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Exposed Linear Encoders

July 2003

Exposed Linear Encoders

Linear encoders measure the position of linear axes without additional mechanical transfer elements. This eliminates a number of potential error sources: Positioning error due to thermal behavior of the recirculating ball screw Backlash Kinematic error through ball screw pitch error Linear encoders are therefore indispensable for machines that fulfill high requirements for positioning accuracy and machining speed.

Exposed linear encoders are designed for use on machines and installations that require especially high accuracy of the measured value. Typical applications include: Measuring and production equipment in the semiconductor industry PCB assembly machines Ultra-precision machines such as diamond lathes for optical components, facing lathes for magnetic storage disks, and grinding machines for ferrite components. High-accuracy machine tools Measuring machines and comparators, measuring microscopes, and other precision measuring devices Direct drives

Mechanical Design Exposed linear encoders consist of a scale or scale tape and a scanning head that operate without mechanical contact. The scale of an exposed linear encoder is fastened directly to a mounting surface. The flatness of the mounting surface is therefore a prerequisite for high accuracy of the encoder.

Information on Sealed linear encoders Angle encoders Rotary encoders HEIDENHAIN subsequent electronics HEIDENHAIN TNC controls Machine inspection and calibration is available on request as well as on the Internet under www.heidenhain.de

This catalog supersedes all previous editions, which thereby become invalid. The basis for odering from HEIDENHAIN is always the catalog edition valid when the contract is made. Standards (ISO, EN, etc.) apply only where explicitly stated in the catalog.

Contents

Overview

Exposed Linear Encoders Selection Guide Technical Characteristics

2 4

Measuring Principles

Measuring Standard Incremental Measuring Method Photoelectric Scanning

6 7 8 10 12 14 17

Measuring Accuracy Reliability Mechanical Design Types and Mounting General Mechanical Information Specifications

For very high accuracy

LIP 300 Series LIP 400 Series LIP 500 Series LIF 400 Series

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

For high traversing speed and large measuring lengths

LIDA 1x1 Series LIDA 4x5 Series LIDA 4x7 Series

For two coordinates Electrical Connection

PP Series

Interfaces

Incremental Signals 1 VPP Incremental Signals TTL Limit Switches Position Detection

36 38 39 40 44 46 47

Connecting Elements and Cables General Electrical Specifications HEIDENHAIN Measuring and Test Equipment Evaluation Electronics

Selection Guide

Cross section

Accuracy grades 0.5 m


(higher accuracy available on request)

Signal period1) 0.128 m

The LIP exposed linear encoders are characterized by very small measuring steps together with very high accuracy and repeatability. As the measuring standard they feature a DIADUR phase grating applied to a graduation carrier of glass ceramic or glass.

LIP for very high accuracy Scale of glass ceramic or glass Interferential scanning principle for small signal periods

LIP 4x1R

1 m 0.5 m
(higher accuracy available on request)

2 m

1 m

4 m

The LIF exposed linear encoders have a measuring standard on a glass substrate manufactured in the DIADUR process. They feature high accuracy and repeatability and are especially easy to mount. The LIDA exposed linear encoders have an AURODUR steel scale tape as measuring standard. They are specially designed for high traversing speeds up to 8 m/s and are particularly easy to mount with various mounting possibilities.

LIF with PRECIMET adhesive film Interferential scanning principle for small signal periods Limit switches and homing track

3 m

4 m

For high traversing speeds and large measuring lengths Steel scale tape cemented on steel carrier or drawn into an aluminum extrusion Limit switches with LIDA 400

5 m 3 m

40 m

5 m

20 m

15 m

20 m

The PP two-coordinate encoders feature as measuring standard a planar phase-grating structure manufactured with the DIADUR process on a glass substrate. This makes it possible to measure positions in a plane.

PP for two-coordinate measuring Common scanning point for both coordinates Interferential scanning principle for small signal periods

2 m

4 m

1) 1)

Signal period of the sinusoidal signals. It is definitive for deviations within one signal period (see Measuring Accuracy). 2) For encoders with TTL interface and integrated interpolation electronics: 2) Measuring step after 4-fold evaluation and with maximum possible interpolation factor 2) (see TTL Interfaces).

70 mm to 270 mm (2.7 in. to 10.6 in.)

Zerodurglass ceramic embedded in bolted-on Invar carrier

TTL 0.001 m 1 VPP

LIP 372

18 LIP 382

LIP 382

10 mm to 420 mm (0.4 in. to 16.5 in.)

Scale of Zerodur TTL glass ceramic to 0.05 m or glass with bolted-on fixing clamps 1 VPP Glass scale fixed with bolted-on clamps TTL to 0.1 m 1 VPP Glass scale fixed TTL with PRECIMET to 0.01 m adhesive film 1 VPP Steel scale tape TTL to 1 m embedded in steel carrier that is bolted onto a 1 VPP mounting surface Steel scale tape is drawn into an aluminum extrusion and tensioned Steel scale tape is drawn into an aluminum extrusion and fixed at center TTL to 0.05 m 1 VPP TTL to 0.05 m 1 VPP

LIP 471

20

LIP 481 LIP 571 22 LIP 581

70 mm to 1440 mm (2.7 in. to 56 in.)

LIP 581

70 mm to 1020 mm (2.7 in. to 40 in.)

LIF 471

24

LIF 481

LIF 481

220 mm to 2040 mm (8.6 in. to 80 in.)

LIDA 171 26

LIDA 181

140 mm to 30040 mm (5.5 in. to 100 ft)

LIDA 475 28 LIDA 181 LIDA 485

240 mm to 6040 mm (9.5 in. to 237 in.)


(other measuring ranges upon request)

LIDA 477 30

LIDA 487 LIDA 485

Measuring range 68 mm x 68 mm (2.7 in. x 2.7 in.)


(other measuring ranges upon request)

Glass grid plate mounted with full-surface adhesion

TTL to 0.1 m 1 VPP

PP 271

32

PP 281

PP 281

Overview

Measuring lengths

Substrate and mounting

Interface/ Meas. step2)

Model

Page

Measuring Principles Measuring Standard

HEIDENHAIN encoders with optical scanning incorporate measuring standards of periodic structures known as graduations. These graduations are applied to a carrier substrate of glass or steel. The scale substrate for large measuring lengths is a steel tape. These precision graduations are manufactured in various photolithographic processes. Graduations are fabricated from: extremely hard chromium lines on glass, matte-etched lines on gold-plated steel tape, or three-dimensional structures on glass or steel substrates. The photolithographic manufacturing processes developed by HEIDENHAIN produce grating periods of typically 40 m to under 1 m. These processes permit very fine grating periods and are characterized by a high definition and homogeneity of the line edges. Together with the photoelectric scanning method, this high edge definition is a precondition for the high quality of the output signals. The master graduations are manufactured by HEIDENHAIN on custom-built highprecision ruling machines.

Incremental Measuring Method

B = 2 x MRRN
and: P1 = Position of the first traversed reference mark in signal periods

= Nominal increment between two fixed reference marks in signal periods (see table) = Direction of traverse (+1 or 1) Traverse of scanning unit to the right (when properly installed) equals +1.

