mighi imly aloui ihc iiansloimaiion ol ihc
Roman woilu."
In concluuing ihis aci I woulu liIc io cmhasizc ihai I uo noi wani
ihis aigumcni io lc consiiucu as a Iaiinisi" ciiiiquc ol icccivcu naiiv-
isi" vciiiics. Ii is an incviiallc aii ol scholaily uiscouisc ihai scholais lc-
comc involvcu wiih anu icnu io iucniily wiih ihcii own aiiiculai icscaich
io|ccis, anu so io somc ucgicc scholais woiIing on ihc Chiisiian Iaiin
oi in ihis casc ihc agan Iaiin lacIgiounu ol Olu English ociiy aic
ciccivcu as lcing in an auvcisaiial iclaiionshi wiih scholais inicicsicu
in ihc iiauiiional Gcimanic ascci ol Olu English liiciaiuic. Scholaily
comciiiion is olicn a goou ihing, anu I uo noi wani io uamcn auvci-
saiial zcal, lui as ihc aigumcni ol ihis aci aiicmis io ucmonsiiaic in
ihc sccihc insiancc ol ihc accouni ol Bcowull`s luncial, Anglo-Saxon
liiciaiy culiuic was liIc ihc culiuics ol mosi colcs ai mosi iimcs) vciy
much a mixiuic ol uivcisc clcmcnis.
A Chiisiian oci was wiiiing aloui ihc ucaih anu luncial ol a hciional
hcio whom ihc oci siiuaicu in a ical hisioiical conicxi. Hc imagincu
ihai hcio as a moially aumiiallc monoihcisi who noncihclcss livcu lc-
loic ihc coming ol Chiisiianiiy io ihc Noiihcin woilu.
S2
In imagining
32. Scc Hill, Thc Chiisiian Ianguagc anu Thcmc ol Beowulf."
334 Hill
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 334 5/7/07 11:27:56 AM
ihc luncial such a hcio mighi icccivc, ihc oci iuincu io iiauiiional
accounis ol olu luncials-cihas icscivcu in ihc olu ocms ol which
hc was so lonu-anu invcnicu a suiiallc luncial loi Bcowull lascu on
cailici moucls, lui icsumally auaicu loi ihis aiiiculai conicxi in
ihis aiiiculai ocm. Onc can only scculaic, lui ii woulu sccm liIcly
ihai ihc oci suicsscu oi ioncu uown any sccihcally agan clcmcnis
ihai wcic aii ol his moucls. Boih Bcowull anu Aiiila aic ic-Chiisiian
Iings whosc luiial iiics wcic commcmoiaicu ly Chiisiian auihois, anu
loih iiiuals aic siiiIingly licc liom icligious ccicmony-ciihci agan
oi Chiisiian. Thc moucls ihai ihc Bcowull-oci uscu, howcvci, wcic,
whcihci olu ocms oi aniiquaiian loic ol somc oihci soii, gcnuincly
iiauiiional, anu ihc luncial iiiuals ihai ihcy icscivcu wcic gcnuincly
olu-icaching lacI io ihc hisioiical iimc in which ihc oci imagincu
Bcowull io havc livcu.
To somc ucgicc my accouni ol ihc souiccs ol ihc luncial ol Bcowull
is csscniially convcniional, in aii I am aiguing ihai ihc Beowulf-oci uiu
noi invcni ihc claloiaic ccicmonics associaicu wiih Bcowull`s cicmaiion
anu inicimcni oui ol wholc cloih, anu mosi Beowulf scholais woulu agicc
wiih ihis iaihci unconiiovcisial claim. Thc novcliy ol my aigumcni con-
ccins ihc ichisioiy ol ihc iiauiiions on which ihc Beowulf-oci uicw, ihai
iaihci ihan lcing uicly naiivc Gcimanic iiiuals, ihcy may havc oiiginaicu
in ihc Roman woilu anu may uliimaicly uciivc liom Roman moucls. Ai
ihc lcasi, accounis ol Roman lunciaiy iiics shoulu lc incluucu in ihc
caialoguc ol souiccs anu analogucs io Beowulf along wiih ihc Roman"
lunciaiy iiiual loi Aiiila ihai ]oiuancs ucsciilcs in ihc Getica. Beowulf is a
synciciic ocm, ii is a ocm ly a Chiisiian oci aloui ihc ic-Chiisiian
asi, anu ii is a ocm aloui a wholly aumiiallc monoihcisiic hcio who
livcu in ihosc iimcs. Whcihci ihc oci Incw ihc uliimaic souiccs ol ihcsc
luncial iiiuals cannoi lc Inown, lui il hc uiu, ii mighi havc cvcn lcascu
him io ihinI ihai ihis ocm, which is in so many ways a llcnuing ol so
many anu such uivcisc clcmcnis,
SS
shoulu concluuc wiih a luncial which
in iis oiigins icuccis ihc llcnuing ol ihc cusioms ol iwo colcs anu iwo
culiuics in a haimonious anu uignihcu wholc.
33. ]osch Haiiis, Beowulf in Iiiciaiy Hisioiy," Pacic Coast Philology, 17 1982), 16-23.
Beowulfs Roman Rites: Roman Ritual and Germanic Tradition 335
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 335 5/7/07 11:27:56 AM
]ouinal ol English anu Gcimanic Philology-]uly
2007 ly ihc Boaiu ol Tiusiccs ol ihc Univcisiiy ol Illinois
Iaihci Chaucci anu ihc Vivihcaiion ol Piini
Louise M. Bishop, Robert D. Clark Honors College, University of Oregon
Evcn in ihc hliccnih ccniuiy, Chaucci was sccn ly his couniiymcn as ihc
iccmincni English oci, ihc laihci, as Diyucn was io call him in 1700, ol
English ociiy.
1
Dcsiic gcncial agiccmcni in ihc hliccnih anu sixiccnih
ccniuiics aloui Chaucci`s ociic iccmincncc, howcvci, Thomas Scghi`s
cuiiion ol Chaucci`s Works 1598, STC 5077, 5078, 5079, 1602, STC 5080,
5081)
2
auus claloiaic icxiual aaiaius-illusiiaicu lioniisicccs, lilc
1. Eihan Kna, The Bureaucratic Muse: Thomas Hoccleve and the Literature of Late Medieval
England Univcisiiy PaiI, PA: Pcnn Siaic Univ. Picss, 2001), oinis oui ihai in ihc caily
hliccnih ccniuiy" ihc laihci mciahoi was aciually uscu ly only onc oci, Thomas Hoc-
clcvc" . 108): ii is noi uscu ly Iyugaic. In iini ihc mciahoi acais caily wiih William
Caxion in 1477, so ihai A. C. Scaiing`s claim ihai ihc laihcihoou ol Chaucci was in cllcci
ihc consiiiuiivc iuca ol ihc English ociic iiauiiion" siill has uichasc Medieval to Renaissance
in English Poetry ]Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1985|, . 92, quoicu in Kna, . 108,
n. 5). In his inuucniial looI, Chaucer and His Readers: Imagining the Author in Late Medieval
England Piinccion: Piinccion Univ. Picss, 1993), csccially Chaici 5, Ai Chaucci`s Toml:
Iauicaiion anu Paiciniiy in Caxion`s Ciiiicism," . 147-75, Scih Icici aigucs ihai iini
anu cuiiois cllacc Chaucci`s laihcihoou in lavoi ol lauicaiion io cmhasizc ihc iolc ol an
cuiioi, iaihci ihan ihc ucau) oci, in ihc iouuciion ol looIs ly humanisi cuiiois. This
cssay qualihcs ihai claim loi ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, aiguing ihai ihc iioc ol living laihci
Chaucci coniinucs io acai in iini io couniciaci iini`s commouihcu lilclcssncss anu,
csccially in ihc lasi lolio cuiiions ol his Works, io icalign Chaucci`s loiccu alliancc wiih
Tuuoi oliiics.
2. Alicc MisIimin, Thc 1598 Iolio ol Scghi," in The Renaissance Chaucer Ncw Havcn:
Yalc Univ. Picss, 1975), . 250-55, anu DcicI Pcaisall, Thomas Scghi, c. 1550-." in
Editing Chaucer: The Great Tradition, cu. Paul G. Ruggicis Noiman, OK: Pilgiim BooIs,
1984), . 71-92. Scc also Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic
Text, 14001602, cu. Thomas Picnucigasi anu Bailaia Klinc Columlus: Ohio Siaic Univ.
Picss, 1999), Kaihlccn Ioini, The Chaucerian Apocrypha: A Counterfeit Canon Gaincsvillc:
Univ. Picss ol Iloiiua, 2001), anu Sichanic Tiigg, Congenial Souls: Reading Chaucer from
Medieval to Postmodern Minncaolis: Minncsoia Univ. Picss, 2002).
Ioi ihc uioscs ol ihis cssay, I havc consulicu iwo caily cuiiions ol Chaucci, loih owncu
ly ihc sccial collcciions ucaiimcni ol ihc Knighi Iiliaiy, Univcisiiy ol Oicgon: PR 1850
1561, a scconu imicssion ol ihc ]ohn Siow cuiiion ol 1561 ol Chaucci`s Works, STC 5076,
anu PR 1850 1687, a 1687 cuiiion ol ]ohn Scghi`s 1602 cuiiion ol Chaucci`s Works, C3736.
In his 1602 cuiiion STC 5080, 5081), Scghi auucu somc maiciial io his 1598 cuiiion STC
5077, 5078, 5079): scc Pcaisall, Thomas Scghi," . 83-90, anu also Elcanoi Picscoii
Hammonu, Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual Ncw YoiI: Macmillan, 1908), . 125-27.
Thc 1687 cuiiion iciinis Scghi`s 1602 cuiiion wiih somc iwcniy-iwo lincs auucu io ihc
cnus ol Thc CooI`s Talc anu Thc Squiic`s Talc along wiih an Auvciiiscmcni" ly ]. H."
assciiing ihc volumc`s qualiiy, accoiuing io Pcaisall, Thomas Scghi, c. 1550-." . 91, anu
Hammonu, Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual, . 127-29. I ihanI sccial collcciions loi
ihcii couiicsy.
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 336 5/7/07 11:27:57 AM
hisioiics anu gcncalogics, cisilcs anu ucuicaioiy ocms-ihai insisi on
Chaucci`s liiciaiy valuc in a aiiiculai way: ihcy usc ihc iiocs ol Chau-
cci as laihci anu as living icscncc io alhim Chaucci`s liiciaiy woiih.
Thcsc aaiaius-oi ciiicxis, io loiiow Gciaiu Gcnciic`s icim
S
-invoIc
Chaucci`s living voicc ihiough uialogucs anu lciicis, ihcii imagcs iciuic
him as il alivc anu siiuaic his laihcihoou, as wcll as his ociiy, in ihc miusi
ol Tuuoi oliiics. Many ciiicxis aic ncw io Scghi`s cuiiions, oihcis caiiy
ovci liom his cuiioiial icucccssois William Thynnc 1532, STC 5068)
anu ]ohn Siow 1561, STC 5075, 5076). Whai iomis ihis cxicssion
ol Chaucci as laihci anu as living icscncc.
Scih Icici has aigucu ihai a Chaucci mauc inio ucau) aiiilaci chai-
aciciizcs iini cuiiions ol ihc oci`s woiIs, such as Caxion`s liom ihc
hliccnih ccniuiy, ]amcs Simson uscs Icici`s aigumcni io ioosc iwo
iiocs, icmcmlcicu icscncc" anu hilological alscncc," ihai coniiol
Chaucci`s iccciion lciwccn 1400 anu 1550.
4
I counici ihai Chaucci`s
cuiiois anu liiciaiy iogcny ihioughoui ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy maIc laihci
Chaucci livc io answci iinicu looIs` loss ol auia," as Walici Bcn|amin
woulu icim ii.

Bcn|amin`s woiu auia" iicais hlm aii anu iis aiicmis


io iccicaic siagc icscncc, lui looIs anu icauing also involvc icscncc
anu alscncc. A living laihci Chaucci aiiiciaics in ihc iucniihallc sys-
icmic linIs lciwccn icxis, iinicu looIs, icauing, mcnialiiics, anu wiuci
conscqucnccs" ihai William Si. Claii noics in his icccni analysis ol iini
3. Gciaiu Gcnciic, Paratexts: Threshholds of Interpretation, iians. ]anc E. Icwin Camliiugc:
Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1997). As Richaiu MacIscy cxlains in ihc loicwoiu, aiaicxis
comiis]c| ihosc liminal ucviccs anu convcniions, loih wiihin ihc looI peritext) anu
ouisiuc ii epitext), ihai mcuiaic ihc looI io ihc icauci: iiilcs anu suliiilcs, scuuonyms,
loicwoius, ucuicaiions, cigiahs, iclaccs, iniciiiilcs, noics, cilogucs, aliciwoius . . . ihc
clcmcnis in ihc ullic anu iivaic hisioiy ol ihc looI" . xviii). Pciiicxi incluucs such
clcmcnis as ihc iiilc oi ihc iclacc anu somciimcs clcmcnis insciicu inio ihc inicisiiccs ol
ihc icxi, such as chaici iiilcs oi cciiain noics" . 5). My aigumcni aloui lolio cuiiions ol
Chaucci conccins ucuicaiions, a iiilc agc, an illusiiaiion, anu ociiy auuicsscu io icaucis,
hcncc ciiicxis." Paiaicxis as auvciiiscmcnis loi auihois anu looIscllcis anu ihcii cllccis
on ihc iuca ol an auihoi havc lccn iicaicu loi hliccnih- anu sixiccnih-ccniuiy Iicnch icxis
ly Cynihia Biown, Poets, Patrons, and Printers: Crisis of Authority in Late Medieval France Iihaca:
Coincll Univ. Picss, 1995).
4. ]amcs Simson, Chaucci`s Picscncc anu Alscncc 1400-1550," in The Cambridge Com-
panion to Chaucer, cu. Picio Boiiani anu ]ill Mann Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 2003),
. 251-69. Rclying on Icici, Simson uclincaics changcs in ihc liiciaiy sysicm" . 261)
ihai mauc Chaucci`s icxis inio aichcological icmains" . 251): By ihc 1520s Chaucci
has, ihcn, uchniicly gonc, lcaving only icxiual icmains" . 267). As I hoc io show, ihc
iioc ol living laihci Chaucci mouihcs Simson`s claims.
5. Walici Bcn|amin, Thc WoiI ol Aii in ihc Agc ol Mcchanical Rciouuciion," in Il-
luminations, cu. Hannah Aicnui, iians. Haiiy Zohn Ncw YoiI: Haicouii Biacc, 1968),
. 219-53: auia is iicu io icscncc" anu Thc auia which, on ihc siagc, cmanaics liom
Maclcih, cannoi lc scaiaicu loi ihc scciaiois liom ihai ol ihc acioi" . 231). I ihanI
my collcaguc Kaihlccn Kailyn loi oiniing mc io Bcn|amin`s cssay.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 337
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 337 5/7/07 11:27:57 AM
culiuic.
6
BooIs aic, ly ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, aii ol a ncw schcmc ol
valucs conccining inanimaic ol|ccis":
ly ihc cnu ol ihc 16ih ccniuiy, an oosiiion lciwccn ihc maiciial woilu
anu ihc icalm ol languagc anu iucas ihai hau lccn an cxiicmc anu iauical
osiiion . . . iwo hunuicu ycais cailici hau movcu io ihc vciy hcaii ol Eng-
lish culiuial lilc.
7
Imagcs ol anu woius aloui a living oci iciuin maiciialiiy io languagc io
icinvcsi lilclcss iini wiih maiciial lcing`s auia." Thc iioc ol Chaucci`s
living laihcihoou aaicni in loih woiu anu imagc in sixiccnih-ccniuiy
iinicu looIs animaics Chaucci`s icscncc. Bcn|amin`s concci ol auia"
lcis us unucisianu ihc clloiis iinicu looIs, csccially iini cuiiions ol
Chaucci, maIc io icvivc him anu animaic his living icscncc.
Iiving laihci Chaucci, icvivcu in looIs as a naiional hguic io scivc
ihc uynasiic nccus ol Hcniy VIII anu siagcu" in a looIish lashion uui-
ing Elizalcih`s icign, answcis ihc isolaiion, loicignncss, anu alicnaiion
ihai mcchanical iciouuciion cannoi avoiu. A closc looI ai ihc clloiis ol
Chaucci`s vaiious cuiiois anu sixiccnih-ccniuiy auihois io icscni Chaucci
as living anu as laihci shows ihc ways ihcsc iwo iiocs aiicmi io invcsi
iini wiih icscncc" in iimc anu sacc in oiuci io counici iis ucicciaiion
as commouiiy. Moicovci, ncai ihc cnu ol Quccn Elizalcih`s icign, in an
cuiiion ovciloaucu wiih muliilc ciiicxis, ]ohn Sccu`s icioiial hguia-
iion ol Chaucci as laihci anu living icscncc ullishcu in Scghi`s cuiiion
ol Thc woiIcs ol oui aniicni anu lcaincu English oci, Gcllicy Chaucci,
ncwly iinicu" 1598) noi only counicis iini`s ucau, commouihcu naiuic
lui lcis us icau onc ol Chaucci`s Canterbury Tales as an csccially oignani
aniiauihoiiiaiian lca. Thiough a long-sianuing iucniiiy ol ihc oci wiih
Thc Talc ol Mclilcc, a living laihci Chaucci conlionis auiociaiic iulcishi
in aniiciaiion ol succcssivc changc-ol iulcis, icaucis, anu looIs.
To suoii ihcsc claims I will hisi noic ihc iiocs ol Chaucci`s laihci-
6. William Si. Claii, The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period Oxloiu: Oxloiu Univ. Picss,
2004): iinicu looIs hi govcining cconomic anu inicllcciual iociiy siiuciuics, hnanc-
ing, manulaciuiing, iiccs, acccss, anu aciual icauing" . 439) which uillci liom ihosc ol
manusciii culiuic. Oihci woiIs on ihc iuca ol iini incluuc Elizalcih Eiscnsicin, The Print
Revolution in Early Modern Europe Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1983), Daviu Quini,
Origin and Originality in Renaissance Literature: Versions of the Source Ncw Havcn: Yalc Univ.
Picss, 1983), anu Kcvin Dunn, Pretexts of Authority: The Rhetoric of Authorship in the Renaissance
Preface Sianloiu: Sianloiu Univ. Picss, 1994). On mcuicval iucas ol auihoishi, scc The Idea
of the Vernacular, cu. ]occlyn Wogan-Biownc, Nicholas Waison, Anuicw Tayloi, anu Ruih Evans
Univcisiiy PaiI: Pcnn Siaic Univ. Picss, 1999), . 3-19, cs. Thc Iuca ol an Auihoi" .
4-8) anu Tcxiual Insialiliiy, Mcmoiy, anu Vcinaculai Vaiiancc" . 10-12).
7. ]ohn Hincs, Voices in the Past: English Literature and Archaeology Camliiugc: D.S. Bicwci,
2004), . 138. Boih Hincs anu Si. Claii noic ihai, whilc iclaiions lciwccn iini anu manu-
sciii icmain uuiu ai ihc lcginning ol ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, lincs haiucn uuiing ihc six-
iccnih ccniuiy.
338 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 338 5/7/07 11:27:57 AM
hoou anu living icscncc in manusciiis anu iinicu looIs, csccially in
iwo cngiavings incluucu in cuiiions ol Chaucci`s Works liom ihc scconu
hall ol ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy. Alici claloiaiing on ihc imlicaiions ol ihc
laihci/living icscncc iioc loi Chaucci`s icaucis, I concluuc wiih an
againsi-ihc-giain icauing ol Chaucci`s Talc ol Mclilcc. This iosc icxi, lai
liom lcing a iciicai liom ociiy inio siaiu sccuic iosc,"
S
cxloiis ihc
iiocs ol living laihci Chaucci, along wiih a nasccni linI lciwccn ihcioiic
anu uiama,
9
io louy loiih a ciiiiquc ol auihoiiiaiianism, cvcn ihough
liiciaiy icucmiion icmains only a lonu hoc as ihc Tuuoi lincagc, lui
noi auihoiiiaiian icgulaiion, mccis iis cxiinciion.
I
Iiliccnih-ccniuiy manusciiis aiicsi ihai Chaucci`s cailicsi acolyics uscu
a numlci ol cxicssions io ucnoic Chaucci`s iccmincncc as English
oci, wiih masici" ihc sccial lavoiiic.
10
Thomas Hocclcvc is ihc hisi io
usc ihc ciihci laihci" loi Chaucci. In The Regement of Princes 1412),
Hocclcvc noi only lamcnis Chaucci`s ucaih, lui imagincs Chaucci scaI-
ing io him:
Hocclcuc, sonc." I-wis, lauii, ai samc."
Sonc, I hauc hciu, oi ihis, mcn scIc ol c" . . .
O maisici uccic, anu lauii icucicni!
Mi maisici Chaucci, uoui ol cloqucncc,
Miioui ol liuciuous cnicnucmcni,
O, vniuciscl lauii in scicncc! . . .
Mi ucic maisiii-gou his soulc quyic!-
Anu lauii, Chaucci, laync woluc han mc iaghi,
Bui I was uul, anu lcincu liic ol naghi."
8. Scih Icici, Courtly Letters in the Age of Henry VIII: Literary Culture and the Arts of Deceit
Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1997), . 196. Icici uciails ihc Hcniician couii`s
manusciii culiuic, iimaiily coiciic woiIs ihai, in ihc casc ol Hcniy`s lovc lciicis io Annc
Bolcyn, achicvc an un-looIcu-loi cuiicncy.
9. Hincs, Voices in the Past, cxlains ihai uiama as a mcans ol iiaining anu cuucaiion . . .
was a iaciical comlcmcni io ihc ihcioiical iiaining in uialcciics ihiough which mcuicval
siuucnis hau io ucvclo ihcii aigumcniaiivc anu analyiical sIills . . . ihc hisioiy ol uiamaiic
iouuciion in Englanu loi ihc mosi ol ihc 16ih ccniuiy is conscqucnily siiongly maiIcu
ly iccoius ol ihcaiiical ciloimanccs in schools . . . anu ai collcgcs" . 144).
10. Iyugaic lcgins his ca. 1409 Commcnuacioun ol Chaucci" wiih Anu cIc my masici
Chaucciis nowc is giauc / Thc nollc icihoi Pocic ol licicinc", hc iccais ihc ciihci
masici" loi Chaucci in viiiually cvciy oihci English ocm hc wioic. In 1448 ]ohn Mciham
calls Chaucci My masiyi Chauncciys", Gcoigc Ashly ca. 1470) calls Gowci, Chaucci, anu
Iyugaic masicis", Hcniy Scogan lcgins a ca. 1407 ocm wiih My maisici Chaucici." Scc
Caiolinc Suigcon, 500 Years of Chaucer Criticism, 3 vols. Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss,
1925), lollowcu ly ]acIson Camlcll Boswcll anu Sylvia Wallacc Holion, Chaucers Fame in
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 339
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 339 5/7/07 11:27:58 AM
Hocclcvc llcnus masici" wiih laihci," ihcn iccais masici" iwicc moic
in ihc ocm, whilc also ai onc oini calling Chaucci hisic lynucic ol oui
laiic langagc." Inuccu, The Regement of Princes uscs an aiiay ol iiocs-mas-
ici, laihci, oiiginaioi-io cciiily Chaucci`s iccmincncc, whilc ihc icxi`s
uialoguc loim-Chaucci scaIs io Hocclcvc-icvivihcs ihc ucau oci.
Thicc manusciiis ol Hocclcvc`s Regement auu Chaucci`s imagc io Chau-
cci`s voicc.
11
In Ionuon, Biiiish Iiliaiy MS Hailcy 4866, a iciuic ol ihc
oci acais ncxi io ihc lollowing vciscs:
Alogh his lylc lc qucyni, c icscmllauncc
Ol him ha in mc so licssh lyuyncssc
ai, io uiic oihii mcn in icmcmliauncc
Ol his cisonc, I hauc hccic his lyIncssc
Do maIc, io is cnuc in soihlasincssc,
ai ci ai hauc ol him lcsi oughi 8 mynuc,
By is cyniuic may agcyn him lynuc.
12
Thc manusciii`s uiawing ol Chaucci oinis iis hngci ai ihc woiu liIc-
ncss" whilc ihc lincs cicuii Hocclcvc`s living mcmoiy loi ihc imagc`s lin-
camcnis. Chaucci`s oiniing hngci gcnily icsiihcs io ihc imagc`s vciisi-
England: STC Chauceriana, 14751640 Ncw YoiI: Moucin Ianguagc Associaiion, 2004).
Boswcll anu Holion iicai iinicu maiciials only, noi manusciiis, lui ihcy havc chccIcu
cvciy cuiiion ol cvciy looI io scc il a iclcicncc io Chaucci is icscni anu, il ii is icscni,
whcihci ii has changcu in any way" . xii). Ioi ihc uioscs ol ihis aci, all iclcicnccs
io manusciii maiciial ic-1475) comc liom Suigcon. Rclcicnccs io iinicu maiciials
comc liom Boswcll anu Holion. On occasion, I havc uscu ihc uaialasc Early English Books
Online, hii://0-cclo.chauwycI.com.|anus, loi iclcicnccs: looinoics inuicaic ihcsc ciiaiions.
Boih Suigcon anu Boswcll anu Holion aiiangc ihcii cniiics chionologically. Thc icauci
may ihus iclci io ciihci cuiiion as aioiiaic ly mcans ol ihc ycai ciicu. Auuiiional iclci-
cnccs io iini souiccs oihci ihan Boswcll anu Holion, oi manusciii souiccs noi lisicu in
Suigcon, aic ciicu in looinoics.
11. Ionuon, Biiiish Iiliaiy MS Hailcy 4866, Philauclhia, Roscnlach Muscum anu Ii-
liaiy MS 1083/10, anu BI MS Royal 17 D.vi, scc DcicI Pcaisall, Thc Chaucci Poiiiaiis,"
Acnuix 1 in The Life of Geoffrey Chaucer: A Critical Biography Oxloiu: BlacIwcll, 1992),
. 285-305. Scc also Michacl Scymoui, Manusciii Poiiiaiis ol Chaucci anu Hocclcvc,"
Burlington Magazine, 124, no. 955 Ociolci 1982), 618-23. Pcaisall consiucis ihc Roscn-
lach oiiiaii an cighiccnih-ccniuiy auuiiion io ihc manusciii . 291). Tiigg, Congenial
Souls, . 21-28, cvaluaics ihc owci ol voicc loi ihc imagincu communiiy" ol Chauccis
icaucis anu scholais liom ihc Rcnaissancc io ihc laic 1990s. Whilc I uillci liom Tiigg`s
asscssmcni ol Chaucci`s living voicc, hci looI has inuucnccu my ihinIing aloui Chaucci`s
livcly" acaiancc anu his voicc.
12. Thc imagc is iciouuccu in Scymoui, Manusciii Poiiiaiis," . 619, Pcaisall, Life,
. 286, M. H. Siclmann, The Portraits of Geoffrey Chaucer Ionuon: Kcgan Paul, 1900), . 7,
anu as a linc uiawing in Suigcon, Chaucer Criticism, I, 22. Tiigg, Congenial Souls, iicais ihc
imagc ol Chaucci in ianucm wiih ihc lamous iciuic ol Chaucci" oiniing io his namc
in ihc iuliic ol ihc Ellcsmcic Tale of Melibee anu calls ii a naiiaiing icscncc" . 50). Scc
also Kna, Bureaucratic Muse, . 104-22, anu Chiisiohci Cannon, The Making of Chaucers
English Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1998), .12, on ihc woiu hnuci" ihai cxciciscs
an Hocclcvian aic iowaiu ihc inhniic" io cscac ihc conhncs ol languagc.
340 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 340 5/7/07 11:27:58 AM
miliiuuc, lui ii also, in inuicaiing ihc woiu liIcncss," iccalls ihc imagc`s
icicscniaiional naiuic. Piciuics may gcsiuic ai lilc, lui ai ihc samc iimc
ihcy icmain iciuics. Siill, so scll-conscious an imagc as Hocclcvc`s ol Chau-
cci, |oining iciuic anu icxi, inuicaics ihc ioican iclaiionshi lciwccn
hguicu ol|ccis anu colc" ihai Hocclcvc uscs: hc cxccis his icaucis`
ihoughis anu minus will, ihiough ihis cyniuic," agcyn . . . lynuc" Chau-
cci, lynucic" ol ihc English languagc.
1S
Whilc Hocclcvc`s imagc siiuaics ihc icauci as Hocclcvc`s comanion,
hoing ihai ihosc who havc loigoiicn Chaucci`s acaiancc will now
icmcmlci him, mosi icaucis havc io uo so wiihoui ihc aiu ol a liIc-
ncss": |usi ihicc ol ihc loiiy oi so manusciiis ol The Regement incluuc
a Chaucci imagc, anu ihc imagc in onc ol ihosc-Philauclhia, Roscn-
lach MS 1083-was uiawn in ihc cighiccnih ccniuiy. Siill, liIcncss"
ol an auihoi is an iuca ncw io ihis iimc
14
anu Chaucci was noi alonc in
having his imagc ainicu in manusciiis. Two lull-lcngih oiiiaiis, in
Camliiugc, PcmlioIc Collcgc MS 307 anu Oxloiu, Boulcian Iiliaiy,
MS Boulcy 290, oiiiay ihc senex amans ol ihc Confessio Amantis-]ohn
Gowci-wiihoui ihc Iinu ol namc aiiiiluiion oi un on liIcncss" lounu
in ihc Hocclcvc manusciii`s illusiiaiion ol Chaucci.
1
Bui Gowci`s liIc-
ncss, as wcll as Chaucci`s anu his chilu" Hocclcvc`s, acais in scvcial
iniiials in ihc ucluxc Bculoiu Psalici ca. 1410), anu in onc, an cxlicii
lalcl on ihc lacIgiounu ol ihc oiiiaii . . . iucniihcs ihc clucily, lalu-
ing anu lcaiucu" Gowci.
16
Ol ihc Psalici`s ihicc imagcs ol Hocclcvc anu
ihicc ol Chaucci, nonc has any iucniihcaiion liIc Gowci`s. Howcvci, ihc
uiawings ol Chaucci aic ihoughi io comc liom ihc samc hanu ihai uicw
his oiiiaii in Hailcy 4866, ihc Regement of Princes manusciii alicauy
uiscusscu. Poiiiaiiuic lcgins io ucnoic auihois loi icaucis in ihc conicxi
ol laic mcuicval manusciiis.
13. Ioi an analysis ccniial io my ihinIing aloui ihc living icsonancc ol imagcs, scc Daviu
Iicculcig, The Power of Images Chicago: Univ. ol Chicago Picss, 1999): imagc ]is| moic
ihan ii sccms" . xxiv) anu hguicu ol|ccis anu colc" aic always uisiuiing naiuial law"
. 43). Scc also Maiuic Hilmo, Medieval Images, Icons, and Illustrated English Literary Texts
Alucishoi, Hamshiic: Ashgaic, 2004): ihc mcuicval auuicncc icgaius visual uciails as a
signilying sysicm loi loih liicial iiuih whai cach looIs liIc`) anu symlolic iiuih whai
cach sianus loi` oi hguics`)" . 18), uisiinci liom ihc Rcnaissancc`s iimaiy iclcicni,"
which is iciicsiial icaliiy" . 10).
14. Sylvia Wiighi, Thc Auihoi Poiiiaiis in ihc Bculoiu Psalici-Houis: Gowci, Chaucci
anu Hocclcvc," British Library Journal, 18, no. 2 Auiumn 1992), 190-201, sccs ihc hisi com-
mcmoiaiions ol Danic anu Pciiaich ca. 1375 as ihc gcncsis ol auihoi oiiiaiis . 190).
15. DcicI Pcaisall, Thc Manusciiis anu Illusiiaiions ol Gowci`s WoiIs," in The Companion
to Gower, cu. Sin Echaiu Camliiugc: D.S. Bicwci, 2004), oinis oui ihai ihc unusual anu
sccmingly iaihci inaioiiaic choicc" ol an olu man wiih loiIcu lcaiu shows ihai Thc
aiiisi, oi ihc sucivisoi who gavc him his insiiuciions, has choscn ihc liicial iiuih iaihci
ihan ihc liiciaiy sulicilugc" . 89).
16. Scc imagcs in Wiighi, Auihoi-Poiiiaiis", loi ihc cxlicii lalcl, . 192.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 341
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 341 5/7/07 11:27:58 AM
Aumiiiculy, manusciii imagcs aic limiicu in ihcii culiuial uichasc
io a iaihci minimal, ihough inuucniial, auuicncc. Bui manusciiis aic
noi ihc cxclusivc uivcyois ol Chaucci`s anu Gowci`s imagcs. Gowci`s
chaniiy anu ioml in ihc chacl ol ]ohn ihc Baiisi in Si. Maiy Ovciic,
SouihwaiI, may havc lccn ucsigncu as caily as ihc lasi ycais ol Gowci`s
lilc, hc uicu in 1408.
17
Gowci`s chaniiy suivivcu ihc icligious iumuli ol
ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, so ihai aniiquaiian ]ohn Siow, who cuiicu a 1561
lolio cuiiion ol Chaucci, was allc io ucsciilc ihc clhgy anu chaniiy in
his 1598 Survey of London:
Iohn Gowci Esquici, a lamous Poci, was ihcn an cscciall lcnclacioi io ihai
woiIc, anu was ihcic luiicu on ihc Noiih siuc ol ihc saiu chuich, in ihc
chalc ol S. Iohn, whcic hc lounucu a chauniiic, hc licih vnuci a iomlc ol
sionc, wiih his imagc also ol sionc ouci him: ihc haiic ol his hcau aluinc,
long io his sholucis, lui cuiling v, anu a small loiIcu lcaiu, on his hcau a
chalci, liIc a coionci ol louic Roscs, an haliic ol uilc, ucmasIcu uownc
io his lcci, a collai ol Esscs, golu aloui his nccIc, vnuci his hcau ihc liIcncs ol
ihicc looIcs, which hc comilcu. Thc hisi namcu Speculum Meditantis, wiii-
icn in Iicnch: Thc scconu Vox clamantis cnncu in Iaiinc: ihc ihiiu Confessio
amantis written in English, and this last is printed, vox clamaniis wiih his Cionica
iiiaiiiia, anu oihci loih in laiinc anu Iicnch ncuci iinicu, I hauc anu
uoc osscssc, lui speculum meditantis I ncuci saw, ihough hcaiu ihcicol io lc
in Kcni: lcsiuc on ihc wall whcic hc lycih, ihcic was ainicu ihicc viigins
ciowncu, onc ol which was namcu Chaiiiy, holuing ihis ucuisc.
1S
Chaucci ioo hau a ullic ioml, anu ca. 1556, lollowing Nicholas Biigham`s
cnhanccmcni, woishicis in Wcsiminsici Allcy coulu havc sccn a oi-
iiaii ol Chaucci lciwccn ihc sculchic`s aichcs.
19
Scghi`s 1598 cuiiion
STC 5077) ioviucs ihc cailicsi wiiiicn iccoiu ol ii, anu Elias Ashmolc`s
Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum 1652) ioviucs ihc cailicsi imagc.
20
Thc
hguic holus a iosaiy in his lcli hanu, a maiI cihas ol an aiicmi io
icclaim Chaucci loi Roman Caiholicism uuiing ihc icign ol Quccn Maiy.
Whilc Wcsiminsici woishicis coulu scc Chaucci`s imagc in ihc scconu
hall ol ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy, ihc uci ciusi coulu scc oiiiaiis ol ihc
auihoi in hnc houscs. Somc six oiiiaii ancls suivivc liom ihc sixiccnih
ccniuiy, lui no such iiauiiion immoiializcs Gowci. Chaucci`s imagc hau
sccial cuiicncy in sixiccnih-ccniuiy Englanu.
17. ]ohn Hincs, Naihalic Cohcn, anu Simon Rollcy, Iohannes Gower, Armiger, Poeta: Rccoius
anu Mcmoiials ol His Iilc anu Dcaih," in A Companion to Gower, . 23-41, wiih hoiogiah
ol ihc ioml . 37).
18. A Survey of London by John Stow Reprinted from the Text of 1603, cu. Chailcs Icihliiugc
Kingsloiu, 2 vols. Oxloiu: Claicnuon Picss, 1908), I, 57.
19. ]osch A. Danc, Who is Buried in Chaucers Tomb? Easi Iansing: Michigan Siaic Univ.
Picss, 1998), . 10-32.
20. Scc Danc, Who is Buried, . 13, loi Scghi`s ucsciiiion, wiih an imagc liom ihc 1602
cuiiion STC 5080), anu Pcaisall, Life, . 296, loi an imagc ol Ashmolc`s cngiaving.
342 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 342 5/7/07 11:27:59 AM
Chaucci anu Gowci loih scc iini in ucluxc lolio cuiiions in 1532.
21

UnliIc ihc iiauiiion ol Chaucci lolios, ihc 1532 cuiiion ol Gowci`s Con-
fessio Amantis STC 12143)-a singlc woiI, unliIc a comlcic woiIs"
cuiiion liIc Chaucci`s, anu iinicu ly Thomas Bciihclci, lusincss aii-
nci wiih Chaucci`s iinici Thomas Gouliay-is iciinicu oncc, in 1554
STC 12144), lcloic ii vanishcs liom coniinucu imicssion. Thc Confessio
Amantis sccs ucluxc lolio again only in ihc ninciccnih ccniuiy. Chaucci`s
comlcic woiIs, howcvci, scc coniinual lolio iiniing ihioughoui ihc
sixiccnih ccniuiy, lui his icaucis havc io waii uniil 1598 loi his liIc-
ncss," as in ihc Hocclcvc manusciii, ihc Bculoiu Psalici, oi his ioml, io
cmcigc in iini.
Piinicu oiiiaii oi no, ihc laihci" ciihci alicu io Chaucci, hisi
uscu in manusciii, lollows Chaucci inio iini. In his 1477 Book of Curtesye
STC 3303) William Caxion auuicsscs Chaucci O lauci anu lounuci ol
oinaic cloqucncc" anu iccais himscll in a 1478 ciloguc io ihc Consola-
tion of Philosophy, calling Chaucci ihc woishilul lauci 8 hisi lounucui
8 cmlclisshci ol oinaic cloqucncc in oui cnglissh." Thc ciihci cnuuics
anoihci ccniuiy: in 1575, Gcoigc Gascoignc uscs ii in his Cciiaync Noics
ol Insiiuciion conccining ihc maIing ol vcisc oi iymc in English," aii ol
The posies of George Gascoigne esquire STC 11637): also oui laihci Chaucer
haih uscu ihc samc lilciiic in lccic anu mcasuics ihai ihc Iaiinisis uo
usc." In ihc samc icxi Gascoignc, liIc Hocclcvc, comlincs masici" anu
laihci" in onc hiasc io ucsciilc Chaucci`s aiiiculai vcisc loim, iiu-
ing ihymc": ihai is suchc as oui Maysici anu Iaihci Chaucer vscu in his
Caniciluiic ialcs, anu in uiucis oihci uclcciallc anu lighi cniciiiscs."
In coniiasi, ihc somcwhai laici Cobler of Caunterburie 1590, STC 4579), a
collcciion ol sioiics iolu ly a Thamcs loaiing aiiy io imiiaic Chaucci`s
ilgiimagc naiiaiivc, auus olu" io ihc laihci ciihci, wiih no iclcicncc io
masici," maIing ihc woiI`s mosi licqucni ciihci olu Iaihci Chaucci."
22

This osicnsilly cnucaiing hiasc simuliancously comlimcnis ihc oci
anu iclcgaics him io ihc asi. Thc auihoi`s aumission ihai Syi ]cllicy
Chaucer is so hic alouc my icach, ihai I iaIc Noli altum sapere, loi a waining,
anu oncly looIc ai him wiih honoui anu icucicncc" lollows Hocclcvc`s
ucsiic io ui his laihci Chaucci`s liIcncss" on ihc agc io |og his icauci`s
21. ]amcs E. Blougcii, William Thynnc," in Editing Chaucer: The Great Tradition, cu. Paul
G. Ruggicis Noiman, OK: Pilgiim BooIs), . 35-52, Echaiu, Companion to Gower, .
115-35, cs. . 116-17. Scc also Ioini, Counterfeit Canon, . 45-54.
22. The Cobler of Caunterburie and Tarltons Newes out of Purgatorie, cu. Gcollicy Cicigh anu
]anc Bclhclu Iciucn: Biill, 1987), ]ohn Piichci, Iiiciaiuic, ihc Playhousc anu ihc Pullic,"
in The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, vol. 4: 15571695, cu. ]ohn Bainaiu anu D. I.
McKcnzic wiih ihc assisiancc ol Mauiccn Bcll Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 2002), .
367. Cicigh anu Bclhclu mcniion ihc ossililiiy ihai ihc icxi is ihc woiI ol Rolcii Giccnc
. 9-10).
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 343
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 343 5/7/07 11:27:59 AM
mcmoiy anu cncouiagc his liicnushi: alici hcaiing Chaucci`s voicc,
Hocclcvc ioviucs his icauci Chaucci`s liIcncss. Thc Cobler`s naiiaioi also
uscs voicc io maich his icvcicniial gazc ai Iaihci Chaucci: hc asIs ihc
icauci, Whai say you io olu laihci Chaucci." Thc laihci iioc in manu-
sciii anu iini maIcs Chaucci gcnial anu aioachallc, his icauci`s
cycs icaching him, his laihcihoou lolucu inio his voicc anu his icauci`s.
William Thynnc`s 1532 lolio cuiiion ol Chaucci`s collccicu Workes is noi
ihc hisi lolio ol Chaucci iinicu: in 1526 Richaiu Pynson iinis a lolio
Canterbury Tales STC 5086). Bui Thynnc`s cuiiion, a comlcic Works, cic-
aics Chaucci as chamion ol ihc King ]Hcniy VIII| againsi ihc conuici-
ing claims ol Chuich anu noliliiy."
2S
Chaucci`s cailicsi iinici, William
Caxion, vcician ol ihc Wai ol ihc Roscs, hau alicauy lanicu Chaucci inio
ihc Tuuoi Myih" loi Hcniy VIII`s laihci, Hcniy VII, who was consicu-
ously wcaI in his anccsiial conncciions."
24
Wiihoui mcniioning Hcniy
VII ly namc, Caxion incluucs Chaucci among ihc clciIcs, ocics, anu
hisioiiogiahs" whosc many nollc loIcs ol wyscuomc ol ihc lyucs, as-
sions, 8 myiaclcs ol holy saynics ol hisioiycs, ol nollc anu lamous Acics
anu laiiics, Anu ol ihc cionyclcs siih ihc lcgynning ol ihc cicacion ol ihc
woilu" havc coniiiluicu io ihys Royamc."
2
By 1532, ihc ioyal aiion-
agc ol ]Thynnc`s cuiiion ol Chaucci| was onc ol ihc many auiociaiic,
ccniializing gcsiuics ol Hcniy`s icgimc, anu was inicnucu io augmcni
Hcniy`s own gloiy anu siicngih."
26
Evcn ihc gcsiuic ol a Chaucci cuiiion,
ccniializing all ol Chaucci in onc looI-a laic Gowci cscacs-imiiaics
ihc auihoiiiaiianism ol Tuuoi hcgcmony, ioviuing icxiual coiiclaiivcs
ol luicauciaiic ccniializaiion."
27
Chaucci may sccm a naiuial loi immcision in Thc Tuuoi Myih," lc-
23. ]ohn WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu`: Wyaii anu ihc Tuuoi Canonizaiion ol
Chaucci," in Reguring Chaucer in the Renaissance, cu. Thcicsa M. Kiici Gaincsvillc: Univ.
Picss ol Iloiiua, 1998), . 23.
24. E. M. W. Tillyaiu, Some Mythical Elements in English Literature Ionuon: Chaiio anu
Winuus, 1961), . 47. Tillyaiu incluucs among ihc myih`s oulaiizcis Eumunu Scnsci,
William Wainci, Michacl Diayion, ]ohn Dcc, anu Euwaiu Hall . 53). To Tillyaiu`s lisi
ol Tuuoi aologisis, auu ]ohn Siow, cuiioi ol ihc 1561 Chaucci cuiiion, whosc Chronicles
of England 1580) icscni in chioniclc loim ihc lcgcnu ol Englanu as a colc choscn
ly Gou loi His own uioscs", Roscmaiy O`Day, The Longman Companion to The Tudor Age
Ionuon: Iongman, 1995), . 79. Tillyaiu`s hanuy iiilc cannoi comiisc all ihc sulilciics ol
Tuuoi iulc: scc Daviu Ioaucs, Power in Tudor England Ncw YoiI: Si. Maiiin`s Picss, 1997),
loi ihc shac ol ihc Tuuois` cisonal monaichy," anu on iini his Politics, Censorship and
the English Reformation Ionuon: Pinici, 1991), also King, Tudor Royal Iconography: Literature
and Art in the Age of Religious Crisis Piinccion: Piinccion Univ. Picss, 1989).
25. W. ]. B. Cioich, The Prologues and Epilogues of William Caxton, EETS o.s. 176 Ionuon:
Oxloiu Univ. Picss, 1928), . 90-91.
26. Thcicsa M. Kiici, Iniiouuciion," in Reguring Chaucer in the Renaissance, cu. Kiici,
. 10.
27. WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu,`" . 24.
344 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 344 5/7/07 11:28:00 AM
causc hc livcu uuiing iis incciion. Chaucci`s Iing was Richaiu II, whosc
ucosiiion lomcnicu ihc YoiI-Iancasici liacas now Inown as ihc Wai ol
ihc Roscs ihai cvcniually lcu io Hcniy Tuuoi`s owci gial in 1485. Thc
Tuuoi cia, lcgun wiih Hcniy Tuuoi`s asccnsion as Hcniy VII, olhcially
concluucs wiih Elizalcih`s ucaih in 1603. Bui Chaucci`s liogiahy uiu
noi auiomaiically iucniily him wiih ihc Tuuois noi maich his aiiiiuucs
wiih ihcii olicics. Aniiquaiian cniciiiscs liIc Thynnc`s olicn hau a uis-
iincily counici-monaichical imlicaiion, ihc csiallishmcni ol an English
naiional iucniiiy aaii liom ihc Ciown": Chaucci was alicinaicly vicwcu as
a iighi Wiclcuian" anu alciioi ol Pioicsiani olcmics oi as symaihciic
wiih Hcniy VIII`s uisallccicu noliliiy.
2S
Chaucci`s cuiiois woiI haiu io
iucniily him wiih ihc Tuuoi causc. Iolio cuiiions ol Chaucci, ucuicaicu
iccaiculy io Hcniy VIII cvcn alici his ucmisc, imliicaic ihc oci wiih
ihc Tuuois anu ihcii sin on Englanu`s naiional naiiaiivc:
29
Thynnc`s
ucuicaiion io Hcniy VIII, in which hc assciis ihai Chaucci`s Workes will
auu io ihc lauuc anu honoui ol ihis youi nollc icalmc," coniinucs io
lc iinicu as ciiicxi in cvciy sixiccnih-ccniuiy lolio cuiiion, loih ihc
iciinis ol Thynnc anu ihc ncw cuiiions ol ]ohn Siow 1561) anu Thomas
Scghi 1598 anu 1602).
S0
Thynnc`s cuiiion, iouuccu uuiing a ycai
ol ailiamcniaiy, ioyal, anu clciical mancuvciing ihai incluucu a io-
iogucu ailiamcni anu Thomas Moic`s icsignaiion as chancclloi, icsagcs
Hcniy`s Aci ol Suicmacy 1534) anu cxcmlihcs ihc comlicaicu anu
unsicauy allianccs ullishcis anu iinicis maIc wiih ucau) ocis, living
monaichs, anu auihoiiiaiian naiional oliiics.