In some cases this may necessitate machine movement over large lengths of the measuring range. To speed and simplify such reference runs, many encoders feature distance-coded reference marks multiple reference marks that are individually spaced according to a mathematical algorithm. The subsequent electronics find the absolute reference after traversing two successive reference marksonly a few millimeters traverse (see table). Encoders with distance-coded reference marks are identified with a C behind the model designation (e.g. LIP 581C).

abs = Absolute value sgn = Sign function (+1 or 1) MRR = Number of signal periods between the traversed reference marks

Dimensions in mm

Incremental graduation with distance-coded reference marks on an LIP 5x1C encoder

Signal period

Nominal increment N in signal periods 5000 2000

Max. traverse

LIP 5x1C

4 m

20 mm 80 mm

LIDA 1x1C 40 m

Technical Characteristics

With incremental measuring methods, the graduation consists of a periodic grating structure. The position information is obtained by counting the individual increments (measuring steps) from some point of origin. Since an absolute reference is required to ascertain positions, the scales or scale tapes are provided with an additional track that bears a reference mark. The absolute position on the scale, established by the reference mark, is gated with exactly one measuring step. The reference mark must therefore be scanned to establish an absolute reference or to find the last selected datum.

With distance-coded reference marks, the absolute reference is calculated by counting the signal periods between two reference marks and using the following formula:

P1 = (abs Bsgn B1) x N + (sgn Bsgn D) x abs MRR 2 2 where:

Photoelectrical Scanning

Most HEIDENHAIN encoders operate using the principle of photoelectric scanning. The photoelectric scanning of a measuring standard is contact-free, and therefore without wear. This method detects even very fine lines, no more than a few microns wide, and generates output signals with very small signal periods. The finer the grating period of a measuring standard is, the greater the effect of diffraction on photoelectric scanning. HEIDENHAIN uses two scanning principles with linear encoders: The imaging scanning principle for grating periods from 10 m to 40 m. The interferential scanning principle for very fine graduations with grating periods of 4 m and smaller.

Imaging scanning principle To put it simply, the imaging scanning principle functions by means of projectedlight signal generation: two scale gratings with equal grating periods are moved relative to each otherthe scale and the scanning reticle. The carrier material of the scanning reticle is transparent, whereas the graduation on the measuring standard may be applied to a transparent or reflective surface. When parallel light passes through a grating, light and dark surfaces are projected at a certain distance. An index grating with the same grating period is located here. When the two gratings move in relation to each other, the incident light is modulated: if the gaps are aligned, light passes through. If the lines of one grating coincide with the gaps of the other, no light passes through. Photocells convert these variations in light intensity into electrical signals. The specially structured grating of the scanning reticle filters the light current to generate nearly sinusoidal output signals. The smaller the period of the grating structure is, the closer and more tightly toleranced the gap must be between the scanning reticle and scale. Practical mounting tolerances for encoders with the imaging scanning principle are achieved with grating periods of 10 m and larger. The LIDA linear encoders operate according to the imaging scanning principle.
90 elec.

Signal period 360 elec.

Phase shift

Scale

Window

Structured sensor

Index grating Condenser lens

Scanning reticle

Light source (LED)

Photoelectric scanning using the imaging scanning principle with steel scale and one scanning field (LIDA 400)

The sensor generates four nearly sinusoidal current signals (I0, I90, I180 and I270), electrically phase-shifted to each other by 90. These scanning signals do not at first lie symmetrically about the zero line. For this reason the photovoltaic cells are connected in a push-pull circuit, producing two 90 phase-shifted output signals I1 and I2 in symmetry with respect to the zero line. In the XY representation on an oscilloscope the signals form a Lissajous figure. Ideal output signals appear as a concentric inner circle. Deviations in the circular form and position are caused by position error within one signal period (see Measuring Accuracy) and therefore go directly into the result of measurement. The size of the circle, which corresponds with the amplitude of the output signal, can vary within certain limits without influencing the measuring accuracy.

Interferential scanning principle The interferential scanning principle exploits the diffraction and interference of light on a fine graduation to produce signals used to measure displacement. A step grating is used as the measuring standard: reflective lines 0.2 m high are applied to a flat, reflective surface. In front of that is the scanning reticlea transparent phase grating with the same grating period as the scale. When a light wave passes through the scanning reticle, it is diffracted into three partial waves of the orders 1, 0, and +1, with approximately equal luminous intensity. The waves are diffracted by the scale such that most of the luminous intensity is found in the reflected diffraction orders +1 and 1. These partial waves meet again at the phase grating of the scanning reticle where they are diffracted again and interfere. This produces essentially three waves that leave the scanning reticle at different angles. Photovoltaic cells convert this alternating light intensity into electrical signals.

A relative motion of the scanning reticle to the scale causes the diffracted wave fronts to undergo a phase shift: when the grating moves by one period, the wave front of the first order is displaced by one wavelength in the positive direction, and the wavelength of diffraction order 1 is displaced by one wavelength in the negative direction. Since the waves interfere with each other when exiting the grating, the waves are shifted relative to each other by two wavelengths. This results in two signal periods from the relative motion of just one grating period. Interferential encoders function with grating periods of, for example, 8 m, 4 m and finer. Their scanning signals are largely free of harmonics and can be highly interpolated. These encoders are therefore especially suited for high resolution and high accuracy. Even so, their generous mounting tolerances permit installation in a wide range of applications. The linear encoders of the LIP, LIF and PP product families operate with the interferential scanning principle.

Scale

Orders of diffraction -1. 0. +1.

Scale with DIADUR phase grating

Condenser lens

Light source LED

Grating period

Scanning reticle: transparent phase grating

Photovoltaic cells

Photoelectric scanning using the interferential scanning principle with one scanning field

Measuring Accuracy

The accuracy of linear measurement is mainly determined by: The quality of the graduation Quality of the scanning process Quality of the signal processing electronics The error from the scale guideway over the scanning unit. A distinction is made between position error over relatively large paths of traversefor example the entire measuring rangeand that within one signal period. Position error over measuring length The accuracy of exposed linear encoders is specified as accuracy grades, which are defined as follows: Position error F over the measuring length Position error

The extreme values of the total error F of a position liewith reference to their mean valueover any max. one-meter section of the measuring length within the accuracy grade a.
With exposed linear encoders, the above definition of the accuracy grade applies only to the scale. It is then called the scale accuracy. Position error within one signal period The position error within one signal period is determined by the quality of scanning and the signal period of the encoder. At any position over the entire measuring length of an exposed HEIDENHAIN linear encoders it does not exceed approx. 1% of the signal period. The smaller the signal period, the smaller the position error within one signal period. It is of critical importance both for accuracy of a positioning movement as well as for velocity control during the slow, even traverse of an axis.

Position error within one signal period


0 ML

Position

Position error u within one signal period

Position error

Signal period of scanning signals LIP 3x2 LIP 4x1 LIP 5x1 LIF PP LIDA 4xx LIDA 1xx 0.128 m 2 m 4 m

Typical position error u within one signal period 0.001 m 0.02 m 0.04 m

20 m 40 m

0.2 m 0.4 m

10

Signal level

Signal period 360 elec.

All HEIDENHAIN linear encoders are inspected before shipping for accuracy and proper function. They are calibrated for accuracy during traverse in both directions. The number of measuring positions is selected to determine very exactly not only the long-range error, but also the position error within one signal period. The manufacturers inspection certificate confirms the specified system accuracy of each length gauge. The calibration standards ensure the traceabilityas required by ISO 9001to recognized national or international standards. For the encoders of the LIP, PP and LIDA 1x1 series, a calibration chart documents the position error over the measuring range and also states the measuring step and measuring uncertainty of the calibration. Temperature range The length gauges are calibrated at a reference temperature of 20 C (68 F). The system accuracy given in the calibration chart applies at this temperature. The operating temperature range indicates the ambient temperature limits between which the length gauges will function properly. The storage temperature range of 20 C to 70 C (4 F to 158 F) applies for the device in its packaging.

Poor mounting of linear encoders can aggravate the effect of guideway error on measuring accuracy. To keep the resulting Abbe error as small as possible, the scale or scale housing should be mounted at table height on the machine slide. It is important to ensure that the mounting surface is parallel to the machine guideway.

11

Reliability

Exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN are optimized for use on fast, precise machines. In spite of the exposed mechanical design they are highly tolerant to contamination, ensure high long-term stability, and are fast and simple to mount.

Lower sensitivity to contamination Both the high quality of the grating and the scanning method are responsible for the accuracy and reliability of linear encoders. Exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN operate with single-field scanning. Only one scanning field is used to generate the scanning signals. Unlike four-field scanning, with single-field scanning, local contamination on the measuring standard (e.g., fingerprints from mounting or oil accumulation from guideways) influences the light intensity of the signal components, and therefore the scanning signals, in equal measure. The output signals do change in their amplitude, but not in their offset and phase position. They remain highly interpolable, and the position error within one signal period remains small. The large scanning field additionally reduces sensitivity to contamination. In many cases this can prevent encoder failure. This is particularly clear with the LIDA 400 and LIF 400, which in relation to the grating period have a very large scanning surface of 14.5 mm2. Even with contamination from printers ink, PCB dust, water or oil with 3 mm diameter, the encoders continue to provide high-quality signals. The position error remains far below the values specified for the accuracy grade of the scale.

Position error [m]

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Position [mm] Effect of contamination with four-field scanning (red) and single-field scanning (green) Oil Water Toner Dust Fingerprint

Position error [m]

1 0 1 2

0.4 0 0
40 60 80 100 120

0.2

0.2
140 160 180

Position [mm] Contamination behavior of LIF 400

12

Durable measuring standards By the nature of its design, the measuring standards of exposed linear encoders are less protected from their environment. HEIDENHAIN therefore always uses tough gratings manufactured in special processes. In the DIADUR process, hard chrome structures are applied to a glass or steel carrier. The AURODUR process applies gold to a steel strip to produce a scale tape with a hard gold graduation. In the SUPRADUR process, a transparent layer is applied first over the reflective primary layer. An extremely thin, hard chrome layer is applied to produce an optically threedimensional phase grating. Scales with SUPRADUR graduations have proven to be particularly insensitive to contamination because the low height of the structure leaves practically no surface for dust, dirt or water particles to accumulate.

Reflective layer

Transparent layer

Reflective primary layer

Substrate

SUPRADUR process: Optically three-dimensional graduation with planar structure

Application-oriented mounting tolerances Very small signal periods usually come with very narrow mounting tolerances for the gap between the scanning head and scale tape. This is the result of diffraction caused by the grating structures. It can lead to a signal attenuation of 50% with a gap change of only 0.1 mm. Thanks to the interferential scanning principle and innovative index gratings in encoders with the imaging measuring principle it has become possible to provide ample mounting tolerances in spite of the small signal periods. The mounting tolerances of exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN have only a slight influence on the output signals. In particular the specified gap tolerance between the scale and scanning head (scanning gap) causes only negligible change in the signal amplitude. This behavior is substantially responsible for the high reliability of exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN. The two diagrams illustrate the correlation between the scanning gap and signal amplitude for the encoders of the LIDA 400 and LIF 400 series.

120%

Signal amplitude [%]

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0.6 0.65 1) 0.55 0 0.05 2) 1) = Scale tape 2) = Scale tape carrier 0.7 0.75 0.15 0.8 0.85 0.25 0.9 0.95 0.35

2)

Mounting tolerance

LIDA 400

Scanning gap [mm]

120%

Signal amplitude [%]

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 0.8

Mounting tolerance

LIF 400

0.9

1.1

1.2

Scanning gap [mm]

13

Mechanical Design Types and Mounting Linear Scales

Exposed linear encoders consist of two components: the scanning head and the scale or scale tape. They are positioned to each other solely by the machine guideway. For this reason the machine must be designed from the very beginning to meet the following prerequisites: The machine guideway must be designed so that the tolerances in the mounting space for the encoder are met (see Specifications). The bearing surface of the scale must meet requirements for evenness. To facilitate adjustment of the scanning head to the scale, it should be fastened with a bracket. Scale versions HEIDENHAIN provides the appropriate scale version for the application and accuracy requirements at hand. LIP 300 series High-accuracy LIP 300 scales feature a graduation substrate of Zerodur, which is cemented in the thermal stress-free zone of a steel carrier. The steel carrier is fixed with screws onto the bearing surface. Flexible fastening elements ensure reproducible thermal behavior. LIP 400 and LIP 500 series The graduation carriers of Zerodur or glass are fastened onto the bearing surface with clamps and additionally secured with silicone adhesive. The thermal zero point is fixed with epoxy adhesive.

Scale of LIP 302

Scale of LIP 401

Scale of LIP 501

Accessories Fixing clamps Silicone adhesive Epoxy adhesive

Id. Nr. 270711-04 Id. Nr. 200417-02 Id. Nr. 200409-01

LIF 400 series The graduation carriers of glass are fastened with PRECIMET elastic adhesive film, and pressure is evenly distributed with a roller.

Accessories Roller

Id. Nr. 276885-01 Scale of LIF 401

14

LIDA 1x1 series The steel scale tape with the graduation is applied to a steel carrier. The steel carrier is secured over its full surface onto the bearing surface. The thermal behavior of the LIDA 100 is the same as that of steel. LIDA 4x5 series Linear encoders of the LIDA 405 series are specially designed for large measuring lengths. They are mounted with scale carrier sections screwed onto the bearing surface or with PRECIMET adhesive film. Then the one-piece steel scale tape is pulled into the carrier, tensioned, and fixed at its ends to the machine bed. The LIDA 405 therefore shares the thermal behavior of its mounting surface. LIDA 4x7 series Encoders of the LIDA 407 series are also designed for large measuring lengths. The scale carrier sections are fixed to the bearing surface with PRECIMET adhesive mounting film; the one-piece scale tape is pulled in and fixed at its midpoint to the machine bed. This mounting method allows the scale to expanded freely at both ends and ensures a defined thermal behavior.

Scale of LIDA 101

Scale of LIDA 405

Accessories for versions with PRECIMET Roller Id. Nr. 276885-01 Mounting aid Id. Nr. 373990-01

Scale of LIDA 407

Mounting aid

15

Mechanical Design Types and Mounting Scanning Heads

Because exposed linear encoders are assembled on the machine, they must be precisely adjusted after mounting. This adjustment determines the final accuracy of the encoder. It is therefore advisable to design the machine for simplest and most practical adjustment as well as to ensure the most stable possible construction. For exact alignment of the scanning head to the scale, it must be adjustable in five axes (see illustration). Because the paths of adjustment are very small, it is generally sufficient to provide oblong holes in an angle bracket. Mounting the LIP/LIF/LIDA 100 The scanning head features a centering collar that allows it to be rotated in the location hole of the angle bracket and aligned parallel to the scale. Mounting the LIDA 400 The scanning head is best mounted from behind on the mounting bracket. The scanning head can be very precisely adjusted through a hole in the mounting bracket with the aid of a tool. Adjustment To simplify adjustment, HEIDENHAIN recommends the following procedure: 1) Set the scanning gap between the scale and scanning head using the spacer foil. 2) Adjust the incremental signals by rotating the scanning head. 3) Adjust the reference mark signals through further, slight rotation of the scanning head. As adjustment aids, HEIDENHAIN offers the PWM 9 or PWT measuring and testing devices (see HEIDENHAIN Measuring and Test Equipment). Spacer foil

LIP/LIF/LIDA 100

Spacer foil

LIDA 400

1)

2)

Please note: Work steps to be performed and dimensions to be maintained during mounting are specified solely in the mounting instructions supplied with the unit. All data in this catalog regarding mounting are therefore provisional and not binding; they do not become terms of a contract.