S1
Iaihci" Chaucci in lolio
cuiiions allccis laihci Chaucci" loi Gascoignc anu ihc Collci auihoi:
ihc oci is loih icmoic and icachallc, visillc anu auuillc in a icaucily
lashion lcgun wiih Hocclcvc, now iouchcu wiih Chaucci`s immcision in
Tuuoi auihoiiiaiianism. Tuuoi oliiics anu Chaucci`s laihcihoou woiI
28. WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu,`" . 23-25.
29. Thynnc`s ]1532| cuiiions cihas scivcu Hcniician uynasiic anu naiionalisiic im-
ciaiivcs ly csiallishing an English liiciaiy hciiiagc . . . Chaucci`s cloqucncc was valucu
loi iis symlolic caiial": Ioini, Thynnc anu Hcniician Naiionalism," Counterfeit Canon, .
50.
30. On Thynnc`s 1542 anu 1550 cuiiions, scc Maiiha W. Diivci, A Ialsc Imiini in
Chaucci`s WoiIs: Pioicsiani Piinicis in Ionuon anu Zuiich.)," Trivium, 31 1999), 131-54,
who aigucs ihai ihc Thynnc iciinis wcic ihc woiI ol Pioicsiani, cvcn ollshoic iinicis,
DcicI Bicwci, Geoffrey Chaucer, Volume 1, 13851837, The Critical Heritage Ionuon: Roui-
lcugc, ici. 1995), iinis much ol ihc Thynnc`s iclacc ucuicaiing his cuiiion io Hcniy
VIII, . 87-90. Hc also mcniions ihc conicniion ihai ihc iclacc was wiiiicn ly Biian
TuIc. On ihc TuIc qucsiion, scc Ioini, Chaucerian Apocrypha, . 30, anu Tiigg, Congenial
Souls, . 128 anu 258, n. 41.
31. Scc Simson, Chaucci`s Picscncc," anu loi a succinci chionology scc Shaion I.
]anscn, Political Protest and Prophecy Under Henry VIII Woouliiugc, SullolI: Boyucll, 1991),
. 21-24.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 345
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 345 5/7/07 11:28:00 AM
in ianucm wiih ihc iucniiiy ol lamily as naiion io maIc Chaucci`s icaucis
inio Tuuoi sul|ccis.
Thc iioc ol Chaucci as laihci mcshcs wiih Tuuoi conccins aloui o-
liiical lcgiiimacy as ii limns ihcii woiiics aloui succcssion anu iogcny:
Hcniy VIII`s ucsiic loi a malc hcii anu his uaughici Elizalcih`s viigin
quccnshi aic among ihc lamily laciois ihai animaic Tuuoi olicy, iciy,
anu ociiy.
S2
Alihough ihc Tuuois aic noi uniquc in |oining laihcihoou
wiih naiion, ihcii succcss csiallishing Thc Tuuoi Myih" in iini anu on
siagc uciivcu in aii liom ihcii concciicu clloiis io icgulaic iini. Hcniy
VIII`s iicason lcgislaiion ol ihc 1530s icquiicu all liccnscu looIs io iini
cum iivilcgio icgali au imiimcnuum solum" on ihc iiilc agc, lcgisla-
iion in 1543 ihai sccihcu cnaliics anu in 1546 ihai icquiicu iucniiiy,
alihough aimcu iimaiily ai ihcological maiici," illusiiaics ihc climaic in
which Chaucci`s ullishcis woiIcu.
SS
Tuuoi lcgislaiion ol iini maichcs
ihcii innovaiivc anu alsoluicly auihoiiiaiian law ol aiiainuci, an aci ol ai-
liamcni ushcu ly Tuuoi inicicsis ihai allows cxccuiion wiihoui iiial. Thc
sicauily incicasing clhcicncy anu siiingcncy ol ccnsoishi" ly 1590-ihc
iini ycai ol Collci-gavc ihc English govcinmcni a siiongci gii on
ihc uomcsiic iiniing inuusiiy ihan any oihci Euiocan monaich."
S4
In 1575 anu 1590, Gascoignc anu ihc Collci auihoi may havc hcaiu
ihcii laihci Chaucci`s voicc in William Thynnc`s 1532 cuiiion. Thynnc
himscll, hc iclls us, hau cn|oycu hcaiing Chaucci: in his ucuicaiion io
Hcniy VIII, hc wiiics ol having iaIcn gicai uclcciacyon / as ihc iymcs anu
layscis mighi sullic / io icuc anu hcic ihc loIcs ol ihai nollc 8 lamous
clciIc Gclliay Chaucci."
S
Oi cihas ihcy hcaiu ihcii laihci Chaucci in
a uillcicni lolio cuiiion: ]ohn Siow`s 1561 Chaucci`s Works is iouuccu
in ihc caily ycais ol Elizalcih`s icign 1558-1603). Siow`s looI incluucs
a suggcsiivc imagc ihai |oins laihci Chaucci io Tuuoi gcncalogy hg. 1).
IiIc Thynnc`s ucuicaiion io Hcniy VIII iinicu in laici sixiccnih-ccniuiy
lolio cuiiions, Siow`s ciiicxi also acais in a laici cuiiion, Scghi`s ol
1598.
S6
This cngiaving ucicis ihc lincagc ol Elizalcih`s laihci Hcniy
VIII: ii lcgins wiih ihc lamily aniagonisis, YoiIs anu Iancasicis, ol ihc
32. Ii can lc uilhculi, il noi imossillc, howcvci, io uiaw shai uisiinciions among
oliiical, iciisiic, anu acsihciic cnucavois uuiing ihis agc ]ihc Tuuoi agc|": ]ohn N. King,
Tudor Royal Iconography, . 3.
33. Scc ]amcs Simson, Reform and Cultural Revolution, vol. 2: 13501547, Thc Oxloiu
English Iiiciaiy Hisioiy Oxloiu: Oxloiu Univ. Picss, 2002), . 338, n. 48, anu Chaucci`s
Picscncc anu Alscncc," . 265-66, loi Hcniy`s 1542 lcgislaiion ihai allows Caniciluiyc
ialcs" anu Chauccis loIcs" io coniinuc in iini.
34. Ioaucs, Power, . 122.
35. Francis Thynnes Animadversions upon Speghts rst (1598 A.D.) Edition of Chaucers Workes,
cu. G. H. Kingslcy, icviscu I. Y. Iuinivall, EETS o.s. 9 Ionuon: Tiulnci, 1865), . xxiv.
36. Annc Huuson, ]ohn Siow, 1525.-1605," in Editing Chaucer, cu. Ruggicis, . 57-58.
346 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 346 5/7/07 11:28:00 AM
Wai ol ihc Roscs. Thc illusiiaiion mimics a ]cssc iicc radix Jesse), a icio-
iial icicscniaiion ol ihc Viigin Maiy`s aicniagc lamiliai io mcuicval
auuicnccs.
S7
In a iyical vcision ol ihc Chiisiian icon, ]cssc, laihci ol King
Daviu, lics ai ihc illusiiaiion`s loiiom. A vinc siings liom his miuscciion
io iniiiaic ihc Viigin`s gcncalogy, anu ihis iicc" asccnus ihiough King
Daviu io ]csus. In Siow`s ciiicxi, monaichs iclacc sainis:
SS
a iccognizallc
Hcniy VIII sulanis-ucoscs.-ihc ]csus who iiauiiionally ios ihc im-
agc. Sliiiing ihc iiauiiionally iccumlcni ]cssc" inio iwo hguics-]ohn
ol Gauni anu Eumunu, DuIc ol YoiI-maIcs visillc ihc iwo houscs" ol
Whiic anu Rcu Rosc ccniial io ihc Tuuoi naiiaiivc. Thc asccni ol iosc
vincs on ciihci siuc ol ihc illusiiaiion maiIs ihc uivision lciwccn ihc iwo
ioyal houscs, ihcii laiilcs ihc sul|cci ol ShaIcscaic`s hisioiy lays. Thc
vincs culminaic in a iosc-cnihioncu King Hcniy VIII ucicicu, unliIc
ihc oihci ioyals in ihc illusiiaiion, wiih all ihicc accouicimcnis ol ioyal
olhcc-ciown, sccici, swoiu-as laihci iiiumhani.
S9
In ihis lashion ihc
cngiaving iclaccs ]csus`s lamily wiih Englanu`s ioyal lincagc, cquicu
wiih ihc imlcmcnis ol auihoiiiy-anu unishmcni. Iis allusion io ihc
]cssc iicc suggcsis ihc icucmiivc qualiiy ol ihc aiiiaichal Tuuoi myih
anu Tuuoi auihoiiiaiianism, lui iis iiiumhalism mocIs ihc mcicy ol
Maiy`s son.
This ciiicxi lunciions in Siow`s 1561 anu Scghi`s 1598 cuiiions as
iiilc agc loi The Canterbury Tales: ii laycis Chaucci wiih Tuuoi gcncalogy.
Thc iiilc Thc Cauniciluiic ialcs" acais in ihc ccnici ol ihc wooucui,
suiiounucu ly almosi cxclusivcly malc YoiIs anu Iancasicis. Bcsiucs
suggcsiivcly linIing ioyal anu uivinc hisioiy, ihc ciiicxi, wiih iis iiilc
Thc Cauniciluiic ialcs" wcavcs Chaucci iogcihci wiih English hisioiy
in a maiiix ol ioyal laihcihoou." Thc imagc uscs iini anu lamily io mix
ioyal, icligious, naiional, anu liiciaiy mcanings iogcihci. Hcniy VIII`s
lamily iicc laccs Chaucci`s Canterbury Tales squaicly in ihc ccnici ol
ioyal gcncalogy anu iis conccins aloui lcgiiimaic iogcny, aiiiaichal
auihoiiiy, anu oliiical succcssion. Siow`s imagc cncasulaics Quccn
Elizalcih`s llooulinc, auvciiising hci mciiis io oicniial suiiois whilc
convcnicnily cliuing, ihicc ycais inio hci icign, hci ucau anu laiicn
sillings. Whcn iciinicu in Scghi`s 1598 cuiiion alici hoc loi Tuuoi
iogcny has lailcu, Siow`s wooucui, as mcuiaiing liiciaiy aiiilaci . . .
37. Scc Aiihui Waison, The Early Iconography of the Tree of Jesse Ionuon: Oxloiu Univ.
Picss, 1934).
38. Thc Tuuoi woni io iclacc sainily imagcs wiih ihcii own is almosi a ciiiical com-
monlacc. Scc King, Tudor Royal Iconography, . 57-59, anu Maiiha W. Diivci, Maing
Chaucci: ]ohn Sccu anu ihc Iaici Poiiiaiis," Chaucer Review, 36 2002), 229-49.
39. Thc gcncalogy is, ol couisc, lashioncu io suoii Tuuoi iucology. Richaiu II is alscni
liom ihc agc, anu Hcniy VII looIs io lc incviiallc as monaich.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 347
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 347 5/7/07 11:28:01 AM
lcais ihc iiaccs ol asi as wcll as icscni social anu oliiical conuici."
40

Thc iciuic`s iicachcious imlicaiions qucsiion Tuuoi lccunuiiy anu
Chaucci`s iclaiionshi io ii, anu may havc coniiiluicu io iis climina-
iion in 1602 iciinis ol Scghi`s cuiiion. No longci uocs Hcniy VIII`s
gcncalogy liamc laihci Chaucci: ihc incicasingly liaughi succcssion
Figure 1. The woorkes of Geffrey Chaucer : newly printed with
divers addicions, whiche were never in printe before : with the
siege and destruccion of the worthy citee of Thebes, compiled by
John Lydgate, monke of Berie : as in the table more plainly dooeth
appere. Ionuon: ]hon Kyngsion loi ]hon Wighi. uwcllyng
in Poulcs Chuichyaiuc, 1561. Iolio 5, iccio. By Iinu ci-
mission ol ]amcs Iox, hcau, sccial collcciions, Knighi
Iiliaiy, Univcisiiy ol Oicgon.
40. WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu,`" . 36.
348 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 348 5/7/07 11:28:04 AM
qucsiion cncouiagcu ihc 1602 iinicis ol Scghi`s cuiiion io iniiouucc
The Canterbury Tales wiihoui ihis ciiicxi.
II
Bcsiucs ihc iioc ol laihci Chaucci" iiaccallc in loih manusciii anu
iini, anoihci iioc-Chaucci as living auihoi-acais in ihc sixiccnih
ccniuiy. Thomas Piocioi, in A Gorgious gallery of gallant inventions 1578,
STC 20402), can only wish Il Chawsci yci uiu livc" in oiuci io assuic his
auuicncc ihai, liIc Piocioi, Chaucci ioo woulu wiiic vciscs in iaisc ol
Misiicss D." Samucl Danicl uis ihc wish loi a living Chaucci cvcn moic
loicclully. In his Poeticall essayes 1599, STC 6261), hc lamcnis ihc low
uisgiacc" ol hy iaccs" ihai havc occuiicu Sincc Chaucer liu`u." Whilc
ihis onc aii ol Danicl`s ocm iccognizcs Chaucci`s ucaih, ihc icsi ol ii
liings Chaucci lacI io lilc: who yci liucs anu yci shall, / Though which
I giicuc io say) lui in his lasi."
41
Whai soii ol hoc aic ihcy cxicssing.
Maixisi ihcoiy ioviucs onc way io unucisianu ihis iioc ol a living
Chaucci. In oiuci io lccomc ol|ccis ol caiial cxchangc, looIs as com-
mouiiics nccu io lc uiaincu ol lilc, iuincu inio iouucis ihai couni loi
moic in social lilc ihan ihc ical iclaiions ol cisons."
42
A iinicu looI
uocs noi cniiicly hi a Maixisi iuca ol commouiiy: a looI is noi a iimaiy
goou, such as coal oi sugai, whosc chaiaciciisiics icmain much ihc samc
howcvci much ol ii is iouuccu," anu looIscllcis havc an inicicsi in
ihc laic ol ihcii iouuci."
4S
Bui iinicu cuiiions ol Chaucci ncvciihc-
lcss cxcmlily commouihcu lilclcssncss. Piini`s ucauncss" coniiasis wiih
ihc living naiuic ol manusciiis: iaciiccs associaicu wiih manusciiis-
sciaing, oiniing, incising-cmhasizc ihcii ucshly naiuic in coniiasi io
iini.
44
Wiih woiu anu imagc iouuccu ly hanu on ihc sIins ol animals,
manusciiis cmlouy ihc mciahoi ol living woius." Hocclcvc`s imagc
ol Chaucci, mcani io |og mcmoiy, his ihc iouuciion ol manusciiis,
iaihci ihan ihc iciouuciion ol iinicu looIs. Mcchanical iciouuciion
changcs looIs liom hciiloom io commouiiy.
Piini`s caily ycais uiu noi insiic ccnsoishi: uniil ihc 1520s, iis mc-
chanical naiuic occluucu iis oliiical oicncy. Thosc clloiis aiisc in ihc
41. Piichci, Iiiciaiuic, Playhousc," . 361-64, uiscusscs Danicl`s woiI.
42. Tciicll Caivci, A Marx Dictionary Camliiugc: Poliiy Picss, 1987), . 81-87, cxlains
lciishism ol commouiiics quoiaiion ai . 83), Biown, Poets, Patrons, and Printers, cxloics
ihc way ihc iiniing icss in Iiancc lcu io ihc ol|cciihcaiion, commcicializaiion, anu
commouihcaiion ol ihc looI" . 5), scc Si. Claii, Reading Nation, loi mouihcaiions.
43. Si. Claii, Reading Nation, . 31.
44. Scc ihc cuiiois` Iniiouuciion," in The Book and the Body, cu. Doloics WaiwicI Iicsc
anu Kaihciinc O`Biicn O`Kccllc Noiic Damc: Univ. ol Noiic Damc Picss, 1997), .
ix-xviii, loi a mcuiiaiion on manusciiis` liviuiiy.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 349
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 349 5/7/07 11:28:04 AM
1530s anu giow in ihc 1540s. Noi uocs Elizalcih`s olhcial govcinmcni
ccnsoishi lcgun in 1559 climinaic ihc scuiiious iini ol ShaIcscaic`s
conicmoiaiics, Iaiin hisioiian William Camucn 1551-1623) anu oci
Michacl Diayion 1563-1631).
4
Hci 1586 Siai Chamlci uccicc con-
himcu ihc owcis ol ihc Siaiioncis Comany anu ihc iivilcgcs ol aicn-
iccs. Powcis ol ccnsoishi, icviously mainly a maiici ol scll-ccnsoishi
wiihin ihc inuusiiy, aic givcn io ihc ccclcsiasiical auihoiiiics": as William
Si. Claii also noics, Iiom 1595. ]sic| Ecclcsiasiical ccnsoishi iighicncu."
46

Tuuoi auihoiiiaiianism iiacIs, lui cannoi coniain, ihc hguic ol living
laihci Chaucci: his livclincss answcis commouihcaiion, his laihcihoou
uis in ciscciivc ihc Tuuoi hcgcmony`s iiagic lamily iosccis, laiicn
liIc Maclcih`s, unallc io sianu in osiciiiy", anu his imagc can challcngc
icigning iciics as uiu his ociiy in ihc hanus ol somc ol Hcniy VIII`s
couiiicis in ihc 1530s anu 1540s.
47
Iaihci Chaucci`s voicc also sounus in ihicc ioiouiamaiic" uialoguc
icxis ihai siagc Chaucci in sixiccnih- anu caily-scvcniccnih-ccniuiy iini.
This small gcnic ol living, scaIing Chauccis icscmllcs ihc uialoguc Hoc-
clcvc woiIs inio his Regement of Princes anu suggcsis iniciscciions lciwccn
liiciaiuic anu ihc siagc lcloic Richaiu Builagc`s 1576 uiosc-luili
ihcaici maIcs a ihcaiiical iuiom concicic.
4S
William Bullcin ullishcs
a iiaci againsi ihc laguc, A Dialoguc loih lcasaunic anu iciilull"
1564), in which hc ucsciilcs Chaucci icaiing io scaI ol ociiy:
Wiiiic Chaucci saiic in a chaiic ol golu coucicu wiih ioscs, wiiiing iosc
8 Rimc, accomanicu wiih ihc siiiics ol many Iyngcs, Inighics anu laiic
lauics. Whom hc lcasaunily lcsiinIclcu wiih ihc swccic waici ol ihc wcll,
conscciaicu unio ihc Muscs, cclccu Aganic.
Alici ihis iniiouuciion anu ucsciiiion, Chaucci scaIs in iamlic hcx-
amcici, assciiing in his own voicc no luiiall huiicih holic mcn, ihough
lcasics ihcm ucuoui, / Noi iichc giauc icuailcih ihc wicIcu loi all
ycaiihly owci." A living Chaucci hcic answcis any wish io ui him in
his giavc in a lashion moic owcilul ihan a monologuc. Such uialogucs
icsagc Elizalcihan ihcaiiical cncigy.
A laici sixiccnih-ccniuiy iiaci also incluucs ihis soii ol scaIing Chau-
cci: Greenes Vision: written at the instant of his death 1592, STC 12261).
49
A
45. WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu,`" . 23.
46. Si. Claii, Reading Nation, Acnuix 2, . 481.
47. WaiIins, Wiasiling loi This Woilu,`" . 25.
48. Piichci, Iiiciaiuic, Playhousc," cs. . 351, anu Hincs, Voices in the Past, cs. .
143-44.
49. Scc Hclcn Cooci, This Woiihy Oluc Wiiici`: Pericles anu Oihci Gowcis, 1592-1640,"
in A Companion to Gower, cu. Sin Echaiu, . 110-13, cs. 100-4. On Greenes Vision anu
350 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 350 5/7/07 11:28:04 AM
uicam vision in iosc anu ociiy, ii iicais a colloquy on liiciaiy |uugmcni
osicnsilly uicamcu ly Rolcii Giccnc, iolihc Elizalcihan uiamaiisi anu
wiiici. Thc vision iccounis Chaucci, Gowci, anu Giccnc aiguing aloui ihc
moialiiy ol ihcii scvcial woiIs as wcll as ihc mcaning ol liiciaiuic moic
gcncially. Whilc scholaily oinion uiviucs on whcihci Giccnc himscll
wioic ihc woiI, his uiamaiic amliancc civaucs ii. Alici Giccnc siaics
his casc icgaiuing ihc hincss ol his own ociiy oi whcihci hc wioic The
Cobler of Caunterburie), Chawcci sai uownc anu laughi, anu ihcn iising v
anu lcaning his lacI againsi a Ticc, hc mauc ihis mciiy aunswci."
0
Thc
colloquy gocs on loi somc loiiy-onc agcs, anu incluucs Chaucci again
lcing callcu, as in The Cobler of Caunterburie, olu." Alihough Chaucci
loscs ihc aigumcni, his livclincss in Greenes Vision maIcs olu" sccm an
allcciionaic ciihci. Whcn Giccnc acccucs io Gowci`s in|unciion io
lcavc oll wiiiing ol lovc, Chawcci shaIi his hcau anu lumcu."
1
Thcn
Solomon, liIc a deus ex machina, acais anu has ihc lasi woiu, cn|oining
Giccnc io lcavc all oihci vainc siuuics, anu alyc ihy scllc io lccuc
uon ihai hcaucnly manna," io which ihc waIing Giccnc acccucs, con-
cluuing wiih as you hau ihc llossomcs ol my wanion lancics, so you shall
hauc ihc liuiics ol my lciici lalouics."
2
Whilc Gowci`s moialiiy wins,"
Chaucci`s voicc aigucs loi iolciancc. Hc iclls Giccnc noi io conccin
himscll wiih ihc asciiiion ol ihc Collci, anu his ialc, whilc lacIing a
moial issuc ai iis hcaii, icascs auihoiiiy ihiough ihc comcuancc ol
a |calous huslanu. Hclcn Cooci icaus Greenes Vision on ihc woiih anu
moialiiy ol liiciaiuic ihis way: Iiiciaiuic may inuccu lc wanion, lui
alihough iis aiiiaciivcncss may maIc ii suscci, ihai uocs noi in cvciy
casc ncccssiiaic a ucnial ol iis woiih, iis owci ol cisuauing io viiiuc.
Thc icsonsililiiy may, howcvci, lall as much on ihc icauci as on ihc
wiiici."
S
A living laihci Chaucci, osicnsilly lcsicu ly ]ohn Gowci, maIcs
ihc moic imoiiani casc loi icaucily |uugmcni, iiscll ossilly a maiici
ol lilc anu ucaih unuci ihc Tuuois.
In a hnal insiancc ol a uiamaiically scaIing Chaucci-Richaiu Biaih-
waii`s Chaucci`s Inccnscu Ghosi" 1617, STC 3585), a osi-Tuuoi ocm
aiiachcu io The Smoking Ages, or, The man in the mist: with the life and death
of Tobacco-Chaucci voiccs his unhaincss anu uisgusi, noi only io havc
scll-auihoiizaiion," scc Ioii Humhicy Ncwcoml, Reading Popular Romance in Early Modern
England Ncw YoiI: Columlia Univ. Picss, 2002), . 47, 52.
50. Bicwci, The Critical Heritage, . 130-35, iinis a laii amouni ol Greenes Vision, as uo
Boswcll anu Holion.
51. Acccsscu ihiough ihc Early English Books Online EEBO)uaialasc Ann Ailoi: Univcisiiy
ol Michigan, 1998- ), Icliuaiy 13, 2005.
52. EEBO, acccsscu Icliuaiy 13, 2005.
53. Cooci, This Woiihy Oluc Wiiici,`" . 104.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 351
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 351 5/7/07 11:28:05 AM
lccn lioughi o` ih` siagc," lui ai ihc uamagc Pic-Pagcanis" aic having
on his icuiaiion:
Ias, Is ii hi ihc sioiics ol ihai looI,
Couchc`u anu comil`u in such a vaiious loimc,
Which aii anu naiuic |oynily uiu auoinc,
On whosc quaini Talcs succccuing agcs looI,
Shoulu now lic siiucu in ihc siccms ol smoaI,
As il no oci`s gcnius coulu lc iic
Wiihoui ihc inuucncc ol Poi anu Pic.
4
Iaihci Chaucci scaIs io icuiaiion, noi icgulaiion, gcnius, noi moials,
in uclcnuing his ialcs now sul|ccis loih loi Picssc anu Siagc."

Noi
only a living visiioi, Chaucci is laihci, cxcci io a liai hcc ncvci goi,"
anu icquiics ihai his auuicncc conccivc ihis wcll." Ioi ihis living laihci
Chaucci, siagc anu icss cqually liing his gcnciaiivc hguic lacI io lilc.
Thc ucsiic loi a living Chaucci io mcci ihc icsiiiciions ol iini iouuccs
a small gcnic ol ciloiming" Chauccis. Thc iioc ol a living Chaucci
uscs ihc siagc`s iuiom ol icscncc
6
io couniciaci ihc commouihcu lilc-
lcssncss ol iini`s mcchanical iciouuciion.
Thc lasi sixiccnih-ccniuiy lolio cuiiion ol Chaucci`s Works, Scghi`s in
1598, ioviucs ihc mosi owcilul icicscniaiions ol living laihci Chaucci
io answci ucau" iini. Scghi`s cuiiion incluucs many moic ciiicxis ihan
hau iis icucccssois. Onc is a long liogiahy, Chauccis Iilc," uiviucu
inio His Maiiiagc," His Euucaiion," His Rcvcnucs," His Rcwaius," His
Chiluicn, wiih ihcii auvanccmcni" a long scciion), anu His Couniicy."
Scghi`s oihci ciiicxis incluuc a glossaiy ol haiu woius, a uiawing ol
Chaucci`s aims liIc ihai lounu in sixiccnih-ccniuiy wcalihy houscs` ancl
oiiiaiis, anu a schcmaiic ol his lamily iicc, in Iaiin. Scghi`s iinicu woius,
liIc ihosc ol Bullcin, Giccnc, anu Biaihwaii, animaic laihci Chaucci.
A ociic ciiicxiual uialoguc, icminisccni ol Hocclcvc`s, has iwo scaI-
cis, Thc Rcauci" anu Gcllicy Chaucci." Noi only Chaucci lui his-anu
Scghi`s-icauci scaIs: a icvoiccu Chaucci |oins a uniqucly voiccu icau-
ci.
7
Thc ocm`s conicni sccihcally auumliaics an cuiioi`s conccin aloui
54. Incluucu in Caiolinc Suigcon, Richard Brathwaits Comment, in 1665, upon Chaucers
Tales of the Miller and the Wife of Bath Ionuon: Kcgan Paul, 1901), . viii-xi.
55. Suigcon, Richard Brathwaits Comment, . x.
56. Auia is iicu io ]an acioi`s| living icscncc, ihcic can lc no iclica ol ii. Thc auia
which, on ihc siagc, cmanaics liom Maclcih cannoi lc scaiaicu loi ihc scciaiois liom
ihai ol ihc acioi . . . Any ihoiough siuuy iovcs ihai ihcic is inuccu no gicaici coniiasi
ihan ihai ol ihc siagc lay io a woiI ol aii ihai is comlcicly sul|cci io ii oi, liIc ihc hlm,
lounucu in, mcchanical iciouuciion", Bcn|amin, Thc WoiI ol Aii," . 231-32.
57. Pcici Siallyliass anu Maigicia uc Giazia, Iovc Among ihc Ruins: Rcsonsc io Pcch-
ici," Textual Practice, 119 1997), 69, suggcsi ihai mouciniiy icuicaics cciiainiy on ihc
cxisicncc ol consciousncss" . 69). Thc acal io ihc icauci`s voicc as wcll as a icvoiccu
Chaucci signals ihis shili iowaius consciousncss as a liiciaiy issuc.
352 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 352 5/7/07 11:28:05 AM
looI as commouiiy. Boih Chaucci anu Rcauci usc ihc languagc ol iini
io iaisc Scghi loi his iiiclcss woiI.
Rcauci
Where hast thou dwelt, good Geffrey, all this while,
Unknown to us, save only by thy Books?
Chaucci
In Haulks and Herns, God wot, and in Exile,
Where none vouchsaft to yield me Words or Looks;
Till one which saw me there, and knew my Friends,
Did bring me forth: such Grace sometime God sends.
Rcauci
But who is he that hath thy Books repaird,
And added more, whereby thou are more graced?
Chaucci
The self-same Man who hath no Labour spard
To help what Time and Writers had defaced:
And made old Words, which were unknown of many,
So plain, that now they may be known of any.
Rcauci
Well fare his heart; I love him for thy sake,
Who for thy sake hath taken all this Pains.
Chaucci
Would God I knew some means amends to make,
That for his Toil he might receive some Gains.
But wot ye what? I know his Kindness such,
That for my good he thinks no Pains too much.
S
Chaucci`s livclincss hcic, liIc his livclincss in ihc ioiouiamas, comcs
liom his voicc iaihci ihan, in Hocclcvc`s casc, his liIcncss. In ihc high-
valuc lolio cuiiion, howcvci, scll-conscious iinicis` mciahois layci ihc
woiI ol cuiiois, aicnis, anu icaucis io lci Chaucci`s livclincss answci
iini`s siaius as commouiiy.
Scghi`s 1602 cuiiion incluucs iwo moic ocms ihai animaic Chaucci.
Wiiiicn ly Iiancis Thynnc, son ol ihc cuiioi William, ihc hisi ocm closcs
wiih lincs aiiuncu io ihc iioc ol a living Chaucci: Thcn Chaucer livc, loi
siill ihy Vcisc shall livc / T`unloin Pocis which Iilc anu Iighi will givc."
9

58. Tiansciilcu liom ihc Univcisiiy ol Oicgon`s coy ol Scghi`s cuiiion scc n. 2). Tiigg,
Congenial Souls, iinis a hnal coulci: Anu moic ihan ihai, il hc hau Inownc in iimc, / Hc
woulu havc lcli no lauli in iosc noi iimc" . 133).
59.
Upon the Picture of Chaucci.
Whai Pallas Ciiy owcs ihc hcavcnly minu
Ol iuucni Socrates, wisc Greece`s Gloiy,
Whai Iamc Arpinas sicauingly uoih hnu
Whai lasiing Piaisc shai wiiicu Italy
By Tasso`s anu ly Petrark`s Pcn oliaincu,
Whai Iamc Bartas unio iouu France haih gaincu,
By scvcn uays Woilu Pociically siiaincu:
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 353
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 353 5/7/07 11:28:05 AM
Evcn moic insisicnily, Thynnc`s scconu ocm, Ol ihc Animauvcisions
uon Chaucci," uscs, liIc ihc uialoguc ocm liom ihc cailici Scghi
cuiiion, ihc iioc ol Chaucci`s living laihcihoou whilc gcsiuiing iowaiu
iini anu cuiioishi:
In icauing ol ihc lcain`u iaisc-woiihy Pain,
Thc hcllul Noics cxlaining Chaucer`s Minu,
Thc alsiiusc SIill, anu aiiihcial Vcin,
By iiuc Annalogy I iighily hnu
Speght is ihc Chilu ol Chaucer`s liuiilul Biain,
Vcinishing his WoiIs wiih Iilc anu Giacc,
Which cnvious Agc woulu oihciwisc uclacc.
Thcn lc hc lov`u anu ihanIcu loi ihc samc,
Sincc in his Iovc hc haih icviv`u his Namc.
60
In ihis ocm, Scghi lccomcs ihc vcinishci" ol Chaucci`s woiIs, coaiing
anu iulling io waim anu cnlivcn. Boih ihc Rcauci anu Iiancis Thynnc
avci ihai Chaucci, ihc living laihci-aiiisi, ically" comcs io lilc in ihc cui-
iion ol his chilu, Thomas Scghi. Scghi incluucs ihcsc ocms ol Iiancis
Thynnc, son ol William, Chaucci`s hisi lolio cuiioi, wiih a conscious nou io
hlial iciics, his io Chaucci anu Iiancis`s io his laihci. Thc cluci Thynnc`s
anu Chaucci`s cnianglcmcnis wiih ihc Tuuoi lamily sccm lacIgiounu
hcic: Scghi iinis Iiancis`s Animauvcisions" as ciiicxis in which Iiancis
uciails his laihci`s coniicicms wiih Caiuinal Wolscy.
61
Yci Scghi liings
his own Tuuoi cnianglcmcnis io lcai, iiniing his ucuicaioiy cisilc io
Elizalcih`s scciciaiy, Sii Rolcii Cccil, onc ol hii highncs mosi honviallc
iivic covnscl," as hisi ciiicxi in ihc cuiiion. Thc cuiiion`s numcious
ciiicxis suiiounu Chaucci wiih ihc cailicsi anu laicsi Tuuoi hisioiy.
Whai high Rcnown is uichas`u unio Spain,
Which licsh Dianaes Vciscs uo uisiill,
Whai Piaisc oui Ncighloui Scotland uoih iciain
By Gawine Douglas, in his Virgil Quill,
Oi oihci Moiions ly swcci Pocis SIill,
Thc samc, anu moic, laii England challcngc may,
By ihai iaic Wii anu Aii ihou uo`si uislay
In Vcisc, which uoih Apollo`s Musc lcwiay.
Thcn Chaucer livc, loi siill ihy Vcisc shall livc
T`unloin Pocis which Iilc anu Iighi will givc.
Fran. Thynn.
Scc Francis Thynnes Animadversions, . cvi-cvii. Thc ocm acais in ihc Univcisiiy ol
Oicgon`s cuiiion ol Scghi scc n. 2 alovc), on a 1 vciso.
60. Francis Thynnes Animadversions, . cvii.
61. Dcsiic Hcniy VIII`s assuianccs, my laihci was callcu in qucsiionc ly ihc Bysshocs,
anu hcavcu ai ly caiuinall Wolscyc, his oluc cnymyc, loi manyc causcs, lui mosily loi ihai
my laihci hau luiihcicu SIclion io ullishc his Collcn Clouic` againsic ihc Caiuinall",
Francis Thynnes Animadversions, . 10.
354 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 354 5/7/07 11:28:06 AM
Thc mosi siiiIing ol Scghi`s ncw ciiicxis is, as in Thynnc`s 1532 ]cssc
iicc illusiiaiion, a visual onc. Ncw io Scghi`s 1598 cuiiion ol Chaucci`s
Works, ii iciuics Chaucci lull lcngih, sianuing in a osiiion similai io ihai
ol loih ihc oiiiaii ainicu in 1556 ovci Chaucci`s Wcsiminsici ioml
anu ihc illuminaiion in ihc Hocclcvc manusciii hg. 2).
62
By incluuing
loih Chaucci`s imagc anu his gcncalogy, ihc imagc gocs onc sic luiihci
ihan Siow`s Canterbury Tales iiilc agc-which Scghi uscs in 1598 anu
ic|ccis in 1602-io lolu Chaucci inio Tuuoi hcgcmony. Noi only icgulaily
iciinicu lui aciually asicu inio coics ol Siow`s cuiiion, ihis wooucui,
oi momcnious ialisman," is cniiilcu Thc Piogcnic ol Gcllicy Chaucci."
6S

IiIc ihc cngiaving ol Hcniy VIII`s lincagc uscu io iiilc The Canterbury Tales,
ihis ciiicxi laycis Chaucci wiih Tuuois. Diawn ly ]ohn Sccu, ii oiiiays
iwo lamilics, ioyal anu Chaucciian: Chaucci`s uaughici cnus u, ly uini
ol maiiiagc, cnnollcu. In coniiasi io ihc cailici wooucui, gcnciaiions
iun uown, iaihci ihan u, ihis illusiiaiion`s siucs so ihai ]ohn ol Gauni`s
namc aiallcls Chaucci`s in a iounucl aio ihc illusiiaiion, iaihci ihan
ai iis loiiom.
Sincc ihc imagc uciails ihc cniiy ol Chaucci`s chiluicn inio ihc no-
liliiy, ii incluucs, on iis lcli-hanu siuc, a vcision ol ihc ioyal gcncalogy
ucicicu in ihc cailici wooucui. In Sccu`s vcision, howcvci, ihc gcnc-
alogy ol Hcniy VII, ihc hisi Tuuoi Iing, coniains hvc lcmalc loilcais,
incluuing Hcniy`s moihci Maigaici Bcauloii, anu ncaily uoullcs ihc
numlci ol lcmalc loilcais shown in ihc cailici wooucui. Noi only ihai,
lui Chaucci`s own lamily iicc, on ihc imagc`s iighi-hanu siuc, incluucs
loui womcn, incluuing ihc oci`s wilc, maIing loi a ioial ol ninc womcn,
iaihci ihan ihc ihicc acaiing in ihc cailici wooucui anu, inicicsi-
ingly, in iiauiiional imagcs ol a ]cssc iicc.
64
In ihcsc iwo ways Sccu`s
illusiiaiion ioviucs moic sacc loi gcnciaiivc womcn ihan uocs ihc
cailici wooucui-anu uocs so in ihc waning ycais ol Elizalcih`s icign. Thc
choicc io incluuc moic womcn may alluuc io an oinion, cuiicni in ihc
sixiccnih ccniuiy, ihai Chaucci was aiiiculaily symaihciic io womcn.
6

62. Diivci, Maing Chaucci," . 241, inlcis a uillcicni oiiiaii as Sccu`s souicc: a laic
sixiccnih-ccniuiy oiiiaii lounu in Biiiish Iiliaiy, MS Auuiiional 5141, loi ihc imagc, .
242.
63. Thc hiasc momcnious ialisman" is ]ohn R. Hcihciingion`s, Chaucer 15321602,
Notes and Facsimile Texts Designed to Facilitate the Identication of Defective Copies of the Black-Let-
ter Folio Editions of 1532, 1542 c. 1550, 1561, 1598 and 1602 Biimingham, Englanu: ]ohn
R. Hcihciingion ]iivaicly ullishcu|, 1964), . 7. Thc cngiaving is iicaicu in Aiihui M.
Hinu, Engraving in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Descriptive Catalogue
with Introductions, vol. 1 Camliiugc: Camliiugc Univ. Picss, 1952), . 286-89.
64. I ihanI ]amcs W. Eail loi ihis insighi inio ihc Tuuoi iicc`s imiiaiion ol icligious
iconogiahy.
65. Excusc Chaucci . . . loi hc was cuci gou waic, all womannis licynu," liom Gavin
Douglas`s iianslaiion ol Viigil`s Aeneid Suigcon uaics ihc manusciii vcision 1513, Boswcll
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 355
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 355 5/7/07 11:28:06 AM
Figure 2. The works of our ancient, learned, & excellent
English poet, Jeffrey Chaucer : as they have lately been
compard with the best manuscripts, and several things
added, never before in print : to which is adjoynd, The
story of the siege of Thebes, by John Lydgate, monk of Bury
: together with the life of Chaucer, shewing his countrey,
parentage, education, marriage, children, revenues, ser-
vice, reward, friends, books, death : also a table, wherein
the old and obscure words in Chaucer are explained, and
such words (which are many) that either are, by nature
or derivation, Arabick, Greek, Latine, Italian, French,
Dutch, or Saxon, markd with particular notes for the bet-
ter understanding their original. Ionuon: n. ., 1687.
Iolio 2, vciso. By Iinu cimission ol ]amcs Iox,
hcau, sccial collcciions, Knighi Iiliaiy, Univcisiiy
ol Oicgon.
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 356 5/7/07 11:28:09 AM
Oi ii may, ihiough a sulilc analogy wiih Elizalcih`s own siiaicgics, maIc
Chaucci ihc aicinal vcinaculai oci ol ihc moihci ionguc, mciahoii-
cally loih laihci anu moihci,
66
cvcn as ii icicscnis Chaucci`s lccunuiiy
anu iogcny. Thc Piogcnic" illusiiaiion uis laihci Chaucci" squaicly
inio English hisioiy, maing ihc lamilial alhliaiions ol Chaucci, liom
wilc io gicai-gicai-gianuson, onio ioyal lincagc.
Bui ihis imagc uocs moic. Thc loiiom ol ihc imagc shows ihc ioml
ol ihc oci`s son, Thomas, anu his wilc, Mauu. Yci Chaucci sianus u-
iighi in ihc illusiiaiion`s ccnici aio his son anu uaughici-in-law`s ioml,
his osiuic gcnially uclying ucaih. MaIing Chaucci`s imagc ccniial in a
lull-lcngih, auihoiiiaiivc oiiiaii sulily suggcsis, on ihc moucl ol Hcniy
VIII-a monaich lamously olscsscu wiih iogcny-Chaucci as laihci.
Bui ihc iounucls on ihc imagc`s iighi siuc-Chaucci`s linc-cnu wiih
gicai-gicai-gianuson Eumunu Dc la Polc, whom Hcniy VIII hau lc-
hcaucu in 1513.
67
Iiving laihci Chaucci aio his chiluicn`s ioml uanIcu
ly his cxiinguishcu linc cannoi hcl lui icmaiI on a chilulcss quccn
Elizalcih-incicasingly coniiolling icss anu amhlci-anu ihc liv-
ing" naiuic ol iini, ovcicoming loih commouihcaiion anu ccnsoishi.
Sccu says his imagc ol Chaucci comcs noi liom ihc imagc on Chaucci`s
ioml lui liom Hocclcvc, Chaucci`s scholai.
6S
Sccu invoIcs manusciii
io gcsiuic iowaius ihosc oncc-living looIs, ihc haulIs anu hcins" ol
ihc loicsi iimcval in which manusciii Chaucci loimcily icsiucu.
Bui ihc gcsiuic also liings io lighi whai`s losi lciwccn manusciii anu
iini. Sccu`s imagc, lascu on Hocclcvc, liings manusciii lilc io ihc
iinicu looI anu living Chaucci io many icaucis, unuouliculy moic
icaucis ihan Hocclcvc`s manusciiis hau: ii can cvcn allcci icaucis"
anu Holion uaic ihc iinicu vcision 1553), Chaucci, how miscaiicu ihy golucn cn." wiih
a siuc noic Chaucci. lil. lacminaium cncomion.I.8 alicium, uc lauuil.lonaium.lacminai,"
William Hcalc, liom An Apologie for Women 1609). Icici, Chaucer and His Readers, . 282,
n. 14, siaics ihai Chaucci himscll siagcs a ciiiiquc ol aiiiaichal anu, loi ihai maiici,
hcicioscxualisi) auihoiiiy in his hciions." Bui scc also Elainc Tuiilc Hanscn, Chaucer and
the Fictions of Gender BciIclcy: Univ. ol Caliloinia Picss, 1992), loi imoiiani qualihcaiions
ol ihis vicw.
66. Roy Siiong, The Cult of Elizabeth BciIclcy: Univ. ol Caliloinia Picss, 1977), cs. .
16, 69.
67. Pcaisall, Life, . 284.
68. Scc alovc, noic 62. Scghi conicnus ihai ihc oiiiaii on Chaucci`s ioml also comcs
liom ihc imagc in ihc Hocclcvc manusciii, scc Danc, Who Is Buried, . 13: M. Nicholas
Biigham uiu ai his ownc cosi anu chaigcs cicci a laiic maillc monumcni loi him, wiih
his iciuic, icscmlling ihai uonc ly Occlcvc." Ashmolc, whosc Theatrum hisi ullishcu an
imagc ol ihc ioml, cicuiis Hocclcvc`s imagc as guiuc loi ihc ioml ainiing`s icsioiaiion,
which lcaus Pcaisall io consiuci Scghi`s ciiicxi ihc icsioici`s ical insiiaiion Pcaisall,
Life, . 296). Bui, as Pcaisall also oinis oui, Scghi`s iciuic ]i.c., Sccu`s cngiaving| iiscll
ol couisc uciivcu liom ihc iiauiiion ol which ihc oiiginal ioml oiiiaii may havc lccn an
imoiiani caily anccsioi" . 296).
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 357
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 357 5/7/07 11:28:09 AM
ol Chaucci`s Wcsiminsici ioml. Chaucci`s gcnciaiivc owci is simulia-
ncously hisioiical, liiciaiy, ioyal, lcgiiimaic, uoully gcnucicu, aiiisiic,
anu living. Ii sulily challcngcs loih livc quccn anu ucau iini. Iilc anu
aii aio ihc olvcisc lacc ol gcnciaiion-ucaih-answcis iini`s ucau
lciici. Thc ciiicxi uis on onc agc, wiih imagc insicau ol ihc woius
Bullcin anu Giccnc ui in living Chaucci`s mouih, a challcngc io ihc
Tuuoi icgimc ol lciicis.
This imagc wcll ucscivcs iis ciihci a momcnious ialisman": alihough
ncw io Scghi`s 1598 cuiiion, ihc imagc was asicu inio coics ol Siow`s
1561 cuiiion, incluuing onc now in ihc Huniingion liliaiy. UnliIc ihc
icviously uiscusscu ciiicxi ol Hcniy`s lincagc, which, cihas lccausc
ol iis iioullcsomc conicni, was cxciscu liom iciinis ol Scghi`s cuiiion
lcginning in 1602, ihis scconu ciiicxi coniinucs io lc iinicu in loih
ihc 1602 anu 1687 lolio Chauccis. Thcsc iwo iciinis ol Scghi, ncaily
a ccniuiy aaii, aic, howcvci, ihc only cuiiions ol Chaucci ullishcu in
ihc scvcniccnih ccniuiy: ]ohn Uiiy`s 1721 lolio Chaucci cuiiion iclaccs
Sccu`s cngiaving wiih a lusi in oval" io ucici ihc oci-anu a oiiiaii
ol Uiiy himscll, sign ol moucin ciiiicism`s auvcni, icccucs loih ii anu
ihc looI`s iiilc agc.
69
Rcau iogcihci, Scghi`s ihicc ciiicxiual ocms-ihc uialoguc ocm
anu ihc iwo ly Iiancis Thynnc-anu Sccu`s cngiaving animaic Chau-
cci anu lauu his cuiiois, whosc clloiis comc, noi liom ihc ucsiic io
iohi liom ihcii commouihcu looIs, lui liom Iinuncss anu lovc anu
lamily ucvoiion.
70
Bui in Scghi`s cuiiions, ciiicxis voicc Chaucci anu
Rcauci, waim Chaucci io lilc, anu show him aio a ioml io givc lilc
io ihc Chaucci who acais in oihci iinicu maiici. Thc conccii ol
ihcsc ciiicxis, laic in Elizalcih`s icign, cnlivcns anu icvoiccs laihci
Chaucci. Tiacing Chaucci`s laihcily livclincss ihiough ihc sixiccnih
ccniuiy iiacIs Tuuoi oliiics` inicicnciiaiion wiih iini. Scghi`s cui-
iion maIcs Chaucci`s laihcily livclincss noi only an answci io iini`s
commouihcaiion lui a commcni-oi waining-uon iini`s con|uga-
iion wiih auihoiiiy. Euiiois, cngiavcis, anu uialogisis-Scghi, Sccu,
Bullcin, Giccnc, Biaihwaii-mcci muliilc nccus in maIing Gascoignc`s
anu ihc Collci`s laihci Chaucci livc.
69. Hinu, Engraving in England, I, 287, noics ihc lusi in oval", ihc Univcisiiy ol Oicgon`s
coy ol Uiiy`s Chaucci, Sccial Collcciions Raic BooIs PR 1850.1721, has a lull-agc cn-
giaving ol Uiiy lacing ihc cuiiion`s iiilc agc, ihc loiiom ol which shows Chaucci`s ioml.
Diivci, Maing Chaucci," . 239, anu Danc, Who Is Buried, . 24, loih ioviuc imagcs ol
Uiiy`s iiilc agc. On Uiiy`s cuiiion, scc William Alucison, Editing Chaucer, cu. Ruggicis, .
93-115.
70. Scc Tiigg, Congenial Souls.
358 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 358 5/7/07 11:28:09 AM
Imagcs siiuaic Chaucci as laihci, showing him wiih his iogcny. Such
icciiiions ol Chaucci`s living laihcihoou icvcisc ihc chiluhoou" iioc
Icici ouilincs loi caily iini culiuic,
71
anu maIc Chaucci ihc laihci
iaihci ihan a chilu. Rcau in ianucm wiih ihc wooucui ol Hcniy VIII`s
loiclcais, Scghi`s imagc hocs io cvoIc Chaucci`s icscncc, his auia,"
on ihc agc. Such imagcs, ucsiic Icici`s ucnials, can con|uic ]Chau-
cci`s| uisccining visagc" noi only ovci ihc imcisonaioi`s shouluci," lui
ovci ihc icauci`s.