3)

16

General Mechanical Information

Mounting To simplify cable routing, the scanning head is usually screwed onto a stationary machine part and the scale onto the moving machine part. The mounting location for the linear encoders should be carefully considered in order to ensure both optimum accuracy and the longest possible service life. The encoder should be mounted as closely as possible to the working plane to keep the Abbe error small. To function properly, linear encoders must not be continuously subjected to strong vibration, The more solid elements of the machine tool provide the best mounting surfaces in this respect; encoders should not be mounted on hollow parts or with adapter pieces. The linear encoders should be mounted away from sources of heat to avoid temperature influences. Temperature range The operating temperature range indicates the limits of ambient temperature within which the values given in the specifications for linear encoders are maintained. The storage temperature range of 20 C to 70 C (4 F to 158 F) is valid when the unit remains in its packaging. Thermal behavior The thermal behavior of the linear encoder is an essential criterion for the working accuracy of the machine. As a general rule, the thermal behavior of the linear encoder should match that of the workpiece or measured object. During temperature changes, the linear encoder should expand or retract in a defined, reproducible manner. The graduation carriers of HEIDENHAIN linear encoders (see Specifications) have differing coefficients of thermal expansion. This makes it possible to select the linear encoder with thermal behavior best suited to the application.

Degree of protection (IEC 60529) The scanning heads of the exposed linear encoders feature an IP 50 degree of protection. The scales have no special protection. Protective measures must be taken if the possibility of contamination exists. Acceleration Linear encoders are subject to various types of acceleration during operation and mounting. The indicated maximum values for vibration apply for frequencies of 55 to 2000 Hz (IEC 60068-2-6). Any acceleration exceeding permissible values, for example due to resonance depending on the application and mounting, might damage the encoder. Comprehensive tests of the entire system are required. The maximum permissible acceleration values (semi-sinusoidal shock) for shock and impact are valid for 11 ms (IEC 60068-2-27). Under no circumstances should a hammer or similar implement be used to adjust or position the encoder.

Expendable parts In particular the following parts in encoders from HEIDENHAIN are subject to wear: LED light source Cable

System tests Encoders from HEIDENHAIN are usually integrated as components in larger systems. Such applications require comprehensive tests of the entire system regardless of the specifications of the encoder. The specifications given in the brochure apply to the specific encoder, not to the complete system. Any operation of the encoder outside of the specified range or for any other than the intended applications is at the users own risk. In safety-oriented systems, the higherlevel system must verify the position value of the encoder after switch-on.

DIADUR, AURODUR and SUPRADUR and PRECIMET are registered trademarks of DR. JOHANNES HEIDENHAIN GmbH, Traunreut. Zerodur is a registered trademark of the Schott-Glaswerke, Mainz.

17

LIP 372 LIP 382


Incremental linear encoders with very high accuracy For measuring steps to 0.001 m (1 nm)

Specifications

LIP 372 LIP 382 DIADUR phase grating on Zerodur glass ceramic 0.512 m therm 0 ppm/K 0.5 m (0.00002 in.) (higher accuracy grades available on request) 70,
2.7,

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
* F s m = = = = = Max. change during operation Machine guideway Beginning of measuring length (ML) Mounting surface for scanning head Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description
L 182 202 252 322 L1 40 45 56 71 L2 102 112 140 180

Measuring length ML* in mm


inches

150,
5.9,

170,
6.7,

220,
8.6,

270
10.6

Reference mark Max. traversing speed LIP 372 LIP 382

None See page 37 7.6 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 1 MHz 4 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 50 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 40 C (32 to 122 F) 150 g 100 g 260 g (ML 70 mm) 700 g (ML 150 mm) 37 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 160 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 160 mA TTL/integr. 32-fold interpolation: 0.004 m 1 VPP/0.128 m Cable 0.5 m to interface electronics (APE), sep. adapter cable (1 m/3 m/6 m/9 m) connectable to APE 30 m (98.5 ft)

ML 150 170 220 270

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Interface electronics Scale Cable Power supply LIP 372 LIP 382 LIP 372 LIP 382 Electrical connection

Incremental signals/ Signal periods

Max. cable length * Please indicate when ordering

18

ML 270
6 18

L1
6.2

L2 0.2

20.70.02 10 M5 x 20 ISO 4762


M5

(0.3) 8

8.5

5.3 DIN 433 M5 x 12 ISO 4762

450.1

18.50.2

420.2

55

27.5

36 8

L L1 L2 0.2
19

290.1

0.02 A 0.02 F 0.01


9.5

ML 220, 170, 150

24.5

370.1

3.5

L ML
4.5

APE
M4 33 3.5 760.1 85.5

40

36

15

(0.3) 8

ML 70

6
5.5 10

18

M5 x 10 ISO 4762

4.5

5.3 DIN 433 M5 x 12 ISO 4762

M5

18.50.2

450.1

10

170.2

280.05

0.5mrad*

0.05 F

10

ML =70
100 22.5 550.1

A
23.30.1

28+0.02/+0.1

0.02 A 0.02 F 0.01

270.1

15 15

ML = 70
15

15
0.2

20

35

18.50.2

450.1

55

19

44

Specifications

ML

0.05 F

0.5mrad*

25

280.05

6.5

LIP 471 LIP 481


Incremental linear encoders with very high accuracy For limited installation space For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.005 m (0.00005 in. to 0.0000002 in.)

Specifications

LIP 471 LIP 481 DIADUR phase grating on Zerodur glass ceramic or glass 4 m therm 0 ppm/K (Zerodur glass ceramic) therm 8 ppm/K (glass) 1 m (0.00004 in.) 0.5 m (0.00002 in.) (higher accuracy grades on request) 70,
2.7, 14.5,

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
F * r s = = = = = Machine guideway Max. change during operation Reference mark position LIP 4x1R Beginning of measuring length (ML) Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

Accuracy grade*

Measuring length ML* in mm


inches

120,
4.7, 16.5

170,
6.7,

220,
8.6,

270,
10.6,

320,
12.6,

370, 420 Reference mark* LIP 4x1R LIP 4x1A LIP 471 LIP 481 One at midpoint of measuring length None See page 37 30 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 250 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 500 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 40 C (32 to 122 F) 25 g (LIP 4x1A), 50 g (LIP 4x1R), without cable 140 g 5.6 g + 0.2 g/mm measuring length 37 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 200 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 190 mA TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 0.4 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 0.2 m 1 VPP/2 m Cable 0.5 m with D-sub connector (15-pin) Interface electronics are integrated in the connector 100 m (329 ft) 150 m (492 ft)

Max. traversing speed

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Interface electronics Scale Cable Power supply LIP 471 LIP 481 LIP 471 LIP 481 Electrical connection

Incremental signals/ Signal period

Max. cable length

LIP 471 LIP 481

* Please indicate when ordering

20

LIP 471R/LIP 481R

LIP 471A/LIP 481A

21

LIP 571 LIP 581


Incremental linear encoders with very high accuracy For larger measuring lengths For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.05 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000002 in.)