72
An auia ol masculinc gcnciaiivc owci uchncs iini
culiuic`s Chaucci anu aiallcls Chaucci`s gcnciaiivc succcss wiih ihc
iuling lamilics ol YoiI, Iancasici, anu Tuuoi. Rcciiiion ol Chaucci`s liv-
ing laihcihoou also maIcs visillc iini`s ncw mouc ol gcnciic iclaiions
among icxis anu ol icxiual hisioiy iiscll as a loim ol lamilial iclaiions."
7S

Auia-maIing wooucuis in sixiccnih-ccniuiy cuiiions ol Chaucci iciuic
his laihcihoou allicu wiih ioyal auihoiiiy: Chaucci`s lccunuiiy cxicnus
liom iogcny io iinicu icxi. Chaucci cuiiions` imagcs, owcicu ly
ioyal conccins, maIc Chaucci noi ihc ucau auctor " Icici ucsciilcs,
74

lui a living oci. Thc moiil iccuis in sixiccnih-ccniuiy iosc anu o-
ciiy, along wiih Chaucci cuiiions` imagcs, io saiisly loih naiional anu
aiiiaichal ucsiics, all liamcu ly Chaucci`s living laihcihoou.
III
Iaic sixiccnih-ccniuiy iini anu ihcaici comlcmcni cach oihci in ihcii
conccin wiih lcgiiimacy anu auihoiiiy, aiciniiy, anu naiion.
7
Thcaici
can iaIc ihc iuiom ol living" lcyonu ihai which iini can accomlish
ihiough incii iciuic anu woiu.
76
As lai as ihc lays ol ShaIcscaic aic
conccincu, a living, licaihing Chaucci-ucsiicu ly Bullcin, Giccnc, anu
Biaihwaii, anu invoIcu in caily Chaucci cuiiions` ciiicxis-uocs noi
acai. Wc gci closc: Chaucci`s conicmoiaiy Gowci acis as choius in
ShaIcscaic`s laic iomancc Pericles, anu ihc Piologuc" hguic ocning
The Two Noble Kinsmen iccais Chaucci`s unucigiounu ciy,
71. Icici, Chaucer and His Readers, . 18.
72. Icici, Chaucer and His Readers, . 151.
73. Icici, Chaucer and His Readers, . 167.
74. Icici, Chaucer and His Readers, . 19.
75. Valciic Tiaul, Desire and Anxiety: Circulations of Sexuality in Shakespearean Drama Ion-
uon: Rouilcugc, 1992), Goiuon Williams, Shakespeare, Sex, and the Print Revolution Ionuon:
Aihlonc, 1996).
76. Cl. Bcn|amin, Thc WoiI ol Aii," . 231-32: Auia is iicu io icscncc . . . ihcic is
inuccu no gicaici coniiasi ihan ihai ol ihc siagc lay io a woiI ol aii ihai is . . . lounucu
in mcchanical iciouuciion."
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 359
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 359 5/7/07 11:28:10 AM
. . . O, lan
Iiom mc ihc wiilcss chall ol such a wiiici
Thai llasis my lays anu my lam`u woiIs maIcs lighici
Than Rolin Hoou!"
77
Bui cvcn hcic ShaIcscaic is alscni: ciiiics aiiiiluic ihis iologuc io
ShaIcscaic`s collaloiaioi, ]ohn Ilcichci.
Wiihoui a liicial siagc, Scghi`s living laihci Chaucci siill auus a ncw
iniciiciivc uimcnsion io Chaucci`s icxi ihiough anoihci lcaiuic ol caily
iini Canterbury Tales. Iiom Caxion ihiough Scghi, ihc convcniional
iiniing ol Thc Talc ol Mclilcc maIcs ihai ialc mosi lully Chaucci`s own.
Thc ilgiim Chaucci iclls iwo ialcs on ihc ioau io Caniciluiy, accoiuing
io ihc Tales` liamc naiiaiivc: onc ol Sii Thoas, anu onc ol Mclilcc anu his
wilc Piuucncc. Eaily anu moucin cuiiions iicai ihc iwo ialcs quiic uillci-
cnily. Chaucci`s namc giaccs nciihci auihoi-iolu ialc in moucin cuiiions:
ihc Riverside Chaucer, liIc iis iwcniicih-ccniuiy icucccssois cuiicu ly I. N.
Rolinson anu E. T. Donaluson, calls ihc iwo ialcs iolu ly Chaucci ihc oci
on ihc ilgiimagc ioau Thc Talc ol Sii Thoas anu Thc Talc ol Mclilcc.
Eaily cuiiions, on ihc oihci hanu, invaiially iucniily Chaucci wiih Thc
Talc ol Mclilcc ly calling ii Thc Talc ol Chaucci" ihcy call ihc icccu-
ing ialc Thc Rimc ol Sii Thoas"). Thc iiilc Talc ol Chaucci" acais in
iallcs ol conicnis, ai ihc lcginning ol ihc ialc, anu as a iunning hcauci
ihioughoui, agc ly agc.
7S
Iuiihcimoic, ihc iosc ialc`s uillcicncc is
luiihci acccniuaicu ly ihc loim ol iis iiilc. Thc oihci ialcs` iiilcs iaIc
ihcii icllci as a osscssivc, such as Thc Wilc ol Baih`s Talc. In Thc Talc ol
Chaucci, ihc oiuci is icvciscu.
79
Eaily iini`s clloiis io iucniily ialc wiih
77. William ShaIcscaic, The Two Noble Kinsmen, in The Riverside Shakespeare Bosion:
Houghion Miluin, 1974), Piologuc, ll. 18-21.
78. WynIcn uc Woiuc`s cuiiion STC 5085) calls ihc ialc Thc Talc ol Chaucci" alovc
ihc iniiouucioiy wooucui, anu Chauccis Talc ol Mclilcus" lcncaih ii. Running hcaucis
on cvciy agc call ii Thc Talc ol Chaucci." Pynson`s cuiiion STC 5086) calls ii simly
Thc Talc ol Chaucci." Thynnc`s icxi iinicu ly Richaiu Gialion loi William Bonham
STC 5069) iiilcs ihc ialc Chauccis Talc ol Mclilcus," again wiih ihc iunning iiilc Thc
Talc ol Chaucci." Thcsc cuiiions wcic consulicu on EEBO. Thc Univcisiiy ol Oicgon coy
ol Siow incluucs ihis lisi ol ialcs on 3 i anu v, ihc Univcisiiy ol Oicgon coy ol Scghi,
ai c 3 i. Ai ihc hcau ol ihc icxi iiscll, howcvci, ihc ialc is iiilcu Chauccis Talc ol Mclilcus"
Siow, lolio lxxi iccio, Scghi, lolio 125 iccio). Scghi coniinucs: Piuucncc, ihc uiscicci
wilc ol Mclilcus, cisuaucih hci huslanu io aiicncc, anu io icccivc his Encmics io mcicy
anu giacc. A Talc lull ol Moialiiy, whcicin loih high anu low may lcain io govcin ihcii
allcciions." Whilc ihc hcauci in loih cuiiions changcs ihc iiilc liom ihc simlc Talc ol
Chaucci," ihc ialc`s iunning iiilc uocs noi changc, icmaining ai ihc io ol cvciy agc Thc
Talc ol Chaucci" anu iciaining ihc conym, uniquc among ihc oihci Canterbury Tales loi
caiiying Chaucci`s namc.
79. Thc ialc Chaucci iclls ol Mclilcc anu Piuucncc is callcu, noi Chauccis Talc" uniil
Uiiy`s 1721 cuiiion, which uscs Chauccis Talc" as iis iunning hcauing), lui Thc Talc
ol Chaucci" Tyiwhiii`s 1775 quaiio cuiiion hisi uscs Thc Talc ol Mclilcc" as consisicni
iiilc). WynIyn uc Woiuc 1498, STC 5085) calls Thoas, along wiih Mclilcc, a Talc ol
360 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 360 5/7/07 11:28:10 AM
oci icau in iclaiion io ihc hguic ol living laihci Chaucci, csccially in
Sccu`s momcnious ialisman," maIc Thc Talc ol Mclilcc inio Chaucci`s
auihcniic voicc.
S0
Thc conymous Talc ol Chaucci caiiics ihc wcighi ol
English liiciaiy hisioiy wiih which ihc sixiccnih-ccniuiy lolio iiauiiion
hau invcsicu ihc oci.
S1
Rcau in conccii wiih living laihci Chaucci, ihc
ialc so iiilcu maIcs his voicc scaI mosi uiamaiically liom ihc looI. Such
a icauing maIcs Thc Talc ol Mclilcc, wiih iis uiama ol uigcni counscl, a
soIcsialc" loi living laihci Chaucci.
Thc Talc ol Mclilcc has insiicu ciiiical uiscussion ihai icaus iis cihi-
cal imoii, oiiiaycu as lcmininc cloqucncc mcciing uangcious aiiiai-
chal wiaih, alicinaicly as liilliani anu scnicniious.
S2
Piuucncc laloiiously
guiucs hci huslanu, Mclilcc, io usc cacclul ncgoiiaiion iaihci ihan
aimcu conuici io sciilc ihc liacas ciciiaicu ly ihic ol his oluc locs."
SS

In hci waiiishing" l. 1277) ol Mclilcc`s ialcni" l. 1251, ucsiic) loi
Chaucci," ihus maIing uoully aaicni ihc Canterbury Tales liamc naiiaiivc as wcll as a liv-
ing" Chaucci. Dc Woiuc`s cuiiion also iinis iucniical wooucui illusiiaiions loi loih ialcs
ol Chaucci" consulicu onlinc ihiough EEBO; Uiiy`s anu Tyiwhiii`s cuiiions ihiough ihc
couiicsy ol ihc Univcisiiy ol Oicgon Sccial Collcciions ]SCA Raic BooIs PR 1850.1721
anu PR 1866.T8 vols. 1-4|).
80. Thc linIs lciwccn ihcsc iwo Tales has iomicu a laii amouni ol analysis, scc csc-
cially Scih Icici, Now holuc youic mouih`: Thc Romancc ol Oialiiy in ihc Thopas-Melibee
Scciion ol ihc Canterbury Tales," in Oral Poetics in Middle English Poetry, cu. MaiI C. Amouio
Ncw YoiI: Gailanu, 1994), . 181-205, ihc ihcsis ol which-ihc iosc naiuic ol Thc Talc
ol Mclilcc signals a comlcxiiy anu cihic alscni liom ihc iomancc ociiy ol Thc Talc ol
Sii Thoas-has an cllcci on ihc cuiicni cssay`s icauing ol Mclilcc`s imoii.
81. Suigcon, 500 Years, I, 114-59: Holinshcu lauus Chaucci who, ihiough his anu
Gowci`s) uiligcni inuusiiy" has mauc iichc anu lcniilull" ihc laiicync, iuuc, anu un-
cilcci" languagc ol English so ihai ii can cxicssc ihai which ihc minuc conccyvcu" .
114), Thomas Nashc commcnis, Aii, liIc yong giassc in ihc siing ol Chaucci`s uoiishing,
was glauc io ccc v ihiough any slimc ol coiiuiion" . 136). Thc gaiucn mciahoi,
assuiculy iovcilial, gcsiuics iowaius loison anu gcnciaiion.
82. Scc ]uuiih Icisici, Fictions of Advice: The Literature and Politics of Counsel in Late Medieval
England Philauclhia: Pcnn Univ. Picss, 1996), . 91-107, noiing ihc ialc`s siiong con-
ncciion io Chaucci himscll lccausc his chaiacici iclls ihc ialc . 92), ]ohn Buiiow, Thc
Thiiu Eyc ol Piuucncc," in Medieval Futures: Attitudes to the Future in the Middle Ages, cu. ]ohn
Buiiow anu Ian P. Wci Camliiugc: Boyucll anu Bicwci, 2000), . 37-48, on ihc ialc`s
oulaiiiy in ihc laic Miuulc Agcs . 45), Caiolyn P. Collciic, Chaucci anu ihc Iicnch
Tiauiiion Rcvisiicu: Philic uc Mzicics anu ihc Goou Wilc," in Medieval Women: Text and
Contexts in Late Medieval Britain: Essays for Felicity Riddy, cu. ]occlyn Wogan-Biownc, Rosalynn
Voaucn, Ailyn Diamonu, Ann Huichison, Caiol Mcalc, anu Icslcy ]ohnson Tuinhoui:
Bicols, 2000), . 151-68, giving a ncw souicc loi ihc ialc, Danicl Kcmion, Chaucci`s
Talc ol Mclilcc: A Iiicl Thyng in Piosc,`" Genre, 21 1988), 263-78, looIing ai ihc scnicn-
iious anu uomcsiic comcuy" . 272), anu Elizalcih Iunz, Chaucci`s Piuucncc as ihc
Iucal ol ihc Viiiuous Woman," Essays in Literature, 4 1977), 3-10, maIing Piuucncc inio
a hguic ol auvicc liIc Iauy Philosohy in Bocihius`s Consolation.
83. The Riverside Chaucer, 3u cu., gcn. cu. Iaiiy D. Bcnson Bosion: Houghion Miluin,
1987), . 217-39, VII, l. 970. All sulscqucni iclcicnccs io ihc ialc will lc iaIcn liom ihis
cuiiion anu ciicu ly linc numlcis.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 361
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 361 5/7/07 11:28:10 AM
vcngcancc, Piuucncc musi hisi uisosc ol hci huslanu`s ol|cciions io
changing his oinion, moic imoiianily, shc musi |usiily hci oinion ihai
hc aiiiculaily nccus io lisicn io womcn`s counscl ll. 1064-1111). Oncc
hci swccic woiucs" l. 1114) havc convinccu him io lisicn io hci auvicc,
Piuucncc anaiomizcs lau uccisions mauc ihiough angci, covciousncss,
oi hasic ll. 1122-36), coniinuing io quoic innumciallc auihoiiiics,
incluuing Cassiouoius l. 1194), Pcici Alhonsus l. 1218), anu Si. Paul
l. 1291). Hci auvicc io choosc lcw lui wisc counsclois ll. 1069, 1162)
loils uown io lccoming Mclilcc`s solc auvisoi ll. 1724-25). Piuucncc
cllccis Mclilcc`s icconciliaiion wiih his cncmics ll. 1815-25, 1875-88)
alici ialIing him oui ol a hnal vcngclul loy: io cxilc anu uisinhciii ihcm
l. 1825). Piuucncc convinccs hci huslanu, Mclilcc, io valuc his lamily`s
coniinuiiy ovci all clsc: io icconcilc wiih his cncmics, io maIc cacc:
Whcicloic I iay you, lai mcicy lccn in youic hciic, / io ih`cllcci anu
cnicnic ihai Gou Almighiy havc mcicy on yow in his lasic |uggcmcni" ll.
1867-68). Mclilcc acccucs io Piuucncc`s lca againsi vcngcancc anu, ly
icvcniing wai, insuics his lamily`s coniinuiiy.
Chaucci`s auihcniiciiy anu voicc, |oincu in Thc Talc ol Chaucci, ihus
iucniily Chaucci wiih a lcmalc ihcioi, Mclilcc`s wilc, Piuucncc.
S4
Moic
imoiianily, Chaucci`s voicc in his ialc iucniihcs his aiiiiuuc wiih ihc ialc`s
acihsi ihcmc. Thc ialc`s animaicu, auihcniic ihcioiic iings wiih iiuih
aimcu ai monaichs. Moicovci, io iucniily Chaucci wiih ihc lcmalc Piu-
ucncc-io comlicaic gcnuci-moic lully conucmns aiiiaichal wiaih
anu lamcnis iis ncgaiivc cllcci on ihc cniiic oliiy. An animaicu Chaucci
iclling ihis ialc, in ihc conicxi ol ciiicxis anu ioiouiamas ihai liing
aiiisiic anu liicial gcnciaiion alivc, lcscaIs auihcniiciiy |oincu io a aci-
hsi cihic. To iucniily Chaucci wiih Piuucncc, who scaIs iiuih io owci
in scivicc io hci uaughici, amlivalcnily gcnucis Chaucci`s laihcily living
voicc io conicsi auihoiiiaiian iulcishi anu iis incicascu ccnsoishi ol
iini anu aii.
Yci, oncc hc acccis Piuucncc`s counscl, Mclilcc`s closing woius aiguc
loi mcicy anu loigivcncss:
Whciloic I icccyvc yow io my giacc / anu loiycvc yow ouiicly allc ihc ol-
lcnscs, in|uiics, anu wiongcs ihai yc havc uoon agayn mc anu mync, / io
ihis cllcci anu io ihis cnuc, ihai Gou ol his cnuclccs mcicy / wolc ai ihc
iymc ol ouic uiyngc loiycvcn us ouic gliics ihai wc han iicsasscu io hym
84. Daviu Wallacc, Chaucerian Polity: Absolutist Lineages and Associational Forms in England
and Italy Sianloiu: Sianloiu Univ. Picss, 1997), . 212-46, uiaws a aiallcl lciwccn ihc
liiciaiy Piuucncc anu ihc hisioiical Annc ol Bohcmia, wilc io Richaiu II. In Wallacc`s ac-
couni, Piuucncc`s icconciliaioiy siiaicgics maich Annc`s in ihcii ucsiic io auvisc vcngclul
huslanus. Thus a hciional chaiacici auumliaics a hisioiical onc, noiing loih ucsiic, anu
lailuic, io mollily masculinc wiaih.
362 Bishop
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 362 5/7/07 11:28:11 AM
in ihis wiccchcu woilu. / Ioi uouiclccs, il wc lc soiy anu iccniani ol ihc
synncs anu gilics which wc hau iicsasscu in ihc sighic ol ouic Ioiu Gou,
/ hc is so licc anu so mciciallc / ihai hc wolc loycvcn us ouic gilics / anu
liyngcn us io ihc llissc ihai ncvcic haih cnuc. ll. 1882-88)
Mclilcc acccucs io Piuucncc`s-Chaucci`s-counscl. Scghi`s cuiiion
ol Chaucci, csccially ihc Sccu wooucui, consiiucis Chaucci`s voicc io
sounu ihis uigcni lca. Thc mcssagc ol icconciliaiion woiIs as lai as ihc
Tuuoi/Siuaii aniiaihy is conccincu, lui ii uocs liiilc io shili ihc icgimc
ol ccnsoishi anu auihoiiiaiianism io which Chaucci`s icaucis havc lc-
comc inuicu in ihc couisc ol ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy. Inuccu, ihc scconu
iun ol Scghi`s cuiiion in 1602, whilc ii iciains ihc momcnious ialisman,"
uios ihc cngiaving ihai iciuics ihc Tuuoi uynasiy`s lamily cuigicc.
Evcn Chaucci himscll iciiics: only iwicc, in 1602 anu 1687, is Scghi`s
lolio cuiiion, oi any comlcic Chaucci, iinicu in ihc scvcniccnih ccn-
iuiy. Thc lolio canon coniinucs in 1721, iis uiosc much changcu io
cclcliaic a ucau oci whosc ioml ihc iiilc agc iciuics.
As ]ohn Hincs has noicu, mouciniiy iiaucs on oosiiion lciwccn ihc
maiciial woilu anu ihc icalm ol languagc anu iucas.
S
Sixiccnih-ccniuiy
lolio cuiiions ol Chaucci, lully immciscu in Tuuoi oliiics, hcl io cicaic
ihis aniiaihy, lui cvcn in ihcii culminaiing momcni-Scghi`s cuiiion ol
1598, wiih Sccu`s momcnious ialisman-Scghi invcsis his auihoi wiih
laihcihoou anu lilc io comlai noi only ihc commouihcaiion ol iini lui
ihc ciccing scuuciion ol auihoiiiaiianism, cncmy ol aii. Iiving Chaucci
loscs ihc hghi, his acihsi ialc icnamcu, his ioml ihc lioniisiccc loi
Uiiy`s cighiccnih-ccniuiy lolio cuiiion ol his woiIs-mouciniiy`s answci
io Sccu`s living laihci Chaucci.
S6
85. Hincs, Voices in the Past, . 138.
86. I am lcascu io acInowlcugc ihc gicai hcl I havc icccivcu in icvising ihis cssay liom
Maiiha Diivci, Iisa IicinIcl, anu Kaihiyn Iynch, anu liom Ioii Ncwcoml, onc ol ihc
icaucis loi JEGP.
Father Chaucer and the Vivication of Print 363
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 363 5/7/07 11:28:11 AM
]ouinal ol English anu Gcimanic Philology-]uly
2007 ly ihc Boaiu ol Tiusiccs ol ihc Univcisiiy ol Illinois
BooI Rcvicws
A Companion to the Works of Hartmann von Aue. Euiicu ly Iiancis G. Gcn-
iiy. Siuuics in Gciman Iiiciaiuic, Iinguisiics, anu Culiuic. Euiicu ly ]amcs
Haiuin. Woouliiugc, UK, anu Rochcsici, NY: Boyucll anu Bicwci, 2005. P.
vii + 291, 5 illusiiaiions. S95.
This collcciion ol iwclvc cssays incluuing an iniiouucioiy iccc ly ihc cuiioi)
will iovc cmincnily valuallc io a iangc ol uillcicni icaucis, liom vcician Haii-
mann ahcionauos, io luuuing siuucnis, io gcncial icaucis ol mcuicval liiciaiuic.
Inuccu, ihis is ihc siaicu mission ol ihc Camucn Housc Comanion sciics which
io uaic is icicscnicu ly iwcniy-scvcn volumcs). Thc imosing iosici ol scholais
icicscnicu in ihc icscni volumc imaiis a swccing vaiiciy ol ciscciivcs on
Haiimann`s ocuvic. Moicovci, ihc laci ihai ihcy hail liom ihc Uniicu Siaics,
Canaua, Gcimany, anu ihc Uniicu Kinguom mcans ihai ihosc ciscciivcs aic
inloimcu ly somcwhai uillciing culiuial anu ciiiical iiauiiions. Cciiain ol ihcsc
scholais wiiic liom ihc vaniagc ol csiallishcu icuiaiions, whilc oihcis aic ncwci
io ihc iolcssion. Each ol ihc iwclvc coniiiluiions-which iangc liom sciuu-
lously iiauiiional io somcwhai iuiosynciaiic in ihcii locus-is signihcani in iis
own iighi, anu ihis volumc ollcis much ihai is lamiliai anu somc ihai is ncw.
Such, uliimaicly, is ihc naiuic ol any collaloiaiivc woiI inicnucu io scivc as a
comanion" io ihc woiIs ol a givcn auihoi. Anu, inuccu, wiih ihc cxicnsivc
lilliogiahics accomanying cach cssay anu wiih a moic comichcnsivc, il noi
aliogcihci cxhausiivc, lilliogiahy ai ihc cnu, ihis looI will also aci as a siing-
loaiu loi luiihci inquiiy inio Haiimann`s louy ol woiI.
In his iniiouucioiy chaici, Iiancis Gcniiy scis ihc aiamcicis loi ihc icsi ol
ihc volumc. Eaily on, hc iclcis io Haiimann as ihis mosi iolihc anu inicicsiing
mcuicval Gciman oci" . 1). Highly iolihc, ycs, lui mosi inicicsiing, haiuly-ai
lcasi noi in ihc asscssmcni ol mosi icaucis. In laci, Gcniiy conccucs ihai, in ihc
woius ol Mauiicc O`C. Walshc, moucin icaucis icnu moic io lc icmciamcn-
ially uiawn" . 1) io onc oi ihc oihci ol Haiimann`s cclcliaicu conicmoiaiics,
Goiiliicu von Siiassluig anu Wolliam von Eschcnlach. In ihc hisi ol ihc aciual
cssays, Haiimann`s Thcological Milicu," IianI Tolin uocumcnis ihc ways in which
Haiimann`s icligious vicwoinis aic inloimcu chicuy ly Augusiinian ihoughi, in
iis vaiious loims. In ihcsc shoii clcvcn agcs a liicl looI" ]. 18| ai Haiimann`s
ihcology), Tolin can uo liiilc moic ihan sIcich oui ihc lioau ouilincs ol Haiimann`s
ihcological Weltanschauung, lui hc uocs so succincily anu cicuilly, locusing his ai-
icniion chicuy on Erec, Gregorius, anu Armer Heinrich. Whilc ihc sccialisi icauci will
lc lcli wishing loi amlihcaiion ol somc ol ihc issucs iaiscu, ihis chaici cciiainly
scivcs as a hnc synosis ol ihc ioic. Will Hasiy Haiimann von Auc as Iyiicisi")
ollcis cxicnsivc commcniaiics on ihiiiccn ol Haiimann`s lovc songs anu on his ihicc
ciusauing songs. Sincc Hasiy has wiscly choscn ihc mosi iomincni ol ihc ocms,
ihc icsuli is a soliu anu uisccining iniiouuciion io Haiimann`s lyiical coius.
Haiimann von Auc anu Chiiicn uc Tioycs: Rcscciivc Aioachcs io ihc
Maiici ol Biiiain" ly Alois Woll is a uciailcu anu ioling |uxiaosiiion ol Haii-
mann`s iwo Aiihuiian iomanccs, Erec anu Iwein, againsi ihcii icscciivc souiccs ly
Chiiicn uc Tioycs. Woll gocs wcll lcyonu ihc lioau-lascu oinis ol comaiison
iiauiiionally ciicu, anu ollcis, aiiiculaily in his siuuy ol ihc iwo Iwcin vcisions, a
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 364 5/7/07 11:28:11 AM
caiclully nuanccu anu insighilul asscssmcni ol Haiimann`s in|cciions ol his own
lianu ol oiiginaliiy anu licsh naiiaiivc uaii. Woll`s commcnis on Iwein anu on
Haiimann`s inlusions ol sychological ucih inio ihai naiiaiivc) aic csccially
illuminaiing in lighi ol ihc laci ihai hcic ihc Gciman oci holus much moic
closcly io his Iicnch souicc ihan hc uocs in his cailici Eicc auaiaiion. On ihc
oihci hanu, in Woll`s cxaminaiion ol Erec, I woulu havc wclcomcu a gicaici locus
on ihc maiIculy siiongci naiiaiivc voicc in Haiimann`s woiI, cihas somc mcn-
iion ol ihc lai moic cioiically chaigcu lovc sccnc in Chiiicn`s oiiginal a lcaiuic
ihai Haiimann, in vv. 3013-22, signihcanily ioncs uown), anu somc iclcicncc
io ihc icsumally vciy uillcicni cxcciaiions ol Haiimann`s Gciman auuicnccs,
loi whom Erec was ihc hisi lull-ucugcu Aiihuiian ialc.
In a chaici cniiilcu Gcnuci anu Iovc in ihc Eic Romanccs ol Haiimann
von Auc," Alcxanuia S. Hcllcnlianu cxamincs ihc moucs in which Haiimann
ncgoiiaics, in Erec anu Iwein, ihc ioci iolcs anu iclaiionshis lciwccn malc
anu lcmalc chaiacicis, as sccn ihiough ihc iism ol lovc. Paiiiculaily asiuic aic
ihc auihoi`s iuminaiions on ihc ihcmc ol cniiamcni in Iwein, which is lai anu
away ihc moic challcnging ol ihc iwo iomanccs. In onc ol ihc shoiici, lui mosi
ihoughi-iovoIing cssays, Thc Two-Iolu Paih: Eicc anu Eniic on ihc Roau io
Wisuom," Gcniiy aigucs-anu hc siiuaics ihis aigumcni in ihc hisioiical conicxi
ol laic iwcllih-ccniuiy Gcimany-ihai Haiimann iogiammaiically conicmlaics
in Erec ihc ical-lilc icsonsililiiics ol ihosc ucsiincu io iulc. Whai is cihas mosi
salicni hcic is Gcniiy`s noiion ihai Eniic, in auuiiion io ihc malc ioiagonisi Eicc,
musi lcain ihc icsonsililiiics ol hci siaius in couiily sociciy" . 101). No lcss
iniiiguing is Gcniiy`s iiacing lacI io ihc Invcsiiiuic Conicsi ol 1076 Haiimann`s
concciion ihai a mcuicval iulci musi consianily iovc his usclulncss," his hi-
ncss io iulc" . 100).
Thc Bouy in Pain in ihc WoiIs ol Haiimann von Auc" ly Scoii PinciIowsIi
is casily ihc mosi ccccniiic cssay in ihis collcciion. In a soii ol iyology ol ain,
ihc auihoi uisiinguishcs lciwccn, on ihc onc hanu, ihc iwo Aiihuiian iomanccs
anu, on ihc oihci, Gregorius anu Armer Heinrich. Along ihc way, somc singulai
insighis cmcigc conccining ihc moucs in which Haiimann wcavcs inio his ialcs
such ihcmcs as sioicism, social siaius, gcnuci uillcicncc, cmowcimcni, ihc ui-
choiomy ol louy anu soul, anu cvcn ihc imitatio Christi iiauiiion ihai was uoui-
ishing ihioughoui Euioc in ihc iwcllih ccniuiy" . 109). Whilc I hnu cciiain
ol PinciIowsIi`s olscivaiions conccining ihc scxualiiy ol ain io lc lainly ovci-
wioughi uiu Haiimann, in ihc sccnc whcic ihc suiciual Eniic is aloui io ihiow
hciscll onio Eicc`s swoiu, ically inicnu ihai swoiu io icicscni a hallic symlol
ol social coniiol anu ain" ]. 114|.), noncihclcss ihis chaici mosi cciiainly
ollcis somc iniiiguing icucciions on a ioic noimally ouisiuc ol convcniional
Haiimann scholaishi.
Mcliiia Wciss Auamson`s cssay, Illncss anu Cuic in Haiimann von Auc`s Armer
Heinrich anu Iwein," auuicsscs ihc qucsiion: how wcll vciscu was Haiimann in ihc
ihcoiy anu iaciicc ol mcuicval mcuicinc. Auamson icscnis hcic an alsoiling
sIcich ol ihc hisioiy ol lciosy, as ucicicu in ihc Billc, in aniiquiiy anu in ihc
Miuulc Agcs. Shc also iiaccs mcuicval aiiiiuucs iowaiu mcnial illncss, uncovciing
along ihc way icmaiIallc aiallcls" . 136) lciwccn Iwein anu ihc ciiincni
mcuical icxis ol ihc uay. Whilc Auamson noics ihai Haiimann`s own naiiaiivc
consiuciaiions incviially iaIc icccucncc ovci ihc aiiiculais ol conicmoiaiy
mcuical lclicl, ihc oci`s iicaimcni ol ihcsc sul|ccis ncvci aciually coniiauicis
ihc ical-lilc mcuical iaciicc ol ihc iimc . 138). In Haiimann`s Icgcnus anu
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00.i-iv,277-416.indd 365 5/7/07 11:28:12 AM
ihc Billc," Biian Muiuoch invcsiigaics ihc sccihc Billical assagcs ihai inloim
Gregorius anu Armer Heinrich. Mosi noially, hc cxamincs ihc moucs in which loih
woiIs ccho conicmoiaiy, mcuicval ihcological ihinIing. Boih ialcs, Muiuoch
convincingly assciis, aim io ioviuc cniciiainmcni anu insiiuciion, yci a Inow-
lcugc ol mcuicval lillical hcimcncuiics ]is| icquiicu loi ihc lull icauing" .
156) ol Gregorius anu Armer Heinrich.
]amcs A. Rushing ]i.`s cxaminaiion ol Haiimann`s WoiIs in ihc Visual Aiis"
casis a uisccining cyc ai loih ihc lamiliai ihc Iwcin muials ai Roucncgg anu
ihc oiiiayals ol Haiimann in ihc Mancssc anu Wcingaiinci manusciiis) anu
ihc lcss commonly Inown visual uciciions ol Haiimann anu his ialcs. Siuucnis
will liIcly lcnchi moic liom ihc loimci, whilc cvcn ihc sccialisi can lcain liom
Rushing`s commcniaiics on, loi insiancc, ihc Eicc ciown ai KiaIw, oi ihc Mal-
icici cmlioiuciy anu ihc RunIclsicin Iwcin muials, oi ihc laic-mcuicval minia-
iuics anu wooucuis ihai illusiiaic Gregorius. A ihicau common io ihc uciciions
ol Haiimann`s naiiaiivcs is, as Rushing uocumcnis, a gicaici oi lcssci ucgicc ol
inuccnucncc liom ihc canonical icxi]s|" . 175).
In onc ol ihis collcciion`s mosi iovocaiivc cssays, W. H. ]acIson, in Thc Mcui-
cval Iiiciaiy Rccciion ol Haiimann`s WoiIs," auuicsscs onc ol ihc unanswcicu
liiciaiy qucsiions ol ihc Gciman High Miuulc Agcs: which sioiics in laci lounu
ihc gicaicsi icsonancc among ihc nollc auuicnccs ol ihai agc. Anu ly whai cii-
iciia lcyonu ihc convcniional, lui ai iimcs simlisiic yaiusiicI ol manusciii
iiansmission) can wc hoc io ucvisc anu asscss oui icsonscs io ihai qucsiion.
]acIson casis his ncis wiucly in oiuci io collaic an aiiay ol cviucncc ihai noi only
sans ihc icmaining ccniuiics ol ihc Miuulc Agcs lui also ciosscs gcnic lincs in
iiacing cchocs ol Haiimann`s cniiic ocuvic. Incxoially, ]acIson musi ucal wiih
ihc manusciii iiauiiion ol ihc vaiious woiIs. Yci hc also uigs moic uccly io
uncaiih vaiious icsonanccs ol Haiimann in ihc wiiiings ol oihci Gciman ocis
ol ihc Miuulc Agcs-lcginning wiih Goiiliicu`s liiciaiy cxcuisus in Tristan, which
]acIson uuls ihc hisi vcinaculai liiciaiy icvicw" . 189) anu in which Haiimann
hisi achicvcs canonical siaius.
In ihc concluuing cssay, A Talc ol Saciihcc anu Iovc: Iiiciaiy Way Siaiions ol
ihc Arme Heinrich liom ihc Bioihcis Giimm io TanIicu Doisi," Ruuigci Kiohn
cxloics ihc osimcuicval iicaimcnis ol Armer Heinrich. Bcginning wiih an ac-
couni ol Gocihc`s icoiicu avcision io ihc ialc anu iogicssing ihiough Doisi`s
suiicalisiic 1996 lay Die Legende vom armen Heinrich, Kiohn cxamincs a lioau
assoiimcni ol auihois who havc iccasi ihc sioiy, invaiially in ways ihai icucci ihc
oliiical, acsihciic, mcuicinal incluuing sychoanalyiical), anu icligious uynamics
ol ihcii own agcs iaihci ihan ihosc ol Haiimann`s iimc. Along ihc way, Kiohn
cxloics ihc icwoiIings ly such noicu wiiicis as ihc Giimm lioihcis, Hcniy
Wauswoiih Ionglcllow, Auallcii von Chamisso, Danic Galiicl Rossciii, Gcihaiu
Hauimann, anu Ricaiua Huch-along wiih a hosi ol lcssci-Inown auihois. In
auuiiion, Kiohn uocumcnis ihc cnuuiing inuucncc cxciicu ly Richaiu Wagnci
on cciiain auaiois liom ihc laic ninciccnih anu caily iwcniicih ccniuiics. In
ihc hnal agcs ol his cssay, Kiohn ucvoics his mosi cxhausiivc aiicniion io ihc
challcnging lui iniiiguingly innovaiivc iccasiing ly Doisi.
Thcsc iwclvc cssays aic conccivcu as inuccnucni icccs ihai can lc icau in any
oiuci, as ihcic is no aaicni ovciall schcmc uiciaiing ihcii scqucncc. Noi nccu
ihcic lc any such aiiangcmcni, sincc ihis volumc is hisi anu loicmosi, as noicu,
a comanion," almosi a soii ol iclcicncc woiI ihai can liuiilully lc consulicu ly
icaucis wishing io cxloic a aiiiculai lcaiuic ol Haiimann`s muliilaccicu coius.
366 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 366 5/7/07 11:28:12 AM
Gcniiy iclaccs ihc collcciion ly noiing, wiih aaicni uismay, ihai among icaucis
ol mcuicval liiciaiuic Haiimann is aumiicu, uccmcu woiihy ol cmulaiion, lui
is |usi noi ]consiucicu| vciy cxciiing" . 6). Evcn il ihis cngaging anu inloima-
iivc Ialciuoscoc ol aiiiclcs wcic io achicvc noihing moic ihan io uiscl such a
lamcniallc clich-anu ii will suicly uo ihai anu moic-ihcn ii will alicauy havc
accomlishcu a lauuallc amliiion.
Michael Resler
Boston College
Trial by Fire and Battle in Medieval German Literature. By VicIic I. Zicglci.
Siuuics in Gciman Iiiciaiuic, Iinguisiics, anu Culiuic. Rochcsici, NY: Cam-
ucn Housc, 2004. P. xii + 234. S75.
In Trial by Fire and Battle in Medieval German Literature, VicIic I. Zicglci cxamincs
mcuicval |uuicial oiucals in sclccicu woiIs liom ihc liiciaiy iiauiiion ol ihc Gci-
man Miuulc Agcs. As noicu in ihc iclacc, liiciaiy icxis olicn ioviuc valuallc
cviucncc icgaiuing conicmoiancous unucisianuing ol lcgal issucs, ihc iaciical
alicaiion ol law, anu a givcn mcuicval auihoi`s ciscciivc on |uiiuical mai-
icis.
Wiih Inowlcugc ol ihc nuanccs ol law anu ihc imoii ol lcgal languagc, icaucis
can glcan ncw icxiual insighis, anu Zicglci ioviucs ihc icquisiic lacIgiounu in
hci iniiouuciion . 1-19), which uchncs Icy conccis, such as iool, oiucal,
inqucsi, anu oaih. Pciiincni io hci siuuy is ihc uisiinciion lciwccn ihc unilaicial
anu lilaicial oiucal, cxamlcs ol which aic iiial ly hic anu iiial ly laiilc, icscc-
iivcly. Thc loimci iclics uon uivinc inicivcniion whcicas ihc laiici uocs noi.
Piohiliiions csiallishcu ly ihc Iouiih Iaician Council in 1215 anu incicascu
ucmanu loi icscniaiion ol iaiional iools icsulicu in ihc waning ol ihc iiauiiion
ol iiial ly hic alicauy in ihc miu-ihiiiccnih ccniuiy, lui iiial ly laiilc coniinucu
inio ihc hliccnih. Signihcani as wcll loi Zicglci`s analyscs is ihc iclaiionshi lc-
iwccn ihc law anu magic, mosi cviucni in ihc swcaiing ol oaihs uon iclics anu
ihc ncccssiiy ol ioci hiasing ol oaihs in gcncial.
Coniiaiy io ihc iiilc ol ihc looI, aiicniion is uiiccicu hisi io iiials ly laiilc.
Chaici 1, ihc longcsi in ihc siuuy, iicais such oiucals in ihc conicxi ol ihc lc-
iiayal ol Rolanu anu ihc iicason commiiicu ly Ganclon in ihicc Chailcmagnc
cics: Piicsi Koniau`s Rolandslied, Dci SiiicIci`s Karl der Grosse, anu ihc anonymous
Karlmeinet. Thc chaici iiilc iucniihcs only ihc laiici iwo woiIs, lui a comaii-
son ol ihc icxi ly Dci SiiicIci wiih ihai ly Piicsi Koniau inloims much ol ihc
uiscussion. Thc comaiison is iclaccu ly a liicl sIcich ol ihc iiansloimaiion
ol ihc iulc ol law liom Caiolingian iimcs ihiough ihc iulc ol ihc Salian IianIs.
Thc Rolandslied, hagiogiahic in ionc, ollcis ihc cailicsi Gciman liiciaiy con-
ncciion lciwccn ihc Chailcmagnc maiciial anu ihc ihcmc ol iicason. Ii is moic
consisicni wiih ihc ccclcsiasiical iiauiiion ol ihc Karlsepik, whcicas Dci SiiicIci`s
Karl der Grosse cmhasizcs ihc imciial onc. Zicglci aigucs ihai Dci SiiicIci ic-
|ccis ihc iuca ol cisonal |usiicc anu oiiiays Gcnclun`s muiuci ol Rolanu as a
ciimc againsi sociciy iaihci ihan as a cisonal vcnuciia, Gcnclun`s ucaih anu his
lamily`s uishonoi aic ncccssaiy conscqucnccs il ihc iimacy ol Kail`s iulc anu ihc
csiallishcu social anu oliiical oiuci is io lc mainiaincu. In ihc scconu hall ol
ihc chaici, ihc icxis ol Piicsi Koniau anu Dci SiiicIci, ciica 1172 anu 1215-30,
icscciivcly, aic |uxiaoscu wiih ihc Karlmeinet, which uaics liom ihc hisi hall ol
ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy. Euiocan uilanizaiion anu |uuicial changcs scivc as ihc
Book Reviews 367
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 367 5/7/07 11:28:12 AM
caialysis loi sulsianiial liiciaiy uillcicnccs: ihc lcuu iiscll is noi mcniioncu in ihc
caiuic anu iiial sccncs, Dcuciich Diciiich) acais as an unInighicu nollc
noi iclaicu io Rolanu anu ihus in a moic acaling lighi io an uilan auuicncc,
anu Wcllis Gcnclun) shows icmoisc loi his aciions, an cxamlc ol ihc incicascu
cmhasis on cniicncc in ihc icxi.
Chaici 2 shilis locus liom ihc cic io ihc iomancc wiih iis chaiaciciizaiion
ol ihc oiucals ol Tiisian anu Isoluc: ihc laiilc wiih Moiolu ol ihc loimci anu ihc
oiucal ly hic ol ihc laiici. As a iclacc io hci uiscussion ol ihc iwo cisoucs in
Goiiliicu`s Tristan, Zicglci noics uisiinciions lciwccn ihc iiauiiions ol ihc maic-
iial: ihc couiily milicu ol Thomas ol Biiiain sianus in coniiasi io ihc |onglcui
aimoshcic inhcicni in ihc iicaimcnis ly Eilhaii von Olcig anu Bioul. Shc
assciis ihai Goiiliicu`s osiiivc siancc iowaiu Tiisian is icuicaicu uon his lclicl
ihai ihc couiily hcio is uncquivocally in ihc iighi, lcgally anu moially. Thc iclaiivc
shoii shiili Isoluc`s oiucal icccivcs suggcsis a ciiiical aiiiiuuc on ihc aii ol ihc
clciic iowaiu ihc iiic. Goiiliicu`s oiiiayal ol cach ciicumsiancc may wcll icucci
conicmoiancous social vicwoinis-ihc accciancc ol iiial ly laiilc ly scculai
sociciy in gcncial anu ihc ncgaiivc oi ai lcsi amlivalcni lcclings icgaiuing oiucal
ly hic icvalcni in couiily anu inicllcciual ciiclcs.
Thc laic ol iwo hisioiical quccns, Richaiuis in ihc anonymous Kaiserchronik anu
Kunigunuc in Heinrich und Kunigunde ly Elcinanu von Eiluii, is ihc sul|cci ol
ihc ihiiu chaici. Thc oiucal ol ihc luining wax shiii cnuuicu ly Richaiuis in
ihc ninih ccniuiy hau lccn iccoiucu in ihc Rcichcnau chioniclc anu was wiucly
Inown ly ihc iimc ihc Kaiserchronik was wiiiicn in ihc 1140s oi 1150s. Hisioiio-
giahical iclcicnccs io Kunigunuc`s oiucal icuaiing Heinrich und Kunigunde,
cnncu aiounu 1220, aic noi cxiani. This lolsicis ihc ihcoiy ihai ihc cisouc was
incluucu in ihc lcgcnu io cnhancc hci sainily imagc-Kunigunuc hau lccn can-
onizcu in 1200, somc sixiy ycais alici hci ucaih. Dcsiic ihc amliguous auihcn-
iiciiy ol ihc quccn`s walIing on hoi lowshaics, ihc auihoi`s ucsciiiion miiiois
hisioiical accounis ol such iaciiccs ai ihc iimc. Elcinanu`s lamiliaiiiy wiih anu
icliancc on ihc Kaiserchronik sccms iolallc, lui Zicglci uocumcnis signihcani
uillcicnccs lciwccn ihc iwo icxis. Noncihclcss, in loih ihc uiuaciic uiosc iaIcs
icccucncc anu scivcs io iomoic ihc imagc ol a viigin monaich.
Thc liicl closing chaici lcgins wiih a iwo-agc uiscussion ol a laiilc-ol-ihc-
scxcs mre ly Dci SiiicIci. Das hcissc Eiscn," wiiiicn scvcial uccaucs alici ihc
Iouiih Iaician Council, aiouics ihc oiucal ly hic wiih iis mocIciy ol casanis,
ihc ioiagonisis in ihc naiiaiivc, anu ollcis hnal cviucncc ol ihc cvoluiion in ai-
iiiuuc iowaiu ihis iyc ol iiial. In hci concluuing icmaiIs, Zicglci osiis ihai ihc
loui icxis in which iiial ly hic lays a iolc ucmonsiiaic uisinicicsi in ihc oiucal
iiscll. Thc auihois` aiicniion lics clscwhcic: Goiiliicu iaciically glosscs ovci ihc
cvcni, ihc icuiaiions ol Richaiuis anu Kunigunuc ovcishauow ihc oicniial
scanual ol ihc oiucal, anu Dci SiiicIci`s ionguc-in-chccI aioach suggcsis ihai
iiial ly hic no longci cngagcs ihc imaginaiion oi assion ol his auuicncc. By
coniiasi, laic mcuicval auihois coniinuc io oiiiay icvalcni aiiiiuucs iowaiu ihc
law ihiough iiials ly laiilc, such sccncs also icucci conicmoiancous social anu
oliiical valucs c.g., ihc imoiiancc ol Chailcmagnc as iulci anu |uugc).
Thc volumc concluucs wiih scvcn acnuiccs ihai scivc io summaiizc ihc lois
ol ihc woiIs unuci uiscussion, ioviuc a iianslaiion ol ihc iwo liiclcsi icxis, oi
ollci a comaiison ol a Iaiin souicc wiih ihc Miuulc High Gciman cic .
175-97). Thcsc aic lollowcu ly an cxicnsivc lilliogiahy anu an inucx. Alihough
ihc iallc ol conicnis lisis ihc acnuiccs, a icminuci ol ihcii availaliliiy ai ihc
368 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 368 5/7/07 11:28:12 AM
lcginning ol ihc uiscussion ol cach icxi woulu havc lccn usclul. Mosi ol ihc
summaiics aic ioo long io incoioiaic inio ihc chaicis, lui ihc comaiison ol
aiallcl icxis acnuix 6), a mcic iwo agcs, coulu havc scivcu icaucis lciici
hau ii lccn iniciolaicu inio chaici 3, whcic ihc icxis aic uiscusscu.
Ai iimcs ihc annoiaiions sccm io ovciwhclm Zicglci`s icxi: ihc 281 noics io
chaici 1 comiisc moic ihan onc-ihiiu ol ihc agcs in ihc chaici. Such a sii-
uaiion is uilhculi io ciicumvcni whcn ihc sul|ccis ol a siuuy incluuc scholaily
hollyhoiscs liIc ihc Rolandslied anu Goiiliicu`s Tristan. Zicglci`s invcnioiy ol
ciiiicism on Goiiliicu`s ucsciiiion ol Isoluc`s oiucal anu hci iclcicncc io Rosc-
maiy Comliiugc`s iwo-hunuicu-agc monogiah on law in Tristan . 134-35)
cxcmlily ihis ciicumsiancc anu may causc icaucis io wonuci how much moic
can lc saiu on ihcsc ioics. Somc inloimaiion iclcgaicu io ihc noics mighi havc
lccn moic usclul in ihc louy ol ihc icxi c.g., looinoic 203 in chaici 1, which
ouilincs auuiiional aiallcls anu uivcigcnccs among ihc ihicc icxis). Howcvci,
icaucis wishing io uisuc iangcniially iclaicu iooi oi icxis will lcnchi signihcanily
liom ihc wcalih ol uciail ihc auihoi incluucs, anu ihosc wiih onomasiic inicicsis
will aicciaic hci commcniaiy on ihc lcgal termini technici.