Specifications

LIP 571 LIP 581 DIADUR phase grating on glass 8 m therm 8 ppm/K 1 m 70,
2.7, 14.5, 26, 38,

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade Measuring length ML* in mm
inches

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
12.6, 24.4,

120,
4.7, 16.5, 28, 40,

170,
6.7,

220,
8.6,

270,
10.6,

320, 620, 920,

370, 420, 670, 720,

470,
18.5,

520,
20.5,

570,
22.4,

770,
30, 48,

820,
32, 56

870,
34,

36,

970, 1020, 1240, 1440 Reference marks* LIP 5x1 R LIP 5x1 C One at midpoint of measuring length Distance-coded; absolute position value available after max. 20 mm traverse See page 37 72 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 300 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 500 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) 20 g (without cable) 140 g 7.2 g +0.24 g/mm measuring length 37 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 220 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 210 mA TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 0.8 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 0.4 m 1 VPP/4 m Cable 0.5 m/1 m or 3 m with D-sub connector (15-pin); interface electronics are integrated in the connector 100 m (329 ft) 150 m (492 ft)

F * r c s m

= = = = = = = =

Machine guideway Max. change during operation Reference mark position LIP 5x1R Reference mark position LIP 5x1C Beginning of measuring length (ML) Permissible overtravel Mounting surface for scanning head Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

Max. traversing speed

LIP 571 LIP 581

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Interface electronics Scale Cable LIP 571 LIP 581 LIP 571 LIP 581 Electrical connection*

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal period

Max. cable length

LIP 571 LIP 581

* Please indicate when ordering

22

23

LIF 471 LIF 481


Incremental linear encoder For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.1 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000005 in.) Simple mounting with PRECIMET adhesive film Position detection through homing track and limit switches Relatively insensitive to contamination thanks to SUPRADUR graduation

Specifications

LIF 471 LIF 481

Dimensions

Measuring standard Up to ML 220 mm From ML 270 mm Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade Measuring length ML* in mm
inches

in mm SUPRADUR phase grating on glass DIADUR phase grating on glass 8 m therm 8 ppm/K 3 m 70,
2.7, 14.5, 26, 38,

Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm


F * r e h s = = = = = = LI = P = = Machine guideway Max. change during operation Reference mark position Epoxy for ML < 170 Switch for homing track Beginning of measuring length Limit mark, adjustable Gauging points for alignment Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

120,
4.7, 16.5, 28, 40

170,
6.7,

220,
8.6,

270,
10.6,

320,
12.6,

370, 420, 670, 720, 970, 1020 Reference marks Position detection Output signals Max. traversing speed LIF 471 LIF 481

470,
18.5,

520,
20.5,

570,
22.4,

620,
24.4,

770,
30,

820,
32,

870,
34,

920,
36,

One at midpoint of measuring length Homing signal and Limit signal TTL (without line driver) See page 37 72 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 300 kHz 100 m/min with 6dB cutoff frequency 420 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 400 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) 9 g (without cable) 140 g 0.8 g + 0.08 g/mm measuring length 37 g/m 5 V 5% max. 180 mA (without load) 5 V 5%/< 175 mA TTL/integr. 100-fold interp.: 0.04 m TTL/integr. 50-fold interp.: 0.08 m TTL/integr. 20-fold interp.: 0.2 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interp.: 0.4 m TTL/integr. 5-fold interp.: 0.8 m 1 VPP/4 m Cable 0.5 m/1 m or 3 m with D-sub connector (15-pin); interface electronics are integrated in the connector 30 m (98.5 ft) 10 m (32.8 ft)

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Interface electronics Scale Cable LIF 471 LIF 481 LIF 471

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal periods

LIF 481 Electrical connection*

Max. cable length

Incremental signals Homing, limit

* Please indicate when ordering

24

X
(20.55) 4.10.1 L = (ML + 10) 0.5
11.2 max.

0.5 min.

X
8 16 3.5 10

3.3
5

10

50.1

0.1 F 0.01/250

0.01/10 F 0.1 F

10 8 0.06 A 20

0.1mrad*

(10.1)

10.1

120.02/0.10

3.050.1

16.5

(12.4)

8.5

13 26

0.04 X

10

25

LIDA 171 LIDA 181


Incremental linear encoders for high traversing speeds With steel scale For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.1 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000005 in.) Large mounting tolerances Mounting variants as for LIDA 400 available on request

Specifications

LIDA 171 LIDA 181 Steel tape with AURODUR graduation 40 m therm 10 ppm/K 5 m (0.0002 in.) 3 m (0.00012 in.) 220, 270,
8.6, 20.5, 40, 10.6, 24.4, 48,

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade*

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
F = * = r = c s m v a l O = = = = = = = Machine guideway Max. change during operation Reference mark position with selector magnet LIDA 1x1 Reference mark position LIDA 1x1C Beginning of measuring length (ML) Mounting surface for scanning head Mounting bracket (special accessory) Selector magnet Scale length On version r no steel permitted in this area Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description
e 25 35 50 z 10 20

Measuring length ML* in mm


inches

320,
12.6,

370,
14.5,

420,
16.5,

520, 620,

720,
28, 56,

770,
30, 64,

820,
32, 72,

470, 18.5, 920,


36, 80

1020, 1240, 1440, 1640, 1840, 2040 Reference marks* LIDA 1x1 Selectable by magnet every 50 mm (2 in.) LIDA 1x1C Distance-coded; absolute position value available after max. 80 mm traverse LIDA 171 LIDA 181 See page 37 480 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 200 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 500 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) Scanning head Selector magnet Scale Cable LIDA 171 LIDA 181 LIDA 171 LIDA 181 Electrical connection Max. cable length 70 g (without cable) 10 g Approx. 1.5 g/mm measuring length 37 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 200 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 150 mA TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 4 m TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 8 m 1 VPP/40 m Cable 3 m with connector 100 m (329 ft) 150 m (429 ft)

Max. traversing speed

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight

ML .. 20 .. 40 .. 70 ML 1020 > 1020

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal periods

LIDA 171 LIDA 181

* Please indicate when ordering

26

LIDA 171

LIDA 181

27

LIDA 475 LIDA 485


Incremental linear encoders for limited installation space For large measuring lengths up to 30 m (100 ft) For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.1 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000005 in.) Large mounting tolerances Limit switches

Specifications

LIDA 475 LIDA 485 Steel tape with AURODUR graduation 20 m Depends on the mounting surface 5 m 140, 240,
5.5, 29, 52, 76, 9.5, 33, 56, 80

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade Measuring length ML* in mm
inches

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm

340,
13.4,

440,
17.3, 41, 64,

540,
21.3, 44, 68,

640,
25, 48,

740, 840,

940,
37, 60,

1040, 1140, 1240,


72,

= = F * P r s a t z = = = = = = = = =

1340, 1440, 1540, 1640, 1740, 1840, 1940, 2040 Larger measuring lengths up to 30040 mm with a single-section scale tape and individual scale-carrier sections Reference mark Limit switches Output signals Max. traversing speed LIDA 475 LIDA 485 One at midpoint of measuring length L1/L2 with two different magnets TTL (without line driver) See page 37 480 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 400 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 500 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) 20 g (without cable) Approx. 115 g + 0.25 g/mm ML 22 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 200 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 150 mA TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 4 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 2 m 1 VPP/20 m Cable 3 m with D-sub connector (15-pin) For LIDA 475, the interface electronics are integrated in the connector 20 m (66 ft)