Zicglci`s siuuy uiaws aiicniion io an cngaging, muliilaccicu ioos icvalcni in
sianuaiu Miuulc High Gciman icxis as wcll as in lcssci-Inown oncs. Thc caiclul
anu ihoiough cxaminaiion ol ucsciiiions ol iiials cnuuicu ly hisioiical anu
liiciaiy hciocs anu hcioincs, ihc analysis ol ihc lunciion ol ihc oiucals in ihcii
liiciaiy conicxi, anu csccially ihc comaiison ol ihc cisoucs yiclu ciscciivcs
woiihy ol coniinucu invcsiigaiion ly Gcimanisis.
Debra L. Stoudt
University of Toledo
Convent Chronicles: Women Writing about Women and Reform in the Late
Middle Ages. By Annc Winsion-Allcn. Univcisiiy PaiI, PA: Thc Pcnnsylvania
Siaic Univcisiiy Picss, 2004. P. xvii + 345 + 7 ill. + 1 ma. S55.
In ihc iclacc io hci looI, Annc Winsion-Allcn noics ihai Convent Chronicles is ihc
hisi siuuy io suivcy nuns` convcni chioniclcs anu hisioiical wiiiings collcciivcly
acioss oiucis anu icgions in ihc hliccnih anu caily sixiccnih ccniuiics" . xiii).
Thc ol|ccis ol hci siuuy aic ihc chioniclcs anu accounis wiiiicn ly lcmalc icloim
aciivisis, ihiough ihcm ihc auihoi sccIs io cxloic ihc uisiinciivc naiuic ol wom-
cn`s icligious anu liiciaiy aciiviiics ai a Icy momcni in loih ihc hisioiy ol Wcsicin
Chiisiianiiy anu ihc ongoing consiiuciion ol a hisioiy loi womcn" . 6).
Alici a icvicw ol icccni scholaishi aloui lilc in a lcmalc cloisici in Chaici
1 anu ihc nuns` own naiiaiivcs aloui ihcii livcs in a icligious communiiy, Win-
sion-Allcn cxamincs ihc changcs occuiiing in icligious communiiics liom ihc
ihiiiccnih io ihc sixiccnih ccniuiy as a icsuli ol ihc Olscivani movcmcni anu as
iclaicu in ihc lounuaiion hisioiics ol ihc icligious communiiics cha. 2). In suc-
cccuing chaicis, ihc auihoi iiaccs ihc sicau ol ihc Olscivani movcmcni as lcli
in hisihanu accounis ly womcn who iniiiaicu anu suoiicu ihc icloim cha. 3)
as wcll as ly ihosc who ooscu ii, csccially in ihcii icsisiancc io cnclosuic cha.
4). Thc hnal iwo chaicis ol ihc siuuy cxaminc ihc sciilal aciiviiy ol Olscivani
womcn`s convcnis cha. 5) anu ihc liiciaiy siiaicgics ol womcn icligious in ihc
cxicssion ol laic mcuicval iciy cha. 6). This concluuing chaici auuicsscs
ihc qucsiion ol ihc oliiical agcnuas ihc auihois ol chioniclcs mighi havc hau
anu ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn owci anu icxi iouuciion.
Book Reviews 369
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 369 5/7/07 11:28:13 AM
Thc souiccs cullcu loi ihc siuuy aic cxicnsivc, incluuing ihc sisici-looIs, chion-
iclcs, viiac, |ouinals, icloim accounis, ucvoiional woiIs, lciicis, anu lcgcnus liom
hliy-hvc lcmalc convcnis. Thcy aic iimaiily Augusiinian, Bcncuiciinc, Cisici-
cian, Claiissan, anu Dominican lounuaiions anu icach liom Picciz anu Rilniiz
in ihc noiih io Bcin anu Biixcn in ihc souih, liom Eiluii in ihc casi io Ghcni
in ihc wcsi. Also incluucu aic ihc communiiics ihai aiosc in ihc conicxi ol ihc
devotio moderna, ihai is, ihc Sisicis ol ihc Common Iilc. In ihc wiuc vaiiciy anu
gicai numlci ol uocumcnis, ihc lcmalc wiiicis icvcal ihcmsclvcs anu ihcii livcs
in icligious communiiics. Winsion-Allcn`s looI cxloics ihc icachcs ol ihcsc
lcmalc icauing anu wiiiing communiiics, ihcii cxicnsivc nciwoiIs, anu ihc uis-
scminaiion ol icligious liiciaiuic wiihin anu among ihcm. This incluucs ihcii
collcciion, iiansciiiion, anu icconsiiuciion ol scimons. Winsion-Allcn oinis
oui, loi cxamlc, ihai iwcniy-cighi scimons ly ]ohanncs Pauli wcic iiansciilcu
ly a Claiissan nun in ihc BicIcn cloisici in Villingcn, anu ihcic aic cxamlcs ol
simuliancous iiansciiiion . 191-92). In many insianccs womcn icconsiiucicu
scimons liom noics ihcy hau mauc, anu ihc auihoi concluucs ihai womcn, in
icconsiiuciing scimon icxis liom noics, lccamc co-auihois ol ihc scimons anu
assumcu malc iolcs" , 203).
Thc lasi chaici ol Convent Chronicles, cniiilcu Icmininiiy-in-Wiiiing," auuicsscs
ihc qucsiion ol a lcmalc voicc as cviucni, loi cxamlc, in monasiciy chioniclcs.
Winsion-Allcn oinis oui ihai chioniclcs wiiiicn ly womcn conccniiaic moic on
inicinal cvcnis anu on ihc siiiiualiiy ol ihc mcmlcis ihan uo similai chioniclcs ly
ihcii malc comaiiiois" . 219). This may lc so, lui anoihci lacioi iolally also
lays a signihcani iolc in ihc uillciing aioachcs io wiiiing in icligious communi-
iics. As noicu, ihc siuuy is commcnually lascu on a vciy laigc louy ol liiciaiuic
liom lcmalc icligious communiiics. Thcsc iangc liom ihc vcnciallc cloisicicu
monasiic oiuci ol ihc Bcncuiciincs io ihc moucin" mcnuicani oiucis, whosc
lcmalc mcmlcis wcic also cloisicicu, lui ihc siuuy also incluucs ihc liiciaiuic
ol ihc uncloisicicu anu uniolcsscu Sisicis ol ihc Common Iilc, somc ol whosc
communiiics cvcniually uiu auoi a iulc anu lccomc cncloscu. Whai all ihc com-
muniiics siuuicu havc in common is ihcii aiiiciaiion in ihc Olscivani icloim
movcmcni. Asiuc liom ihis, howcvci, ihc uillcicnccs in ihc uiosc, siiii, anu
iulc ol ihc vaiious oiucis aic noi auuicsscu, yci ihis may havc hau an cllcci on
ihc naiuic ol ihc liiciaiuic iouuccu ly ihcm. Ioi cxamlc, ihc Bcncuiciinc anu
Dominican oiucis wcic lounucu loi vciy uillcicni icasons, cach wiih iis uisiinci
iulc, in ihc casc ol ihc Dominicans ihc iulc ol Si. Augusiinc. UnliIc ihc Bcncuic-
iincs, nciihci ihc Dominican noi ihc Iianciscan oiuci is monasiic, as ihc looI
suggcsis .76-77). Thc issuc iaiscu hcic is a sul|cci ucsciving luiihci siuuy.
Thc looI coulu havc uscu a moic aiicniivc coy cuiioi. Thcic aic scvcial annoy-
ing misscllings ihai, lccausc ihcy iccui, suggcsi ihai ihcy aic noi mcicly iyological
inlcliciiics: seige . 109 ]iwicc|, 126 ]iwicc|, 215), principle insicau ol principal 16,
73) geneology 215, 220), strategem 126, 215).
Convent Chronicles is an imoiiani looI ihai signihcanily luiihcis oui unuci-
sianuing ol ihc liiciaiy cniciiiscs ol an imoiiani scgmcni ol ihc lcmalc oula-
iion in ihc laic Miuulc Agcs.
Marianne Kalinke
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
370 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 370 5/7/07 11:28:13 AM
The Representation of Womens Emotions in Medieval and Early Modern
Culture. Euiicu ly Iisa Pcilciii. Gaincsvillc: Univcisiiy Picss ol Iloiiua,
2005. P. i-viii + 222. S65.
Whilc comlciing hci looI Women and Laughter 2003), Iisa Pcilciii noiiccu ihai
lamcni anu laughici shaicu common lcaiuics, anu shc ihcicloic cnvisioncu a
lioauci siuuy ol womcn`s cmoiions. Hci iniiouuciion io ihc woiI ai hanu noi only
ioviucs ihc cusiomaiy synosis ol ihc cighi cssays ihai lollow, lui as an cssay in
iis own iighi, ii ouilincs iollcms ihai in hci vicw shoulu lc covcicu in ihis, ihc
hisi cxloiaiion ol womcn`s cmoiions in mcuicval anu caily moucin iimcs. Thcsc
incluuc ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn cmoiions anu ihc louy, wiih class anu cihniciiy,
ihcii inuucncc on lchavioi anu communiiy, anu hnally, womcn`s unucisianuing
anu usc ol ihcii own cmoiions. Thc iniiouuciion ihus ioviucs suggcsiions loi
luiihci icscaich. Pcilciii`s guiuing hanu is noi only cviucni in ihc chionological,
gcogiahic, anu ihcmaiic choicc ol sul|ccis lui also in ihc laci ihai hall ol ihc
auihois ihanI hci sccihcally loi hcl anu insighi.
Eniiiling hci cssay Thcoiics ol ihc Passions anu ihc Ecsiasics ol Iaic Mcui-
cval Rcligious Womcn," E. Ann Maiici siaiis oui wiih a succinci suivcy ol ihc
humoial ihcoiy" . 21) ihai uominaicu ihc unucisianuing ol human naiuic
liom ihc hisi ccniuiy uniil ihc uawn ol ihc moucin cia. In ihis sysicm, cmoiions
wcic noi yci iniciioiizcu lui wcic linIcu io cosmic anu iniciiclaicu hcnomcna
such as ihc siais, ihc caiuinal uiicciions, anu ihc csscniial humois ol ihc human
louy. Whilc icvious scholais havc aigucu ihai an iniciioiizaiion ol such cosmic
loiccs lcgan aiounu 1200 anu coniinucu uuiing ihc laic Miuulc Agcs, Maiici
wanis io cxicnu ihc analysis ihiough ihc long Miuulc Agcs" . 24) ly locusing
on ihicc liiilc-Inown lcmalc visionaiics liom sixiccnih- anu scvcniccnih-ccniuiy
Iialy, incluuing Iucia Biocauclli ua Naini, Maiia Mauualcna uc` Pazzi, anu Maiia
Domiiilla Galluzzi. Iucia was lioughi io Iciiaia as couii iohci," lui scni ihc
lasi loiiy ycais ol hci lilc in a viiiual iison. In 1544, ihc ycai ol hci ucaih, shc
cisonally wioic an accouni ol scvcn ol hci visions. Thc manusciii hau lccn losi
sincc ihc ninciccnih ccniuiy lui was icuiscovcicu anu ullishcu ly ihc auihoi ol
ihc aiiiclc. Maiia Mauualcna, a Caimcliic hailing liom Iloicncc, was siiiiually
insiicu ly ihc ]csuiis as shc iccnacicu ihc assion ol Chiisi wiih anu on hci own
louy. Maiia Domiiilla, ihc lcasi Inown ol ihc ihicc anu ncvci iccognizcu loi hci
sanciiiy, lccamc a Cauchin nun in Pavia in 1615. Shc is cihas ihc onc who
lcsi cxcmlihcs ihc iiansiiion liom cmoiions lcing consiucicu a cosmic uiama io
lccoming a sychouiama. Ii is icmaiIallc ihai ihc visions ol ihcsc ihicc womcn
aic Inown ihiough ihcii own wiiiings oi, ai lcasi, ihiough lcmalc iiansmission.
Elcna Caiicia liIcwisc locuscs on ihicc womcn in hci cssay cniiilcu Thc Siii-
iual Rolc ol ihc Emoiions in Mcchihilu ol Magucluig, Angcla ol Ioligno, anu
Tcicsa ol Avila." Hci choicc is uiciaicu ly hci inicicsi in Chiisiian mysiicism, anu
shc is aiiiculaily Iccn on cxloiing why ihcii woiIs wcic ol sulhcicni inicicsi
io havc lccn icscivcu ihiough ihc ccniuiics. Shc is noi saiishcu wiih ihc gcnci-
ally acccicu maxim ihai mcuicval womcn`s cxciicnccs ol louy anu languagc
wcic iauically uillcicni liom ihosc ol mcn. Aiguing ihai, conccining cuucaiion,
gcnuci was no moic uivisivc ihan class, shc wishcs io cxloic how ihcsc womcn`s
cxciicnccs wcic hlicicu ihiough ihc languagc ihcy inhciiicu liom ociiy anu
scimons anu lounu a aih inio ihc ullic uiscouisc in which ihcy wanicu io aiiici-
aic. Whilc conlcssois anu oihci malc aiicnuanis may oiiginally havc cncouiagcu
ihcm io iccouni ihcii visions anu cxciicnccs in oiuci io maIc suic ihcy uiu noi
Book Reviews 371
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 371 5/7/07 11:28:13 AM
incluuc ucmonic illusions, ihcy quicIly camc io unucisianu ihai ihc womcn wcic
icciicnis ol uiicci Inowlcugc ol Gou ihai coulu noi lc oliaincu ihiough siuuy.
All ihicc womcn cmhasizcu ihc imoiiancc ol iayci io gain an unucisianuing ol
Gou`s lovc, ihus assuiing ihcii osiiion wiihin allcciivc siiiiualiiy. Piayci lioughi
scll-Inowlcugc ihai luiihci icsulicu in iccniancc, a siaic ihai loi gilicu womcn
lcu io scll-cxicssion. This hisi sic ol via purgativa lcu io ihc ncxi, via meditativa,
in which womcn cngagcu wiih Chiisi`s sullciing anu lovc, anu hnally io ihc via
unitiva, ihc incllallc union noi only wiih ihc human lui also ihc uivinc Chiisi.
Noi suiiisingly, Tcicsa is ihc onc who lcsi aiiiculaics ihcsc iucas anu shows ihc
way liom lamcni io laughci" . 84). This is an imoiiani cssay ihai gocs a long
way iowaiu csiallishing a signihcani lcmalc iolc in mcuicval siiiiual lilc.
Sanuwichcu lciwccn ihcsc iwo aiiiclcs is ]amcs ]. Paxson`s cssay on Thc Al-
lcgoiical Consiiuciion ol Icmalc Iccling anu Forma," in which hc ucals wiih ihc
iiansiiion liom an all-lcmalc cisonihcaiion ol human cmoiions, as cviucnccu
liom ihc cailicsi iimcs, io a gcnucicu icicscniaiion ol cmoiions ihai iooI lacc
uuiing ihc High Miuulc Agcs. Raihci ihan lollowing ihis ucvclomcni in uciail,
Paxson locuscs on Hilucgaiu ol Bingcn`s Ordo Virtutum. Wiiiicn in ihc 1150s, ii
laccs sixiccn viiiucs, cisonihcu as womcn on siagc, in convcisaiion wiih a singlc
man, Dialolus, anu ihc lay ihus sianus ai ihc cus ol ihis iiansiiion. Howcvci,
Hilucgaiu uocs moic ihan mcicly incluuing a malc. Paxson acccis Dialolus`s
conicniion ihai cach viiiuc, in aiiiculai Chasiiiy, uocs noi Inow whai shc IS-in
Chasiiiy`s casc, a nuiiuiing woman who oughi io olcy Gou`s commanu io cngagc
in swcci lovc suavi copula, . 49). In ihis siaicmcni, IS inuicaics ihc copula, a
concci ihai noi only maiIs giammaiical icuicaiion lui also oniological lcing,
anu Paxson now cnicis ihc scmioiics ol mcuicval ihcioiic`s iiocs. Bascu on ihc
ihcoiics ol Aiisioilc, Iacan, anu ]an ZiolIowsIi ihai conuaic ihc giammaiical anu
oniological IS, hc iocccus io ucmonsiiaic ihai lcmalc is io similc as malc is io
mciahoi. Raihci ihan clcvaiing lcmalcs, Inowingly oi unInowingly Hilucgaiu
ihus icinsiaics ihc ic-Chiisiian siaius ol ihcioiic in which masculiniiy is cquaicu
wiih ihc iivilcgcu osiiion anu ihc lcmalc wiih iis lacI. Paxson`s cssay is ucnsc
anu uilhculi anu maiicu ly hcavy |aigon lui icwaius closc sciuiiny.
Quoiing in hci iiilc Maiiha`s ouiluisi ai hci lioihci`s ucaih liom ihc N-Town
cyclc`s Raising of Lazarus, ihai Us loi io wcc no man may lcii," Kaihaiinc Goou-
lanu locuscs hci analysis on Rcsisiani Icmalc Giicl in ihc Mcuicval English Iaza-
ius Plays," as siaicu in hci suliiilc. Builuing on a suggcsiion ly Pcici DionIc ihai
a long iiauiiion ol lcmalc mouining ol lamily mcmlcis may icccuc ihc mcuicval
Planctus gcnic ucvoicu io ihc Viigin, shc cxamincs ihc manilcsiaiions ol giicl in
loui lays ucvoicu io Iazaius N-Town, YoiI, Chcsici, anu Townclcy) io which
shc auus ihc Iazaius cisouc liom ihc Digly lay on Maiy Magualcnc. In ihc
Iazaius lays shc hnus iwo cicciions ol giicl, a Chiisiian iiauiiion cxicsscu
ly malcs ihai uccmhasizcs giicl lccausc ol ihc Chiisiian iomisc ol cicinal lilc
anu an ancicni iiauiiion aiiiculaicu ly wailing anu wccing womcn, who in ihis
way iocuic cicinal lilc" loi ihc ucccascu ly Iccing ihcii mcmoiy alivc. Thc
lcmalc giicl is siiongcsi in ihc N-Town cyclc lui is lioughi unuci incicasing malc
coniiol in ihc ihicc oihci vcisions. Ii is almosi cniiicly alscni liom ihc Digly lay,
in which Iazaius`s sisicis aic oiiiaycu as siiong aiisiociaiic womcn who coniiol
ihcii cmoiions anu uo noi shcu a icai ai ihcii lioihci`s ucaih.
In Consiani Soiiow: Emoiions anu ihc Womcn Tiouvcics," Wcnuy Plcllci
analyzcs ninc ocms oui ol scvcniy-hvc) liom a icccni anihology cniiilcu Songs
of Women Trouvres 2001) ol which Plcllci hciscll is onc ol loui cuiiois. Shc
372 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 372 5/7/07 11:28:14 AM
iclcis ihc icim womcn`s voiccs" lccausc ol hci conviciion lui lacIing iool)
ihai any anonymous Olu Iicnch song ihai iclls a woman`s sioiy using ihc hisi
cison lcmininc ionoun was comoscu ly a woman. Shc singlcs oui ihc cmoiion
ol ain anu giicl lccausc ii is aiiiculaicu mosi licqucnily, hci hisi choicc song
38) is iclaicu io ihc icvious cssay lccausc ihc lamcni aiiiculaicu ly ihc scaIci
is noi giicl ovci a losi lovci, as ihc hisi sianza suggcsis, lui ihc Viigin lamcniing
ihc loss ol hci son. Oihci womcn uo giicvc ovci a lioIcn hcaii oi lamcni ihc
laci ihai ihcy uiu noi givc in io ihcii lovci, siill oihcis lcmoan lcing loiccu inio
a nunnciy callcu a iison) oi lcing maiiicu againsi ihcii will.
In a lai-ianging cssay, A Pugnacious Pagan Piinccss: Aggicssivc Icmalc Angci
anu Violcncc in Fierabras," Kiisii Gouilay iicais Iloiias, ihc Saiaccn hcioinc ol a
iwcllih-ccniuiy Iicnch chanson de geste. Muslim lcmalcs aic sulhcicnily common
in ihis gcnic io lc consiucicu a liiciaiy convcniion. Invaiially such a woman is ol
high social sianuing, shc is lcauiilul accoiuing io Wcsicin sianuaius) anu inicl-
ligcni, shc lalls in lovc wiih a Chiisiian hcio who has lccn imiisoncu ly hci laihci,
iomising io convcii, shc icscucs ihc hcio anu lciiays hci laihci. Iloiias his ihis
sicicoiyc cilccily, lui ihc auihoi has auucu ihc lcaiuic ol hci unconiiollallc
angci ihai olicn icsulis in ucauly violcncc. Thc ocm was cxiicmcly oulai in
manusciii anu iini, anu ihc sioiy also cxisicu in numcious iosc icnuiiions anu
iianslaiions inio many languagcs. Gouilay wanis io answci ihc uoullc qucsiion ol
ihc icason loi ihc hcioinc`s lchavioi anu ihc oulaiiiy ol ihc sioiy. Thc hisi hall
ol ihc qucsiion liings hci inio ihc unchaiicu iciiiioiy ol lcmalc angci in mcuicval
icxis anu sociciy, loi which shc ioviucs a conicxi ly ouilining ihc much lciici
Inown sul|cci ol malc angci. Whcicas mcn wcic allowcu angiy icaciions in loih
lilc anu liiciaiuic, ii was noi ioci loi womcn io uislay angci in couiily sciiings,
anu Iloiias is ihc only cxcciion. Gouilay scculaics ihai ii may lc causcu ly ihc
laci ihai, alihough a Muslim, shc is hghiing loi ihc Chiisiians, lui sincc shc was noi
laiizcu uniil ihc vciy cnu ol ihc sioiy shc lclongcu icchnically io ihc oihci" loi
whom lchavioi noi allowcu loi Chiisiian womcn was sccn as lcss unusual. Gouilay
iucniihcs aiouic invcisions in hci lchavioi anu ihinIs ihai ihis, auucu io ihc laci
ihai ihc sioiy was sccn as amusing, may cxlain iis oulaiiiy.
Violcni cmoiions aic also ihc lcauing ihcmc in ihc lollowing cssay ly Saiah
Wcsihal, Calcluinia`s Ragc: Emoiions anu Gcnuci in Iaic Mcuicval Iaw anu
Iiiciaiuic." Thc iollcm, conuici lciwccn cmoiion anu icason in lcgal ucci-
sion maIing, is siill ol imoiiancc iouay, as wiincsscu ly a icccni Suicmc Couii
uccision. Wcsihal`s hclu ol inquiiy cncomasscs lcgal anu liiciaiy souiccs liom
ccniial Euioc uuiing ihc laici Miuulc Agcs. Mosi imoiiani is ihc voluminous
Sachsenspiegel cnncu aloui 1235 ly EiIc von Rcgow as hc collccicu ihc cxisiing
lcgal noims anu cusioms wiiiicn in Gciman. Thc icxi lccamc cxiicmcly oulai,
moic ihan 450 manusciiis cxisi in auuiiion io scvcial iinicu vcisions. Iis inuu-
cncc siicichcu ihioughoui ccniial Euioc anu iis auihoiiiy was valiu in Piussia as
laic as 1794. Iocusing on gcnuci, loi Wcsihal ihc ciucial assagc is ihc onc ihai
siaics ihai no woman may lc lcauci, noi may shc liing a suii wiihoui a guaiuian"
. 167), aaicnily a icvious iighi ihai a cciiain Caliluinia loilciicu whcn shc
wcni inio a hi ol iagc whilc lcauing lcloic ihc cmcioi. Hci mislchavioi is noi
cxlaincu lui cciiain icxis aic cquicu wiih illusiiaiions ihai suggcsi ihai shc
hau mooncu" ihc cmcioi shown him hci naIcu lacIsiuc, . 169). Wcsihal
ioviucs a sohisiicaicu analysis ol Zorn, ihc Gciman woiu loi iagc, ihai has ihc
lioau mcaning ol hghiing wiih loih aciions anu woius" . 171). Similai am-
liguiiy cxisis in Olu Noisc lcgal icxis.) Caliluinia is noi a ical cison, anu shc is
Book Reviews 373
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 373 5/7/07 11:28:14 AM
lascu on an cqually hciiiious chaiacici ly ihc namc ol Cailania who is lounu in
]usiinian`s Digests in a chaici in which ihc lawmaIcis claiily who may acai lcloic
ihc cmcioi in law cascs. Roman law conccivcu ol ihicc gious ol colc: ihosc
wiih lull iighis auuli mcn), ihosc who wcic cxcluucu minois anu ucal colc),
anu an inicimcuiaiy giou wiih aiiial iighis. Womcn lclongcu in ihis giou
lccausc ol a cciiain Cailania, an cxiicmcly shamclcss woman, whosc cllioniciy
anu annoyancc ol ihc magisiiaic gavc iisc io ihis Euici" . 174). In oihci woius,
womcn wcic lciici oll unuci Roman law ihan laici unuci Gciman law. Wcsihal
cicuiis misogyny liom ihc Billc csccially Ecclesiasticus) anu liom oulai culiuic
loi ihc uciciioiaiion ol womcn`s osiiion. In ihc lasi ihiiu ol hci cssay, ihc auihoi
iuins io a liiilc-Inown lay, Die Mrin Thc Mooiish Woman), wiiiicn in 1453 ly
Hcimann von Sachscnhcim, in oiuci io show ihc insiiaiion ol Caliluinia in a
liiciaiy icxi. Thc lay is aiiiculaily inicicsiing lccausc ii auus ihc lcaiuic ol iacc
io ihai ol gcnuci, ol iwo lcmalc ioiagonisis, ihc whiic woman is allc io coniiol
hci angci whcicas ihc llacI is noi. Ii is io lc alauucu ihai ihis lay now has
lccn lioughi io ihc aiicniion ol a laigci auuicncc, lui Wcsihal`s cssay is alicauy
so iich ihai ihc icauci wishcs shc hau icscivcu Die Mrin loi a sccial aiiiclc.
Thc lasi cssay is Valciic Allcn`s Waxing Rcu: Shamc anu ihc Bouy, Shamc anu
ihc Soul." Shc ollcis uillusc olscivaiions on ihc cmoiion ol shamc uiawn liom
souiccs ianging liom Aiisioilc io ihc Iollaius. Hci main locus is on cniicniial
manuals, in aiiiculai ihc Ancrene Wisse, anu shc is csccially inicicsicu in ihc
iclaiionshi lciwccn a conlcssoi anu his lcmininc cniicnis. Shc maIcs siaiiling
icmaiIs aloui a numlci ol iollcms, in aiiiculai viiginiiy anu naIcuncss. Thc
cssay is inicicsiing lui is lacIing in locus.
Thc collcciion is a iomising siaii loi luiihci icscaich inio ihc hclu ol lcmalc
cmoiions uuiing ihc Miuulc Agcs.
Jenny Jochens
Baltimore, Maryland
A History of Old Norse Poetry and Poetics. By Maigaici Clunics Ross. Cam-
liiugc: D. S. Bicwci, 2005. P. x + 283. S85.
Uniil now no onc monogiah has mauc ihc cvoluiion ol loih ociiy anu ociics
in ihc Olu Noisc" vcinaculai iis locus, anu ihc icscni looI aims io hll ihai ga.
Inuiviuual chaicis ucsciilc ihc ociic coius, analyzc inuigcnous icims anu
gcnics, uocumcni ihc iiansmission ol ociiy, cxloic ociic acsihciics, iiacc ihc
imaci ol Chiisiianiiy, iucniily ociological clcmcnis in ihc giammaiical iicaiiscs,
anu cxicnu oui aicciaiion ol ihiiiccnih- anu louiiccnih-ccniuiy ociiy. Thc
looI is iounucu oll wiih a conclusion, which noics uiicciions loi luiuic icscaich
anu coniains an acnuix on icchnical icims, a lisi ol woiIs ciicu, anu an inucx.
Iiom ihis iichly uciailcu, inloimaiivc, anu imaginaiivc iicaimcni, I can iaIc u
only a lcw ioics loi liicl mcniion.
Clunics Ross lays cmhasis on sccch-aci ihcoiy as having oicniial iclcvancc
io Olu Noisc ociics. Inuicaiivc ol ihc sccch-aci siaius ol ocms aic clcmcnis
such as -ml anu -kvina in iiilcs, anu ihc auihoi oinis io ihc sccial signihcancc
ol aaicnily gcnciic iiilcs, such as Hrafnsml, Sccch ol ihc Ravcn" ol which
Krkuml may lc a vaiiani). Shc iniciicis ihc Grgs iohiliiion ol cncomi-
asiic oi saiiiical comosiiions as icsiilying io ihcii owcilul illocuiionaiy cllccis.
Snoiii`s |usiihcaiion ol ihc usc ol iaisc ociiy in Iings` sagas is cxlaincu as
icucciing iagmaiic unucisianuings lciwccn oci anu aiion as io whai coulu
374 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 374 5/7/07 11:28:14 AM
lcgiiimaicly couni as iaisc, noi a iigoious iiuih sianuaiu. This inlcicncc linIs
wiih Clunics Ross`s susiaincu ciiiiquc ol ihc much-canvasscu uisiinciion lciwccn
auihcniicaiing" anu siiuaiional" uscs ol vciscs in sagas anu hci auumliaiion ol
a ncw iaxonomy lascu on sccch-aci ihcoiy. Thai cciiainly has ihc oicniial io
liing gicaici nuancc anu icsonsivcncss io saga conicxis, ihough ii woulu siill
lc vulnciallc io sul|cciivc |uugmcnis, as sccn in ihc chaiaciciizaiion ol Egill`s
H,funlausn as an iionically insinccic ocm" . 32).
Clunics Ross maIcs a siiong casc loi an inuigcnous uisiinciion lciwccn so-
callcu sIaluic" anu cuuic" vcisc loims, icmaiIing ihai ihc laiici aic sccially
associaicu wiih cxosiiion ol olu loic as imlicu ly ihc icim fornyrnislag, ancicni
sccch mcasuic") anu aic asciilcu io myihic oi lcgcnuaiy scaIcis in Gylfaginn-
ing anu ihc fornaldarsgur. An olvious ol|cciion is ihai cuuic" loims coulu also
lc uscu ly ocis wc convcniionally call sIalus," lui ihis shc counicis cogcnily
wiih ihc olscivaiion ihai ihcii ocms in ihcsc loims aic also aigually lcgcnuaiy
oi myihical, ccniciing uon iicaimcnis ol ucaih, uicams, ihc aianoimal, anu
iohccy.
As io ihc lacc ol ihc oci anu ociiy in ihc social uynamic, Clunics Ross sug-
gcsis ihai ihc woiI ol loih ocis anu smiihs ciihci ihc aii in iiscll oi clsc iis iaw
maiciials) may havc lccn suscci, as oiiginaiing in occuli iaciiccs oi wionglul
aioiiaiions. In uiscussing ihai iimc insiancc ol amliguous gili anu ihcli,
ihc ociic mcau, Clunics Ross claims ihai Oinn lcsiows ii on ihosc who alicauy
osscss sIills in ociiy, wiih ihc imlicaiion ihai ihcy acquiic ihcii ciali aiily
ihiough cisonal cxciiion. Thc lasis loi ihis is a assagc in Skldskaparml, En
Suiiunga m| gal Oinn Asunum oI cim mnnum ci yiI|a Iunnu," iianslaicu
ly IaulIcs, Bui Oinn gavc Suiiung]i|`s mcau io ihc sii anu io ihosc colc
who aic sIillcu ai comosing ociiy." Bui Snoiii cviucnily inicnus ihc iclaiivc
clausc iolciically, i.c., ihai ihcsc mcnn" uciivc ihcii sIill liom Oinn`s gili, as
wc scc il wc comaic iwo oihci assagcs in Skldskaparml, Hvaan al hchi hahzI
s iii ci i Ialli sIlusIa." Iiom whcic uiu ihai sIill ihai you call ociiy
oiiginaic.), anu cii llcnuu hunangi vi llii oI vai ai al m|i s ci hvcii
ci al uicIIi vcii sIlu ca lioamai" Thcy mixcu honcy wiih ihc lloou anu
ii was iiansloimcu inio ihai mcau, whocvci uiinIs liom which lccomcs a oci
oi a scholai).
In ucuucing ihc acsihciic valucs imlicu ly ociic icxis ihcmsclvcs, Clunics Ross
mosily lollows iiauiiional scholaishi. Ii is suiiising io scc hci using ihc consiiuc-
iion viggolli Vinnils" scaman, iicc ol ihc hoisc ol Vinnill," i.c., iicc ol ihc
shi") io cxcmlily ihc class ol invciicu Icnnings. An cxamlc ihai iocily his
ihc icquiicmcnis is hyi|ai hiannli|ii" licaIci ol ihc wavc ol ihc hic), whcic
ihc clcmcnis wavc" anu hic" musi lc icvciscu io oliain a Icnning loi golu."
MaiIing a ucaiiuic liom Wollgang Iangc, Clunics Ross cnvisagcs sIaluic ociiy
as gicaily changcu ly ihc icssuics ol Chiisiianizaiion, a ioccss shc illusiiaics ly
uciailcu analysis ol Plcitusdrpa anu Harmsol. Shc osiis comaiaiivcly caily oiigins
loi ihc usc ol iyology io linI ihc ic-Chiisiian hisioiy ol ihc Noiih io iis Chiisiian
scqucl" . 123). Rclcvani hcic is ihc uiscussion ol symlolism in Einaii SIlason`s
Geisli, which coulu havc lccn siicngihcncu ly iclcicncc io icccni ullicaiions ly
Maiiin Chasc. Similaily, ihc uiscussion ol Chiisiian sIaluic culiivaiion ol a clcai
lui loliy siylc" . 132) mighi havc lccn cxicnucu io Gunnlaugi Icilsson, who
iclaccs Merlnssp wiih a siaicmcni ihai hc is auoiing a miusamlig" miuulc)
siylc I, 3).
As io ihc giammaiical iicaiiscs, Clunics Ross cmhasizcs ihc imoiiancc ol ihc
Book Reviews 375
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 375 5/7/07 11:28:15 AM
Iiisi Giammaiian loi ihc icscivaiion ol vcinaculai ociiy, as ihc iooncni ol
a mainsiicam Euiocan sysicm ol icnuciing vcinaculai icxis inio wiiiing. Icss
clcai is whcihci ihc ociiy hclu imoiiancc loi him. His honological sysicm ol
minimal aiis" has lccn connccicu in icccni scholaishi wiih sIaluic iulcs, lui
ii musi havc cvolvcu in ai lcasi aiiial inuccnucncc ol ihc hending sysicm, sincc
hc uisiinguishcs nasal vowcls liom non-nasal oncs whcicas ihc ocis aaicnily
uo noi. Clunics Ross shows mosi inicicsiingly how ihc laici giammaiical iicaiiscs
ui vcinaculai ociics in an auvcisc loicign ciscciivc ly lollowing icccis ihai
ociic languagc was luili uon vitia orationis viccs ol sccch). Ii is on ihis lasis
ihai Olli iaison ciiiicizcs a linc ly no lcss a oci ihan ihc icvcicu h,funskld
Sigvaii iuaison. Thc samc assumiions may, I suggcsi, havc inuucnccu Snoiii.
Whcn hc uscs ihc icim fornafn loi whai hc noimally calls heiti, mighi hc lc cxhil-
iiing uncciiainiy as io whcihci ihc heiti aic iocily whai somcihing is callcu"
hciiii) oi a mcic vitium orationis. Ai ihc samc iimc, as Clunics Ross noics, Snoiii`s
uciailcu iicaimcni ol sIaluic vcisihcaiion lcscaIs his comaiaiivc inuccnucncc
ol classical iiacis anu iccogniiion ol ihc uisiinciivc lcaiuics ol naiivc ociics. Thc
so-callcu ]ulur anu ciiological anccuoics ihai on skjlfhent, loi cxamlc) coulu
lc ciicu as cmlouying iycs ol iiauiiional icaching ihai hc may havc uiawn on.
Thc looI is lianIly signalcu as onc in iogicss" . 234), anu alihough ii ic-
icscnis a icmaiIallc iccc ol synihcsis, ii coulu havc lccn luiihci ichncu. Thc
lilliogiahy, whilc in somc icsccis aumiially u-io-uaic, is unicicscniaiivc:
cssays in icccni collcciions anu a hanulul ol ihcscs gain a lacc, whcicas icccni
aiiiclcs in ciiouicals aic saiscly ciicu. Also, iclcicncing is uncvcn, so ihai somc
classic vicws aic claloiaicly souiccu lacI io ihcii caily iooncnis whilc oihcis
aic noi. Somc sacc is consumcu in icciiiion ol ihis anu oihci inloimaiion. Thc
ociic ciiaiions coniain a lcw signihcani ciiois. In ihc ciiaiion liom Biagi, Ras
glumI iciai mna" . 37), ihc scconu woiu shoulu icau glumI." In ihc ciia-
iion liom oil|in hoinIloh . 45), ihc hiasc huglyluia hla" is omiiicu liom
ihc iosc oiuci anu ihc iianslaiion, sviium" acais insicau ol svium." In a
ciiaiion liom Halllici, ihc scnicncc lcyhI l|ssa vla/ lunu" shoulu lc iianslaicu
I iaisc ihc naiuic ol liighi lauics," oi similai, sincc vla" is luial. Ii shoulu
lc noicu ihai ihc iucniihcaiion ol ihc auoicu lauy in Snjofrnardrpa as Saunn"
is an inlcicncc on ihc aii ol moucin scholais. In ihc ciiaiion liom Httatal .
84), sIal oiiaI vcia loin minni," oiiaI" musi mcan conicni," noi ihc ai-
iangcmcni ol woius." Ai ihc lcvcl ol mcic slis, ihc accusaiivc singulai masculinc
ol gonr is gonan, noi gon . viii). In Gunnaii Haiaison" . 12 anu 255), icau
Gunnai", loi HioIinsIinna" . 20), icau HioIIinsIinna." Thc oiihogiahy
in yIIvalai . . . KiiI|uloi" . 144) shoulu lc sianuaiuizcu. Ol ihc lcw iyo-
giahical ciiois I noic con|uciion" . 3), a ama|oiiiy" . 59), Icgg|ai" loi
lcgg|ai," . 62), uimin" . 63), lausililiy" . 78), ihai laci" loi ihc laci,"
. 82), suiisingly" . 193), comaiisions" . 200), anu siiucuial" . 217),
along wiih a lcw missing commas c.g., . 14).
All in all, ihc auihoi has amly sulsianiiaicu hci ihcsis ihai Olu Noisc ociiy
anu ociics can iohially lc siuuicu in con|unciion. Thc looI will lc giaiclully
icccivcu ly icaucis alicauy lamiliai wiih ihc iniiouuciions ly IianI, Halllcig,
Tuivillc-Pciic, anu von Scc anu will hcl io ushci in ihc ncw cuiiion ol sIaluic
ociiy, which in iuin is lounu io mouily oi cvcn icshac somc ol ihc scholaily
unucisianuings icscnicu hcic.
Russell Poole
University of Western Ontario
376 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 376 5/7/07 11:28:15 AM
Anglo-Saxon England in Icelandic Medieval Texts. By Magns I|allual. To-
ionio Olu Noisc anu Icclanuic Siuuics. Toionio: Univcisiiy ol Toionio Picss,
2005. P. xi + 162. S40 aci, S60 cloih.
Thc iiilc ol ihis looI iomiscs a suivcy ol lacis ciiaining io Anglo-Saxon Englanu,
as ii was ucicicu in mcuicval Icclanuic naiiaiivcs, anu I|allual has mauc goou on
his iomisc. Noi cvciylouy may icalizc how coniiovcisial ihc ioic is. Thc ionc
ol ihc cxosiiion is couiicous, lui ihc siiii inloiming ii is unalashculy olcmi-
cal. Sincc I|allual uisagiccs wiih many ol his collcagucs, ihcy will, as a maiici ol
couisc, uisagicc wiih him. Yci ii sccms ihai his main conclusions will lc haiu io
icluic. Hc shows ihai ihc auihois ol lamily anu iomaniic sagas anu ol sainis` livcs
hau ihc vagucsi iuca ol ihc gcogiahy anu hisioiy ol Englanu. Thc gcncalogy
anu ihc uciails ol Iings` livcs cvcn ol King Cnui`s lilc) wcic misicicscnicu in
Icclanuic mcuicval looIs. Somc laiilcs anu invasions ucsciilcu in ihcm lounu
no icucciion in conicmoiaiy chioniclcs anu haiuly cvci iooI lacc. Noi only
hciiiious uialogucs liIc ihosc lciwccn Haialui anu Haiolu oi lciwccn Haialu
anu Tosiig lcloic ihc laiilc ol Siamloiu Biiugc lui cvcn ihc inloimaiion on
Tosiig`s iighi io ihc ihionc musi lc asciilcu io laniasy. Thc lollowing siaicmcnis
summaiizc I|allual`s vicws:
How much ihcsc ViIing sciilcis aciually Incw aloui ihc gcogiahy ol Eng-
lanu as a wholc, oi ol ihc aica which ihcy hau choscn loi ihcii sciilcmcni,
wc shall ncvci Inow. Howcvci, as ihcii loiclaihcis hau iaiucu Englanu loi
uccaucs, ihcy may wcll havc Inown quiic a loi. Thcic is no cviucncc ihai ihis
Inowlcugc ol English gcogiahy cvci lounu iis way io Icclanu, noi was ihcic
any icason why Icclanucis in ihc icnih anu ihc clcvcnih ccniuiics woulu havc
lccn aiiiculaily inicicsicu in ii. Icclanuic wiiicis lcgan io iccoiu ioogiahi-
cal inloimaiion aloui Englanu in ihc ihiiiccnih anu louiiccnih ccniuiics, lui
ihcii souiccs aic unInown, anu-on ihc wholc-ihcii Inowlcugc ol English
gcogiahy is somciimcs lcss ihan imicssivc. Howcvci, ihcy aic noi wiong
aloui cvciyihing, anu noi suiiisingly, ihc mosi accuiaic siaicmcnis conccin-
ing ihc gcogiahy ol Englanu conccin Noiihumliia . . . .. 22-23)
Basically, mcuicval Icclanuic hisioiians Incw only ihc oiuci ol English Iings
liom Aihclsian io Sichcn, anu, somciimcs, how long cach Iing icigncu. . . .
Thc icsi is, loi ihc mosi aii, a iaihci gaillcu vcision ol whai iooI lacc .
68).
To mcuicval Icclanucis, Anglo-Saxon Englanu was, as I|allual cxlains, a iouuci
ol wishlul ihinIing, a liiciaiy counici-oini wiih a ihinly vcilcu oliiical mcs-
sagc" . 82), a iich couniiy, iulcu ly |usi, gcncious, lui wcaI Iings in coniiasi
io Noiway wiih hci giccuy, iicachcious, anu iyiannical monaichs), a lacIuio
againsi which gucsis liom Icclanu ciloimcu hcioic uccus anu iciuincu homc
loasiing ol social auvanccmcni anu iccious gilis. Ii may lc auucu ihai ihc loi
in which a valiani loicignci oi ouisiuci savcs hcllcss ncighlois has ucc ioois
in cic iiauiiion: Sicgliicu in Woims, Bcowull in Hcoioi, anu ihc liIc. This is noi
suiiising, loi, in icgaiu ol moihology, ihc saga is inuclicu io cic ociiy much
moic ihan is usually iccognizcu.
Thc hisi iwo chaicis ol ihc looI aic ucvoicu io ihc qucsiion aloui ihc muiual
iniclligililiiy ol Olu English anu Olu Noisc. In ihc laiiy ialc, all colc scaI ihc
samc languagc, anu MaiI Twain`s Conncciicui YanIcc has no iioullc communi-
caiing wiih King Aiihui anu his sul|ccis. Thc saga is occasionally lcss naivc ihan
Book Reviews 377
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 377 5/7/07 11:28:15 AM
ihc laiiy ialc. Gunlaugi anu Egill cncounici no languagc laiiici whilc siaying
in Englanu, anu English Iings aic saiu io havc aicciaicu sIaluic cncomia. Bui
in oihci cascs ii was uccmcu ncccssaiy io asscii ihai in Gunnlaugi`s uays, io givc
ihc mosi lamous cxamlc, Olu English anu Olu Noisc wcic ihc samc languagc
ai ihc lcginning ol ihc clcvcnih ccniuiy!). Thc Anglo-Saxon chioniclci uiu noi
claiily how King Allicu inicivicwcu Ohihcic. Was ciihci ol ihcm lilingual. Diu
ihcy usc ihc sciviccs ol a iolcssional iniciicici wealhstod). Each casc was uil-
lcicni. Mciccnaiics iiavclcu liom lanu io lanu anu musi havc unucisioou miliiaiy
commanus anu ihc icims ol ihcii cmloymcni. Slang woius uscu ly soluicis anu
iosiiiuics casily ciosscu languagc loiucis. I|aluall`s conclusion is cauiious, lui
hc siicsscs ihc imiolaliliiy ol ihc iuca ihai a ihousanu ycais ago Olu English
anu Olu Noisc wcic uialccis ol ihc samc languagc.
Thc simlcsi aigumcni in suoii ol his ihcsis will sulhcc. Thc iiaincu hilolo-
gisis who havc masicicu Olu English aic noi allc io icau cvcn ihc simlcsi ]ttr
unlcss ihcy havc siuuicu Olu Icclanuic. IiIcwisc, a moucin Icclanuci wiihoui
icvious cxosuic io ihc sul|cci will noi hnu a icxi in Olu English iiansaicni,
ihough in wiiiicn loim ihings aic casici io lollow ihan whcn wc hcai ihcm anu
ihough somc woius in iclaicu languagcs naiuially looI lamiliai. ]csciscn was
iighi ihai lasic woius ol Olu English anu Olu Noisc hau ihc samc ioois a cii-
cumsiancc ihai, in his vicw, laciliiaicu coniacis lciwccn ihc ucsccnuanis ol ihc
ViIings anu ihc local oulaiion), lui living sccch, unliIc somc ciymological
uiciionaiics, uocs noi consisi ol ioois, anu loicigncis always scaI ioo lasi. As loi
drpur cncomia), onc somciimcs wonucis how naiivc iulcis managcu io lollow
ihcm on ihc sui ol ihc momcni. Thc iuca ihai a cison in Aihclsian`s lacc
unucisioou drottkvtt shoulu lc uismisscu as unicalisiic. This aii ol ihc sIalus`
cxciicncc in Englanu is uic hciion.
Ii is uoulilul whcihci any sIalu cvci mauc ii io Englanu. Evcn ihc aiiiciaiion
ol Egill anu illi in ihc laiilc ol Biunanluih/Vinhcii, as I|allual olscivcs,
may lc a iouuci ol ihc sagaman`s imaginaiion, anu hcic wc aic ucaling wiih
whai looIs liIc a hisioiical cisouc. Pcihas iwo collcis ol silvci will lc lounu in
a swam, lui aichcologisis aic unliIcly io hnu cviucncc ihai Egill lioughi ihcm
homc as a icwaiu loi his cxloiis on English soil. Thcic is no qucsiion ihai ihc
English anu ihc Noisc uiu communicaic, lui icciscly io whai ucgicc anu how wc
shall, unloiiunaicly, ncvci Inow wiih any cciiainiy. Noi lcing allc io uciciminc
ihc answci io ihis iollcm is cxcciionally liusiiaiing, lccausc viiiually cvciyihing
clsc conccining ihc issuc ol whai Icclanucis Incw aloui Anglo-Saxon Englanu
loils uown io ihc qucsiion ol communicaiion lciwccn ihc English anu ihc Noisc"
. 21).