Scale carrier sections fixed with screws Scale carrier sections fixed with PRECIMET Machine guideway Adjust or set Max. change during operation Gauging points for alignment Reference mark position Beginning of measuring length (ML) Selector magnet for limit switches Carrier length Spacer for measuring lengths from 3040 mm Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Scale Cable LIDA 475 LIDA 485 LIDA 475 LIDA 485 Electrical connection

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal periods

Max. cable length * Please indicate when ordering

28

ML 2040

ML > 2040

Possibilities for mounting the scanning head

29

LIDA 477 LIDA 487


Incremental linear encoders for limited installation space For measuring ranges up to 6 m For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.1 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000005 in.) Large mounting tolerances Limit switches

Specifications

LIDA 477 LIDA 487 Steel scale tape with AURODUR graduation 20 m therm 10 ppm/K 15 m or 5 m after linear length-error compensation in the evaluation electronics 240, 440,
9.5, 56, 104, 151, 198, 17.3, 64, 112, 159, 206,

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
F * P r s a t = = = = = = = = = Machine guideway Adjust or set Max. change during operation Gauging points for alignment Reference mark position Beginning of measuring length (ML) Selector magnet for limit switches Carrier length Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

Measuring length ML* in mm


inches

640,
25, 72, 120, 166, 214,

840,
33, 80, 127, 174, 222,

1040, 1240,
41 88, 135, 182, 229, 48 96, 143, 190, 237

1440, 1640, 1840, 2040, 2240, 2440, 2640, 2840, 3040, 3240, 3440, 3640, 3840, 4040, 4240, 4440, 4640, 4840, 5040, 5240, 5440, 5640, 5840, 6040 Reference marks Limit switches Output signals Max. traversing speed LIDA 477 LIDA 487 One at midpoint of measuring length L1/L2 with two different magnets TTL (without line driver) See page 37 480 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 400 kHz 200 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 500 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) 20 g (without cable) Approx. 25 g + 0.1 g/mm ML 22 g/m 5 V 5 %/< 200 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/< 150 mA TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 4 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 2 m 1 VPP/20 m Cable 3 m with D-sub connector (15-pin) For LIDA 477, the interface electronics are integrated in the connector 20 m (66 ft)

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Scale Cable LIDA 477 LIDA 487 LIDA 477 LIDA 487 Electrical connection

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal periods

Max. cable length * Please indicate when ordering

30

140.1

P(4)

2.5

ML 2040
200.1 10 ... 50 10 ... 50

400.1

0.05 0.2

10 ... 50

10 ... 50

(1) 35

(1) 70 400

ML > 2040

400

870

P(13)
n x (300 ... 500) 10 ... 50 10 ... 50 300 ... 500 10 ... 50 10 ... 50 200.1 10 ... 50 400.1 n x (300 ... 500) 300 ... 500 10 ... 50 10 ... 50 10 ... 50 0.05 0.2

(1) 500 2000

(1) 35 70

(1) 2000

(1) 500

t 5070
Possibilities for mounting the scanning head
12.90.1 2.7

M3 x (a+7) ISO 4762 3.2 DIN 433 a 0.50.5

D
14.9 a

3.2 DIN 433 M3 x (a+5) ISO 4762

19.50.5

12.90.1

M3 x (a+7) ISO 4762

140.1

16

30.5

3.2 DIN 433

31

PP 271R PP 281R
Incremental two-coordinate encoder For measuring steps of 1 m to 0.05 m (0.00005 in. to 0.000002 in.)

Specifications

PP 271R PP 281R Two-coordinate TITANID phase grating on glass 8 m therm 8 ppm/K 2 m 68 mm x 68 mm (2.7 in x 2.7 in.), (other measuring ranges upon request) One reference mark each, 3 mm after beginning of measuring length PP 271R PP 281R See page 37 60 m/min with 3dB cutoff frequency 250 kHz

Dimensions

Measuring standard Grating period Thermal expansion coefficient Accuracy grade Measuring range

in mm
Tolerancing ISO 8015 ISO 2768 - m H < 6 mm: 0.2 mm
F = = r = = Machine guideway Side with graduation Reference mark position from shown center Direction of scanning head motion for output signals in accordance with interface description

Reference mark

Max. traversing speed

D1

D2 33 0,02/0,10

Vibration 55 to 2000 Hz Shock 11 ms Operating temperature Weight Scanning head Interface electronics Grid plate Cable PP 271R PP 281R PP 271R PP 281R Electrical connection

80 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-6) 100 m/s2 (IEC 60068-2-27) 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F) 170 g 140 g 75 g 37 g/m 5 V 5 %/210 mA (without load) 5 V 5 %/210 mA TTL/integr. 5-fold interpolation: 0.8 m TTL/integr. 10-fold interpolation: 0.4 m 1 VPP/4 m Cable 0.5 m with D-sub connector (15-pin) Interface electronics are integrated in the connector 100 m (329 ft) 150 m (492 ft)

32,9 0,2

Power supply

Incremental signals/ Signal period

Max. cable length

PP 271R PP 281R

32

33

Interfaces Incremental Signals 1 VPP

HEIDENHAIN encoders with 1 VPP interface provide voltage signals that can be highly interpolated. The sinusoidal incremental signals A and B are phase-shifted by 90 elec. and have an amplitude of typically 1 VPP . The illustrated sequence of output signals with B lagging Aapplies for the direction of motion shown in the dimension drawing. The reference mark signal R has a usable component G of approx. 0.5 V. Next to the reference mark, the output signal can be reduced by up to 1.7 V to a quiescent value H. This must not cause the subsequent electronics to overdrive. Even at the lowered signal level, signal peaks with the amplitude G can also appear. The data on signal amplitude apply when the power supply given in the specications is connected to the encoder. They refer to a differential measurement at the 120 ohm terminating resistor between the associated outputs. The signal amplitude decreases with increasing frequency. The cutoff frequency indicates the scanning frequency at which a certain percentage of the original signal amplitude is maintained: 3 dB cutoff frequency: 70 % of the signal amplitude 6 dB cutoff frequency: 50 % of the signal amplitude Interpolation/resolution/measuring step The output signals of the 1 VPP interface are usually interpolated in the subsequent electronics in order to attain sufciently high resolutions. For velocity control, interpolation factors are commonly over 1000 in order to receive usable velocity information even at low speeds.

Interface Incremental signals

Sinusoidal voltage signals 1 VPP 2 sinusoidal signals A and B Signal level M: Asymmetry |P N|/2M: Amplitude ratio MA/MB: Phase angle |1 + 2|/2: 1 or more signal peaks R Usable component G: Quiescent value H: Switching threshold E, F: Zero crossovers K, L: 0.6 to 1.2 VPP; typically 1 VPP 0.065 0.8 to 1.25 90 10 elec.

Reference mark signal

0.2 to 0.85 V 0.04 V to 1.7 V 40 mV 180 90 elec.

Connecting cable Cable length Propagation time

HEIDENHAIN cable with shielding PUR [4(2 x 0.14 mm2) + (4 x 0.5 mm2)] Max. 150 m distributed capacitance 90 pF/m 6 ns/m

Any limited tolerances in the encoders are listed in the specications.

Signal period 360 elec.

Rated value

Measuring steps for position measurement are recommended in the specications. For special applications, other resolutions are also possible. Short-circuit stability A temporary short circuit of one output to 0 V or UP does not cause encoder failure, but it is not a permissible operating condition. Short circuit at One output All outputs 20 C < 3 min < 20 s 125 C < 1 min <5s

A, B, R measured with oscilloscope in differential mode

Signal amplitude [%]


3dB cutoff frequency 6dB cutoff frequency

Cutoff frequency Typical signal amplitude curve with respect to the scanning frequency

Scanning frequency [kHz]

34

Input circuitry of the subsequent electronics


Dimensioning Operational amplier MC 34074 Z0 = 120 R1 = 10 k and C1 = 100 pF R2 = 34.8 k and C2 = 10 pF UB = 15 V U1 approx. U0 3dB cutoff frequency of circuitry Approx. 450 kHz Approx. 50 kHz with C1 = 1000 pF and C2 = 82 pF The circuit variant for 50 kHz does reduce the bandwidth of the circuit, but in doing so it improves its noise immunity. Circuit output signals Ua = 3.48 VPP typical Gain 3.48 Signal monitoring A threshold sensitivity of 250 mVPP is to be provided for monitoring the 1 VPP incremental signals.

Incremental signals Reference mark signal


Ra < 100 , typ. 24 Ca < 50 pF Ia < 1 mA U0 = 2.5 V 0.5 V (relative to 0 V of the power supply)

Encoder

Subsequent electronics

35

Electrical Connection

Interfaces Incremental Signals TTL

HEIDENHAIN encoders with TTL interface incorporate electronics that digitize sinusoidal scanning signals with or without interpolation. The incremental signals are transmitted as the square-wave pulse trains Ua1 and Ua2, phase-shifted by 90 elec. The reference mark signal consists of one or more reference pulses Ua0, which are gated with the incremental signals. In addition, the integrated electronics produce their inverse signals , and for noise-proof transmission. The illustrated sequence of output signalswith Ua2 lagging Ua1 applies for the direction of motion shown in the dimension drawing. The fault-detection signal indicates fault conditions such as breakage of the power line or failure of the light source. It can be used for such purposes as machine shut-off during automated production. The distance between two successive edges of the incremental signals Ua1 and Ua2 through 1-fold, 2-fold or 4-fold evaluation is one measuring step. The subsequent electronics must be designed to detect each edge of the square-wave pulse. The minimum edge separation a listed in the Specifications applies for the illustrated input circuitry with a cable length of 1 m, and refers to a measurement at the output of the differential line receiver. Propagation-time differences in cables additionally reduce the edge separation by 0.2 ns per meter of cable length. To prevent counting error, design the subsequent electronics to process as little as 90% of the resulting edge separation. The max. permissible shaft speed or traversing velocity must never be exceeded. The permissible cable length for transmission of the TTL square-wave signals to the subsequent electronics depends on the edge separation a. It is max. 100 m, or 50 m for the fault detection signal. This requires, however, that the power supply (see Specifications) be ensured at the encoder. The sensor lines can be used to measure the voltage at the encoder and, if required, correct it with an automatic system (remote sense power supply).

Interface

Square-wave signals TTL

Incremental Signals 2 TTL square-wave signals Ua1, Ua2 and their inverted signals , Reference mark signal Pulse width Delay time Fault detection signal Pulse width Signal level One or more TTL square-wave pulses Ua0 and their inverse pulses 90 elec. (other widths available on request); LS 323: nongated |td| 50 ns One TTL square-wave pulse Improper function: LOW (on request: Ua1/Ua2 high impedance) Proper function: HIGH tS 20 ms Differential line driver as per EIA standard RS 422 UH 2.5 V at IH = 20 mA UL 0.5 V at IL = 20 mA between associated outputs Z0 100 max. load per output |ILI 20 mA Cload 1000 pF with respect to 0 V Outputs protected against short circuit to 0 V t+ / t 30 ns (typically 10 ns) with 1 m cable and recommended input circuitry HEIDENHAIN cable with shielding PUR [4(2 0.14 mm2) + (4 0.5 mm2)] Max. 100 m ( max. 50 m) with distributed capacitance 90 pF/m 6 ns/m

Permissible load

Switching times (10% to 90%) Connecting cable Cable length Propagation time

Signal period 360 elec.

Fault

Measuring step after 4-fold evaluation

tS UaS

Inverse signals , , are not shown Permissible cable length with respect to edge separation

100

Cable length [m]

without

75 50 25 6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05

with

Edge separation [s]

36

Input circuitry of the subsequent electronics


Dimensioning IC1 = Recommended differential line receivers DS 26 C 32 AT Only for a > 0.1 s: AM 26 LS 32 MC 3486 SN 75 ALS 193 R1 R2 Z0 C1 = 4.7 k = 1.8 k = 120 = 220 pF (serves to improve noise immunity)

Incremental signals Reference mark signal

Encoder

Subsequent electronics

Fault detection signal

Relationship between scanning frequency, traversing speed and edge separation. Meas. step1)/ Scanning Traversing Interpolation* frequency* speed Min. edge separation a LIP 571, PP 271 Meas. step1)/ Scanning Traversing Interpolation* frequency* speed 48 m/min 24 m/min 12 m/min 24 m/min 12 m/min 6 m/min Min. edge separation a 0.23 s 0.48 s 0.98 s 0.23 s 0.48 s 0.98 s

LIP 372

0.001 m/ 32-fold

98 kHz 49 kHz 24.5 kHz 200 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 500 kHz 250 kHz 125 kHz 250 kHz 125 kHz 62.5 kHz 250 kHz 125 kHz 62.5 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 12.5 kHz

0.75 m/min 0.055 s 0.38 m/min 0.13 s 0.19 m/min 0.28 s 24 m/min 12 m/min 6 m/min 12 m/min 6 m/min 3 m/min 0.23 s 0.48 s 0.98 s 0.23 s 0.48 s 0.98 s

0.2 m/ 5-fold

200 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 200 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 200 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 50 kHz 25 kHz 12.5 kHz 25 kHz 12.5 kHz 6.25 kHz

LIP 471

0.1 m/ 5-fold

0.1 m/ 10-fold

0.05 m/ 10-fold

LIDA 17x 2 m/ 5-fold

480 m/min 0.23 s 240 m/min 0.48 s 120 m/min 0.98 s 240 m/min 0.23 s 120 m/min 0.48 s 60 m/min 0.98 s 240 m/min 0.23 s 120 m/min 0.48 s 60 m/min 0.98 s 120 m/min 0.23 s 60 m/min 0.48 s 30 m/min 0.98 s 60 m/min 30 m/min 15 m/min 0.08 s 0.18 s 0.38 s

LIF 471

0.2 m/ 5-fold

120 m/min 0.08 s 60 m/min 0.18 s 30 m/min 0.38 s 60 m/min 30 m/min 15 m/min 60 m/min 30 m/min 15 m/min 24 m/min 12 m/min 6 m/min 12 m/min 6 m/min 3 m/min 0.08 s 0.18 s 0.38 s 0.036 s 0.08 s 0.18 s 0.036 s 0.08 s 0.18 s 0.036 s 0.08 s 0.18 s

1 m/ 10-fold

0.1 m/ 10-fold

LIDA 47x 1 m/ 5-fold

0.05 m/ 20-fold

0.5 m/ 10-fold

0.02 m/ 50-fold

0.1 m/ 50-fold

0.01 m/ 100-fold

0.05 m/ 100-fold

30 m/min 0.08 s 15 m/min 0.18 s 7.5 m/min 0.38 s

* Please indicate when ordering 1) After 4-fold evaluation

37

Interfaces Limit Switches

LIDA 400 encoders are equipped with limit switches that make limit-position detection and the design of homing tracks possible. The limit switches are activated by differing adhesive magnets to distinguish between the left or right limit. The magnets can be configured in series to form homing tracks. The signals from the limit switches are sent over separate lines and are therefore directly available. Yet the cable has an especially thin diameter of only 3.7 mm to keep forces on moving machine elements low.