Thcsc aic I|allual`s iimaiy souiccs: Gunlaugs saga, The First Grammatical Treatise,
Heimskringla, Agrip of Noregskonunga s,gum, Fagrskinna, Kntlinga saga, Morkinskinna,
Egils saga, Breta sgur, Saga Osvalds konungs hins helga, Dunstanus saga, anu Jatvarnar
saga. His lisi ol scconuaiy souiccs is cqually lull. Thc looI icachcs oui io sccial-
isis anu ihosc wiih minimal Inowlcugc ol mcuicval conuiiions, a ciicumsiancc
ihai incicascs iis valuc manilolu.
Anatoly Liberman
University of Minnesota
378 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 378 5/7/07 11:28:16 AM
The Development of Flateyjarbk: Iceland and the Norwegian Dynastic
Crisis of 1389. By Elizalcih Ashman Rowc. Thc ViIing Collcciion. Siuuics
in Noiihcin Civilizaiion, Vol. 15. Gylling: Thc Univcisiiy Picss ol Souihcin
DcnmaiI, 2005. P. 486, 16 laics. DIi 260.
Flateyjarbok ihc BooI ol Ilaicy") is ihc namc givcn io GKS 1005 lol., an Icclan-
uic manusciii now houscu in ihc Aini Magnsson Insiiiuic in RcyI|avI. Ii is
ihc laigcsi ol all cxiani Icclanuic aichmcnis anu lcauiilully illuminaicu. In iis
oiiginal loim, ii coniaincu 202 lcavcs. Ii was commissioncu ly ]n HIonaison
1350-lcloic 1416), a wcalihy laimci in Viualsiunga. Thc hisi sciilc io woiI
on ii was ihc iicsi ]n iaison, who lcgan in 1387, anu who on lols. 4v-134v
coicu Eirks saga vnf,rla, Olfs saga Tryggvasonar, anu mosi ol Olfs saga helga.
Thc woiI was coniinucu in 1388 ly anoihci iicsi, Magns ihallsson, who
liom 134v io ihc cnu ol ihc manusciii coicu ihc icsi ol Olfs saga helga, Noregs
konungatal, Sverris saga, Hkonar saga gamla, cxcciis liom Siyimii Kiason`s Olfs
saga helga, Einars ]ttr Sokkasonar, Helga ]ttr ok Ulfs, Jtvarnar saga, anu annals ihai
hc comilcu himscll. Hc auucu ihicc lcavcs io ihc lioni ol ihc coucx, on which
hc wioic a shoii loicwoiu anu coicu Geisli, Olfs rma Haraldssonar, Hyndluljon, an
Icclanuic cxccii liom Auam ol Bicmcn`s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae ponticum,
Sigurnar ]ttr slefu, Hversu Noregr byggnist, anu ttart,lur, anu also illuminaicu ihc
cniiic looI. In ihc laic hliccnih ccniuiy, ihc manusciii was cxanucu io iis
now 225 lcavcs. Thcsc auucu lcavcs coniain Magnss saga gona ok Haralds harnrna
iniciolaicu wiih clcvcn ]ttir.
Thc Icclanuic scholai Olalui Halluisson hyoihcsizcs ihai Flateyjarbok was
oiiginally suoscu io coniain only ihc iwo Olli sagas anu Eirks saga vnf,rla,
anu hc lclicvcs ihai ihc manusciii was inicnucu as a gili loi ihc young Iing
ol Noiway, Olli HIonaison. Whcn Olli suuucnly uicu on 3 Augusi 1387, iis
oiiginal uiosc as a gili losi iis oini. ]n iaison ihus lccamc uncmloycu
anu wcni io Noiway, anu ]n HIonaison laici hau Magns ihallsson hnish
ihc coucx. Elizalcih Ashman Rowc suoiis Olalui Halluisson`s hyoihcsis
lui claloiaics on ii. Shc oinis oui ihai scvcial scholais who havc cxamincu ihc
vcisions ol ihc icxis ihai ]n iaison iouuccu havc commcnicu on his omis-
sion ol cvcnis occuiiing uuiing ihc icign ol Saini Olli`s son Magns. In ihcii
vicw, ]n uiu so lccausc Flateyjarbok was suoscu also io incluuc Magnss saga
gona, anu ihc icvious omiiicu assagcs wcic io lc insciicu inio ihai saga whcic
ihcy lclongcu io iis inicinal chionology. Shc mainiains ihai ]i|l Ilaicy|ailI as
ii was oiiginally conccivcu was an aioiiaic gili loi a Iing namcu Olli, ii was
also a gili wiih an imlicu uiosc, ihai ol cncouiaging ihc Iing io lollow ihc
cxamlc ol his icvcicu namcsaIc" . 23). Shc uiaws aiicniion io Snoiii`s cxla-
naiion ol ihc ciicumsianccs suiiounuing Magns`s ciihci inn goni ]ihc goou|)
in ihc Heimskringla vcision ol ihc saga, which iclls ihai Sighvaii iaison in his
Bers,glisvsur uigcu King Magns io iicai his colc moic mcicilully, ihai ihc Iing
iooI Iinuly io ihc auvicc, anu ihai accoiuingly hc ucviscu a ncw sci ol laws. Thc
saga is coniaincu in Hulda, anoihci manusciii owncu ly ]n HIonaison, anu
Rowc aigucs ihai ]i|l ihai manusciii hau comc inio ]n HIonaison`s osscs-
sion ly 1387, whcn Ilaicy|ailI was lcgun, ]n woulu havc lccn lamiliai wiih
iis accouni ol an Icclanuci`s usc ol liiciaiuic io inuucncc his Noiwcgian Iing
iowaius a gicaici icscci loi ihc law. Pcihas ii cvcn ioviucu him wiih ihc iuca
loi Flateyjarbok, il Olalui`s suggcsiion is iiuc" . 24).
In hci iniiouuciion, Rowc maIcs clcai ihc aim ol hci siuuy: io cxaminc ihc
Book Reviews 379
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 379 5/7/07 11:28:16 AM
cuiioiial io|ccis ol ihc iwo iicsis who comilcu Flateyjarbok" . 25). This aim, shc
aigucs, icquiics ihcii woiI io lc siiuaicu wiihin iis laic-louiiccnih-ccniuiy con-
icxi" . 25-26), anu shc uiaws aiicniion io ihc laci ihai ]i|hc uniimcly ucaih
ol King Olli HIonaison-ihc lasi scion ol ihc Noiwcgian ioyal uynasiy-was
a iuining oini in Icclanuic anu Noiwcgian hisioiy, as ii icsulicu in ihc Danish
sovcicigniy ihai was io lasi loi moic ihan 400 ycais" . 26). A scconu aim ol
ihc siuuy is io show how Magns ihallsson`s coniiiluiion icsonus io ]n
iaison`s, iaihci ihan simly lollowing oi coniinuing ii" . 27). In hci vicw, ihc
sciilcs ol Flateyjarbok hau uillcicni ihcoiics ol hisioiy anu languagc anu so uscu
uillcicni gcnics ol liiciaiuic anu hisioiiogiahy: ]n iniciolaics Chiisiianizcu
ialcs ol auvcniuic anu laniasy inio ihc Olli-sagas, lui Magns iclcis io augmcni
ihc sagas ol Svciiii anu HIon wiih chioniclcs ol vaiious soiis. . . . Noi only uocs
Magns suiiounu ]n`s woiI wiih icxis ihai iclacc anu sulcmcni ii, ncaily all
ihcsc icxi coiicsonu io ]n`s. . . . Magns`s uiosc sccms io lc io icicau anu
icvcisc ]n`s hisioiiogiahic io|cci, loi whcic ]n ucicis ihc convcision ol
wcsicin Scanuinavia iyologically, as a ic-cnacimcni ol salvaiion hisioiy in parvo,
Magns inicgiaics ihc hisioiy ol ihc icgion inio ihc laigci conicxi ol Euiocan
hisioiy" . 27-28). Rowc mainiains ihai ]m|uch moic ihan manusciiis io-
uuccu in a monasiic sciiioiium oi an uilan woiIsho, Flateyjarbok is a manusciii
wiiiicn ly anu loi sccihc inuiviuuals ai a sccihc momcni in hisioiy, anu ihus iis
collcciion ol icxis is lai moic iniclligillc whcn ii is unucisioou as ihc icsuli ol a
uialoguc lciwccn ihcsc inuiviuuals anu ihcii aiion ai ihis iimc anu ihis lacc,
iaihci ihan as ihc icsuli ol somc uiscmlouicu cncyclocuic imulsc" . 28).
Rowc`s siuuy moic oi lcss lollows ihc mannci in which Flateyjarbok was cic-
aicu, anu ihc hisi ihicc chaicis ol ii lollowing ihc iniiouuciion) conccin ]n
iaison`s woiI. Chaicis 2 anu 3, Thc Piollcm ol Culiuial Paiciniiy: Thc
]ttir Auucu io Olfs saga Tryggvasonar" anu Thc Economics ol Chaiiiy: Thc
]ttir Auucu io Olfs saga helga," ucal wiih ihc changcs ihai ]n mauc io ihc icxi
ol ihc Olli-sagas wiih an cmhasis on ihc ]ttir ihai hc iniciolaicu inio ihcm,
anu chaici 4, Thc Rciioscciivc Consiiuciion ol Mcaning: Eirks saga vinf,rla as
Piologuc," cxamincs Eirks saga`s iniiouucioiy lunciion. Thc ncxi ihicc chaicis
ihcn iicai Magns ihallsson`s woiI. In chaici 5, Iamily Hisioiy anu Iamilics ol
Hisioiians: Thc Kings` Sagas ol Magns ihallsson," Rowc looIs ai ihc Iings` sagas
ihai Magns coicu inio ihc manusciii alici ihc Olli-sagas. Chaici 6, Iiiciaiy
Ciiiicism: Comciing Gcnics anu Thcoiics ol Hisioiy in Flateyjarbok," consiucis
ihc sulcmcniaiy icxis hc auucu io ihc cnu ol ihc looI. Anu in chaici 7, Thc
Iogic ol ihc Sulcmcni: Magns ihallsson`s Changing Euiioiial Pio|cci," shc
cxamincs ihc iclaioiy maiciial hc insciicu io loim a ncw iniiouuciion. Chaici
8, Diawing Conclusions: Thc Illuminaiions ol Magns ihallsson," uiscusscs
Magns`s aiiwoiI anu icscnis Rowc`s conclusions aloui ihc cicaiion anu hisi
iiansloimaiion ol Flateyjarbok. Chaici 9, Thc Enu ol Danish Rulc: Flateyjarbok
anu Icclanuic Inuccnucncc," suivcys ihc laici hisioiy ol ihc manusciii anu
ihc cuiiions ol ii ihai havc lccn ullishcu anu iicais ihc oliiical conicxi ol ihc
ullicaiion ol Siguiui Noiual, Iinnlogi Gumunusson, anu Vilh|lmui B|ainai`s
noimalizcu cuiiion in 1944-45. Two acnuiccs onc lisiing ihc ma|oi icxis co-
icu inio Flateyjarbok, ihc oihci illusiiaiing ihc inicilacing ol ihc icxis iniciolaicu
inio ihc Olli-sagas), sixiccn laics, a lilliogiahy, anu a namc inucx concluuc
ihc volumc.
Dcsiic iis lascinaiing ioic, ii iaIcs quiic somc uciciminaiion io maIc ii ihiough
The Development of Flateyjarbok. Alihough Rowc maIcs ii clcai in hci iniiouuciion
380 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 380 5/7/07 11:28:16 AM
whai shc inicnus io accomlish wiih hci siuuy, ihc main aigumcnis anu ihc conclu-
sions shc aiicmis io uiaw aic olicn olscuicu ly vciy long quoiaiions onc sans no
lcwci ihan hvc agcs ]. 285-90|) anu aiicniion io uciails ihai aic ciihci iiivial
oi noi ciiincni io ihc looI`s iimaiy conccins. Thc long uchniiion ol ]ttr .
12), loi cxamlc, sccms cniiicly suciuuous, givcn Rowc`s inicnucu scholaily icau-
cishi, anu much ihc samc alics io ihc iclcicnccs io Dciiiua, Kiisicva, Iacan,
anu Ioucauli . 30), csccially in lighi ol ihc laci ihai Rowc hciscll siaics ihai shc
uocs noi aiicmi io aly ihcii ihcoiics. Noncihclcss, ihcic is no uouli ihai Rowc
has mauc a coniiiluiion io ihc siuuy ol mcuicval Icclanuic comilaiions gcncially
anu Flateyjarbok in aiiiculai, anu hci olscivaiions anu aigumcnis will lc ol inici-
csi anu usc io scholais wiihin ihc hclu ol Olu Noisc-Icclanuic liiciaiuic. Many
asccis ol ihc siuuy iiscll aic also valuallc, noially ihc analysis ol ihc inuiviuual
woiIs coniaincu in Flateyjarbok. On ihc wholc, Rowc maIcs goou anu ciiiical usc
ol icvious scholaishi on ihcsc woiIs, ihough ii is somcwhai suiiising ihai shc
uocs noi maIc moic cxicnsivc usc ol Siclanic Wuiih`s Elemente des Erzhlens: Die
]ttir der Flateyjarbok Bascl, 1991). In laci, ihcic sccms io lc a gcncial iclcicncc
loi scholaishi in English. Hci uiscussion ol ihc illuminaiions in ihc coucx woulu
havc lcnchiicu liom Thomas A. DuBois`s aiiiclc, A Hisioiy Sccn: Thc Uscs ol
Illuminaiion in Flateyjarbok," which acaicu in JEGP in 2004.
Kirsten Wolf
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Einarr Sklasons Geisli: A Critical Edition. Euiicu ly Maiiin Chasc. Toionio
Olu Noisc anu Icclanuic Siuuics. Toionio: Univcisiiy ol Toionio Picss, 2005.
P. vii + 249. S29.95 aci, S65 cloih.
Thosc who aic inicicsicu in Chiisiian sIaluic ociiy Inow Einaii SIlason`s Geisli
wcll. This drpa ocm) has comc uown io us comlcic. Ii cclcliaics ihc lilc anu
osihumous miiaclcs ol Si. Olli. Geisli was iolally comoscu in ihc summci ol
1153 as Chasc aigucs), in ihc icign ol Einaii`s aiion anu liicnu King Eysicinn
Haialusson gilli, who commissioncu ihc drpa anu who is mcniioncu in ii iwicc: in
a liu loi hcaiing anu in a liu loi a icwaiu. Thc ocning siaicmcni alovc nccus a
noic: io Inow Geisli wcll is lai liom casy. Thc lauliy iiansmission anu ihc comlcx-
iiy ol ihc uiciion can lc iaIcn loi gianicu. Ii is lcss olvious ihai ihc Icnnings anu
heiti ociic synonyms) unucilying ihc imagciy ol a Chiisiian sIalu icquiic ihc
samc iyc ol claloiaic commcniaiy ihai cuiiois haliiually accoiu ihc sIalus` agan
comosiiions. In cxlicaiing Geisli, iclcicnccs io Scanuinavian myihology havc io lc
sulcmcnicu ly anu aiily givc way io a scaich loi analogucs anu souiccs in sainis`
livcs, aiiisiic liiciaiuic, anu ihc goscls io givc ihc mosi consicuous cxamlc,
geisli is noi mcicly a iay: ii is ihc lasis ol ihc mciahoi ol Chiisi as ihc sun).
Thc myihs ai oui uisosal aic lcw: Ilnii guaiucu a hoaiu, Hugin was a iavcn
anu ihcicloic a liiu ol laiilc), Icniii coulu noi closc his mouih, anu so loiih. Il
a cciiain ialc is noi iolu in cuuic ociiy anu Snoiii lailcu io cxlain an oihciwisc
incomichcnsillc Icnning, ihc commcniaioi is allowcu io conccuc uclcai wiih a
goou giacc. By coniiasi, mosi ol caily Chiisiian liiciaiuic is cxiani, anu iis cnoimiiy
lalucs ihc invcsiigaioi. Thc iollcm is noi io hnu a aiallcl io somcihing saiu
oi imlicu in ihc icxi unuci uiscussion lui io concluuc whai ihc auihoi Incw
loi cciiain, whai hc coulu havc Inown, whcic hc was an innovaioi, anu whai hc
loiiowcu liom oihcis. To ui ii uillcicnily, in cuiiing a drpa liIc Geisli, ihc mosi
imoiiani ihing is io ucciuc whcic io sio.
Book Reviews 381
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 381 5/7/07 11:28:17 AM
Maiiin Chasc is cmincnily qualihcu loi ihc iasI hc has unuciiaIcn. Hc is vciscu
in Olu Noisc anu Mcuicval Iaiin, as wcll as in sIaluic iiauiiion anu Chiisiian
cxcgcsis, anu his scll-icsiiaini is aumiiallc. Thc commcniaiy is iclaiivcly icisc,
lui ii coniains cvciyihing onc nccus loi unucisianuing ihc icxi, anu no suciuu-
ous maiici. Noi is ihc lilliogiahy inuaicu. Alihough ihc looI oiiginaicu as a
uocioial uissciiaiion, ii is licc liom uchcicncics ihai so olicn mai uissciiaiions
sul|ccicu io muliilc icwoiIings.
Geisli has lccn ullishcu scvcial iimcs in ihc asi. Naiuially, among Chasc`s
icucccssois wcic Iinnui ]nsson anu E. A. KocI, anu ihc ocm-in Icclanuic
anu English-was incluucu in Corpus Poeticum Boreale, whcncc ihc lamiliaiiiy ol
English-scaIcis wiih ii. Thcic is no commcniaiy aaii liom an English iians-
laiion. This is occasionally hcllul, lui iis oinaic languagc anu siiangc syniax
olicn maIc ii as olscuic as ihc Olu Noisc icxi," . 7.) Chasc`s cuiiion will icmain
loi a long iimc ihc main, il noi ihc only, onc loi ihosc who will iuin io Einaii
SIlason`s woiI. Thc lioni maiici is ucvoicu io ihc manusciii, ihc auihoi, uaiing,
souiccs, analogucs, anu ihc ociics ol Geisli. Thc laiici ioic is ucali wiih in gicaici
uciail in ihc commcniaiy, in ihai scciion all ihc lincs aic classihcu accoiuing io
Sicvcis`s hvc iycs, anu a lcw hinis io Einaii`s alliiciaiivc icchniquc aic givcn.
Chasc cxicsscs ihc hoc ihai comaiaiivc analysis ol ihc cniiic sIaluic coius
will somcuay icvcal whcihci ]ihc uillcicncc in ihc usc ol D lincs ly Einaii anu
Ainii| icuccis mcicly ihc iasic ol ihcsc iwo sIalus oi a lioauci changc in whai
was consiucicu ucsiiallc" . 18). Pcihas ii will, lui ii is unclcai io whai cxicni
il ai all) ihc uillcicncc is ol aiiisiic valuc. Il ii is noi, comaiaiivc analysis will
icvcal noihing woiih Inowing.
Pagcs 21-44 iaIc u a scciion callcu Aicciaiion." Chasc iangcs liccly ovci
such uivcisc sul|ccis as ihc honcmics ol sIaluic ihymc, ihc allohoncs ol /c:/,
imcsis, anu ihc sulilciics ol iconiciiy In Einaii`s ociiy, loim anu maiici aic
iclaicu, hcic ]40. 1-4| his ioiiuous syniax icuccis ihc giucsomc ihcmc ol ihc
sianza," . 151. Thc Wcnus cui oui a man`s ionguc: Vcii cI ai Vini lyi sIauii /
vcii liagi cn cii sIciu/g|allis nianua giunuai / giciuui siliga mciuuu
Vcii cI, ai Vini mciuuu lyi nianua sIauii g|allis giunuai, cn cii sIciu
sIiliga-liagi vcii giciuui ]I Inow ihai ihc Wcnus muiilaicu ihc iwig ol ihc
lanu ol noisc on ihc iivcilanI, anu ihcy cui ii ainlully, ociiy is mauc|.) This
is an inicicsiing cxamlc, lui a coiiclaiion lciwccn a sIalu`s convoluicu syniax
anu ihc sul|cci maiici is haiu io iovc. Ii is in ihc Aicciaiion" ihai Chasc
iicais ihc iclaiionshi lciwccn Geisli anu hagiogiahic liiciaiuic ucvoicu io Olli.
Among oihci ihings, hc answcis ihc qucsiion ihai occasionally uzzlcs moucin
icaucis ol ihc vitae anu csccially ol Heimskringla. Bcloic hc aiiaincu sainihoou,
Olli was anyihing lui sainily, anu Snoiii uiu noi hnu ii ncccssaiy io conccal his
ciucliy anu oihci un-Chiisiian" qualiiics ihc samc holus loi his ucsciiiion ol
ihc uncanonizcu Olli Tiyggvason). Evcn il wc iaIc inio accouni consiuciaiions
ol cxcuicncy anu ihc cculiaiiiics ol ihc saga minu," ihc lollowing shoulu lc
icmcmlcicu: ]Einaii| iaihci aologciically assciis ihai alihough Olli`s aciions
may noi havc acaicu cxcmlaiy liom a Chiisiian oini ol vicw, Olli lcu a
hiuucn, sainily lilc Inown only io Gou, a mysiical lilc in siiiiual conloimiiy io
Chiisi`s" . 29). Snoiii, who hau a sccial lonuncss loi Einaii, iolally vicwcu
ihc lilc anu uccus ol ihc missionaiy Iings in a similai way.
In ihc cuiiion, a scaiaic agc is ucvoicu io cach ol ihc scvcniy-onc sianzas.
Thc icxi is iiansciilcu liom ihc manusciiis wiih maximum accuiacy. Ncxi io
ihc sianza, ihc samc icxi is givcn in noimalizcu Olu Icclanuic oiihogiahy cl.
382 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 382 5/7/07 11:28:17 AM
57/2: verk r ]iod at merkia vcisus verk fyr ]jon at merkja). This is lollowcu ly iosc
syniax," iianslaiion inio English, icxiual noics, anu ihicc lisis: ol lcxical vaiianis,
ol honological anu sclling vaiianis all in all cighiccn manusciiis havc lccn
consulicu, ihough only iwo icscivc ihc comlcic icxi ol Geisli), anu cuiioiial
vaiianis cullcu liom ninc cuiiions). Pagcs 123-70 aic ihc commcniaiy. A glossaiy
ol all woius anu loims as ihcy occui in ihc drpa . 171-209), cnunoics io ihc
Iniiouuciion" anu Aicciaiion" . 213-28), a lilliogiahy . 229-39),
anu an inucx concluuc ihc cuiiion. Thc inucx lcaiuics ihc cisonal namcs anu
looI iiilcs mcniioncu in ihc siuuy anu a lcw sul|ccis, ihc mosi imoiiani ol ihcm
lcing Icnnings in Geisli. In my oinion, ihis is an cxcmlaiy cuiiion ol a sIaluic
drpa.
Anatoly Liberman
University of Minnesota
The Book Unbound: Editing and Reading Medieval Manuscripts and Texts.
Euiicu ly Sin Echaiu anu Sichcn Paiiiiugc. Toionio: Univcisiiy ol Toionio
Picss, 2004. P. xxi + 236, 12 hallionc, 10 coloi illusiiaiions. S50.
In ihc lasi iwo uccaucs, manusciii siuuy conlcicnccs havc iouuccu scvcial
cxccllcni cssay collcciions, which in iuin havc laciliiaicu a ncw viialiiy in ihc
cxchangc ol iucas among scholais who shaic common mcihouological iollcms
lui woiI in a wiuc iangc ol hclus. This volumc, which gicw oui ol acis ucliv-
cicu ai a Univcisiiy ol Biiiish Columlia woiIsho in 1999, locuscs squaicly on
ihc iollcm ol cuiiing. Thc usual uisclaimcis aloui ihc uilhculiy ol icvicwing a
collcciion ol cssays wiih such vaiious conicni aly in a aiiiculaily acuic mannci
hcic. In ihc iniiouuciion, aily iiilcu Vaiiciics ol Euiiing: Hisioiy, Thcoiy, anu
Tcchnology," Sin Echaiu anu Sichcn Paiiiiugc giounu ihcii aiicmi io uchnc
ihc volumc`s cohcicncc in a gcnciaiional shili ol scholais, iiaincu alici 1985, loi
whom Ncw Philology . . . icicscnicu nciihci a lilciaiing ucaiiuic liom, noi a
ihicaicning challcngc io, ihcii csiallishcu mcihous anu assumiions, lui iaihci a
loimaiivc inuucncc" . xii). Thc suliiilc alluucs io a consisicni locus ihioughoui
ihc volumc on ihc way in which ihc ncw cuiiing movcmcni loicgiounus qucs-
iions ol icauing anu iniciiciaiion. Thc hcimcncuiic iuin in cuiiing has mauc
moucin cuiiois ucicimincu io icnuci icxiual ioccsscs-ihc ioccsscs ly which
icxis aic cicaicu, icau anu asscu on-visillc" . xiii). Duiing ihis samc ciiou
osi-1985), changcs in icchnology havc allowcu cuiiois io icalizc ihc visililiiy"
ol icxiual ioccsscs moic concicicly, so ii is no suiiisc ihai many ol ihc cssays
in ihis collcciion cnucavoi io liing ihcsc iwo siianus-ihc ihcoiciical anu ihc
icchnological-iogcihci. Thc cssays iangc liom almosi uicly ihcoiciical icccs
Rolins) io minuicly local, small-scalc iccovciy io|ccis Schici). In lciwccn
ihcsc iwo olcs, somc coniiiluiois aic aciivcly ai woiI on ncw cuiiions oi icvisions
ol olu cuiiions KlincI, Rcimci).
Thc cuiiois havc choscn io oiganizc ihcii hciciogcncous maiciial so ihai ihc
cssays movc in a coniinuum liom ihosc cmhasizing hisioiy anu iaciicc ihiough
io ihosc iimaiily conccincu wiih ihcoiy anu icchnology" . xiii). Thus, ihc hisi
ihicc cssays uiiccily auuicss qucsiions ol hisioiical cuiiing iaciiccs, ihough in
slighily uillcicni ways. Annc I. KlincI, Euiiing Cursor Mundi: Sicmmaia anu ihc
Ocn` Tcxi," anu Mcg Rolanu, Alas! Who May Tiusic Thys Woilu`: Thc Maloiy
Documcnis anu a Paiallcl-Tcxi Euiiion," loih lay oui ihc cascs icvious cuiiois
havc mauc wiihin ihcii icscciivc icxiual iiauiiions anu ihcn ioviuc analysis ol
Book Reviews 383
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 383 5/7/07 11:28:17 AM
ihc iniciiciivc issucs ai siaIc in ihcsc cuiioiial choiccs. KlincI woiIs liom ihc
iaciical ciscciivc ol aiicmiing io solvc somc cuiioiial iollcms shc inhci-
iicu ly iaIing u ihc cuiiion ol Cursor Mundi lcgun ly Sally Hoiiall lcloic hci
icmaiuic ucaih. Shc hocs ihai hci comaiison ol cuiioiial aioachcs shcus
somc inicicsiing lighi on ihc imlicaiions ol osimoucin anu iiauiiional aiiiiuucs"
. 3) iowaiu cuiiing anu icxiual ciiiicism, anu inuccu ii uocs. Shc ucmonsiiaics
ihai iiauiiional mcihouologics can somciimcs iouucc cuiiions ihai aic consiuci-
ally moic iauical ic-icauings ol a icxiual iiauiiion ihan uiaiivcly moic iauical"
ihcoiics ol cuiiing. Rolanu`s cssay, ihough giounucu in ihc ciiiical languagc ol
osimoucinism, uliimaicly aigucs ihai ihc ongoing uclaic ovci ihc iioiiiy ol ihc
iini anu manusciii cuiiions ol Maloiy can only lc auuicsscu ly a aiallcl-icxi
cuiiion ol Maloiy, a soluiion ihai shoulu lcasc hilologisis, loih olu anu ncw,
cvcn il ii ianIlcs oui mosi ucvoui Ncw Ciiiics.
]ulia Maivin`s cssay, Thc Unassuming Rcauci: I. W. Maiilanu anu ihc Euiiing
ol Anglo-Noiman," coniiiluics a lascinaiing chaici io ihc hisioiy ol mcuicvalism,
as shc mincs ihc woiI ol ihis caily iwcniicih-ccniuiy lcgal scholai as hc aiicmis
io maIc scnsc ol ihc languagc ol ihc Anglo-Noiman Ycai BooIs ol Euwaiu II.
Maivin hnus in Maiilanu a moucl loi ihc iiiclcss clloii ol ihc cuiioi io gci closci
io ihc aiiiculai uciails ol languagc as icuccicu in olicn chaoiic anu unsysicmaiic
aiicins ol wiiiing in manusciiis ihai aic iccoiuing ihc quasi-oial, quasi-liiciaiy
conicxi ol lcgal aigumcniaiion. Thc cssay will iovc inicicsiing loi loih Anglo-
Noiman anu Miuulc English scholais, as wcll as ioviuing cxccllcni louuci loi
icucciing on ihc iiilingualism ol laic mcuicval Englanu.
Thc collcciion iuins liom asi cuiiing iaciiccs wiih Pcici Dichl`s An Inquisi-
ioi in Manusciii anu in Piini: Thc Tractatus super materia hereticorum ol Zanchino
Ugolini," which icuccis on ihc imoiiani uillcicnccs lciwccn ihc manusciii anu
iini vcisions ol ihis inquisiioi`s manual. Hc maIcs ihc casc loi an clcciionic cui-
iion ihai woulu allow scholais io acccss loih vcisions, aiguing ii woulu lc ol gicai
valuc io scholais ol laici ciious io scc how iini cuiiions alsoilcu oi lailcu io
alsoil) ihc manusciii iiauiiions, csccially ihcii glosscs. Similaily, ihough in a
much moic lioauly ihcoiciical vcin, Anuicw Tayloi, Euiiing Sung Ol|ccis: Thc
Challcngc ol Digly 23," aigucs ihai uigiial cuiiions hcl us hcai whai a mcuicval
ocm mighi havc sounucu liIc" . 98). Ii is a comclling casc, mauc wiih a shai
awaicncss ol ihc mcihouological iollcms ihai hovci ovci an aiicmi io iccuciaic
sounu. Though his aigumcni locuscs on ihc imoiiancc ol song in oui iccciion
ol La Chanson de Roland, ihc cssay will also lc usclul io Miuulc English scholais, as
Tayloi hcllully oinis oui how csscniial io Miuulc English siuuics ihc iiauiiion
ol oial uclivciy has lccn, ihc conuuci ol which hc ucsciilcs as a ciucial iiic ol
assagc" . 90). Alihough hc givcs moic aiicniion io ihc ihcoiciical uilcmma
ihan hc uocs io iaciical soluiions, ihc cssay iovocaiivcly suggcsis ihai moucin
icchnological innovaiion mighi allow us lciici io cngagc, allcii scculaiivcly, wiih
ihc clusivc oial comoncni ol ihc ocm`s oiiginal auuicncc.
Caiol Symcs`s cssay, The Boy and the Blind Man: A Mcuicval Play Sciii anu
Iis Euiiois," luiihci cxanus ihc iangc ol liiciaiy maiciial in ihc collcciion ly
icucciing on ihc sccihc issucs ol cuiiing a lay sciii, which in ihis casc incluucs
hanuwiiiicn annoiaiions, coiicciions, anu cxansions asscmllcu ovci a iwo-hun-
uicu-ycai ciiou ol iimc miu-ihiiiccnih ccniuiy io miu-hliccnih ccniuiy). Shc
aigucs ihai ihcsc aliciaiions suggcsi ihai ways ol icauing, iniciiciing, anu ci-
loiming ihc lay also changcu uiasiically ovci ihc samc ciiou ol iimc" . 105).
Hci aiiiclc incluucs, as an acnuix, hci iiansciiiion ol ihc icxi, incluuing ihc
384 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 384 5/7/07 11:28:18 AM
maiginal auuiiions ly laici sciilcs who icaoiiioncu uialoguc anu alicicu ly
siiiIc ihiough) ihc woiI ol cailici hanus, ihc cuiiion ihus maIcs visillc" ihc
ongoing icvisions ol ihis icxi, whosc iiansmission uiaiivcly icuccis ciloimancc
uccisions io somc ucgicc.
Thc mosi uicly ihcoiciical iccc in ihc collcciion, William Rolins`s Towaiu a
Dis|unciivc Philology," aigucs ihai an cuiioiial ioccss iiuc io ihc inicllcciual ioois
ol ihc uiscilinc woulu consiiuci a icxi ihai honcsily icicscnis a lull ioccss ol
cuiioiial ihinIing, incluuing ihosc uis|unciions" lciwccn uillcicni mcihous ol
cuiiing. Thc iaciical icsuli woulu lc whai hc calls aiallcl icxi-cuiiing" ihai uocs
noi mcicly uilomaiically iiansciilc iwo uniquc icxis, lui icicscnis iwo cniiicly
uillcicni ioccsscs ol cuiiing. In ihicc hcuiisiic moucls, hc icscnis lcasillc cx-
amlcs ol whai such cuiiions mighi looI liIc: comlining lcsi" manusciii wiih
woisi" manusciii using a assagc liom Lai de lombre), comlining iwo uillcicni
sicmmaiic cuiiions using a assagc liom Piers Plowman), anu comlining a singlc-
icxi anu a sicmmaiic cuiiion using a assagc liom La Reina dOriente). WoiIing
cuiiois may ciingc hcic, sincc uoulling ihc icauci`s lcasuic mcans uoulling
ihc cuiioi`s laloi. Thc casc siuuics aic mouclcu on cuagogical iaciiccs, Rolins
aigucs ihai onc ol|cciivc ol a uis|unciivc hilology woulu lc ihc cxoiiaiion ol
ihai hcuiisiic anu ioccss-oiicnicu aiiiiuuc oui ol ihc scminai ioom anu inio ihc
uclivciy ol ullishcu cuiiions" . 156). I am iniiigucu ly his accouni ol how
a moic iauically hcimcncuiic cuiiion woulu cngagc ihc icauci in ihc cuiioiial
ioccss ly iclusing io loicclosc ihc cuiiing ioccss. Onc immcuiaicly wonucis,
howcvci, whcihci, anu whai Iinu ol, icaucis aic u io ihc iasI.
Rcaucis wiih an inicicsi in icchnology will cciiainly wani io cngagc ihc lasi
ihicc cssays, all ol which locus on ihc ooiiuniiics ollcicu ly innovaiions in
uigiial icchnology. William Schici`s Digiiizing Ncaily) Unicauallc Iiagmcnis
ol Cyiian`s Epistolary" naiiaics his aiicmi io usc uigiial icchnology io cnhancc
anu, uliimaicly, icconsiiuci ihc Cyiian liagmcni: onc can only lc lcascu io
lcain aloui such auvcniuics in iccovciy ihai wcu oui ncwcsi icchnology io somc
ol oui olucsi icxis. Sichcn Rcimci, Unlinuing Iyugaic`s Lives of Ss. Edmund and
Fremund," uciails ihc iich iniciscciion ol visual anu vcilal cviucncc in manusciiis
ol Iyugaic`s icxi, anu aigucs ihai a moic comichcnsivc clcciionic cuiiion woulu
ocn u iovocaiivc ncw iniciiciivc avcnucs, aiiiculaily wiih icscci io ihc local
hisioiics ol ihc sainis. Though ihc gcncial aigumcni iiscll is noi ncw, wc nccu
an aimy ol iaciiiioncis liIc Rcimci who aic willing io lacc ihc iaciical huiulcs
many ol which hc also uiscusscs) in gciiing io maiIci ihcsc cuiiions, which can
lc iohiliiivcly cxcnsivc io iouucc anu ihus io consumc).
]oan Gicnici-Winihci`s Scivci-Siuc Daialascs, ihc Woilu Wiuc Wcl, anu ihc
Euiiing ol Mcuicval Pociiy: Thc Casc ol La Belle dame qui eut mercy" ollcis an cx-
amlc ol onc way io auuicss ihc qucsiion ol acccss ly cicaiing onlinc cuiiions,
which havc ihc hugc auvaniagc ol lcing uynamic, allowing scholais io cngagc
in iovisional, collaloiaiivc woiI. Using a ocm liom a hliccnih-ccniuiy cyclc
ol uclaic ocms as hci icsi casc, shc ioviucs a Iinu ol how-io" manual loi
cicaiing a scivci-siuc uaialasc, which laciliiaics woiu scaichcs anu consiiucis a
lailoim loi a iangc ol visual uaia aiiiculaily manusciii imagcs). Asiuc liom
laciliiaiing Wcl-lascu cuiiions ol icxis, a uaialasc moucl loi cuiiing ociiy allows
loi uynamic onlinc cuiiing, a aiiiculaily imoiiani icchnological innovaiion loi
giou-cuiiing io|ccis on a much laigci scalc ihan a singlc icxi say ihc cniiic
La Belle dame cyclc). Having ualllcu in hci Wcl siic, I am imicsscu ly hci ac-
comlishmcni, csccially givcn ihai shc is woiIing inuccnucnily, iaihci ihan
Book Reviews 385
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 385 5/7/07 11:28:18 AM
uialiing oll ol ihc insiiiuiional icsouiccs ol laigci uigiial icxi iniiiaiivcs. On a
lcss osiiivc noic, Gicnici-Winihci`s cuiioiial laloi woulu lcnchi liom a moic
uiicci cncounici wiih icccni ciiiical woiI on ihc cyclc ol La Belle dame ocms,
incluuing Caihciinc Aiwoou, ]oan McRac, William Calin, anu Emma Caylcy, ihc
lasi ol whom aiiiculaily cmhasizcs ihc iniciicxiual uialoguc in ihc cyclc.
Givcn ihc hciciogcnciiy ol inicicsis on uislay hcic, I may lc ihc only onc,
asiuc liom ihc cuiiois anu coniiiluiois ihcmsclvcs, io icau ihc collcciion all ihc
way ihiough. Mosi icaucis will acccss ihc cssays ihiough lilliogiahic uaialascs
whcn icscaiching a aiiiculai manusciii oi ioic aica, anu many will oiuci ihcm
ihiough inicililiaiy loan anu icccivc ihcm in a PDI. The Book Unbound is ihus
a hysical cmllcm ol a ullishing culiuic ihai may lunciion lcsi ly cvcniually
unlinuing" iiscll, anu ihcn cvolving inio a moic uynamic loim ihai icuccis ihc
lcsi oui icchnology anu scholaishi havc io ollci.
Ashby Kinch
The University of Montana
The Cambridge Old English Reader. Euiicu ly Richaiu Maisucn. Camliiugc
anu Ncw YoiI: Camliiugc Univcisiiy Picss, 2004. P. xxxiv + 532. S85 cloih),
S32.99 aci).
This looI iomiscs iwo ihings io icachcis anu siuucnis ol Olu English: a wiuc
vaiiciy ol icauing maiciial anu a usci-liicnuly loimai ihai is u io moucin sian-
uaius" . ix). A sulsianiial volumc wiih loiiy hcauings uiviucu inio six ihcmaiic
scciions, ihc Cambridge Old English Reader icscnis a iangc ol icxis lai wiuci ihan
ihc naiiow canon availallc in ihc iimcis anu icaucis in iini" . ix). Siuucnis
who havc comlcicu an iniiouucioiy couisc will wclcomc such ncw icxis as ihc
Ionihill Iciici," ihc Durham Proverbs, ihc Letter of Alexander to Aristotle, Wullsian`s
De falsis deis, anu lliic`s giammaiical woiI. Tcachcis will lc glau ihai ihc Reader
also icicscnis ihc csiallishcu canon," wiih such sialcs ol Olu English liiciaiuic
as Cyncwull anu Cynchcaiu," Allicu`s iclaccs, lliic`s Colloquy anu his iclacc
io ihc iianslaiion ol Gcncsis, ihc Sermo Lupi, cxcciis liom Beowulf, anu shoiici
ocms liIc The Dream of the Rood, The Battle of Maldon, anu clcgics. Evcn hcic,
howcvci, cuiioi Richaiu Maisucn cnucavois io shcu ncw lighi on ihc lamiliai
icxis. Ioi insiancc, hc has laccu The Seafarer in a scciion callcu Examlc anu
Exhoiiaiion," whilc assigning The Wanderer io ihc scciion Rcucciion anu Iamcni"
iogcihci wiih Deor, The Ruin, anu somc oihci Excici shoii ocms. In ihc iniio-
uuciion io The Seafarer, Maisucn aigucs ihai iniciiciaiions ol ihc ocm havc
sullcicu much liom iis lcing igcon-holcu almosi invaiially wiih The Wanderer
. . . as an clcgy,`" cvcn ihough ]i|hcic is in laci liiilc ihai is clcgiac aloui ii" .
221). By |uxiaosing ii wiih icxis liIc Bcuc`s Death Song, lliic`s homily loi Easici
Sunuay, anu Wullsian`s wiiiing, Maisucn iiics io liing homc io his icaucis ihc
vicw ihai The Seafarer is an cxhoiiaioiy anu uiuaciic ocm, in which ihc misciics
ol winici scalaiing aic uscu as a mciahoi loi ihc challcngc laccu ly ihc com-
miiicu Chiisiian" . 221).
Oihci ihcmaiic scciions in ihc volumc aic Tcaching anu Icaining," which
coniains cxcciis liom lfwines Prayerbook, Balds Leechbook, anu Allicu`s iiansla-
iion ol De consolatione Phlosophiae; Tclling Talcs," which consisis ol naiiaiivcs in
loih iosc anu vcisc, Kccing a Rccoiu," wiih Bcuc`s Ecclesiastical History of the
English People, ihc Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, anu lcgal uocumcnis, anu Sicauing ihc
Woiu," which incluucs Exodus, Genesis B, anu iosc iianslaiions ol ihc Billc, among
386 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 386 5/7/07 11:28:18 AM
oihcis. Couisc insiiuciois may ciihci lollow ihcsc ihcmaiic uivisions oi choosc
icxis ihai woulu suii ihcii own ihcmcs: loi cxamlc, ihc collcciion alounus in
icxis ciiaining io womcn, ianging liom Judith io Wulf and Eadwacer anu The Wifes
Lament io livcs ol womcn sainis io ihc Will ol llgilu" io naiiaiivcs on lcmalc
chaiacicis in Beowulf. Eiihci way, ihis Reader will, as Maisucn uis ii, ocn u aicas
ol Anglo-Saxon liiciaiy lilc which aic usually ignoicu ly all lui ihc sccialisi, anu
will cnallc icachcis ai all lcvcls io lan moic auvcniuious couiscs" . ix).
Thc Cambridge Old English Reader siiivcs alici usci-liicnulincss" ai cvciy iuin, sincc
Maisucn himly lclicvcs ihai ihc cia ol Hcniy Swcci, who coulu cxcci siuucnis
io uccihci an Olu English icxi only wiih a giammai anu a uiciionaiy, has long
gonc, as ihough ii hau ncvci lccn" . ix). Wc now livc in an agc, insicau, whcn
icachcis musi osiiivcly cncouiagc siuucnis io icau Olu English: as lai as Maisucn
can scc, ihcic is no viiiuc . . . in wiihholuing anyihing ihai mighi hcl ihcm" .
ix). Thc ncw Reader uscs a loimai ihai is iolally moic lamiliai io siuucnis ol laici
mcuicval English liiciaiuic. Glosscs aic givcn on ihc samc agc as ihc icxi, io ihc
lai iighi loi ociiy anu immcuiaicly lclow loi iosc, wiih longci noics sulicu ai
ihc loiiom ol cach agc. In auuiiion, ihcic is a lull glossaiy ai ihc cnu ol ihc volumc
loi ihosc amliiious siuucnis who sccI alicinaiivc iniciiciaiions oi moic linguisiic
inloimaiion. Thc ihicclolu aiu ol glosscs, noics, anu glossaiy will wiihoui uouli
accclciaic ihc icauing ioccss loi siuucnis. Giammaiical inloimaiion ioviucu ly
samc-agc glosscs is mosily accuiaic, anu ihc lcw insianccs ol lcss lausillc aising
woulu casily lc icmovcu in a luiuic cuiiion c.g., stanclifu in 26/23 shoulu lc luial
anu noi singulai, la]ere in 30/90 is liIcly osiiivc iaihci ihan comaiaiivc).
This usci-liicnuly Reader is noncihclcss lascu on iigoious scholaishi. Thc
icxis aic cuiicu liom ihc oiiginal manusciiis, miciohlms, oi lacsimilcs, wiih no
aiicmi ai noimalizaiion anu wiih vciy lcw mouihcaiions cxcci loi cxansion
ol coniiaciions anu caiializaiion ol ioci namcs as wcll as ihc iwo iincial
namcs loi ihc uciiy God anu Drihten)" . xix). Thc iniiouuciion io cach icxi ollcis
usclul lacIgiounu Inowlcugc anu wcll-sclccicu scconuaiy maiciial loi luiihci
icauing. Thc sulsianiial iclcicncc giammai will scivc as a uccnuallc guiuc loi
siuucnis who nccu io iclicsh ihcii mcmoiy in moihology anu syniax. In sum, ihc
Cambridge Old English Reader iomiscs io lccomc a sianuaiu icxilooI loi icachcis
who lan io ollci an inicimcuiaic couisc anu loi siuucnis who hoc io conuuci
luiihci icauing on ihcii own alici comlciing an iniiouucioiy couisc.
Haruko Momma
New York University
Verbal Encounters: Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse Studies for Roberta
Frank. Euiicu ly Anionina Hailus anu Russcll Poolc. Toionio: Univcisiiy
ol Toionio Picss, 2005. P. ]vii| + 298. S75.
Ii is unusual loi a scholai who is siill in miucaicci io lc ihc icciicni ol a lcsischiili,
lui Rolciia IianI, ihc iichly ucsciving honoianu ol ihis volumc, is a sccial casc.
In 2000, alici ihiiiy-iwo highly iouuciivc ycais anu iomoiion io Univcisiiy
Piolcssoi ai ihc Univcisiiy ol Toionio, Piolcssoi IianI acccicu a chaii ai Yalc
Univcisiiy anu commcnccu a scconu liilliani caicci in Ncw Havcn. A giou ol
hci loimci giauuaic siuucnis ai Toionio, now uisiinguishcu scholais ai univcisiiics
in Canaua, Englanu, Euioc, Amciica, anu Ausiialia, havc icaicu ihc icscni
volumc io honoi hci ycais ai Toionio. Thc lcsischiili incluucs a caialoguc ol
Piolcssoi IianI`s ullicaiions, anu ihc long lisi ol woiIs Ioiihcoming" ai ihc
Book Reviews 387
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 387 5/7/07 11:28:19 AM
cnu ol ihc lilliogiahy givcs cloqucni wiincss io ihc laci ihai ihc honoianu`s
caicci is in medias res.
Thc conicnis ol ihc volumc aic icscnicu in loui scciions ihai icicscni cl-
lcciivcly scvcial ol Piolcssoi IianI`s ma|oi scholaily inicicsis: On Woius," On
Anglo-Iaiin anu Olu English Piosc," On Olu English Pociiy," anu On Olu Noisc
Iiiciaiuic." Chiisiohci A. ]oncs gcis ihc collcciion oll io an ausicious siaii wiih
a lascinaiing anu uccly lcaincu cssay ovci onc hunuicu lunciional, inloimaiivc
looinoics) on ihc suiiisingly vaiious iniciiciaiions ol ihc GiccI woiu chaos in ihc
caily Miuulc Agcs. Thc iniciiciaiions iangc liom ihc iimal somcihing,` whcihci
a voiu oi conlusion ol maiici, io ihc unuciwoilu agan, ]cwish, oi Chiisiian), io
uaiIncss alallc in ihc loim ol clouu, misi, log, vaoui, oi uusi, io a liminal sacc
lciwccn lilc anu ucaih, hcavcn anu hcll, oi uci anu ncihci hclls, io a hazaiuous
iiail conncciing woilus, oi io somc laiiici, maiciial oi moial, scaiaiing ihcm"
. 38). Thc souiccs anu iniciiclaiions ol ihcsc vciy uisaiaic consiiuciions ol ihc
icim chaos aic luciuly cxlaincu anu conicxiualizcu.
Don Chaman`s Comosing anu ]oining: How ihc Anglo-Saxons TalIcu aloui
Comounuing" iaiscs an inicicsiing anu imoiiani qucsiion. Wc woulu liIc io
Inow how ihc civasivc comounu woius in Olu English csccially in ihc ociiy)
wcic ciccivcu ly an Anglo-Saxon auuicncc. Diu Anglo-Saxons iyically icmain
scnsiiivc io ihc comoncni clcmcnis ol such woius, oi was lcxicalizaiion moic
common. Chaman aioachcs ihc qucsiion ly analyzing ihc Iaiin woius uscu
io iclci io comounus in giammaiical iicaiiscs-ihcii ciymologics, mcanings,
cic.-wiih somc aiicniion io ihc Olu English woius uscu io icnuci ihc Iaiin
icims. This uicly iciminological aioach mighi lc hiiingly comlcmcnicu ly
luiihci siuuy ol Olu English comounus ihcmsclvcs. Calqucs anu aaicni noncc
loimaiions liIc hildegicel anu mu]bona in Beowulf suggcsi, on ihc onc hanu, ihai
awaicncss ol comoncni clcmcnis was Iccn, coalcsccu loims liIc hlaford, on ihc
oihci hanu, suggcsi lcxicalizaiion. A comichcnsivc siuuy woulu lc wclcomc.
Paulinc Hcau shows how ihc loiiuiious comlinaiion ol ihc uisiinci mcanings io
givc liiih" anu io maIc Inown" in ihc Olu English woiu cennan anu iis uciivaiivcs
was consciously cxloiicu ly Anglo-Saxon scimon wiiicis anu oihcis io convcy ihc
concci ol Chiisi`s liiih as a icvclaiion. Thc sIill anu sulilciy wiih which Hcau
cxloics ihis ihcioiical siiaiagcm maIcs ihc cssay an csccially ai iiiluic io Ro-
lciia IianI, whosc woiI ii olicn icscmllcs. Anoihci siiong cssay, Piiuc, Couiagc,
anu Angci: Thc Polyscmousncss ol Olu English Mod" ly Soon-Ai Iow, shows how
Olu English mod uislays a siiiIing iangc ol mcanings: minu ]mosi commonly|,
couiagc, iiuc, angci." Whcicas somc scholais in ihc asi havc iiicu io cxlain
ihis scmaniic hcnomcnon ly iclcicncc io an cxicssion ol ihc Gcimanic siiii,
icnuing in ciihci a maiiial oi a icligious uiicciion" Giimm), Iow shows ihai ihis
ioccss ol olyscmizaiion" is also cviucni in a vaiiciy ol oihci woius in vaiious
languagcs anu so is noi liIcly io lc cxicssivc ol a uniqucly Gcimanic minusci.
Two ol ihc cssays auuicss ihc sul|cci ol cuucaiion. Caiin Rull, Desipere in loco:
Siylc, Mcmoiy, anu ihc Tcachallc Momcni," shows how ciymology, woiu associa-
iions, anu similcs aic uscu ly Anglo-Saxon uiuacis as mncmonic ciuichcs in icaching
giammai anu oihci icchnical sul|ccis. HaiuIo Momma, Thc Euucaiion ol Bcowull
anu ihc Allaii ol ihc Icisuic Class," iniciicis Beowulf as an accouni ol how a lolI-
ialc liawlci wiih monsicis is cuucaicu inio lccoming a waiiioi in ihc lcisuic class
as uchncu ly Thoisicin Vcllcn) in a sixih-ccniuiy Gcimanic aiisiociacy.
Doioihy Haincs, Couiiioom Diama anu ihc Homilciic Monologucs ol ihc Ver-
celli Book," ucmonsiiaics cllcciivcly how somc Vcicclli homilisis usc long, ihcioii-
388 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 388 5/7/07 11:28:19 AM
cally hcighicncu monologucs io imaii loicc anu viviuncss io ihcii uciciions ol
]uugmcni Day. Thc oulaiiiy ol ihcsc sci-iccc monologucs is suggcsicu ly ihc
licqucncy wiih which ihcy wcic cxcciicu in sulscqucni scimon manusciiis. An-
oihci cssay on ihc liiciaiy usc ol uiicci uiscouisc, Aiiiculaic Coniaci in Juliana"
ly Anionina Hailus, analyzcs Cyncwull`s naiiaiivc siiaicgics in Juliana in icims
ol ihc aiiiculaic coniaci moucl ol communicaiion"-a osiscmioiic hilosohy
ol languagc in which languagc is vicwcu as an clcmcni ol ihoughi iaihci ihan a
icicscniaiion ol ii. Hci locus is on ihc conlioniaiional vcilal cncounicis in ihc
ocm.
In Him as giim lcan lccom`: Thc Thcmc ol Inlciiiliiy in Genesis A," Kaiin
Olscn aigucs ihai in ihis ocm human iiansgicssion anu unishmcni aic consis-
icnily oiiiaycu as iccnacimcnis ol Saian`s iclcllion anu lall.
Rolcii DiNaoli, Ouu Chaiacicis: Runcs in Olu English Pociiy," icvicws Olu
English ocis` cmloymcni ol iuncs in The Rune Poem, in ihc iiuulcs, anu in ihc
Cyncwulhan signaiuics. His olscivaiions aloui Cyncwull`s signaiuic assagcs aic
csccially inicicsiing.
An imoiiani scgmcni ol Rolciia IianI`s scholaily ocuvic is maiIcu ly loui
concluuing cssays ucaling wiih Olu Icclanuic liiciaiuic. In Thc Rcliacicu Bcam:
Einaii SIlason`s Iiiuigical Thcology," Maiiin Chasc ioviucs a uciailcu cxlica-
iion ol Einaii`s uia Geisli lcam, iay) in ihc conicxi ol lighi imagciy in ihc Ncw
Hymnaiy" ol ihc clcvcnih ccniuiy. In a vciy uillcicni cxcicisc in closc icauing, Oicn
IalI uisccins a gamy scaiological mcaning in ihc vciscs kvinlingar) quoicu ly Gsli
anu SIcgg in ihc couisc ol ihcii uucl in Gsla sage Bcaiulcss Wonucis: Gaman
vas Sxu` ]Thc Scx Was Gicai|"). Bcinauinc McCiccsh, Piohciic Dicams anu
Visions in ihc Sagas ol ihc Eaily Icclanuic Sainis," shows how ihc moiil ol iohc-
cics anu iohciic uicams, which is commonly cmloycu in caily, naiivc Icclanuic
naiiaiivcs wiih fylgjur ]lcichcs|, v,lur ]sccicsscs|, spkonur ]iohcicsscs| anu
ihc liIc) is iiansloimcu anu assimilaicu in a icmaiIallc synciciism wiih sianuaiu
moiils liom ihc Chiisiian iiauiiion, csccially in ihc Bishos` Sagas. Russcll Poolc
concluucs ihc volumc ly quoiing a sciics ol assagcs liom Olu English anu Olu
Noisc icxis iclaiing io ocis iccciving gilis liom aiions oi io uivcisc Iinus ol Iin-
shi anu auoiion. Hc icvicws ihc icxiual ciiiicism ihai has lccn uiiccicu ai somc
woius anu hiascs in his quoicu assagcs.
Thc looI is wcll iouuccu, anu slis aic iaic: angelschsischen has losi iis umlaui
. 40, n. 6), Danicl Donoghuc has lccn icchiisicncu Daviu Donoghuc" .
169, n. 17), Phili Kia`s namc is icscllcu Phili" . 129, n. 7), wak a-
cais loi wake . 153, l. 20). Thc iolounu inuucncc ol Rolciia IianI is cviucni
ihioughoui ihc volumc, in which ciiaiions ol hci ullicaiions aic civasivc. In
Verbal Encounters a iichly ucsciving honoianu is iichly honoicu.
Fred C. Robinson
Yale University
Families of the King: Writing Identity in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
By Alicc Shcaiu. Toionio: Univcisiiy ol Toionio Picss, 2004. P. x + 266.
S70.
Thc ongoing ullicaiion ol The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition Cam-
liiugc: D. S. Bicwci, 1986- ) has insiicu a icsuigcncc in inicicsi in ihc manu-
sciii conicxis ol ihc mosi cxansivc anu lcasi-unucisioou icxi in ihc Anglo-Saxon
canon. Ranging acioss six cxiani manusciiis, lus iwo liagmcnis, ihai san moic
Book Reviews 389
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 389 5/7/07 11:28:19 AM
ihan iwo ccniuiics ol iouuciion anu comc liom all ovci Englanu, ihc Chronicle
has long challcngcu scholais wiih iis comlcxiiy. Wiih ihc six main manusciiis
now availallc in auihoiiiaiivc cuiiions, scholais havc cmliaccu ihc Chronicle in
siic ol iis unwicluy naiuic anu ihc lcihoia ol iniciiciivc uilcmmas ii icscnis.
Alicc Shcaiu`s Families of the King is a slcnuiu auuiiion io ihis iicnu.
Aiicmiing io consiiuci a unihcu ihcoiy ol iniciiciaiion loi ihc Chronicle as a
wholc sccms ill auviscu, anu Shcaiu wiscly avoius maIing comichcnsivc claims
aloui ihc icxi as a wholc. Raihci, shc ucmonsiiaics ihai ihc mosi cllcciivc anu
illuminaiing icauings siing liom lollowing a singlc ihcmaiic ihicau ihiough ihc
Chronicle`s comlcx, iniciwovcn laliic. Hci looI locuscs on ihc icicscniaiion
ol loiushi olligaiions as ihcy wcic ciloimcu, wcll oi ill, ly hvc Iings ai vaiious
ciucial momcnis in laici Anglo-Saxon hisioiy: Allicu, ihclicu, Cnui, Euwaiu, anu
William. Shc uocs noi aiguc ihai loiushi, as conccivcu in ihc hcioic iiauiiion,
was a lunciioning aii ol laic Anglo-Saxon oliiical iaciicc lui ihai ihc annals
ol conqucsi, invasion, anu sciilcmcni can moic iocily lc sccn as uchning oi
consiiiuiivc hciions in which ihc loiushi iic ol Iing anu man is wiiiicn as ihc
iucniilying cihos ol ihc Angelcynn, ihc Anglo-Saxon colc" . 4). In ihis icau-
ing, ihc Chronicle is allc io icvcal ihc iucological conhguiaiions ol Anglo-Saxon
iucniiiy: how ihc Anglo-Saxons, oi ai lcasi ihosc who wioic ihc annals ol ihcii
hisioiy, saw ihcmsclvcs. Shcaiu lcgins liom ihc conviciion ihai wiiiicn hisioiy
is consciously anu caiclully shacu ly iis auihois anu ihai iccogniiion ol ihis uc-
sign can giani insighi inio ihc vicws ol iis cicaiois. In hci iniiouucioiy chaici,
Shcaiu noics ihc haiuly coinciucnial synchioniciiy ol Allicu`s hisioiical io|cci
in commissioning ihc Chronicle, anu ihc iisc ol ihc icim Angelcynn io ucsciilc his
colc in oihci icxis. Il hisioiy anu naiional iucniiiy aic ihus iniciiwincu, as Shc-
aiu suggcsis, ihcn ihc naiional chaiacici musi uccnu, io somc ucgicc, on ihc
iulci who insiiiuicu ii. Ioi ihis icason, Shcaiu cxamincs cach ol ihc hvc Iings
wiihin his aiiiculai hisioiical momcni, ihiough shiliing gcnics anu ihc vagaiics
ol hisioiical ncccssiiy, hci icauing ol loiushi anchois a cohcicni, il aumiiiculy
noi comichcnsivc, unucisianuing ol onc ascci ol ihc Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
Each ol ihc looI`s sulscqucni chaicis luilus on ihc iuca ol loiushi as loun-
uaiional io ihc Chronicle`s icicscniaiion ol Anglo-Saxon iucniiiy. Chaicis 2 anu
3 sysicmaiically cxloic Allicu`s iisc io owci in ihc annals anu in ancillaiy icxis,
as Shcaiu noics, ihc hisioiical naiiaiivc ol Allicu`s licqucni miliiaiy uclcais
uocs noi suoii his icuiaiion as a gloiious Iing, yci ihc samc annals ihai iccoiu
ihcsc uclcais givc icaucis an Allicu whosc ciloimancc ol loiushi olligaiions
cnsuic ihc loyaliy anu icscci ol his colc. Evcn il hc is noi a liillianily succcsslul
waiiioi in ihcsc caily ycais, hc siill cains ihc lovc ol his lollowcis. Whcn hc uocs
hnally sccuic miliiaiy vicioiy againsi ihc Dancs, his Iingshi has alicauy lccn
assuicu. Shcaiu aigucs convincingly ihai ihc languagc ol ihc annals woiIs io
associaic Allicu wiih ihc colc as ooscu io ihc iciiiioiy) ihai hc govcins,
ihis, shc conicnus, maIcs his iulc ol ihc Anglo-Saxons moic ol a cisonal icla-
iionshi loi ihc uioscs ol ihc annalisi`s hisioiical ciscciivc. Annals such as
ihc Cyncwull-Cynchcaiu cisouc 755 A.D.) icinloicc ihis conncciion lciwccn
loiu anu colc, anu as colc lccomc ihc annalisi`s ccniial locus, ihc loss ol
iciiiioiy in Allicu`s caily ycais is lcss uciiimcnial io his iolc as a lcauci ol mcn.
This lcaucishi iolc cxicnus io ihc cuucaiion ol his sul|ccis, which Shcaiu
cluciuaics ihiough a icauing ol Assci`s Vita Alfredi. Assci`s woiI iounus oui ihc
iciuic ol Allicu as a iiuc anu loyal loiu, lcnuing cicucncc io Shcaiu`s laigci
aigumcnis aloui loiushi in ihc annals ihcmsclvcs. Thc conicniion ihai cuuca-
390 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 390 5/7/07 11:28:20 AM
iion is a loim ol social coniiol is laiily commonlacc, howcvci, as Shcaiu oinis
oui, Assci`s Allicu uislays a lciici-uocumcnicu inicicsi in ihc cuucaiion ol his
sul|ccis ihan mosi conicmoiaiy iulcis. Assci, liIc ihc annalisi ol ihc Chronicle,
clcaily has an invcsimcni in icscniing Allicu as Iing ol a colc, iaihci ihan a
iciiiioiy. In loih cascs, ihc hisioiy ol Allicu`s Iingshi sianus in siaiI coniiasi io
similai Coniincnial icxis, whcic hisioiy is iniciicicu accoiuing io a salvaiion nai-
iaiivc, in loih ihc Chronicle anu Assci`s accounis, Anglo-Saxon hisioiy locuscs on
ihc immcuiaic hguic ol ihc Iing anu his cisonal iclaiionshi io his sul|ccis.
This cisonal iclaiionshi is, accoiuing io Shcaiu, whai maIcs oi licaIs
a Iingshi. Whilc Allicu`s Iingshi is iccoiucu as a succcss, in siic ol miliiaiy
insialiliiy, ihc Chronicle shows King ihclicu II in a vciy uillcicni lighi. Chaicis
4 anu 5 ucal wiih whai is cihas ihc mosi liaughi oiiion ol ihc Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle, namcly ihc annals iccouniing ihc icign ol ihclicu, which aic chai-
aciciizcu ly a lailuic io iccl Danish invasion. Ii is haiu io icau ihis accouni as
anyihing oihci ihan an unmiiigaicu uisasici, anu Shcaiu agiccs. Hcic, howcvci,
shc aigucs loi a iuin iowaiu salvaiion hisioiy as ihc Chronicle`s iniciiciivc moucl,
ihc sin oi iiansgicssion ai ihc iooi ol ihc Danish conqucsi is ihclicu`s lailuic
io csiallish goou loiushi iclaiions wiih his nollcs. In ihc Allicuian annals, ihc
Chronicle was an iucological icxi anu manilcsiaiion ol a ncw Iinu ol vcinaculai
hisioiical wiiiing" . 50), now, ihc liamcwoiI ol salvaiion hisioiy maIcs ihc
ihcioiic ol ihc thelred-Cnut Chronicle mcaninglul" . 73). Shcaiu uocs noi
icscni a ncw iniciiciaiion ol ihc annals ihcmsclvcs, lui shc uocs show how
a locus on Iingshi, uiawn liom hci icauing ol ihc Allicuian annals, aciually
hcighicns ihc scnsc ol iolounu lailuic ihai civaucs ihc chioniclci`s accouni.
Il ihc uiosc ol ihc Allicu annalisi was io siicngihcn a scnsc ol iucniihcaiion
lciwccn Iing anu colc, ihcn ihc ihclicu annalisi has quiic ihc oosiic goal:
io scaiaic Anglo-Saxon iucniiiy liom ihc imagc ol an incomcicni iulci. In
ihc thelred-Cnut Chronicle," Shcaiu wiiics, ihc Iing is noi sulhcicnily icscni
ai ihc naiiaiivc ccniic," anu loi goou icason . 80). Thc lailuic ol ihclicu`s
loiushi avcs ihc way loi Cnui`s succcssion as a lcgiiimaic lccausc loyal) loiu
ol ihc Anglo-Saxons. Insicau ol a uchniiivc miliiaiy vicioiy, Cnui conqucis`
Anglo-Saxon Englanu ihiough a sciics ol acccssions, cach ol which ihc annalisi
chaiaciciizcs as an aci ol loiushi" . 113). Anglo-Saxon iucniiiy, ihcicloic,
coniinucs io lc lounucu uon ihc iuca ol loyal loiushi, io ihc cxclusion ol lac-
iois such as ucsccni, naiionaliiy, oi languagc.
Chaicis 6 anu 7 concluuc ihc naiiaiivc ol loiushi wiih ihc conqucsi ol William
in 1066. Shcaiu suggcsis ihai, in coniiasi io iis naiiaiivc ol Cnui`s succcssion,
ihc Chronicle oiiiays ihc Noiman Conqucsi as a sciics ol cvcnis ihai loicclosc
any iciuin io ihc uiscouiscs ol iucniiiy anu iucal loiushi aiiiculaicu cailici in ihc
Allicu anu ihclicu-Cnui annals" . 121). Ioi Shcaiu, 1066 ihus lccomcs a
uccisivc momcni in ihc hisioiy ol English iucniiiy, anu ihc laiicn lanuscac uc-
icicu in ihc osi-1066 annals icuccis ihis loss. Thc uisinicgiaiion ol ihc Angelcynn
lcgins in Euwaiu`s icign, which is chaiaciciizcu ly a lailuic, similai io ihclicu`s,
io mainiain loiushi iclaiions wiih ihc noliliiy. Nciihci Euwaiu noi Haiolu is allc
io insiic ihc loyaliy ihai allowcu Allicu io uiaw ihc Angelcynn iogcihci, as a icsuli,
ihcii icigns icciiiaic ihc cnu ol Anglo-Saxon Englanu. Thc annals ol William`s
icign iccouni iclcllion anu uncasc uuc, noi io conqucsi alonc, lui io William`s
lailuic io honoi ihc Anglo-Saxon colc wiih loyal loiushi. Ioiulcss, liIc ihc
scaIcis ol The Wanderer oi Deor, ihc Anglo-Saxons lauc inio hisioiy. Thc laici
Chronicle cniiics iccoiu a iiansiiion liom Iingshi lascu on a cisonal iclaiionshi
Book Reviews 391
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 391 5/7/07 11:28:20 AM
wiih ihc colc io onc ihai uccnus, loi iis lcgaliiy, on highly imcisonal chaiicis
anu wiiis. Yci ihc scnsc ol a common lonu lascu on loyal loiushi coniinucs io
civauc laici accounis ol English hisioiy, such as ihc Peterborough Chronicle, com-
ilcu in ihc caily iwcllih ccniuiy.
In ihc cnu, Families of the King uocs noi maIc gianu, swccing claims aloui
ihc changing naiuic ol naiional iucniiiy ovci ihc iwo ccniuiics lciwccn Allicu`s
iisc anu William`s ucaih. Bui nciihci uocs ii claim io. Ii hinis ai, lui uocs noi
ovciily ui loiwaiu, iniiiguing noiions aloui ihc comlcx iclaiionshis lciwccn
hisioiy, icicscniaiion, anu iucology. Thc looI is noi cilcci, loi cxamlc, ihcic
is consiuciallc icnsion lciwccn ihc ihcmaiic layoui ol ihc main ihcsis anu ihc
chionological oiganizaiion ol ihc chaicis ihcmsclvcs, anu ii is somciimcs unclcai
whcihci Shcaiu lclicvcs ihai iulcis liIc Cnui anu William aciually iaciiccu
loiushi iclaiions oi aic simly lcing icicscnicu, ly ihc annalisi, in ihosc icims.
Similaily, ihc chaici on Assci, whilc a usclul counicioini io ihc Chronicle nai-
iaiivc, uocs iaIc us away liom ihc siaicu locus ol ihc looI. Siuuy ol ihc Chronicle
always sccms io lcau onc uown uncxccicu siuc ioaus, howcvci, anu Families of the
King succccus in moucling a succcsslul aioach io a noioiiously uilhculi woiI.
Thc looI luiihcis oui unucisianuing ol ihc iucological owci ol conccis liIc
loiushi" anu ihc goou Iing" in Anglo-Saxon sociciy, anu iis icauing ol ihc icxis
gianis signihcani insighi inio ihc always-comlicaicu iclaiionshi lciwccn iucol-
ogy anu owci. Iis uciailcu looinoics anu cxccllcni lilliogiahy will uoulilcss
scc illaging ly oihci siuucnis ol ihc Chronicle, anu Shcaiu`s siuuy is lounu io
lc an insiiaiion loi luiuic woiI. Families of the King is an amliiious io|cci anu
a valuallc coniiiluiion io ihc ongoing scaich loi claiiiy aloui ihc Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle.
Rene R. Trilling
University of Illinois
The English Romance in Time: Transforming Motifs from Geoffrey of Mon-
mouth to the Death of Shakespeare. By Hclcn Cooci. Oxloiu: Oxloiu
Univcisiiy Picss, 2004. P. xiv + 542. S125.
Thc iniiouuciion io ihis wisc anu wiuc-ianging looI is as chaiaciciisiically cn-
iciiaining as all ihc icsi. Ii ocns on ihc nccu, in ihc 1590s, loi a lcai suii loi a
uiamaiizcu vcision ol ihc iomancc Valentine and Orson, anu wiih ihis Hclcn Cooci
ai oncc convcys in an casy anu humoious lashion hci sciious oini: ihc gcnic ol
iomancc lasicu so long ii was ihc ma|oi gcnic ol scculai hciion loi hvc hunuicu
ycais") ihai iis maiciials, cvcn whcn icwoiIcu, wcic comlcicly lamiliai io Rc-
naissancc auuicnccs. Whcn ihcy icau ihc Faerie Queene oi waichcu a ShaIcscaic
lay, ihcy uiu so conuiiioncu, noi |usi ly a giounuing in classical liiciaiuic oi an
acquainiancc wiih conicmoiaiy Euiocan wiiiing, lui ly a ihoiough Inowlcugc
ol iomancc sioiics anu ihcii iia|ccioiics, which cnallcu ihcm lciici io aicci-
aic whai ihc icvisci, whcihci oci oi uiamaiisi, was uoing. Cooci`s looI aims
io icsioic io us ihai auuicncc`s ucgicc ol Inowlcugc.
Wiiiing aloui iomancc always icnus io iaisc ihc iollcm ol uchning anu caicgo-
iizing. Cooci avoius ihis ly siiuciuiing hci looI aiounu whai shc calls mcmcs"
a icim iaIcn liom Richaiu DawIins): iucas which auai anu muiaic. Each chaici,
aaii liom ihc iniiouucioiy hisi, anu io an cxicni ihc ihiiu a icvision ol a icvious
aiiiclc on magic), is ucvoicu io onc ol ihcsc. An incviiallc coiollaiy is ihai no onc
ma|oi woiI is cvci analyzcu oncc anu loi all. Insicau, ihc Faerie Queene oi Othello
392 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 392 5/7/07 11:28:20 AM
oi Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, loi cxamlc, iccui in mosi chaicis, lui, sincc
ihcic is vciy liiilc icciiiion ol iucas, ihis is a lonus, noi an iiiiiani: cach iimc ihcy
iccui, a ncw lighi is casi uon ihcm ly ihc comany, anu ihc mcmc, ihcy Icc.
Chaici 2 is ihus ucvoicu io iomanccs conccincu wiih ihc mcmc ol qucsi anu
iis associaicu concci, ilgiimagc. Hcic ihcic is a hisi shoi ai Gawain-iis iclimi-
naiics anu analysis coulu lc iccommcnucu icauing io unucigiauuaics-anu an
cxccllcni suivcy ol ihc oulai Guy ol WaiwicI sioiy, lcauing smooihly io Scnsci`s
Guyon. By ihc cnu ol ihc chaici, wc icalizc how aioachallc Rcnaissancc icaucis
woulu havc lounu ihc Faerie Queene lccausc iis siiuciuics ol ihoughi," mcihous,"
anu lanuscacs" woulu havc lccn vciy lamiliai liom cailici iomanccs. This layoui
is lollowcu in sulscqucni chaicis, in ihai uiscussion ol ihcii mcmcs-ioviucncc
anu ihc sca, laciy Iings anu misiicsscs, ucsiiallc ucsiic," womcn on iiial, icsioi-
ing ihc iighilul hcii, anu unhay cnuings-iogicsscs ihiough cailici io laici
iomanccs, io Chaucci anu Maloiy, anu hnally io ihc gicai iiio ol Siuncy, Scnsci,
anu ShaIcscaic. Ii is noi wiih ihc inicniion ol uisaiaging somc chaicis ihai
I iaisc oihcis, lui cisonally I cn|oycu Chaici 3, ihc loimci aiiiclc on magic
ihai uocsn`i woiI," wiihin iis looI sciiing, as much as cvci, csccially wiih iis cul-
minaiion in Oihcllo`s hanuIcichicl. Chaicis 5 anu 6 on womcn aic cxccllcni,
lull suivcys ol coniiasiing oiiiayals, wiih ihc inicicsiing suggcsiion ihai somc
wiiicis incoioiaicu aniilcminisi vicws in ihcii iomanccs so as io acInowlcugc
auuicncc anxiciy anu so io hcl ncuiialisc ii" . 388).
By ihc cnu, I was himly cisuaucu ol ihc giounuing ol Rcnaissancc liiciaiuic in
iomancc sioiics anu lounu ihai my icauings ol Scnsci, Siuncy, anu ShaIcscaic
hau lccn consisicnily illuminaicu ly ihc conicxi sulicu ly lcssci-Inown woiIs,
ihc symaihciic analysis ol somc ol ihcsc olicn uisaiagcu ocms, liIc Sir Percyvell,
was a lcasuic io icau. Evciy gcncializaiion oi ahoiism is iooicu in such closc
icxiual uiscussion. This incviially involvcs much loi summaiy, lui ii is haiu io
avoiu anu csscniial in ihc casc ol iclaiivcly olscuic woiIs such as Richaiu Hughcs`s
Misfortunes of Arthur 1587).
Thc iiilc ol ihc looI is lcasingly choscn anu ai: ihc iomancc in iimc" mcans
ihai wc aic olicn icminucu ol ihc imoiiancc ol iis hisioiical conicxi, ol ihc way
Scnsci`s woiI, loi cxamlc, icsonucu io ihc icssuics ol iimc anu changc,
ol how ShaIcscaic was awaic in Henry VIII anu ihc Winters Tale) ihai sioiics
ol accuscu quccns coulu closcly coiicsonu io hisioiical cvcnis, anu ol ihc way
a signihcani minoiiiy ol ihc mosi lamous iomanccs choosc unhay cnuings
lccausc ihcsc siicss ihai loih haincss anu misciy aic sul|cci io muialiliiy.
Thcic aic a lcw ciiois, io lc cxccicu in a looI wiih such a laigc covciagc,
anu a lcw oinions ocn io uisagiccmcni. I`m noi suic wc havc any cviucncc ihai
Chiiicn uc Tioycs siaiicu wiiiing as caily as ihc 1160s . 26) anu io ucsciilc
Yvain as a iomancc ol aioncmcni" . 199) iaihci glosscs ovci ihc amlivalcncc
ol iis cnuing. Gcollicy ol Monmouih lcavcs ii cniiicly u io us io ucciuc whcihci
Guincvcic has a willing allaii wiih Mouicu . 404), lui hci liighicncu uighi
liom ihc usuici suggcsis oihciwisc, ii is ihc Iiisi Vaiiani Vcision ol ihc Historia,
anu Wacc`s Brut alici ihai, which siicss hci comliciiy. Aiihuiian naiiaiivcs liom
ihc Draco Normannicus onwaius havc scvcial shois ai ucmyihologizing Aiihui"
lcloic Elizalcihan siuucni lawycis auu ihcii cnnywoiih . 405). In Gcollicy
anu Wacc, Uihci maIcs lovc io Ygcinc lcloic Goilois is Iillcu, suggcsiing auul-
iciy long lcloic Hughcs iaIcs ihis u . 404). Thc Stanzaic Morte ucscivcs moic
cicuii ihan a looinoic loi, ic-Maloiy, iniiouucing io ihc accouni ol Aiihui`s
lasi uays loih ihc vulncialiliiy ol ihc unaimcu Gaicih anu ihc auuci, ihc laiici
Book Reviews 393
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 393 5/7/07 11:28:21 AM
suggcsiing ihc alscncc ol any moial oi ioviucniial cxlanaiion" . 401-2)
loi ihc hnal uisasici. Iasi ol all, Guy ol WaiwicI`s lion is noi Iillcu uclcnuing iis
masici . 37), anu Guy uocs noi alanuon aimoi . 95), on ihc coniiaiy, hc
acccis ihc mosi slcnuiu accouiicmcnis, icminisccni ol ihc Ninc Woiihics. Hc
is in laci an ouu soii ol ilgiim" wiih an ouu soii ol cniicncc, hc uocsn`i always
hghi Gou`s cncmics" alici his icnunciaiion ol his lanus anu his wilc anu oncc
hcls oui a Saiaccn, whilc his ilgiimagc io ihc Holy Ianu" is ol ihc liiclcsi,
moic liIc a iouiisi`s hc sccs ihc sighis) ihan a cniicni`s . 92). I icnu io agicc
wiih William Calin, who sccs ihc hcaii ol ihc iomancc lying in iis oiiiayal ol
malc liicnushis, anu ii is ossillc ihai naiiaiivc inconsisicncics alici Gui`s ucaih,
whcn Tciii icmovcs his louy io Ioiiainc againsi ihc hcio`s icvious wishcs, havc
somcihing io uo wiih an incicascu cmhasis on homosocial lovc.
Bui ihcsc aic minoi cavils. This is ihc lcsi looI on iomancc loi a long iimc. Ii is
wiiiicn iimaiily loi icscaichcis, lui liighi unucigiauuaics shoulu lc cncouiagcu
io sIim ihiough ii, using ihc inucx, loi mcaiy uiscussions ol Gawain, Chaucci, anu
Maloiy. Ii will lc a gicai souicc ol cssay qucsiions loi many ycais. Moic sciiously,
ii ioviucs an acnuix ol mcuicval iomancc in Englanu alici 1500 ihai, wiih iis
hcllul inloimaiion on uiamaiizaiions, auaiaiions, anu allusions, will lc invalu-
allc io ihc scholai. Cooci wcais hci lcaining lighily anu maIcs hci uiscussion
sccm casy, lui such an achicvcmcni isn`i casy anu wc shall all lc giaiclul loi ii.
Judith Weiss
Robinson College, Cambridge
Sanctifying Signs: Making Christian Tradition in Late Medieval England.
By Daviu Acis. Noiic Damc, Inuiana: Univcisiiy ol Noiic Damc Picss, 2004.
P. xiv + 282. S55 cloih), S25 aci).
Daviu Acis is ucscivculy onc ol ihc mosi wiucly icau liiciaiy mcuicvalisis ol his
gcnciaiion, wiih six looIs wiiiicn ovci ihicc uccaucs io his cicuii, cach ol ihcm
acIcu wiih lcaincu, ihoughilul, anu cihically imassioncu analysis ol a iangc
ol laic louiiccnih- anu caily hliccnih-ccniuiy icxis. Alici woiIing loi somc ycais
wiihin a lioauly Maixisi aiauigm-his wiiiing icmains lai moic inuclicu, ihco-
iciically anu ihcioiically, io Culiuial Maiciialism ihan io Ncw Hisioiicism-Acis`s
ullicaiions sincc ihc caily 1990s havc iaIcn an incicasingly noiiccallc iuin io-
waius ihcology: a iuin hc aumiis is unlashionallc lui uclcnus as viial io any sciious
cngagcmcni wiih mcuicval icligious icxis . ix). Hcic, English anu Iaiin icxis
ly William Ianglanu, Nicholas Iovc, ]ohn Wyclil, Walici Biui, William Thoic,
anu oihcis aic ihus icau, noi ihiough moucin liiciaiy anu oliiical ihcoiisis,
lui ihiough ihc Goscls, Aquinas`s Summa theologica, anu scvcial conicmoiaiy
ihcologians, csccially Rowan Williams. Acis sccIs io cxloic how ihcological
coniiovcisics aiounu scvcial imoiiani laic-mcuicval signs ihc Euchaiisi, ihc
sign ol ovciiy, ihc housc) wcic conuucicu in a iangc ol acaucmic anu vcinaculai
icxis anu how all aiiicianis in ihcsc coniiovcisics vicwcu ihc iclaiion lciwccn
ihcological ihcoiy anu sociooliiical iaciicc.
In ihis cnucavoi, Ianglanu`s Piers Plowman-ihc ocm which has haunicu Acis
ihioughoui his caicci anu whosc iohciic ionc his iosc olicn sccms io cmu-
laic-uocs uoullc uuiy, loih as ihc looI`s main iimaiy icxi anu as a souicc ol
sounu ihcological icucciion, a yaiusiicI ly which ihc oihci woiIs Acis analyzcs
can lc mcasuicu. Thc inucx lisis ciiaiions ol Piers Plowman linc ly linc, as ii uocs
ciiaiions liom ihc Summa anu ihc Billc, anu ihc looI insisis on uciailcu aiicn-
394 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 394 5/7/07 11:28:21 AM
iion io ihc ocm in all iis iwisis anu iuins. As ii lollows ihc icxis ihai inicicsi ii
ihiough icchnical uiscussions ol iiansulsianiiaiion, ccclcsiology, anu voluniaiy
ovciiy, cqually linc ly linc, ihc looI also insisis on uciailcu aiicniion io iiscll.
A lascinaiing lui ucmanuing siuuy-ucmanuing cnough ihai ii may givc Acis`s
cxicnsivc unucigiauuaic icaucishi somc usclul uilhculiics-Sanctifying Signs
will aiiiaci ncw scholaily icaucis loih io Acis anu io ihc icxis hc uiscusscs anu
havc a siiongly liacing cllcci on cuiicni scholaishi on Ianglanu, Iollaiuy, anu
Miuulc English liiciaiuic in gcncial.
Acis is always vciy uiicci aloui ihc iclcvancc ol mcuicval liiciaiy icxis io ihc
icscni anu unscllconscious aloui cngaging wiih ihcm hanu io hanu, ciihci as
liicnu oi loc. Hcic ihis csscniially cihical iuca ol icauing-somc ol whosc ioois
aic in Acis`s unucigiauuaic siuuics ai ihc Camliiugc ol Raymonu Williams anu
ihc Icaviscs-is givcn ncw uchniiion ly a caiclul aiicniion io ihc concci ol
Chiisiian iiauiiion-a concci Acis aiiiculaics ihiough iccouisc io ihc woiI ol
Rowan Williams, a iomincni Anglo-Caiholic ihcologian who is now also Aich-
lisho ol Caniciluiy . xviii-xxi). Ioi Williams, ihc woiI ol ihcology is a con-
siani ucvclomcni anu icncwal, in icsonsc io cvci-changing human nccu, ol
ihc Chiisiian laiih as icvcalcu in ihc Sciiiuics anu as icimagincu ihiough his-
ioiy ly Chiisiianiiy`s gicai ihinIcis. All ol ihcsc ihinIcis aic as iicu io iimc anu
lacc as ihc Sciiiuics ihcmsclvcs. Noncihclcss, sincc ihcy icucci on a common
louy ol icaching, any ol ihcm can lc unucisioou as scaIing uiiccily ciihci io
ihai icaching oi io ihc icscni momcni-loi, ihiough ihc chuich, ihc ioccss
ol maIing Chiisiian iiauiiion" in ihc languagc ol Acis`s suliiilc) siill gocs on.
A givcn ihcologian-lc ii Aquinas, Wyclil, Ianglanu, oi Williams-can ihus lc
asscsscu ly ihc inicgiiiy anu comlcxiiy ol his cngagcmcni wiih ihc Chiisiian
laiih on ihc onc hanu anu wiih human nccu on ihc oihci, moicovci, such an
asscssmcni can claim ihc sianuing ol ihcology in iis own iighi. I hcic cxiiaolaic
Williams`s unucisianuing ol iiauiiion liom ihc cssays collccicu in his On Christian
Theology 1999). Acis ncvci ucclaics allcgiancc io ihc wholc ol Williams`s ihcoiy
ol iiauiiion-ihis woulu involvc him in cxliciily siaiing ihai hc wiiics as a ihco-
logian anu a mcmlci ol ihc chuich, noi ihc scculai acaucmy-anu I wish hc hau
ciihci uonc so oi givcn somc aiicniion io ihc iollcms involvcu in iianslaiing
a ihcological iuca ol iiauiiion inio ihc icims ol ihc scculai acaucmy. Bui somc
such unucisianuing ol ihc lacc ol ihc liiciaiy cxcgcsis ol icligious icxis-in
comlinaiion wiih an uigcni scnsc ihai ai lcasi Ianglanu anu Wyclil nccu moic
caiclul, anu uillcicni, aiicniion as ihcologians-musi sianu alacI ol Sanctifying
Signs anu iis |uugmcnis, as Acis`s mosi icccni way ol liinging mcuicval icxis inio
uiicci uialoguc wiih ihc icscni anu ihc icscni wiih ihcm.
Such an aioach io mcuicval icxis ucmanus ihai wc sulmii io ihcii iioii-
iics. Ioui ol ihc six chaicis in Signifying Signs answci ihis ucmanu ly inicnsivcly
cxamining ihc ihcology ol ihc Mass in icxis wiiiicn liom a vaiiciy ol sianuoinis
in ihc hall-ccniuiy lciwccn 1370 anu 1420. Rclusing io uiviuc wiiicis inio oi-
ihouox" anu hciciical" along ihc lincs oncc lavoicu ly chuich hisioiians, ihcsc
chaicis illusiiaic ihc uillcicnccs ol osiiion ouilincu in a sciics ol icxis liom
Nicholas Iovc`s Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ, io Piers Plowman, io Wyclil`s
scholasiic anu olcmical De Eucharistia, io ihc cxaminaiions" ical oi hciiiious
iiial iccoius) ol Biui anu Thoic. Wyclil anu his lollowcis wcic hciciicaicu in
ihc caily 1380s on ihc icicxi ol Wyclil`s ucnial ol iiansulsianiiaiion: ihc uogma
ihai, ai conscciaiion, ihc sulsiancc" ol ihc licau anu winc is iclaccu ly ihc
sulsiancc" ol ihc louy anu lloou ol Chiisi, only ihc acciucni" oi acaiancc
Book Reviews 395
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 395 5/7/07 11:28:21 AM
ol ihc clcmcnis icmaining. Acis ouilincs Wyclil`s aciual osiiion anu ihai ol
Biui anu Thoic) wiih a sulilciy I cannoi hcic aiicmi, lui his claim is ihai
ihcsc ihinIcis wcic uisiuilcu, noi only ly ihc liicialism ol iiansulsianiiaiion as
a uociiinc-iis icuuciion ol a sanciilying sign" io a claim aloui oniology anu ol
ihc lay lciwccn . . . icscncc anu alscncc" chaiaciciisiic ol laiih io a hciion
ol cciiiiuuc . 26)-lui ly iis oliiics. As hc siaics in summing u chaici 3
]ohn Wyclil: De Eucharistia (Tractatus Maior)"), Wyclil . . . aigucu ihai ihcologi-
cal ciiois conccining ihc Euchaiisi hau uisasiious conscqucnccs loi loims ol lilc
in ihc communiiy, loi ihc lonus ol cacc anu chaiiiy" . 64). Thc lciociiy ol
aigumcni ovci iiansulsianiiaiion was a iouuci ol gcncial agiccmcni ihai hcic,
ai lcasi, Wyclil was iighi: ihai ihcic was a uiicci coiiclaiion lciwccn cuchaiisiic
uociiinc anu ihc govcinancc ol naiion anu sociciy.
Thcic is a gicai ucal io lcain liom ihcsc chaicis, loih aloui ihc sccihc maiicis
ai issuc anu aloui aiicni, ihoughilul cxcgcsis ol inicllcciually ucmanuing icxis.
Howcvci, I havc iwo cavils. Iiisi, ihc chaicis aaicnily iaIc Wyclil`s asscssmcni ol
iiansulsianiiaiion ai iis woiu, using as cviucncc haiu-linc anu icicssivc accounis
ol ihc uociiinc ly Nicholas Iovc anu Rogci DymmoI which aic consciously o-
lcmical anu aiisc liom a olaiizcu cnviionmcni Wyclil hau uonc much io cicaic.
Aumiiiculy, as chaici 1 Thc Saciamcni ol ihc Aliai in ihc MaIing ol Oiihouox
Chiisiianiiy ol Tiauiiional Rcligion`") oinis oui, ihc uociiinc ol iiansulsianiia-
iion hau long lccn uisscminaicu ihiough miiaclcs ol ihc hosi" sioiics, which
cmhasizcu a liicialisiic unucisianuing ol ihc uociiinc. Yci as chaici 2 Thc
Saciamcni ol ihc Aliai in Piers Plowman") shows, oiihouox saciamcnial ihcology
lcloic Wyclil coulu also lc cxicsscu vciy uillcicnily. Thc ciuuiiy ol ihc aigu-
mcnis againsi Wyclilhic osiiions shoulu noi lc iaIcn as a mcasuic ol ihc ciuuiiy
ol ihc oiihouox uociiinc iiscll. Anii-Wyclilhic olcmic liom ihc 1380s onwaius
olicn sccms io lc sciamlling io uclcnu osiiions io which nolouy, unuci oihci
ciicumsianccs, woulu havc aiu closc aiicniion: uclcnscs ol ihc vcnciaiion ol im-
agcs, ol ihc iaciicc ol ilgiimagc, cvcn ol ihc lcgiiimacy ol ihc icligious oiucis
liom ihis ciiou aic noially wcaI, iolally lccausc ihc iiuc was alicauy sci in a
lioauly Wyclilhic uiicciion. Pcihas, hcic as clscwhcic, Wyclil`s uccision io cnici
inio iauical ciiiiquc ol a ccniial ihcological uogma cicaicu haiucncu laiilc lincs
whcic ihcic wcic nonc lcloic.
Scconu, Acis`s vicw ihai Wyclil was in somc icsccis a lciici maIci" ol Chiisiian
iiauiiion cvcn ihan Aquinas, ihc mosi imoiiani cuchaiisiic ihcologian ol ihc laic
Miuulc Agcs, sccms ai ouus wiih his inicicsiing ciiiiquc ol ihc ccclcsiology ol Wyclil
anu his lollowcis. Chaici Ioui Eaily Wyclilhic Thcology ol ihc Saciamcni ol
ihc Aliai: Walici Biui anu William Thoic") iangcs ovci a numlci ol ioics lui
woiiics csccially ovci ihc insisicncc in Thoic`s Testimony) ihai only cicuillc anu
auihoiiiaiivc" clcigy shoulu lc olcycu anu ihai ihc chuich io which olcuicncc is
uuc is noi ihc Roman Chuich lui ihc sccici comany ol ihc icucsiincu . 95,
93). Hcic, loi Acis, Thoic lalls icy io a iiusi in his coniingcni cicciions"-hc`ll
olcy only iicsis hc can scc will lc savcu-as ciuuc in iis way as iiansulsianiiaiion,
lailing io acInowlcugc his own uchcicncics, ihc unicuicialiliiy ol giacc, oi ihc
naiuic ol ihc chuich as a communiiy ol sinncis. Wyclilhic ccclcsiology cihas
gicw u unuci ioo much icssuic io achicvc ihc cohcicncc Acis asIs ol ii hcic.
Whai uzzlcs mc aloui his analysis, howcvci, is ihai ii acais io lcau lacI io vciy
much ihc oiihouox cuchaiisiic uociiinc hc has cailici |oincu Wyclil in ic|cciing.
Oiihouox cuchaiisiic ihcology luiiicsscs oiihouox ccclcsiology ly maIing ihc
chuich, in iis cclcliaiion ol ihc saciamcnis, a mcans ol giacc io iis mcmlcis ucsiic
ihc unwoiihincss ol ihc cclclianis. Thosc who uisagiccu wiih Wyclilhic anu cailici
396 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 396 5/7/07 11:28:22 AM
claims ihai only viiiuous iicsis coulu ciloim ihcii olhcc incluuing conscciaiing
ihc saciamcni) uscu ihc ol|cciivc naiuic ol ihc Mass asciilcu io ii ly ihc uociiinc
ol iiansulsianiiaiion as a ma|oi lanI in ihcii aigumcni. Hcic, as in oihci aiis
ol Sanctifying Signs, onc wishcs ihai Acis hau icmovcu himscll a liiilc luiihci liom
cxosiiion ol inuiviuual iimaiy icxis anu givcn us a moic gcncial iciuic.
Thc lasi iwo chaicis ol ihc looI movc liom cuchaiisiic ihcology io ihc ioics
ol voluniaiy ovciiy anu ihc uomcsiic. Chaici Iivc Thc Sign ol Povciiy: Piers
Plowman ]Thc C Vcision|") is ihc mosi magisiciial in ihc looI, a icmaiIallc
summaiion ol Ianglanu`s long iclaiionshi wiih onc ol his ocm`s olscssions
ihai shoulu cisuauc any icauci who siill nccus convincing ihai Ianglanu is no
scaiicishoi inicllcciual, always changing his minu, lui uocs, inuccu, chaiacici-
isiically ihinI his way ihiough iollcms io conclusions. This chaici will havc
a uisiinguishcu scholaily lilc ol iis own. Chaici 6 Homc, Homclcssncss, anu
Sanciiiy: Conuiciing Moucls") is vciy uillcicni, iouiing a numlci ol uiscussions ol
ihc homc, mosily in caily hliccnih-ccniuiy icxis such as Dives and Pauper a woiI
uniil icccnily comlcicly unicau ly scholais, aloui which ihcic aic somc highly
cicciivc agcs) anu ulling oui a vaiiciy ol icsonscs. Thcic is lois io inici-
csi onc hcic, lui ihc chaici lccls liIc a sIcich loi somcihing laigci. Thc looI
cnus aliuily, wiih no conclusion. This cihas lchis ihc ocn-cnucu anu olicn
siiangcly iivaic mcuiiaiion ihai ihc looI is. Noncihclcss, I hoc ihai ai somc
luiuic iimc Acis will sysicmaiizc anu, in ihc ioccss, oulaiizc) ihc aioach
hc iaIcs hcic, ollciing ai oncc moic ol an ovcivicw ol ihc laic-mcuicval English
icligious sccnc as hc sccs ii anu a moic susiaincu accouni ol ihc unucisianuing
ol icligious hisioiy anu icxiualiiy hc liings io ihai sccnc.
Nicholas Watson
Harvard University
Public Piers Plowman: Modern Scholarship and Late Medieval English
Culture. By C. Daviu Bcnson. Univcisiiy PaiI, PA: Pcnnsylvania Siaic Uni-
vcisiiy Picss, 2004. P. xix + 283. S45 cloih), S25 aci).
In 1997 Daviu Bcnson ullishcu an cssay in ihc Yearbook of Langland Studies callcu
Piers Plowman anu Paiish Wall Painiings" YLS 11, 1-38). Illusiiaiing his cssay
wiih hoiogiahs ol suiviving wall ainiings, hc aigucu ihai wall ainiings in ai-
ish chuichcs wcic a ma|oi mcans ly which oiuinaiy colc in ihc Miuulc Agcs
coulu cnvision whai ihcy lclicvcu in, anu ihai ihcy givc us insighi inio a oulai
acsihciic ihai is icscni as wcll in Piers Plowman. I hau ncvci Inown a ihing aloui
ihis sul|cci, anu ihc aiiiclc iaughi mc a loi: how uliquiious chuich wall-ainiing
was, how much ol ii has lccn losi, whai iis ma|oi sul|ccis wcic-anu I cciiainly
saw how onc mighi icgaiu Ianglanu`s icligious scnsililiiy, loi all iis looIishncss,
anu loi all iis aii ol licsh anu cisonal icsonsc, as schoolcu in ihis oulai lo-
ium. Though ihc woiu ullic" was noi lcaiuicu, cihas noi uscu, in ihai cssay,
ii was cciiainly a lolu aiicmi io wicsi ihc ocm away liom iis lcaincu conicxi
anu associaic ii wiih whai wc call oulai culiuic." Ii uiu noi ollci somc siaiiling
ncw unucisianuing ol ihc ocm, lui ii was a saluiaiy icminuci ol how Ianglanu
always managcs io siay in iouch wiih oiuinaiy cxciicncc.
Ii cciiainly looIs io mc as il ihc icscni looI gicw liom ihai cssay, which cs-
scniially unicviscu) now sianus as iis hlih ol six chaicis. Ii is uanIcu, in ihc looI`s
scconu hall, ly onc chaici ihai cxloics Pierss conncciions wiih iwo oihci ullic"
icccs, Manucvillc`s Travels anu The Book of Margery Kempe, anu anoihci ihai cxloics
iis conncciions wiih Ionuon civic iaciiccs. This scconu hall, cniiilcu Piers Plowman
Book Reviews 397
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 397 5/7/07 11:28:22 AM
anu Pullic Culiuic ol Iaic Mcuicval Englanu," coniains Bcnson`s osiiivc aigumcni
ihai ihc ocm is ullic." Thc hisi hall, Piers Plowman anu Moucin Scholaishi," is
an aiicmi io lay ihc giounuwoiI loi ihai aigumcni ly ucmolishing whai Bcnson
icgaius as Thc Ianglanu Myih," which hc ihinIs cisonalisi" anu cliiisi. His iuca is
ihai il wc aic going io Icc on ihinIing ol ihc ocm as an cxicssion ol Ianglanu`s
iivaic cncounicis wiih Gou anu ihc chuich, ol Will as Ianglanu in uisguisc, anu
ol ihc aaicni ucvclomcni ol ihc ocm`s vcisions as ihc iccoiu ol a consiani
siiugglc iowaiu cilcci scll-cxicssion, wc will ncvci lc in a osiiion io aicciaic
iis ullic" qualiiics. So hc lalois io casi uouli on ihc myih," ihai is, all ihc lamil-
iai ouilincs ol oui iciuic ol Ianglanu: ihai his namc was William Ianglanu, ihai
hc was ioughly conicmoiaiy wiih Chaucci, ihai hc gicw u in Malvcin lui livcu
mosi ol his auuli lilc in Ionuon, woiIing as a minoi clciic saying iaycis loi ihc
souls ol ihc ucau, ihai his ocm icicscnis his own cxciicncc ihiough Will anu
iccoius his oinions ihc myih ol ihc auihoi"), ihai hc caicu uccly loi his aii,
anu ihai hc iuincu oui ihicc vcisions ol his ocm in succcssion, whosc auihoiial
loim is uciciminallc ly sciuulous cuiiing ihc myih ol ihc ocm").
I havc io say ihai as I icau ihiough ihcsc ihicc chaicis, ihcii wholc cniciiisc
Ici siiiIing mc as unncccssaiy. Ol couisc cvciyonc who woiIs on Ianglanu
Inows ihai oui iciuic ol him is lull ol assumiions anu liIclihoous iaihci ihan
haiu iiuihs, lui ii cciiainly has mauc siuuy ol ihc ocm ossillc ly giving us a
icasonallc sci ol aiamcicis inio which io sci ihai siuuy. Bcnson claims io lc using
myih" ncuiially io mcan a naiiaiivc ihai cxlains whai is unInown anu cihas
unInowallc" . xiii), noi ncgaiivcly io mcan somcihing lalsc, lui in iaciicc ihc
woiu Iccs sounuing ioo conicmiuous. I am |usi noi cisuaucu ly ii all io ignoic
ihc viviu ociic icscncc I lccl in cvciy linc, oi io siaii calling Will, as Bcnson
laloiiously uocs, ihc naiiaioiial I," oi io ignoic all ihc clcai cviucncc ihai B is a
icvision ol A anu C ol B. In shoii ihc hisi ihicc chaicis uo liiilc io cisuauc mc
ciihci ihai ihc ocm`s ullic" qualiiics somchow iium ihc owcilul cisonal
voicc I go on hcaiing, oi ihai I shoulu siaii iclciiing ihc ignoiani vcisions ol
ihis oi ihai sciilc io ihc clluciu woiI ol ihc Aihlonc cuiiois.
Ici mc hasicn io say ihai ihc osiiivc aigumcni ol ihc hnal ihicc chaicis, which
I uo noi consiuci ically uccnu on ihc hisi ihicc, is moic acaling. I siill liIc ihc
analogy io ihc wall ainiings, anu I lounu ihc vaiious icminucis in chaici loui ihai
Ianglanu`s ocm comcs liom ihc samc woilu as Manucvillc anu Kcmc siimulaiing
anu icvcaling. Thc lasi chaici is lcss succcsslul: wc lcain a loi ol inicicsiing lacis
aloui Ionuon, aloui Coinhill anu iis chuichcs anu maiIcis, aloui liaiciniiics, a
wholc loi aloui ihc Coinhill illoiy-lui vciy liiilc ihai sccms io shcu any usclul
lighi on Piers Plowman. Thc iuca ihai ii is a Iinu ol ociic illoiy, ihai is, a ocm
ucmanuing siiici social |usiicc" ]. 236|, anu ihai ihc ihicai ol ihc illoiy is ic-
laccu ly ihc hoc ol ihc cioss" ]. 241|, is ucsciaic, an unconvincing aiicmi io
loicc a lcw Ionuon lacis on a ocm ihai uiicily iiansccnus ihcsc scaiicicu asccis
ol iis maiiix.) Anoihci ascci ol ihc looI I aumiic is iis liccuom liom iigiu oliiical
icconcciions. Bcnson`s ullic shcic is noi a locus ol incviiallc conuici lciwccn
ihosc in owci anu ihosc noi, lui a lacc whcic coociaiivc clloii anu communal
agiccmcni aic as liIcly as conicniion. Thc iosc is always clcai anu olicn siighily,
as in ihc hcioic" noic on agc 20 comaiing SIcai io Ouysscus, Kanc io Achillcs,
anu Chamlcis io Acncas. Anu ihc icsiy icvicw ol ihc scholaishi maIcs, alici all,
many soliu oinis. Bcnson uocs a goou |ol, loi cxamlc, ol icluiing Chamlcis`s
ihcoiy ol an agonizing cisonal ciisis" ovci icucsiinaiion as ihc icason why ihc
A vcision sios so suuucnly, oiniing oui scnsilly ihai ihc aigumcnis againsi woiIs
398 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 398 5/7/07 11:28:22 AM
anu lcaining ihai Will ollcis Sciiiuic aic noi vciy ucc ai all. Thcic is, howcvci, a
cuiious ccniial aiauox. Bcnson liIcs cvciyihing ihai is ciihcial anu scculaiivc
in conicmoiaiy Ianglanu scholaishi-ihc Z icxi, loi insiancc, anu ]ill Mann`s
iovocaiivc lui hnally unicnallc ihcoiy ihai A is a Iinu ol lowulciizcu vcision
ol B scc YLS 8 ]1994| anu my icsonsc in YLS 10 ]1996|)-anu is ai ains io
ciiiicizc oi ignoic whai is ccniial: SIcai, Aihlonc, Hanna, Miuulcion, Mann`s oihci,
iiuly magisiciial woiI. Hc sianus aaii ugnaciously liom ihc main linc ol P.e.
scholaishi-anu ihcn aigucs hcic is ihc aiauox) ihai ihc ocm is ucmoiic, noi
ccccniiic. Thc vciy valucs hc aumiics in ihc louiiccnih ccniuiy, communiiy anu
common scnsc, aic ihosc hc ouis scoin on whcn ihcy cmcigc in ihc scholaishi.
Iuiihcimoic, ihough hc ialIs on aloui ihc laiiciing" ihc myih" has iaIcn, hc
aciually uocsn`i ciic much oihci ihan Z anu Mann anu ihc vaiious wcll-Inown
shoiicomings ol ihc Aihlonc cuiiions. His aigumcni wiih ihc scholaishi is aiiu,
Miuulcion, Hanna, Buiiow, Kcily-Iulion, anu ihc oihcis hc uis uown icscni
somcihing much moic viial, gcnuinc aiicmis io iaIc whai wc havc anu maIc
human scnsc ol ii. Thc icason ihai ihc so-callcu myih cisisis is Occam`s iazoi:
ii`s ihc simlcsi cxlanaiion ol ihc maiciial, ihc iouuci ol immcnsc cuiioiial
acumcn lui also, hnally, ol common scnsc-anu common scnsc iiums Bcnson`s
iaiionalism hc accuscs Gcoigc Kanc ol ihai sin, lui ii`s his, ioo).
His uliimaic oini in ihc hisi aii is io aiguc ihai wc shoulu iccognizc ihc lia-
giliiy ol ihc myihs anu iiy io imaginc whai ihcy mighi havc cxcluucu . 42). Bui
whcn hc iiics, all wc gci is a sciics ol scculaiions, nonc ol which has ncaily ihc
cxlanaioiy owci ol ihc so-callcu myih. Thc iulcsi, io my way ol ihinIing, is ihc
noiion ihai Ianglanu mighi havc cicaicu uillcicni vcisions ol his ocm loi uil-
lcicni auuicnccs, as somcihing liIc a iccc ol scholaily icscaich ihai any ol us
mighi unuciiaIc, which woulu lc caallc ol lcing vaiiously mouihcu io suii an
cncyclocuia cniiy, an cssay loi a sccializcu collcciion, oi an unucigiauuaic class"
. 60). As il ihai wcic whai ocis uiu! Am I ioo iaIcn in ly ihc myih il I say ihai
linc-ly-linc I lccl on my ulscs ihai Ianglanu ui his wholc lcing inio his ocm anu
was noi aloui io chcacn ii ly changing ii loi ihis oi ihai auuicncc. Hc`u havc ioin
ii u hisi, as Picis uiu ihc aiuon. Thc aumiiiculy lashionallc) iuca ihai ihcic aic
no alsoluic lounuaiics lciwccn ihc auihoi`s woiI anu ihc sciilcs`, so ihai hc is
nciihci sovcicign noi uniquc, loi oihcis coniiiluic io ihc cicaiion" . 6364),
oi ihai ihc icxi is collaloiaiivc" . 69), sccms cqually unhcllul. Bcnson is vciy
suic ihai hc Inows whai ihc cxciicncc ol mcuicval wiiiing anu icauing" . 68)
was, scaIing ol ii as il all mcuicval icaucis always cxciicnccu icxis as ocn" anu
unsciilcu" . 69) anu sccming io imly ihai ocis liIcu ii ihai way. Bui wc Inow
ihai Chaucci`s cxciicncc ol wiiiing was ihai hc was sovcicign, anu his sciilc Auam
noi a collaloiaioi lui a maIci ol mcsscs ihai Chaucci hau ihcn io hx. I ihinI ol
Ianglanu as iolally ihc samc, |usi lcss allc io liowlcai his sciilcs. Anu cvcn
ihough all ihc manusciiis wc havc show sciilal inicilcicncc ol vaiious Iinus, ii
uocsn`i lollow ihai Ianglanu uiun`i havc ai lcasi somc icaucis whosc cxciicncc
ol icauing" was ol whai hc wioic. Whai ihc Aihlonc cuiiois, whosc woiI is hclu in
uiscsiccm ihioughoui ihis looI, iiicu io givc us was |usi ihai, ihcii lcsi |uugmcni
ol whai Ianglanu wioic-anu I loi onc am giaiclul io ihcm. Bcnson anu oihcis
ihinI ihai wc all oughi io acquaini ouisclvcs wiih inuiviuual manusciiis, wiih ihcii
vaiianis lui also wiih ihcii occasional annoiaiion, ihcii iuliicaiion, unucilining,
anu so on. Who woulu ucny ihai. Ol couisc cvciy manusciii has iis inicicsi. Bui
il somc ol us havcn`i uonc ii, is ii lccausc ol ihc myih ol ihc ocm," oi |usi ihai
lilc is shoii anu aii is long, anu so wc iicasuic ihc lalois ol sIilllul cuiiois. This
Book Reviews 399
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 399 5/7/07 11:28:22 AM
wholc long clloii io imaginc whai ihc myihs havc cxcluucu" ollcis mc noihing
icmoicly as comclling as ihc Aihlonc icxis-which I uo noi ihinI aic cilcci, anu
yci I woulu haic io lc lacI whcic wc wcic lcloic ihcy acaicu.
In shoii, ihis is a comcicni looI, lui noi a iiuly illuminaiing onc. Having
lcaincu so much liom ihc wall-ainiing aiiiclc anu liom Bcnson`s goou looI
iaIing issuc wiih ihc uiamaiic icauing ol ihc Canterbury Tales), I was cxcciing
moic. I will mcniion hcic ihai aciually hvc ol ihc six chaicis havc acaicu in
iini lcloic. Ouuly, ihc oiiginals aic ncvci mcniioncu in ihc looI anu noi lisicu
in ihc lilliogiahy-wcll, ihc acInowlcugmcnis uo cxicss, ciyiically cnough,
giaiiiuuc io YLS loi cimission io usc maiciial ihai hisi acaicu ]in a uillci-
cni loim| in iis agcs" ]. viii|. Thai iaIcs caic ol ihc ihiiu ]scc lclow| anu hlih
chaicis, I gucss, ihough ihc loim is in laci noi vciy uillcicni.)
Chaici 1 Hisioiy ol ihc Ianglanu Myih," is a icwoiIing ol Thc Iang-
lanu Myih," in William Langlands Picis Plowman: A Book of Essays, cu. Kaih-
lccn M. Hcwcii-Smiih Ncw YoiI, 2001), . 83-99, Chaici 2, Bcyonu
ihc Myih ol ihc Pocm," ol Anoihci Iinc Manusciii Mcss: Auihois, Euiiois
anu Rcaucis ol Piers Plowman," in New Directions in Later Medieval Manuscript
Studies, cu. DcicI Pcaisall YoiI, 2000), . 15-28, . 99-107 ol Chaici
3, ol Whai Thcn Docs Ianglanu Mcan. Auihoiial anu Tcxiual Voiccs in
Piers Plowman," Yearbook of Langland Studies, 15 2001), 3-13, . 228-45 ol
Chaici 6, ol Piers Plowman as Pociic Pilloiy: ihc Pilloiy anu ihc Cioss," in
Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall, cu.
Daviu Acis Woouliiugc, SullolI, 2000), . 31-54-ihough ii isn`i quiic
ihis ncai, sincc somc ihings liom cach ol ihc hisi ihicc cssays lisicu gci inio
scvcial ol ihc hisi loui chaicis. Thcic is somc ncw maiciial in ihosc cha-
icis, io lc suic, ihough ii is almosi cniiicly lullci sccihcaiion oi a lcnuing
ol ii io suii ihc icim ullic" which is noi lcaiuicu in ihc aiiiclcs, oi cvcn
uscu ai all in somc), ihc csscniial iucas aic all in ihc aiiiclcs. Thc hisi iwo
aiis ol Chaici 6, howcvci, aic ncw. Chaici 4 may lc lascu on Thc Pas-
sionaic Pilgiimagcs ol Picis Plowman anu Maigciy Kcmc," in Proceedings
of the Second Dakotas Conference on Early British Literature, cu. ]ohn H. Iauin
]Alciuccn, SD, 1994|, . 1-15, which I was unallc io cxaminc.)
I wish I coulu say ihai ihc looI icicscnicu ihc culminaiion ol Bcnson`s ihinI-
ing ovci ihc lasi lcw ycais, ihai ihc aiiiclcs giauually icvcalcu io him ihc ovci-
aiching concci ullic," ihai hc iolu us ihcy cxisicu anu ihai in ihc looI hc
was icshaing ihcm in imoiiani ways io liing ihai concci inio locus, anu ihai
ihc concci lioughi signihcani ncw lighi io oui unucisianuing ol Piers Plow-
man. Insicau ihc silcni changcs mauc io ihc aiiiclcs aic only ciluncioiy, usually
amouniing only io ailiiiaiy changcs ol woiuing in scnicncc alici scnicncc ihai
givc ihc looI an acaiancc ol ncwncss lui no ical uniiy oi comclling vision.
Ii has somc cicciivc comaiisons io Manucvillc anu Kcmc, lui lcavcs mc wiih
no ncw unucisianuing ol Ianglanu`s iclaiion io his ullic oi io ihc ullic.
Traugott Lawler
Yale University
Ethics and Exemplary Narrative in Chaucer and Gower. By ]. Allan Miichcll.
Chaucci Siuuics, 33. Camliiugc: D. S. Bicwci, 2004. P. viii + 157. S80.
In ihis siuuy ol naiiaiivc cihics in ihc ma|oi ialc collcciions ol Gowci anu Chau-
cci, Miichcll iaIcs issuc wiih a common assumiion ihai cxcmlaiy naiiaiivcs
400 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 400 5/7/07 11:28:23 AM
wcic lashioncu ly mcuicval wiiicis chicuy io iomoic ihc siaiic gcncialiiics" ol
convcniional moialiiy. Hc ioviucs cxicnsivc anu convincing cviucncc ihai ihc
alicaiion ol a moial ihcioiic ol cxcmlaiiiy in ihcsc iwo ocis is ucsigncu io
achicvc a vciy uillcicni cnu: noi io insianiiaic asccis ol a monoliihic, unvaiy-
ing cihical couc lui io challcngc icaucis io consiuci, ly mcans ol aiiiculais
in ihcsc naiiaiivcs, whai ii is goou io uo" iaciically in ihcii livcs ouisiuc ihc
icxi. Miichcll`s locus on cihical iaciicc anu icauci icsonsc, icuicaicu on ihc
Aiisioiclian iuca ihai cihics is an incxaci scicncc conccining iaciicc in ihc
coniingcni icalm ol aiiiculais" . 26), cmhasizcs casc icasoning, a ioccuuic
ihai musi aucquaicly accouni loi how uillcicni ciicumsianccs allcci inuiviuual
choiccs anu aciions. Consisicni wiih ihis iaciical cmhasis, Miichcll shilis oui
gazc away liom whai ihc icxi mcans-liom cicciving ihc naiiaiivc as coniiollcu
ly anu cnloicing csiallishcu noims oi ic|uuiccs" oi, alicinaiivcly, as sulvciiing
such noims oi unucimining icsciiiivc iucological siaicmcnis"-io whai ihc
icxi uocs, namcly how ii givcs icaucis lcaiings loi ihcii luiuic uccision maIing
anu conuuci.
Ticaiing Gowci in iwo ol his scvcn chaicis, Miichcll aigucs ihai ihc Confessio
Amantis uocs noi yiclu any soii ol wishcu-loi cohcicncc, noimaiivc oi oihciwisc"
. 37). Though a comichcnsivc woiI, ii is hllcu wiih incongiuiiics, anu clloiis
io scc ii as icscniing a singlc, cohcicni aigumcni oi noimaiivc siaicmcni aloui
ihc moial lilc havc noi lccn aiiiculaily succcsslul. Dcsiic ihc woiI`s many in-
consisicncics, howcvci, icaucis aic cncouiagcu io icau ihc ialcs loi ihc moial,"
in cach casc io gias a oini iclcvani io ihcii own moial cxciicncc anu ossillc
luiuic choiccs. Whilc ihc ialcs havc a siaicu moial alicaiion" . 20), Gowci`s
aioach icvcals a high iolciancc loi uillcicni iniciiciaiions" . 41), anu ihc
vaiiciy ol oihci ossillc alicaiions scivcs ihc uiosc ol imiovisaiion, allow-
ing icaucis io uiscovci ihiough iagmaiic icuuciion how ihc ialcs aly io issucs
aiising in ihc singulaiiiy ol ihcii livcs.
Whai ihcn is ihc oini" ol ihc inconsisicncics. Gowci olicn icscnis cascs ai
ihc cxiicmcs, anu among ihc naiiaiivcs Miichcll cxamincs ai lcngih, scvcial osc
coniiauicioiy auvicc: ihc ialcs ol Pygmalion anu ]uiici`s Two Tuns, loi cxamlc,
aiguc alicinaiivcly ihai ii is goou io iaIc chanccs in lovc anu ihai ii is oinilcss io
uo so, ihc ialcs ol Phclus anu Dahnc anu ol Dcmohon anu Phyllis, icscciivcly,
show ihc uangcis ol ooscu viccs-lolhasic" anu iociasiinaiion-in lovc. Im-
mcuiaicly iclcvani is ihc oicniial cllcci ol ihcsc ooscu" naiiaiivcs on Amans:
ly moving in anu among coniiasiivc cxcmla icicscniing cascs in extremis . . . hc
is io hguic oui whai ii is goou loi him io uo wiih his lovc" . 58). Miichcll hcic
may acai io locI inio a aiiiculai noim ol ihc miuulc wcic," ihc uociiinc ol ihc
mcan as iooscu in ihc Nicomachean Ethics, loi cxamlc, lui hc is cognizani ol ihc
laci ihai Aiisioilc himscll, using casc icasoning, aigucu ihai a saiislacioiy mcan,
whcic ihc vciy concci is iclcvani, can only lc ucicimincu ly a caiclul asscssmcni
ol ciicumsianccs. Moic iollcmaiic is ihc imicssion Miichcll cicaics ihai Gowci`s
iincial mouc ol auvancing io ihc moial is ihiough ihc coniiasi ol cascs in extremis.
Thc oci, whilc hc chamions ihc miuulc wcic" in vaiious scnscs ol ihc icim ai
aiiiculai oinis in ihc woiI, also Inows, as Aiisioilc icsiihcu, ihai noi cvciy aciion
aumiis ol a mcan anu ihai oihci siiaicgics aic icquiicu io clicii |uugmcni ai oinis
ol uccision noi so ncaily liamcu ly such clcai, coniiasiivc cxamlcs.
Miichcll imlics as much in his icgaiu loi ihc coiousncss ol cxamlcs in ihc
Confessio. Dccision oinis aic highly vaiiallc in ihc ucmanus ihcy lacc on |uugmcni,
anu Gowci in ihis woiI icsisis loimulaic, sci icsonscs io moial choicc. In a scconu
chaici on ihc oci, Miichcll ucsciilcs ihc laciois coniiiluiing io ihc comlcx,
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00.i-iv,277-416.indd 401 5/7/07 11:28:23 AM
uynamic ioccss whcicly cxamlcs aic iuincu inio luiluing-llocIs ol cisonal
iucniiiy loimaiion" . 67). Esccially in ihc caily looIs ol ihc Confessio, ihc oci
ucsciilcs ihiough cnsamlc" how mcmoiy, cicciion, cviucncc, iool, imagina-
iion, |uugmcni, anu conscicncc coniiiluic io auoiing oi auaiing cxamlcs loi
usc, again ly naiiaiivc mcans, hc cauiions againsi ihc misicauings ihai may also
oiiginaic in any ol ihcsc laculiics oi icsouiccs. Gowci`s icoccuaiion wiih ihc
iagmaiic alicaiion ol cxcmlaiy cascs, a Iinu ol cihical cmiiicism," Miichcll
aigucs, loims a iauical ucaiiuic liom ihc mciahysics ol moials" . 78).
Chaucci, in Miichcll`s vicw, is as much a moial" as a gcnial" oci. Puiiing
asiuc whai hc ucsciilcs as ihc culiuial maiciialisi lciishism ol owci oliiics"
. 81) ncaily uominaiing cuiicni uiscussions ol ihc oci, Miichcll locuscs on
a uillcicni Iinu ol high sciiousncss. Ovci ihicc chaicis, hc cxamincs uivcisc
uscs ol ihc ihcioiic ol cxcmlaiiiy in ihc Canterbury Tales ly ihc Wilc ol Baih,
ihcn ihc Iiiai, Summonci, anu Paiuonci, anu hnally ihc ClciI. In ihcsc cascs,
ihc oci noi only shows cxcmlihcaiion ai woiI, lui iicais cxcmlaiy naiiaiivc
iiscll as a ihcmc. Thc Wilc ol Baih, wiih a olcmical, cuagogical, in many
icsccis scimonic" siylc . 88) anu an cmiiical, liicialisi mouc, uscs cxamlcs
ol hci own io counici ]anIyn`s looI ol wiIIcu wyvcs," icauing hciscll anu hci
cxciicnccs inio ihcm loi scll-auihoiizing uioscs. Hci laigcly maIcshili
ioccuuic hnally suggcsis ihai shc inicinalizcs ihc cihos c.g., laicial ihinI-
ing, liicialism, coiousncss) ol ihc cxcmlaiy ihcioiic shc oihciwisc scivcs io
imugn" . 93).
Thc Iiiai anu Summonci usc ihc cniissyng ol wiIIcu cnsamlc" io aiiacI
cach oihci, anu ihcii misalicaiion ol ihcioiic cxicnus cvcn io ihcii unwiiiingly
lccoming ihcii own lcsi woisi cxamlcs" . 111). Thc liiai in ihc Summonci`s
Talc lccomcs a living cnsamlc" ol ihc wiaih hc has |usi conucmncu ihiough
a sciics ol looIish cxcmla uiiccicu ai ihc iiaic Thomas, lui ihc Summonci,
whosc naiiaiivc is insiicu ly his own quaIing hi ol angci againsi ihc ilgiim
Iiiai, has olviously misscu, wiih icmaiIallc oliuscncss, ihc uiicci iclcvancc ol
ihis samc cxamlc io himscll. Excmlaiy naiiaiivc ihus can cxosc anu, as in ihis
casc, lc uscu saiiiically io aiiacI ihosc who aic imcivious io ihcii own icaching,
unawaic ol ihc imlicaiions ol ihcii ihcioiic, anu ignoiani ol ihcii osiiion in
cxcmlilying whai ihcy cxliciily ucnouncc.
Such ignoiancc is noi ihc casc wiih Miichcll`s ncxi ilgiim, ol couisc, loi ihc
Paiuonci Inows cxacily whai hc is uoing anu iaIcs iiuc in ii, cvcn loasiing ihai
hc icachcs againsi giccu only io scivc his own cuiuiiy. Thai aumission, howcvci,
uocs noi acai io lcsscn ihc cllcciivcncss ol his ialc. Hcic Miichcll coniiasis ihc
lau man who is a goou icachci wiih ihc goou man, ihc Paison, whosc ihcioiic
is nowhcic ncaily so cllcciivc. Clcaily cnlaiging his liamc ol iclcicncc, Miichcll
is inicicsicu in showing how Chaucci losicis icauing loi ihc moial in muliilc
uimcnsions ly having us ihinI ciicumsianiially noi mcicly aloui ihc cxamlc lui
aloui ihc scaIci who lashions ii anu ihc auuicncc as wcll.
Thc ClciI`s Talc, Chaucci`s mosi challcnging moial ialc" . 6), is olyva-
lcni in iis moial cxcmlaiiiy" . 117), anu icauing ii is comlicaicu lccausc
iis suilus ol mcanings is cmlcuucu in a aiallc, a sccics ol cxcmlum noi
ucsigncu io maIc an olvious oini. Thc ialc icquiics ihc auuicncc io ihinI
ihiough ihc icims ol ihc comaiison lcing mauc iaihci ihan io aly ii im-
mcuiaicly in aciion" . 118). In ihis insiancc Miichcll cxloics scvcial ossillc
mcanings ol ihc ialc, anu hc ccnicis his aiicniion on conccis, such as vertuous
suffraunce, ihai suosculy icicscni an iucal lui aic amliguous anu givc iisc io
402 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 402 5/7/07 11:28:23 AM
ma|oi uilcmmas loi icaucis as wcll as chaiacicis in ihc hciion. Wilcly aiicncc,
olcuicncc, anu humiliiy iuin monsiious, loi cxamlc, in maIing Giisclua an ac-
comlicc in ihc saciihcc ol hci chiluicn. Thc ialc, in iis iauical iniciicialil-
iiy," is cvcn moic iollcmaiic ihan ihc olicn iniiouuccu analogy ol Aliaham`s
uilcmma ovci ihc saciihcc ol Isaac, sccihcally in qucsiioning iis own moialiiy
anu ihcicly lccoming a aiallc" ol cxcmlaiiiy iiscll. Thc naiiaiivc sum-
mons ihc auuicncc io |uugmcni ly mcans ol an unucciualiliiy in Dciiiua`s
icims, a determinate oscillaiion lciwccn ossililiiics"), which, loi Miichcll, is
a call io icsonsililiiy iaihci ihan a causc loi aaihy oi inuillcicncc" . 130).
Thc auuicncc`s uilcmma is how io iaIc icsonsililiiy loi ihc ialc, in which no
cxlanaiion is ioially cisuasivc, no uccision sulhcicnily |usiihcu, no icsonsc
goou cnough" . 135).
Thc iicaimcni ol Thc ClciI`s Talc is ihc iichcsi analysis in ihis siuuy, anu ii has
lcu Miichcll lcyonu ihc sccmingly uncomlicaicu owcis ol an alicu cihics
ol cxcmlaiiiy, which in moniioiy, ihcioiical, iaxonomical, anu icuuciivc icims,
oini uiiccily io whai ii is goou io uo." In Chaucci, Miichcll sccs somcihing moic,
anu hc claims io havc olscivcu ihai in Gowci as wcll: loih ocis, hc concluucs,
cmloy ihc ihcioiic ai a highci mciacihical icgisici inquiiing inio whai ii is goou
io uo wiih cxcmlaiy naiiaiivcs" . 142).
Thc aigumcni luiluing io ihis oini may havc lccn siicngihcncu hau Miichcll
scni moic iimc in ihc caily chaicis cxloiing ihc comlcx, aialolic uimcn-
sions ol Gowci`s Confessio, much as hc has uonc wiih Chaucci. Il, as hc suggcsis
loi loih ocis, ihc ciiiical iollcm is gciiing colc io lcain io usc ihc ihcioiic
lciici" . 142), ihc casc may havc lccn wcll scivcu ly his showing, ihiough
cxicnucu analyscs ol aiiiculai comlcx insianccs, how Gowci also cxcmlihcs
icauings oi alicaiions ol ihc ihcioiic in ihc icxi, chicuy ly his iincial hguics,
Gcnius anu Amans. Miichcll has choscn io locus on amliguiiics ihai cxisi wiihin
ihc icachings on cioiic lovc" in ihc Confessio anu noi on ihc imoiiani incongiui-
iics lciwccn lovc anu moialiiy" . 43, n. 23), lui onc cannoi uo |usiicc io ihc
ioscci ol Gowci`s own sohisiicaicu uscs ol ihis ihcioiic wiihoui auuicssing
loih hclus ol amliguiiy anu ihcii iclaiionshi. A lull accouniing ol ihosc uscs as
a ihcmc in ihc ocm musi also asscss ihc woiI`s Iaiin iosc anu vcisc aaiaius,
in which Gowci`s oihci" icaucis cxcmlily oihci iaciiccs.
Ncvciihclcss, in siic ol ihcsc limiiaiions, Miichcll has uonc hnc woiI in sciiing
ihc icims loi cxloiing such maiicis, anu ihai will iovc io lc usclul in luiuic
siuuics. This looI is wclcomc as ii sianus, anu wc owc Miichcll a ucli loi iniio-
uucing ncw qucsiions anu ihoughilully icviializing olu oncs in asscssing loih ol
ihcsc ocis.
Kurt Olsson
University of Idaho
Sources of the Boece. Euiicu ly Tim William Machan, wiih ihc assisiancc ol
A. ]. Minnis. Thc Chaucci Iiliaiy. Aihcns, GA: Thc Univcisiiy ol Gcoigia
Picss, 2005. P. xiv + 311, 1 illusiiaiion. S85.
Onc lacioi moiivaiing iouay`s siuucnis io lccomc Inowlcugcallc anu convcisani
aloui Anicius Manlius Scvciinus Bocihius anu his woiIs is ihis: Chaucci iianslaicu
Bocihius`s hnal Iaiin siaicmcni io ihc woilu, De Consolatione Philosophiae, inio ihc
English ol his uay ca. 1380), anu hc uscu ihc hilosohical, cosmological, scicn-
iihc, anu logical iucas ii coniains in his sulscqucni wiiiings. Ioi ihis icason, Tim
Book Reviews 403
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 403 5/7/07 11:28:24 AM
Machan`s Sources of the Boccc is a valuallc coniiiluiion io Chaucciian siuuics. King
Allicu anu Quccn Elizalcih I iianslaicu ihc Consolatio inio Olu English anu Rc-
naissancc English, icscciivcly, lui ii is Chaucci`s usc ol Bocihian conccis in his
laici ociiy ihai Iccs muliilc English Consolatio iianslaiions in iini iouay.
Thc hisioiy ol uiscovciing ihc souiccs ol Chaucci`s all-iosc iianslaiion ol Bo-
cihius`s Consolatio cniiilcu Boece) is long anu comlcx. Ai hisi, Chaucci`s usc ol a
Iicnch vcinaculaiizaiion as a ony iianslaiion" was uclaicu. MaiI Iiuucll iovcu
in 1895 ihai a Iicnch souicc hau lccn uscu Academy, 1, 227), ihis souicc ihcn
iovcu io lc an unglosscu coy ol ]can uc Mcun`s iianslaiion ol ihc louiiccnih ccn-
iuiy. Thcicalici, Chaucci`s usc ol a Iaiin commcniaiy also was uiscusscu. Iollowing
on Kaic O. Pciciscn`s cailici woiI PMLA, 39 ]1903|, 173-93), Eumunu SilI`s
uissciiaiion Yalc, 1930) iovcu Chaucci`s inuclicuncss io Ticvci`s commcniaiy.
In his aiiiclc ol 1987, Glosyingc is a gloiious ihyng" The Medieval Boethius: Stud-
ies in the Vernacular Translations of Dc Consolaiionc Philosohiac, cu. A. ]. Minnis,
. 106-24), Alasiaii Minnis, who assisicu Machan in icaiing ihc Sources of the
Boccc, iovcu Chaucci`s icliancc uon glosscs aiiiiluicu io Rcmigius ol Auxciic.
In 1952, ihc ucuicaicu scholai V. I. DcuccI-Hiy ioviucu a ciiiical cuiiion ol
]can uc Mcun`s all-iosc Iicnch iianslaiion ol ihc Consolatio Mediaeval Studies,
14, 165-275). Bainci Koiici alhimcu ihai SilI was coiicci in hnuing Camliiugc
Univcisiiy Iiliaiy, MS Ii.3.21, as ihc closcsi Iaiin icxi io Chaucci`s iianslaiion ol
ihc Consolatio Yalc uiss., 1953). In 1955, Koiici ucsciilcu a Vulgaic Tiauiiion in
which vaiiani icauings ol ihc Iaiin Consolatio hau ucvclocu in ihc louiiccnih
ccniuiy, Camliiugc Ii.3.21 is aii ol ihai iiauiiion, alihough noi ncccssaiily ihc
aciual Iaiin icxi ihai Chaucci hau consulicu Mediaeval Studies, 17, 209-14). Thus,
ihc sci ol souiccs loi Chaucci`s Boece was csiallishcu.
Tim William Machan has lccn a siuucni ol Chaucci`s Boece loi ovci iwo uccaucs.
His uissciiaiion is cniiilcu Chaucci ihc Philologisi: Thc Boece" Mauison: Univ. ol
Wisconsin, 1984). In 1985 hc cxamincu Chaucci`s mcihous ol iianslaiion Tech-
niques of Translation: Chaucers Boccc), in 1987 hc looIcu inio Chaucci`s glosscs in
ihc Boece The Medieval Boethius, . 125-38), anu in 1988 hc consiucicu mcuicval
auuicnccs anu mcuicval auihois` inicniions Euiioiial Mcihou anu Mcuicval
Tianslaiions: Thc Examlc ol Chaucci`s Boece," Studies in Bibliography, 41, 188-96).
Machan was wcll icaicu io cnici wiih Minnis inio ihc io|cci ol icaiing ihis
auuiiion io ihc Univcisiiy ol Gcoigia`s sciics, ihc Chaucci Iiliaiy.
Thc moucl suggcsicu in Machan`s volumc loi Chaucci`s usc ol his souiccs in
icaiing ihc Boece is inicicsiing in iiscll. Thc hyoihciical Chaucci ol ihis moucl
is no scholai ol Bocihius" lui a siuucni ol Bocihius." Raihci ihan siiiing wiih his
Iaiin iclcicnccs anu a ony iianslaiion" lcloic him io icnuci cach Iaiin woiu oi
hiasc as icciscly as ossillc, hc sccms io havc iianslaicu ihc Consolatio in oiuci
io icnuci ihc conccis as clcaily as ossillc in his English iianslaiion. Thc moucl
is loinc oui in Chaucci`s usc ol Bocihian conccis in his cicaiivc wiiiing: noi
cvcn in Troilus and Criseyde uocs hc allcgoiizc ihc Consolatio ly cicaiing a aiallcl
hciion, as Danic allcgoiizcu ihc ihcology ol Thomas Aquinas. Chaucci uiaws ihc
ma|oi clcmcnis ol whai sccms io havc lccomc his own cosmology liom ihc icxi,
anu hc cmloys Bocihian sychological caicgoiics in csiallishing ihc chaiacici
ol Tioilus, hc uocs noi illusiiaic" oi ucmonsiiaic" ihc vialiliiy ol ihc Consolatio
ly cicaiing a hciionalizcu casc in his couiily cic. Machan oinis oui in his iniio-
uuciion ihai Chaucci`s uccision io lollow any onc ol his souiccs loi a aiiiculai
assagc may havc lccn icuicaicu on ihc coiiuiion ol his oihci souiccs loi ihc
coiicsonuing assagc, anu ihcic is no a iioii icason cvci io suosc ciihci
404 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 404 5/7/07 11:28:24 AM
ihai hc hau uniloimly goou icxis ol his souiccs oi ihai ihcy always agiccu wiih
onc anoihci" . 11). Thus, Chaucci was iagmaiic as a iianslaioi iaihci ihan
scholaily oi cicaiivc: hc was a oci, lui hc icnucicu cvcn ihc Bocihian mcicis
inio English iosc.
Minnis maIcs clcai in his aiiiclc ol 1987, . 121-22) ihai Chaucci uiu noi
maIc usc ol an cxicnsivc liliaiy whcn hc icaicu his Boece: Chaucci . . . hau
|usi ihicc icxis io hanu":
1. A lain" icxi i.c. noi glosscu) ol ]can uc Mcun`s Li Livres de Confort. . . .
2. A Vulgaic icxi ol ihc Consolatio wiih Rcmigian glosscs wiiiicn lciwccn ihc
lincs anu in ihc maigins.
3. A coy ol Ticvci`s commcniaiy, ciihci wiiiicn aiounu a Vulgaic icxi oi De
Consolatione Philosophiae oi wiiiicn oui as a coniinuous iicaiisc.
This is ihc vicw hclu ly mosi ciiiics ol Chaucci`s Boece iouay, lccausc ii is vciihcu
ly ihc aciual icxiual cviucncc.
Bccausc Machan`s woiI is lascu soliuly uon ihc cviucncc as ii is iniciicicu
iouay, ihc icconsiiuciion ol ihc souiccs on Chaucci`s ucsI Camliiugc Ii.3.21,
]can uc Mcun`s Iicnch iianslaiion as icscnicu ly DcuccI-Hiy, anu ihc iclcvani
assagcs liom Ticvci anu Rcmigius) ihai hc ioviucs in Sources of the Boccc is a
valuallc iool loi siuucnis ol Chaucci, suggcsiing how Chaucci synihcsizcu his
Bocihian iucas. IiIc Bocihius lcloic him, Chaucci was a lilclong lcainci, lui
unliIc Bocihius, Chaucci hau no lioau cuucaiional agcnua in minu whcn hc
gcnciaicu his Boece oi his Treatise on the Astrolabe; hc sccms io havc lcaincu oui ol
a cisonal inicicsi in lcaining anu loi his inicicsi in using ihai lcaining in his
cicaiivc woiIs.
UnliIc such iianslaiois ol ihc Consolatio as Quccn Elizalcih I, Chaucci mauc
his English icnuciing availallc io a icauing auuicncc in his uay. As in ihc casc
ol his Treatise on the Astrolabe, which hc suosculy iouuccu loi his young son
lccausc no oihci such icxi cxisicu, ihcic was also a nccu loi an English iianslaiion
ol ihc Consolatio ai ihc iimc. As lai as wc can uisccin liom his wiiiings, Chaucci
was nciihci cuaniic noi conhimcu in his oinions. Hc uiu, howcvci, havc an
inhcicni nccu io unucisianu ihc univcisc in which hc livcu, anu ihc Consolatio
was csscniial icauing loi gaining ihai unucisianuing.
As Chaucci wioic in The Legend of Good Women:
Anu yl ihai oluc loIcs wcic awcyc,
Yloicn wcic ol icmcmliauncc ihc Icyc.
Wcl oughi us ihannc honouicn anu lclcvc.
Thcsc loIcs, ihcic wc han noon oihci icvc.
Tcxi I, ll. 25-28 in ihc Riverside Chaucer)
Ii mighi sccm ihai ihc cicaiion ol a hyoihciical sci ol cailici souiccs loi a Miuulc
English iianslaiion ol ihc Consolatio is uicly an acaucmic cxcicisc, lui ihis is noi
ihc casc. Tim Machan`s looI ioviucs a mcans ol sccing how Chaucci synihcsizcu
his unucisianuing liom such olu looIs as ihc Consolatio. Icw oihci icccni looIs
oi aiiiclcs can uo ihai as cllcciivcly as Machan`s. In ihis, as wcll as in oihci ways,
his ncw looI is a osiiivc coniiiluiion io Chaucci siuuics. Chaucci scholais will
lc giaiclul loi Machan`s ucuicaicu woiI in iouucing ihis vciy iniiicaic anu
iniiiguing volumc.
Noel Harold Kaylor Jr.
Troy University
Book Reviews 405
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 405 5/7/07 11:28:25 AM
Lollards of Coventry, 14861522. Euiicu anu Tianslaicu ly Shannon McShcl-
licy anu Noiman Tannci. Camucn Iilih Sciics, 23. Camliiugc: Camliiugc
Univcisiiy Picss, 2003. P. x + 361. S70.
Scholais inicicsicu in ihc hisioiy ol hcicsy oi, moic lioauly, icligious uisscni in
laic mcuicval Englanu now havc ai hanu an cxccllcni ncw cuiiion ol uocumcnis
iclaicu io ihc cisccuiion ol hcicsy in ihc uioccsc ol Covcniiy anu Iichhclu. Thc
cuiiois ol ihis volumc collcci a vaiiciy ol maiciials: sclcciions liom ihc icgisici
ol Bishos ]ohn Halcs anu Gcollicy Blyih, Blyih`s Iichhclu couiilooI, oiiions
ol Blyih`s iccoius ol visiiaiion conuucicu lciwccn 1515 anu 1525), cxcciis
liom ]ohn Ioxc`s Acts and Monuments, anu assagcs liom ihc Covcniiy civic an-
nals. Thcsc aic all souiccs iclcvani io ihc siuuy ol Wyclilhsm ai ihc cus ol caily
mouciniiy, lui ii can lc icmaiIcu ihai ii is csccially iaic loi a couiilooI ol
iiial iocccuings io suivivc. I woulu hazaiu io say ihai ullishing ihis iicm alonc
woulu havc lccn cnough ol a scholaily coniiiluiion, as ihc icxi icvcals ihc cxicni
io which ihc iosccuiion ol hcicsy is an imcilcci, cvcn il uclilciaiivc, ioccss
involving ihc gaihciing ol uivcisc cviucncc, liom ncighloily icsiimony io ihc
osscssion ol vcinaculai looIs ihai aic uccmcu unoiihouox ly viiiuc ol loih
ihcii mcuium anu ihc social siaius ol ihcii owncis. Bui as ii sianus, wc gci moic
hcic-a wcalih ol maiciial iniclligilly aiiangcu anu cuiicu.
As ihc AcInowlcugmcnis" io ihc cuiiion siaic, McShcllicy oiucicu ihc icvi-
ously uisoiucicu maiciial anu wioic ihc iniiouuciion, noics, anu acnuiccs,"
all ol which aic ihoiough anu gcncially cxccllcni, whilc Tannci mauc an iniiial
iiansciiiion ol mosi ol ihc manusciii maiciial, anu is mainly icsonsillc loi
ihc English iianslaiion." Whilc ihis cuiiion is a gcnuincly collaloiaiivc clloii ihai
cvinccs ihc cxciiisc ol iwo ialcnicu scholais, my icmaiIs hacn io lall inio iwo
aiis-a icsonsc io ihc iniiouuciion which iicais ol ihc uocumcnis ihcmsclvcs)
anu a icsonsc io ihc iimaiy maiciials hcic cuiicu.
Thc iniiouuciion synihcsizcs ihc uocumcnis anu hisioiical scholaishi in a way
ihai succcsslully icscnis asccis ol laic Wyclilhsm in iis vaiiciics. McShcllicy`s
cxciiisc, as alicauy ucmonsiiaicu in hci hisi looI, Gender and Heresy: Women and
Men in Lollard Communities, 14201530, csccially shincs loiih in ihc uiscussion
ol ihc iohlc ol ihc Covcniiy Iollaius: scx, occuaiion, anu social siaius" .
23-32, scc also . 44). This is anoihci way ol saying ihai I only havc a lcw ciiiical
oinis io maIc aloui ihc iniiouuciion anu iis ucsciiiion ol ihc iiial cviucncc.
Ioi insiancc, whcn Wyclilhic suscci Rolcii Ciowihci aumiiicu ihai hc wishcu
ihc woius, who was conccivcu ol ihc Holy Siiii, loin ol ihc Viigin Maiy,` wcic
icmovcu liom ihc Ciccu lccausc ihcy wcic ui ihcic in vain" . 67), hc is siaiing
somcihing a lii moic comlcx ihan Chiisi uiu noi havc a moihci," as ucsciilcu
in ihc iniiouuciion . 17, scc . 19), oi ihc claim, which I`vc sccn clscwhcic, ihai
Maiy was noghi ihc mouci ol gou almyghic" Ionuon, Biiiish Iiliaiy MS Hailcy
421, lol. 135). Raihci, ihc noiion ihai Maiy`s namc oughi io lc icmovcu liom
ihc Ciccu" shoulu lc cioss-iclcicnccu wiih Maiii PciIola`s aiiiclc, Anu Alici
All, My Auc-Maiia Almosi io ihc Enuc`: Pierce the Ploughmans Crede anu Iollaiu
Exosiiions ol ihc Avc Maiia," Studi Medievali, 40 1999), 119-37. PciIola lays oui
ihc sciiiuial anu uociiinal icasons ccnicicu on IuIc 1:28 as io why iclcicnccs
io Maiy oughi io lc siiicIcn liom ihc Ciccu. Thcn ihcic is ihc suscci Rolcii
ClciIc, who assciis ihai oiacio Dominica non cssci uiccnua al aliquo cxisicnic
cxiia caiiiaicm quia iunc ocius au uamnacioncm uiccniis quam au cuihcacio-
ncm" ihc Ioiu`s Piayci shoulu noi lc saiu ly anyonc ouisiuc ol chaiiiy lccausc
406 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 406 5/7/07 11:28:25 AM
ihis woulu ihcn lc io his uamnaiion iaihci ihan loi his cuihcaiion) . 95/96).
Raihci ihan concluuing ihai ihis vicw has no olvious conncciion io Iollaiuy" .
19), wc mighi scc ihai ClciIc`s siaicmcni iclcis io 1 Coiinihians 11: 29: ihosc who
icccivc ihc saciamcni ol ihc aliai unwoiihily cnsuic ihcii own uamnaiion. ClciIc
woulu sccm, ihai is, io ollci u a Wyclilhic iuca aloui ihc saciamcnial clhcacy
ol iaycis ihcmsclvcs, noi only iaycis saiu ai mass ly a iicsi conlcciing Gou`s
louy in ihc cuchaiisiic walci, lui vcinaculai iaycis icciicu ly lay cisons who
oughi io lc uic in ihcii cncounicis wiih ihc holy, ci ihc iiauiiional cuchaiisiic
icaching. To ihc ciiiical ciux cxicsscu on agcs 36 n. 14) anu 242 conccining
ihc mannci ol cxccuiion ol hciciics in 1520 ai a uiich oi hollow". In a iun
oi casI," a uolium".) may lc auucu ihc inloimaiion on ihc cxccuiion ol ]ohn
Bauly in 1410, who was luincu in a laiicl oi uolium," as conicmoiaiy souiccs
wiucly aiicsi. Pcihas ihcsc sixiccnih-ccniuiy Wyclilhics mci a similai, ainlul laic.
Moving on: as loi a lcw uzzling cascs whcic susccis iclci io ihc lloou ol Chiisi
anu ihc cu" scc . 71/301, 216), ii woulu sccm ihai a Iinu ol uiiaquism
mighi lc ai woiI. Iinally, a oini aloui languagc anu ihc icim, lollaiu": whcn
ii is saiu ihai in mosi oihci Iollaiu communiiics womcn Iollaius wcic wivcs oi
uaughicis ol malc Iollaius" . 38)-io iaIc onc chaiaciciisiic scnicncc oui ol
many on ihai agc alonc-I woulu oini oui ihai nciihci lishos noi ihcii ucu-
iics oi noiaiics iclciicu io any ol ihc susccis as lollaius" scc . 63-222). As
I havc aigucu clscwhcic, ihc icim lollaiu," whilc caichy, soliuihcs ahcau ol iimc
cciiain assumiions aloui uissiucni iucniiiics. Ii ciis on ihc siuc ol ic|uuiccs
againsi alicinaiivc Chiisiianiiics anu, as a icsuli, cannoi accommouaic whai is
cqually un-lollaiu" aloui a loi ol ihcsc susccis. Ii is in lighi ol ihis ciiiical oini
ihai I woulu cmhasizc ihc lalanccu insighi ol McShcllicy, who noics ihai Blyih
anu his ucuiics mauc only ciluncioiy inquiiy inio ihc lclicl sysicm ol ihosc
lcing qucsiioncu. . . . Blyih savcu his cisccuioiy cncigy insicau loi cxloiing
ihc hciciics` social nciwoiIs. . . . Thcic is, cuiiously, iclaiivcly liiilc locus on ihc
Euchaiisi, anu only onc ouiiighi ucnial ol ihc ical icscncc ol ihc louy ol Chiisi
in ihc saciamcni" . 16, 17). My aiiing qucsiion, ihcn, is: Shoulu wc lc calling
ihcsc cisons lollaius" ai cvciy iuin, whcn in many cascs ihc hiasc, liiciaic anu
ucvoui woiIing class inuiviuuals who, loi ihc mosi aii, icau oiihouox vcinaculai
looIs," mighi lulIily sulhcc insicau.
I hoc ii will noi sccm icsumiuous io icmaiI on Noiman Tannci`s iiansla-
iions liom Iaiin inio English, as Tannci is a scholai who Inows ccclcsiasiical uocu-
mcnis liIc nonc oihci anu has mauc a wiuc iangc ol ihcsc availallc in English
io scholais: cvciyonc in ihc sulhclu ol Wyclilhic siuuics uscs his iwo-volumc sci,
Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. Bui I woulu havc wishcu loi a lii moic consisicncy
in somc ol ihc icnuciings liom Iaiin io English in ihis cuiiion, sincc ihc lcgal anu
canonical languagc ucloycu in ihcsc uocumcnis is moic iccisc ihan a iiansla-
iion inio iuiomaiic moucin English is caallc ol inuicaiing. Olicn, ihc loimula
liom canon law, heretice pravitatis, which is uscu cvciywhcic in ihcsc uocumcnis
loi an cxamlc, scc . 97-99, 106-7, 153, 220), is icnucicu simly as hcicsy,"
whcn ihc lciici icnuciing woulu lc hciciical uciaviiy" oi hciciical ucloimiiy,"
an occasional usagc hcic scc . 93). IiIcwisc, opiniones woulu in all cascs woiI
lciici as oinions" iaihci ihan lclicls," as uscu liom iimc io iimc . 109/12,
116/19). Whilc ihcic aic insianccs ol ihc loimci anu, I ihinI, clcaici icnuci-
ing scc . 114, 115, 218, 238/39), consisicncy on ihis oini woulu ihcn maIc
moic iomincni ihosc cxamlcs whcic lclicls" anu lclicving" aic liicially ai
issuc . 130, 133, 184/86, 198/99). On anoihci maiici ol iianslaiion, susccis
Book Reviews 407
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 407 5/7/07 11:28:25 AM
swcai unuci oaih io ollci ihcii iclics laiihlully" deliter ]. 171|), iaihci ihan
iiuihlully" . 173), a scnsc ihai sccms a lii ioo moucin givcn whai Richaiu I.
Giccn has iaughi us aloui ihc shiliing mcanings ol ihc icim iiouihc" in ihc
laic mcuicval ciiou. As loi ihc assagc, Iicm, quou isc scivii laccic homincs
loqui cum Dco, oic au os" . 95), ihc iianslaiion ol oic au os" as lacc io lacc"
. 96) iaiscs inicicsiing qucsiions. Ii is noi an casy hiasc io maIc iuiomaiic
wiihoui awIwaiuncss, lui ii sccms io mc ihai ore ad os cmcigcs liom Numlcis
12:8: oic cnim au os loquoi ci ci alam non ci cnigmaia ci hguias Dominum
viuci quaic igiiui non iimuisiis uciiahcic scivo mco Mosi" Ioi I scaI io him
mouih io mouih: anu lainly, anu noi ly iiuulcs anu hguics uoih hc scc ihc Ioiu.
Why ihcn wcic you noi aliaiu io scaI ill ol my scivani Moscs.). Why ihcic is ihis
sciiiuial ccho hcic is lcyonu mc, as ihcic aic no scll-siylcu Wyclilhic iohcis
in ihis cuiiion, lui ihc sciiiuial assagc anu conicxi sccms io suii a Wyclilhic
vicw aloui languagc, how cciiain Iinus ol liiciaiy loims olsiiuci uociiinal oi
moial conicni. Ii sccms cviucni cnough, ihcn, ihai ihc cniiy is aloui scaIing
wiih Gou, noi sccing Gou in a visionaiy way lacc io lacc"), anu so I mighi havc
uscu, mouih io mouih," anu ollcicu an cxlanaioiy noic io ihai cllcci. As loi
cisiolaiy anu ccclcsiasiical loimulac in iianslaiion, in ihc ycai ol oui Ioiu"
anno Domini) shoulu lc insciicu inio ihc icnuciing on agc 63, whilc ocnly"
palam) can lc auucu io ihc moucin English vcision on agc 67.
Iacing-agc iianslaiions iaihci ihan ihosc sci alici ihc Iaiin oi Miuulc English
cniiics, as uonc hcic) woulu havc lccn moic usclul loi ihosc wishing io lollow
moic casily ihc oiiginal in iianslaiion. Unloiiunaicly, ihc iianslaiions ihcmsclvcs
uo noi signal whai is a cuiious lcaiuic ol many hcicsy iiial uocumcnis: macaioni-
cism. Insicau, macaionic momcnis aic smooihcu oui inio moucin English, scc
agcs 64/65, 71, 97-98/99-100, 110/12, 158/61, 179/81, 183, 195/6, 197/8,
202, 212, 216, 218, 223-24/225-26, 235, 240, 241/42, 282. Thc cuiiois cxlain
ihis choicc in iianslaiion in ihc lioni maiici scc Euiioiial Pioccuuic"), lui I
lclicvc ihai ihc choicc mighi noi lc iucal. Noi all icaucis will hungiily iaIc io
ihc Iaiin assagcs hisi, anu ihai liIcly mcans ihai uiscovciics mighi lc misscu ly
ihosc ncw io ihc hclu. Ioi insiancc, Thomas Acion iclcis io anoihci hciciic as
a Inowcn man" isc an vcinacula iolcii a Inowcn man" ]. 150|), a hiasc
ihc inquisiiois wanicu io invcsiigaic luiihci ly asIing yci anoihci suscci, Alicc
Rowlcy, aloui ihis mysiciious ihiiu man" . 155, scc also . 328, 341). Ioi
ihosc icauing ihc Iaiin oiiginal, ihis cxicssion os oui loi sccial noiicc, csc-
cially in vicw ol Huuson`s aiiiclc, A Iollaiu Scci Vocalulaiy.," which uiscusscs,
as ihc cuiiois oini oui clscwhcic . 39, n. 151), ihc hiasc Inowcn man" oi
Inowun mcn"-lcxical iicms ihai aic uisiincily Wyclilhic. As ii sianus, ihcic aic
noi cvcn scaic quoics aiounu ihc iianslaicu hiasc on agc 151, anu ihc hiasc
on agc 159 is ollcicu as Inowcn man" in whai looIs io lc a loiiunaic sli in
ihc cuiioiial ioccuuic io moucinizc all insianccs ol Miuulc English.
Iasily, anu loi ihc saIc ol an cvcniual iciinicu oi icviscu cuiiion, ii can lc
noicu ihai iyos aic iaic Ii il coulu scaI" ]. 71|), only onc iiacc ol agc
ioohng is cviucni, which is icmaiIallc loi an cuiiion in which ihc cuiiois iooI
cxiicmc caic io sciializc anu cioss-iclcicncc ihcsc cniiics: Continued from the
examination 5 November 1511 (above, p. 000)" can lc coiiccicu io (above, p. 151)."
Also, LCB, fo. 1V " . 213) acais io lc an ciioi loi LCB, fo. 12V." Thc iclcicncc
io DciiicI Piiaiu`s cxccllcni lilliogiahy ol Wyclilhic siuuics, hii://homc.aii.
nci/~lollaiu/lilhomc.himl . 2, n. 2), now lcaus io a ucau cnu, ihc lilliogiahy
is now ai http://lollardsociety.org/.
408 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 408 5/7/07 11:28:26 AM
So much loi ihc iasI ol ihc icvicwci io icI anu cavil. Ioi whai icvails in woiI-
ing wiih ihis cuiiion anu cngaging ihc cuiiois` iniciiciaiions anu iianslaiion
choiccs is ihc scnsc ihai ihis is io-noich woiI, a iohcicni cuiiing anu aiianging
ol uocumcnis ihai icquiic caiclul siuuy. Unucigiauuaic io giauuaic siuucnis will
hnu ihis cuiiion io lc vciy valuallc, anu iolcssional scholais in ihc hclu oughi
io luy a coy anu congiaiulaic ihc cuiiois. Thc Camucn sciics has yci anoihci
hnc volumc.
Andrew Cole
University of Georgia
The Gentry Context for Malorys Morte Darthur. By Raluca Rauulcscu.
Aiihuiian Siuuics, 45. Camliiugc: D. S. Bicwci, 2003. P. viii + 165. S75.
Thc gcniiy is ihc social class liom which camc ihc iomancc wiiici, Sii Thomas
Maloiy, anu which scivcu as ihc iimaiy icauing auuicncc ol his Morte Darthur.
In ihis wcll-icscaichcu lui liicl siuuy, Raluca Rauulcscu invcsiigaics oliiical
asccis ol hliccnih-ccniuiy gcniiy culiuic anu alics ihai unucisianuing io ihc
scciions ol ihc Morte ihai iicai Aiihui`s Iingshi. Thc looI lalls inio hvc aiis:
an iniiouuciion, iwo chaicis on ihc gcniiy-ihcii oliiical aiiiiuucs as uciivcu
liom ihcii coiicsonucncc anu looI owncishi, anu iwo chaicis ol alicaiion
io Maloiy, ccnicicu on ihc ihcmcs ol woishi anu scivicc, loiushi, anu counscl
anu govcinancc. Hci iniiouuciion locaics ihis siuuy in ihc oliiical ciiscs ol ihc
icigns ol Hcniy VI anu Euwaiu IV, ii aiiiculaics ihc gcniiy`s iolc in local oliiics
as Icccis anu licaIcis) ol ihc Iing`s cacc anu in naiional oliiics as counscl-
ois io ihc Iing. Rauulcscu`s aioach io Maloiy ihiough ihc gcniiy`s lciicis anu
looIs is noi ncw, lui hci caiclul uisiinciion ol ihc gcniiy liom ihc noliliiy anu
hci sicauy locus on ihcii iolc in oliiics is.
Thc looI`s siiuciuic, wiih iis scaiaic chaicis on gcniiy conicxi chaicis 1
anu 2) anu alicaiion chaicis 3 anu 4), illusiiaics loih iis siicngih anu wcaI-
ncss: ihc liaiiiic uivision allows loi in-ucih iicaimcni ol hisioiic vcisus liiciaiy
ciiiical issucs, lui ai ihc samc iimc ihc icauci mosi inicicsicu in Maloiy waiis loi
moic ihan hall ol ihc looI loi ihc ayoll. In ihc hisi anu scconu chaicis, Rau-
ulcscu uciivcs ihc gcniiy`s aiiiiuuc liom ihcii coiicsonucncc anu ihcii icauing
inicicsis, in aiiiculai liom ihc misccllanics ihcy owncu. Thc hisi chaici uscs
gcniiy lciici collcciions io uchnc ihc conccis ol woishi anu iohi, liicnushi
anu loiushi, anu lcllowshi. Aumiially, Rauulcscu cxloics noi simly ihc wcll-
Inown Pasion coiicsonucncc, lui also ihc lciicis ol ihc Sionois anu Plumions,
iwo csiallishcu lamilics who livcu in iclaiivc cacc ihiough ihc iuilulcni uccaucs
ol 1450s ihiough ihc 1470s, as wcll as ihc icccnily uiscovcicu Aimluigh collcc-
iion, houscu in ihc Chciham Iiliaiy anu cuiicu ly Chiisiinc Caicnici The
Armburgh Papers, 1998). Rauulcscu ucmonsiiaics hnc ucicciivc woiI in ihc lciicis,
lcauing ihc icauci io a moic nuanccu unucisianuing ol hci Icy conccis ihan
onc can glcan liom ihc OED anu MED. Hci uiscussion ol ihc iccaicu Maloiian
concci ol lcllowshi" concluucs, Icllowshi ihus mcans houscholu, Iin anu
closc associaics, also icmoiaiy associaiion ol violcni lanus ol hghiing mcn con-
nccicu wiih iivaic lcuus ovci lanu iociiics), olu lcllowshi uiciaicu ly iolcs-
sion, alhniiy oi muiual inicicsi, anu oliiical lcllowshi, whcihci local oi sccn
in ihc siiuciuic ol ihc highci ciiclcs ol ihc couii" . 37). In my vicw, Rauulcscu
misscs an ooiiuniiy io illusiiaic ihis lascinaiing iangc ol mcanings loi a icim
ciiiics olicn iicai scniimcnially whcn shc uocs noi immcuiaicly suly cxamlcs
Book Reviews 409
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 409 5/7/07 11:28:26 AM
liom ihc Morte. This issuc ol uclaycu oi misscu conncciions iccuis ihioughoui
ihc hisi hall ol The Gentry Context.
Rauulcscu`s scconu chaici, ihc mosi oiiginal in ihc looI, iicais ihc gcniiy`s
misccllanics oi gicai looIs" noi simly as anihologics aioiiaicu liom ihc
noliliiy lui as a mcans ol shaing" ihc gcniiy`s social iucniiiy" anu oliiical
culiuic" . 48). Hcic Rauulcscu uislays hci hnc sIill in synihcsizing oihcis`
scholaishi io luiihci oui unucisianuing ol ihc gcniiy as an cmcigcni class. Ioi
cxamlc, shc loiiows liom Nicholas PciIins` analysis ol Hocclcvc ihc noiion
ihai, alihough ihc oci oiiginally wioic loi an aiisiociaiic auuicncc, his woiI
was iciniciicicu in ihc laic mcuicval anu Tuuoi ciiou ly a wiuci icaucishi
loi ihc uiosc ol inuiviuual scll-lashioning anu moial cuucaiion, iaihci ihan
iowaius ihc cxcicisc ol ioyal auihoiiiy oi imagc-maIing" Hoccleves Regiment of
Princes, 2001, . 177). A noiion ol laic mcuicval gcniiy scll-lashioning in iclaiion
io an unsiallc monaichy) liuiilully unucigiius Rauulcscu`s analysis ol cach icxi
iicaicu in ihis chaici. Shc caiclully woiIs ihiough ihc icauing haliis, lcnuing
ciiclcs, anu manusciii conicnis lcloic shc osiis ihai ihc mosi licqucni woiIs io
acai in gcniiy misccllanics wcic ihc English iosc Brut, ihc miiiois loi iinccs
ly Hocclcvc anu Iyugaic, anu ihc gcncalogical maiciials. Thcsc woiIs shc icaus as
cviucncc ol ihc gcniiy`s inicicsi in naiional hisioiy anu ihcii lacc ihcicin, wiih
occasional ianializing glimscs ai uilan/mcichani-gcniiy conncciions in icims
ol icauing inicicsis anu oliiical vicws . 51, 56, 80-81). Equally inicicsiing is
Rauulcscu`s analysis ol ioyal cuigiccs, uynasiic chioniclcs, anu Iings` lisis, which
iolilciaicu uuiing ihc icign ol Euwaiu IV anu which maIc ihcii way cvcn inio
commonlacc looIs, loi icasons ol ihc owncis` local oi lamilial iiuc. Haiuyings`
Chronicle, ihc only Inown souicc loi Maloiy iicaicu in ihis chaici, cmcigcs as an
claloiaic gcncalogical hisioiy ol English ioyal lamilics incluuing Aiihui`s anu
coniinuing ihiough ihc houscs ol Iancasici anu YoiI, ii illusiiaics ihc gcniiy`s
conccin wiih ihc goou govcinancc ol ihc Iing anu ihc wisc counscl ihai gcnilc-
mcn ihcmsclvcs mighi lc callcu uon io ollci. Thcsc ihcmcs aic ccniial io ihc
Morte Darthur, anu alihough Rauulcscu maIcs occasional iclcicnccs in ihis chaici
io ihc ialcs loi cxamlc, . 79), Maloiians will icauily suly many moic. Thc
icauci is somciimcs wcaiicu ly Rauulcscu`s iosc siylc, which cxccssivcly iclics
on hyoiaxis, as in ihc lollowing scnicncc:
An unucisianuing ol Hardyngs Chronicle is imoiiani loi iis incoioiaiion ol
ihc Aiihuiian iomancc iiauiiion inio ihc vcinaculai Brut chioniclc conicxi,
anu iis liiuging ol ihc ga lciwccn ihc liascu Iancasiiian oi YoiIisi oliiical
maiciial, whcic ii occuiicu, loi cxamlc in ihc gcncalogical iolls, ioviuing,
ihus, a moic cohcicni vicw ol hisioiy which cmhasiscu ihc osiiivc qualiiics
ihai a Iing shoulu ui inio iaciicc. . 80)
Rauulcscu`s iniclligcni synihcsis ol manusciii anu culiuial siuuics, howcvci,
comcnsaics loi ihc siylisiic lascs.
Having csiallishcu ihc milicu in which Maloiy wioic, Rauulcscu iuins in ihc
lasi iwo chaicis io ihc Morte Darthur, wiih ihc ihiiu chaici coiicsonuing io ihc
analysis ol woishi anu loiushi in chaici 1, anu ihc louiih io ihc cmhasis in
chaici 2 on counscl anu govcinancc. As uocs Hyon|in Kim in his similai siuuy
ol Maloiy anu ihc inicicsis ol ihc iuial squiaichy," The Knight with Two Swords
Camliiugc, 2000), Rauulcscu alics closc scmaniic analysis io aiiiculaic ihc
noiion ol woishi as involving coniiaci anu uuiy anu moic oiiginally ihc iuca ol
uiswoishi" . 93-94). Whilc Ianccloi anu Tiisiiam aic csiallishcu as chivaliic
410 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 410 5/7/07 11:28:26 AM
cxcmlais, Gaicih, Balin, anu Toiic cmlouy a Iinu ol inicinal woishi, ihcii ialcs
show ihcsc Inighis ichning ihcii innci noliliiy in an aiicmi io hi inio Aiihuiian
sociciy. Thcii hciivc clloiis maichcu ihosc ol ihc hisioiic gcniiy in ihcii iaciicc ol
couiicsy anu scivicc. Rauulcscu`s analysis ol loiushi locuscs on ihc ialcs cmha-
sizing King Aiihui`s caily icign, ialcs I anu II. His loiushi icsiucs in his aliliiy io
accci goou counscl anu iicai his sul|ccis wiih gcnciosiiy anu cquanimiiy, whilc
his Iingshi is aniiciaicu in his nollc anccsiiy anu manilcsi in his aliliiy io lcau
a unihcu English loicc io conquci Euioc. Thcsc lcais aic siicsscu in ihc English
chioniclc iiauiiion lui alscni in ihc icgnal oliiics anu inhghiing ol Maloiy`s agc
anu ihcicloic ihc moic acaling io his auuicncc. In ihc lasi chaici, Rauulcscu
iuins io ihc ucclinc ol Aiihui`s icalm. Thc Iing is sul|cci io ihc cvil machinaiions
ol Aggiavainc anu Moiuicu anu icluscs io accci goou counscl, iocccuing alonc
in his hasiy conucmnaiion ol Gucncvci. Uliimaicly his govcinancc lalicis as icalm
is ioin lciwccn iwo ovci-mighiy sul|ccis," Gawain anu Ianccloi. Rauulcscu`s
ovciaiching aigumcni in ihcsc chaicis is soliu, lui noi siaiiling. UnliIc Kcnncih
Hougcs in his icccni iicaimcni ol ihc quccn`s oliiical iolc as goou lauy Forging
Chivalric Communities in Malorys Moiic Daiihui, 2005), Rauulcscu inlicqucnily
auvanccs hci own ncw icauings. Yci Rauulcscu`s assing insighis aic siiiIing: loi
cxamlc, hci icauing ol Mcilin`s whiscicu auvicc io Aiihui as an imagc loi-
iowcu liom ihc miiioi loi iinccs . 115), oi hci iniciiciaiion ol ihc sioiy
ol Haimauncc, ihc King ol ihc Rcu Ciiy, as a waining loi a iulci io icly on his
naiuial auvisois," ihai is, his Iin . 141). Thcsc hnal chaicis sullci liom ioo
moucsi a mannci ol aigumcniaiion. Rauulcscu`s aigumcni woulu acai moic
oiiginal anu incisivc wcic shc io loicgiounu cach sulscciion wiih a clcai ihcsis
siaicmcni anu aim loi conclusions loluci ihan hci noiion ihai ihc ialcs illusiiaic
ihc comlcxiiy" ol ihc oliiical siiuaiion oi ihai Aiihui`s anu Maloiy`s woilus
icucci similai oliiical ciiscs" . 130, 134, cic.).
My conccins wiih mcihou aic noi mcani io uciiaci liom Rauulcscu`s achicvc-
mcni. Icw ol us aic allc io woiI as sIilllully as Rauulcscu ai ihc iniciscciion ol
hisioiy anu liiciaiy ciiiicism. Ii is a uilhculi inicllcciual iasI io asscss ihc gcniiy`s
oliiics sincc ihcy, liIc ihc noliliiy, uiu noi cmliacc a aiiiculai aiiy linc. Rau-
ulcscu wiscly aiiiculaics ihcmcs imoiiani io ihc class as a wholc whilc shc csial-
lishcs vicws hclu ly a aiiiculai lamily oi laciion. Whilc I wishcu loi a moic inic-
giaicu siuuy, onc immcuiaicly incoioiaiing liiciaiy cviucncc wiihin ihc hisioiic
conicxi, The Gentry Context for Malorys Morte Darthur is mciiculously icscaichcu.
Rcauing |usi ihc looinoics woulu ioviuc an cuucaiion in manusciii siuuics,
gcniiy hisioiy, icgnal oliiics, anu Maloiian scholaishi. To unucisianu oliiical
aiiiiuucs ai lay in ihc Morte Darthur anu Englanu ai ihc closc ol ihc Miuulc Agcs,
scholais will wani io siuuy Rauulcscu`s wholc looI.
Karen Cherewatuk
St. Olaf College
Forging Chivalric Communities in Malorys Le Morte Darthur. By Kcnncih
Hougcs. Ncw YoiI: Palgiavc Macmillan, 2005. P. ix + 208. S65.
Mosi icaucis ol Sii Thomas Maloiy`s Morte scc ii as a monoliihic iicaimcni ol
chivaliy: ihis is ihc way Inighihoou was oi ihc way Maloiy ihoughi ii was. Thai
vicw has govcincu many, cihas all, icauings ol ihc Morte, as acais loi cxamlc
in Elizalcih Euwaius`s wcll-woiucu uisquisiiion on ihc couc" ol chivaliy in hci
The Genesis of Narrative in Malorys Moiic Daiihui 2000, . 72-73). Kcnncih
Book Reviews 411
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 411 5/7/07 11:28:27 AM
Hougcs challcngcs ihai wiucsicau icauing, as his iiilc suggcsis. Hc aigucs in his
iniiouuciion ihai ihcic is noi onc couc, noi onc communiiy" ol chivaliy, lui
scvcial. Hc oinis oui ma|oi communiiics ol chivaliy ihioughoui ihc looI, siaii-
ing in Chaici 1 English Knighis, Iicnch BooIs, anu Iiiciaiy Communiiics")
wiih ihc uivcisc liiciaiy communiiics" lounu in Iicnch iomanccs iiansmiiicu io
ihc English Maloiy anu io his vaiious auuicnccs Scoiiish, Wclsh, cic.). Evcn ihc
icligious communiiy anu iis iclciicu chivaliy acai in ihc Giail sioiy, icscni-
ing noi a iclaccmcni loi ihc scculai chivaliic communiiy lounu clscwhcic in ihc
Morte, as many havc aigucu, lui insicau ihc ongoing anu sccmingly iiicsolvallc
siiugglc lciwccn comciing valucs" . 22).
Hougcs`s Chaici 2, Swoius anu Soiccicsscs: Cicaiing a Chivaliic Commu-
niiy," locuscs on ihc changing chivaliic communiiics mci in ihc couisc ol icauing
ihiough ihc Morte. A icauci iiavcls lai liom King Uihci`s lusiy, iough-anu-icauy
waiiioi chivaliy io ihc couii ol ihc Rounu Tallc oaih wiih iis icscci loi womcn
anu loi ihcii giowing oliiical owci . 37-41, 51-60). Iuiihci, ihc swoius a-
caiing in sciics ihioughoui ihc Morte unuciscoic ihc changing vicw ol chivaliic
communiiy: whcic ihc hisi Excalilui is ihc swoiu ol inuiviuual hcioic uccus, ihc
scconu is ihc swoiu ol a lioauci communiiy. Oihci swoius, ihough-c.g., Balin`s
swoiu-can woiI gcnuinc haim anu uniavcl ihc communiiy . 46-48).
In Chaici 3, Ol Knighis anu Naiions," Hougcs suggcsis ihai Maloiy alanuons
ihc naiional aimics ol ihc Aiihui anu Iucius" scciion, iuining io inuiviuual
Inighis` aciiviiics in onc couniiy . 73, Hougcs uiscusscs ihc concci ol naiion"
on . 63-71). In ihc Ianccloi sioiy, suggcsis Hougcs, ihc limiis ol a Inighi`s
scivicc io womcn aic icsicu . 74). Hc uiscusscs ihc iolcs ol womcn ai lcngih in
ihis chaici, locusing on Guincvcic ai hisi, lui iuining io ihc loui quccns who
aluuci Ianccloi, io ihc maiucns who asI him io scivc ihcm, cic. . 73-77).
Hougcs`s locus on communiiics ol chivaliy" sccms lcss clcai in ihis chaici ihan
in his oihcis.
Thai locus iciuins in his Chaici 4, Rcgional Poliiics." Noiing again ihai ihc
caily aii ol ihc Morte locuscs on ihc communiiy ol ihc Iing`s couii, hc auus
ihai laici scciions . . . locus on how inuiviuual Inighis cicaic local communi-
iics oi au|usi ihcii laccs in alicauy cxisiing communiiics" . 79). Hougcs`s
hisi cxamlc is Gaicih anu his sioiy, hc ihcn iuins io anoihci Iaii UnInown,
Ia Coic Mal Taylc," ihcn io Alcxanuci ihc Oihan. In cach casc, ihc asiiing
young man musi csiallish an alhniiy ol his own as Gaicih uocs), oi lccomc
aii ol a owcilul cison`s alhniiy as Ia Coic uocs-. 83). Rcgional oliiics
also lccomc iniciiwincu wiih ihc naiional communiiy: in ihc Tiisiiam scciion,
Tiysiiam is Coinish, IamcioIc Wclsh, Gaicih is liom ihc OiIncys, anu Palomiucs
is a Saiaccn. . . . Thcy nccu io iovc ihcmsclvcs . . . io ihcii icgional ncighlois
anu ]io| ihc naiionally owcilul hguics ol Aiihui`s couii" . 87). Thus, ncaily
all ol ihc Tiisiiam sioiy iaIcs lacc in ihc aicna ol icgional oliiics, lui has iics
io naiional oliiics, Tiisiiam`s iioullcu iclaiionshi wiih ihc Coinish King MaiI
lccomcs involvcu wiih Aiihui`s naiional couii, loi cxamlc. Clcaily, muliilc
aioachcs io chivaliy alounu. This alunuancc conluscs icaucis anu, Hougcs
suggcsis, Maloiy as wcll. Bui ihcic is valuc in ihc conlusion: Thc icxi . . . sul|ccis
icaucis io ihc samc lcwiluciing aiiay ol valucs as ihc Inighis musi lacc, loicing
ihc iccogniiion ihai chivaliy is an inconsisicni sysicm ol valucs, cvcn whilc cach ol
iis coniiauicioiy comoncnis is goou anu woiih icsciving" . 86). Hougcs uocs
noi cnu his chaici on ihis noic ol muliivalcncc, hc iuins io ihc changing vicw
ol iomaniic lovc anu io ihc qucsiion ol inicniions-loi cxamlc, is Palomyucs`
412 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 412 5/7/07 11:28:27 AM
inicniion io lc chiisicncu moic iighicous ihan ihc nominal Chiisiianiiy ol ihc
lioihcis whom hc Iills ai ihc Rcu Ciiy. . 100-7).
Chaici 5, Shiliing Bounuaiics: Rcligious Communiiics anu ihc Giail," ocns
wiih ihc suggcsiion ihai ihc Giail sioiy anu ihc sioiy ol ihc Roman Wais coun-
icilalancc onc anoihci siiuciuially anu ihcmaiically" . 109). Thcy icll ol iwo
vciy uillcicni aciiviiics, onc naiionalisiic anu lloouy, ihc oihci alovc naiional
lounuaiics anu lcsi uisucu wiihoui Iilling. Paiauoxically, aigucs Hougcs, ihc
Giail qucsi is ihc moic haimlul: cmhasizing a Inighi`s cisonal aciiviiics, ii al-
mosi cniiicly icmovcs ihc locus liom chivaliic communiiics-such as ihc Rounu
Tallc-anu locuscs insicau on ihc aciions ol inuiviuuals . 109-111, 126-27).
Galahau-ihai suicmcly inuiviuualisiic Inighi-lccomcs ihc naiional icicscn-
iaiivc . 117), whilc Ianccloi, Pcicival, anu ihc oihci Inighis icicscni oluci
sianuaius loi chivaliy . 120-21). Womcn iaIc liiilc aii. Hougcs noics ihc
imoiiani iolc ol Pcicival`s sisici, howcvci, anu concluucs ihai cvcn ihough womcn
aic cxcluucu liom ihc qucsi, ihcy aic siill imoiiani in ihc Chiisiian communiiy
ovciall . 125).
Chaici 6, ihc hnal chaici, is Thc Dcaih ol Guincvcic." In ii Hougcs locuscs
on ihc nccu io icconsiiuci Aiihui`s Rounu Tallc communiiy lollowing ihc Giail
qucsi. Guincvcic, hc suggcsis, maIcs valiani aiicmis io icluilu ihai communiiy,
as whcn shc inviics Inighis ol Gawain`s alhniiy anu ol Ianccloi`s, Tiisiiam`s,
anu IamcioI`s as wcll) io a uinnci aiiy caily in whai Vinavci calls Thc BooI ol
Sii Iaunccloi anu Quccn Guincvcic." Unloiiunaicly loi hci lans, a mcmlci ol
IamoiaI`s alhniiy aiicmis io oison Gawain lui ly mischancc oisons anoihci
Inighi insicau. Guincvcic is accuscu ol ihc ciimc, anu hci aiicmi io icconsiiuci
has lccomc ucsiiuciivc: shc is now sccn as a ucsiioyci ol goou Inighis, anu only
Ianccloi`s alhniiy in ihc cisons ol Bois anu ol Ianccloi himscll) will uclcnu
hci. Thcy uo so succcsslully-lui now shc is shown io uccnu on anu ihcicloic
io lavoi onc alhniiy alonc. Thai oliiical oini anu hci coniinuing auulicious
involvcmcni wiih Ianccloi comlinc io maIc hci ihc cncmy ol oihci alhniiics,
noially Gawain`s as cisonihcu in Aggiavainc anu Moiuicu-. 133-38).
Aiihui, ioo, aiicmis io icconsiiuci his couii, calling loi a gicai iouinamcni
ncai Ascoloi. Again, ihc aiicmi lails. Thc Rounu Tallc cannoi again lccomc
a unihcu communiiy ol chivaliy . 138-41). Guincvcic, io hci cicuii, Iccs
iiying, ihus shc acihcs ihc Ianccloi-Mcliagauni conlioniaiion, anu sccms io lc
on ihc ioau io icsolving ihc unlcasani siiuaiion caccally. Mcliagauni, how-
cvci, icncgcs on his iomisc io ui cvciyihing in hci hanus, anu accuscs hci ol
iicason. In iiscll a uivisivc aci, ihis liccus luiihci uivision: Ianccloi again maiIs
his suoii ol ihc quccn as hc Iills Mcliagauni in uclcnsc ol Guincvcic, anu
Aggiavainc-cihas moiivaicu ly oliiical |calousy as Ianccloi giows in ihc
couii`s csiccm-lcgins his uisuii ol Ianccloi anu Guincvcic, which will icsuli
in yci luiihci uivision ol Aiihui`s oncc-unihcu chivaliic communiiy . 146-51).
Thai hnal uivision lcaus io ihc hnal laiilc, whcic all ihc chivaliic communiiics
aic annihilaicu . 152-53).
In his Aliciwoiu," Hougcs icalhims his ihcsis: Insicau ol a monumcnial woiI
cnulcssly iling u cxamlcs ol ihc samc nosialgic chivaliy . . . , Maloiy . . . ollcis
a vision ol a naiion uniicu ly a lovc ol chivaliy anu uiviucu in ihcii lclicls ovci
whai iiuc chivaliy is" . 157). Thc lcsi icauing ol ihc Morte, Hougcs concluucs,
is scnsiiivc io ihc uynamic naiuic ol chivaliy in ihc woiI. Rcalizing ihc oliiical
inicilay ol vaiious communal loyaliics anu ihc nuanccs ol uillciing liiciaiy
siylcs" maIcs clcaici whai Maloiy has achicvcu . 157).
Book Reviews 413
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 413 5/7/07 11:28:27 AM
Hougcs`s oliiical icauing ol ihc Morte, in which hc lollows Hyon|in Kim`s The
Knight without a Sword in uiscussing ihc imoiiancc ol alhniiics," is illuminaiing.
His insisicncc on noi onc, lui many, chivaliic communiiics, is csccially siimu-
laiing. His commcnis on siylcs" in ihc Morte aic lcss wcll conccivcu, his iccisc
mcaning loi siylc" sccms io vaiy liom alliiciaiivc iosc . 15-16) io ihcmaiic
inicicsis c.g., ihc ihcmcs ol ihc Giail qucsi: . 19). Moicovci, a uisquisiiion on
Maloiy`s usc ol thou sccms scll-coniiauicioiy: noiing ihc Biiiish usc ol ihc loim
in ihc Roman Wais, hc suggcsis ihai thou connoics a scnsc ol communiiy, laici,
ihough, hc iciuins io ihc sianuaiu vicw ol thou as connoiing an insuli . 81,
103, 176 n. 3).
Noiwiihsianuing ihc commcni on siylcs" anu ihc iiiiiaiion ol a gicai many iy-
ogiahical ciiois on ihc oiuci ol onc cvciy iwo io ihicc agcs), Hougcs`s looI
ihoughilully challcngcs ihc monoliihic vicw ol chivaliy which mosi oi all icaucis
havc lioughi io ihc Morte. Rcaucis will gain usclul insighis liom his commcnis.
Hougcs`s icgulai iciuin io ihc qucsiion ol ihc iolcs) ol womcn in chivaliic com-
muniiics is liIcwisc wcll conccivcu, anu his challcngcs io such acInowlcugcu au-
ihoiiiics on ihc issuc as Doiscy Aimsiiong anu Gcialuinc Hcng aic siimulaiing.
D. Thomas Hanks Jr.
Baylor University
The Correspondence of Edward Lye. Euiicu ly Maigaici Clunics Ross anu
Amanua ]. Collins. Pullicaiions ol ihc Diciionaiy ol Olu English, 6. Toionio:
Thc Poniihcal Insiiiuic ol Mcuiacval Siuuics, 2004. P. xxix + 411. S94.95.
Pullishcu ly Owcn Manning hvc ycais alici Euwaiu Iyc`s ucaih in 1767, ihc Dic-
tionarium Saxonico- et Gothico-Latinum was a milcsionc in Olu English lcxicogiahy,
aiiiculaily loi iis inclusion ol Olu English ociic vocalulaiy. Inuccu, ii loims an
imoiiani linI lciwccn cailici lcxicons anu Boswoiih`s 1838 A Dictionary of the
Anglo-Saxon Language, on which ihc laiici is chicuy lascu. Iyc also coniiiluicu io
cighiccnih-ccniuiy Gcimanic siuuics in Englanu ly cuiiing anu ullishing, wiih
sulsianiial auuiiions ol his own, ]unius`s Etymologicum Anglicanum 1743), anu Eiic
Bcnzclius`s Sacrorum evangeliorum versio Gothica 1750), anu hc icaicu a Iaiin
iianslaiion ncvci ullishcu anu ucsiioycu in a hic in 1780) ol ihc ocms ol MS
]unius 11. This amliiious cuiiion ol The Correspondence of Edward Lye, as ihc cuiiois
|usily claim, scivcs as an iniiouuciion io his scholaily woiI, which nccus io lc
cvaluaicu in anu loi iiscll" anu highlighis ihc imoiiancc ol ihc scholaily lciici
as a mcuium loi uiscussion, uclaic" anu acaucmic lusincss in ihc cighiccnih
ccniuiy . 4). Whilc ihc iiilc accuiaicly icuccis ihc cuiiion`s locus on Iyc`s coi-
icsonucncc, ii uocs noi uo |usiicc io ihc iich collcciion ol maiciials coniaincu
ihcicin. Thcsc icvcal ihc comlcx iniciioi anu collaloiaiivc lilc anu woiI ol
ihis imoiiani scholai anu auu io oui giowing collcciion ol iimaiy souiccs loi
hisioiians ol ihc uiscilinc.
Thc iniiouuciion ioviucs concisc, yci sulhcicnily uciailcu, cxlanaiions ol
ihc scoc anu aiiangcmcni ol maiciials, ihc layoui ol lciicis, anu ihc cuiioiial
ioccuuics. A shoii liogiahy ol Iyc lollows, anu ihc iniiouuciion concluucs wiih
a niccly lalanccu asscssmcni ol his scholaily achicvcmcni" Iyc was csiccmcu
ly his conicmoiaiics, ucnigiaicu" oi ignoicu" ly his succcssois), which is
lollowcu ly loui scciions, onc cach ucvoicu io an aiaisal ol his loui ma|oi
scholaily icscaich io|ccis. Thc cuiiion ioci consisis ol 193 lciicis uaicu liom
1729-1767 lciwccn Iyc anu loiiy-hvc coiicsonucnis. Thc lciicis aic lollowcu ly
414 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 414 5/7/07 11:28:28 AM
hvc acnuiccs: 1) Documcnis Rclaiing io ihc Pullicaiion ol ihc Dictionarium
Saxonico- et Gothico-Latinum; 2) Documcnis Rclaiing io ihc Iilc ol Euwaiu Iyc",
3) Documcnis Associaicu wiih ihc Iyc Coiicsonucncc", 4) Billiogiahical
Dciails ol BooIs Mcniioncu in ihc Iyc-Hcainc Coiicsonucncc", anu 5) Cal-
cnuai ol Iciicis Rclaicu io ihc Iyc Coiicsonucncc." Thc cuiiois havc scnsilly
incluucu liogiahical noics on Iyc`s coiicsonucnis, a lilliogiahy ol manu-
sciii anu iinicu souiccs ol ihc Iyc coiicsonucncc, a lilliogiahy ol loih
moucin anu aniiquaiian souiccs, anu an cxicnsivc inucx.
A aiiiculaily valuallc navigaiional lcaiuic is ihc uciailcu conicnis lisi Conicnis
in Dciail, . vi-xv), which icccucs ihc iniiouuciion. Each lciici, lisicu in ihc
oiuci ol iis acaiancc in ihc volumc, is numlcicu anu iucniihcu ly wiiici/iccii-
cni, uaic, manusciii shcllmaiI anu lolios), anu hnally, ihc agc numlci whcic
ihc lciici acais in ihc cuiiion. Thc numlcis assigncu io cach lciici, in lolu,
ioviuc a usclul cioss-iclcicncc sysicm ihioughoui ihc cuiiion, noi only in ihc
annoiaiions io ihc lciicis ihcmsclvcs, lui also in ihc iniiouuciion, liogiahical
noics, acnuiccs, anu inucx.
Iyc`s coiicsonucncc, noi icviously cuiicu, is chicuy liom Thomas Pcicy`s
collcciion now Ionuon, BI Auu. 32325). Accoiuing io Pcicy, ihc lciicis wcic
lcqucaihcu io him ly Iyc, anu whilc ihcic is no cviucncc ihai Pcicy inicnucu
ullicaiion, his icliminaiy noics anu annoiaiions as wcll as a uiali ol a Mcmoii
ol ihc Iilc ol Euwaiu Iyc" suivivc in ihc manusciii. Thcsc aic iinicu in a-
cnuiccs 2.9 anu 2.10. Also incluucu is coiicsonucncc lciwccn Iyc anu Thomas
Hcainc as wcll as lciicis nciihci ly noi io Iyc, which shcu lighi on sul|ccis
iicaicu in ihc cuiicu lciicis" . 5). Thc lciicis aic, wiih only ihicc cxcciions,
cuiicu liom ihc oiiginal manusciiis anu aiiangcu chionologically iaIing inio
accouni, ihiough annoiaiion, ihc iaciicc in Englanu u io 1752 ol lcginning
ihc Ncw Ycai on 25 Maich). Hcauings ioviuc ihc namc oi con|cciuic) ol wiiici
anu icciicni, uaic, uiicciion, cnuoiscmcni, osimaiI, annoiaiion, asciiiion,
manusciii locaiion, anu iccoiucu iiniings. ]T|o icscni ihc moucin icauci
wiih a iclaiivcly uncluiicicu icxi as closc as ossillc io ihc manusciii oiiginals,"
ihc cuiiois havc choscn io cuii ihc lciicis lighily . 7). Auihoiial changcs anu
annoiaiions, annoiaiions ly oihci icaucis, as wcll as cuiioiial cmcnuaiions anu
cxlanaiions aic ihus icscivcu in icxiual looinoics. A scconu sci ol looinoics
ollcis valuallc inicllcciual anu hisioiical conicxi as wcll as iianslaiions ol non-
English maiciials.
Coiicsonucncc icscnis uilhculi cuiioiial challcngcs, anu Iyc`s collcciion
is no cxcciion. Maigaici Clunics Ross anu Amanua ]. Collins havc iouuccu a
ihoughilul, wcll-oiganizcu scholaily cuiiion wiih inloimaiivc anu usclul aaiaius.
Ioi cxamlc, ihis icauci lounu ihc cuiiois` liogiahical iclcicncing mcihou luciu
anu consisicni anu ihc conicxiual noics inloimaiivc wiihoui ovciwhclming ihc
icxi. Thc uccision io cuii lighily anu io silcnily cxanu sianuaiu cighiccnih-ccn-
iuiy allicviaiions c.g. w
u
io would) cicaics a icauallc icxi, whilc ihc mciiculous
icxiual aaiaius icscivcs auihoiial iaciicc anu oiiginal manusciii icauings
anu aiiiculais.
A ianuom comaiison ol hologiah anu cuiicu lciicis iucniihcu only isolaicu
ciiois in iiansciiiion. Ioi cxamlc, in lciici 16 ihc hiasc, anu I iomisc)u
him io lci him Inow," is omiiicu lollowing Hc ucsiics io scc you," anu icccu-
ing as soon
l
as I icccivc youi answci," uuc almosi cciiainly io cycsIi lol. 13).
A icxiual noic is mislaccu in lciici 21 in which ihc woiu Iaws" occuis iwicc in
closc ioximiiy. Thc noic is laccu noi whcic ii lclongs, alici ihc hisi acaiancc
Book Reviews 415
00.i-iv,277-416.indd 415 5/7/07 11:28:28 AM
ol ihc woiu-Ina`s anu Eihclicu`s Iaws"-lui alici ihc scconu, onc linc lclow,
ihcic was a uillcicncc in ihc Iaws,
I
" . 86). In acnuix 1, uoullc lincs aic
omiiicu lclow ihc cnuliimaic numlci 15:15:0." Thcsc minoi slis uo noi scii-
ously mai ihc consisicnily high qualiiy ol ihis hnc cuiiion, anu ovciall, comaiison
icvcals laiihlul anu accuiaic iiansciiiion anu consisicni auhcicncc io ihc cuiio-
iial ioccuuics ouilincu in ihc iniiouuciion.
Thc volumc acais io lc viiiually licc ol loimaiiing anu iyogiahical ciiois,
anu ii is lcauiilully iouuccu wiih sulhcicni whiic sacc io allow loi comloiiallc
scaiaiion ol icxi anu aaiaius. Inuccu, aiiiculai aiicniion has lccn givcn io
layoui loi lciicis wiiiicn cniiicly in anoihci languagc, in such cascs iwo-column
loimai ioviucs loi lacing English iianslaiions. Iinally, iciouuciion ol ihc only
iwo Inown oiiiaiis ol Iyc onc in coloi), mas ol Iyc`s cnviions, anu ihc mc-
moiial iallci ly William Cox I liom Si. Anuicw`s Chuich, Yaiulcy Hasiings, aic
aiiiaciivc lcaiuics. The Correspondence of Edward Lye is a valuallc coniiiluiion io
oui cxanuing Inowlcugc ol ihc hisioiy ol ihc uiscilinc in cighiccnih-ccniuiy
Englanu.
Dabney A. Bankert
James Madison University
416 Journal of English and Germanic Philology, July 2007
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