LIDA 47x Output signals

LIDA 48x

One TTL square-wave pulse from each limit switch L1 and L2; active high TTL from push-pull stage (e.g. 74 HCT 1G 08) IaL 4 mA IaH 4 mA Rise time Fall time t+ 50 ns t 50 ns Measured with 3 m cable and recommended input circuitry Max. 20 m t+ 10 s t 3 s Measured with 3 m cable and recommended input circuitry TTL from common-collector circuit with 10 k load resistance against 5 V

Signal level

Permissible load

Switching times (10% to 90%)

Permissible cable length

L1/L2 = Output signals of the limit switches 1 and 2 Tolerance of the switching point: 2 mm

s = Beginning of measuring length (ML) 1 = Magnet N for limit switch 1 2 = Magnet S for limit switch 2

Recommended input circuitry of the subsequent electronics Dimensioning IC3 e.g. 74AC14 R3 = 1.5 k

Limit switches LIDA 400

38

Position Detection

Besides the incremental graduation, the LIF 4x1 features a homing track and limit switches for limit position detection. The signals are transmitted in TTL levels over the separate lines H and L and are therefore directly available. Yet the cable has an especially thin diameter of only 4.5 mm to keep forces on moving machine elements to a minimum.

LIF 4x1 Output signals Signal level One TTL pulse for homing track H and limit switches L TTL from common-collector circuit UH 3.8 V at IH = 8 mA UL 0.45 V at IL = 8 mA

Permissible load

IILI 8 mA
Permissible cable length Max. 10 m

R 680

ML/2 0.5

ML/2 0.5

s
(12.5)

r
Ho 1.20.3

(13.5)

Xn

Xn

h
LI1 0.25 LI2 0.25

Xn = Var. 01 X1 = 2 mm Var. 02 X2 = 14 mm Var. 03 X3 = 22 mm

r = Reference mark position s = Beginning of measuring length (ML) LI = Limit mark, adjustable h = Switch for homing track Ho = Trigger point for homing

Recommended input circuitry of the subsequent electronics Dimensioning IC3 e.g. 74AC14 R3 = 4.7 k

Limit switches Homing track LIF 400

L/H

39

Connecting Elements and Cables General Information

Pin numbering The pins on connectors are numbered in directions opposite to those on couplings, regardless of whether the contacts are male or female. Couplings and flange sockets, both with external threads, have the same pin-numbering direction.

Contacts: Male contacts Female contacts

When engaged, the connections provide protection to IP 67 (D-sub connector: IP 50; IEC 60529). When not engaged, there is no protection.

Connector: A connecting element with coupling ring, regardless of whether the contacts are male or female.

Coupling: A connecting element with external thread, regardless of whether the contacts are male or female. Connector, insulated Coupling, insulated

Flange socket: A flange socket is permanently mounted on the encoder or machine housing, has an external thread, and is available with male or female contacts.

x: 42.7 y: 41.7 88.7 with integrated APE Flange socket D-sub connector

D-sub connector: The D-sub connector is used where installation space is limited (e.g., TNC 4xx, IK 220). It is available with an integral APE interface unit.

15-pin

Coupling on mounting base, insulated

40

Connection

12-pin HEIDENHAIN coupling

12-pin HEIDENHAIN connector

Power supply 12 TTL 1 VPP Brown/ Green Blue White/ Green White UP 2 Sensor 5V 10 0V 11 Sensor 0V 5 Ua1 A+ Brown 6 A Green

Incremental signals 8 Ua2 B+ Gray 1 B Pink 3 Ua0 R+ Red 4 R Black

Other signals 7 L12) Violet 9


1)

L22) Yellow

Shield is on housing; UP = Power supply Sensor: The sensor line is connected internally to the respective power supply

1) 2)

Switchover TTL/11 APP for PWT. Only with LIDA 48x; 2) Color assignment applies only to cable

15-pin D-sub connector

15-pin D-sub connector with integrated interface electronics

Power supply 4 TTL 1 VPP Brown/ Green Blue White/ Green White UP 12 Sensor 5V 2 0V 10 Sensor 0V 1 Ua1 A+ Brown 9 A Green

Incremental signals 3 Ua2 B+ Gray 11 B Pink 14 Ua0 R+ Red 7 R Black 13 Vacant Violet

Other signals 8 L12) H3) 6 L22) L3) 15


1)

Vacant Green/ Yellow/ Yellow Black Black

Shield is on housing; UP = Power supply Sensor: The sensor line is connected internally to the respective power supply

1) 2)

Switchover TTL/11 APP for PWT. Only with LIDA 4xx; 2) Color assignment applies only to cable 3) Only with LIF 481

41

D-Sub Connecting Elements and Cables (15-pin)

Connecting element on LIF/LIP 400/LIP 500/PP

Connecting element on LIDA 400/LIF 400

Mating element on connecting cable D-sub connector to connector on encoder cable (female), 15-pin

Mating element on connecting cable D-sub connector to connector on encoder cable (female), 15-pin

For connecting cable

8 mm 6 mm

315650-14

For connecting cable

8 mm 6 mm

315650-14

PUR connecting cable 8 mm [4(2 x 0.14 mm2) + (4 x 0.5 mm2)] Shield on housing PUR connecting cable 6 mm [6(2 x 0.19 mm2)] Complete with D-sub connectors (female/male) 8 mm 331693-xx 6 mm1) 355215-xx

PUR connecting cable 8 mm [4(2 x 0.14 mm2) + (4 x 0.5 mm2) + 2 x (2 x 0.14 mm2)] Shield on housing PUR connecting cable 6 mm [6(2 x AWG28) + (4 x 0.14 mm2)] Complete with D-sub connectors (female/male) 8 mm 354379-xx 6 mm1) 355397-xx

With one connector, D-sub (female)

332433-xx

355209-xx

With one connector, D-sub (female)

354411-xx

355398-xx

Complete with D-sub connectors (female/male)

335074-xx

355186-xx

Without connectors

354341-01

355241-01

Complete with D-sub connectors (female/female) Pin layout for IK 220

335077-xx

349687-xx

Cable without connectors

244957-01

291639-01

1)

Cable length for 6 mm max. 9 m (29.6 ft)

42

HEIDENHAIN Connecting Elements and Cables (12-pin)

Adapter cable for LIP 300

Adapter cable with coupling (male)

310128-xx Length 1 m/3 m/6 m/9 m Diameter 6 mm

Adapter cable without connector

310131-xx Length 1 m/3 m/6 m/9 m Diameter 6 mm

Coupling on LIDA 18x

Coupling (male), 12-pin, shield on housing

Connector on LIDA 17x

Connector (male), 12-pin, shield on housing

For encoder cable

4.5 mm 291698-14

For encoder cable

4.5 mm 291697-06

PUR connecting cable 8 mm [4(2 x 0.14 mm2) + (4 x 0.5 mm2)] Shield on housing Complete with connector (female) and connector (male) 298399-xx

PUR connecting cable 8 mm [4(2 x 0.14 mm2) + (4 x 0.5 mm2)] Shield on housing Complete with coupling (female) and connector (male) 298400-xx

With one connector (female)

309777-xx

With one coupling (female)

298402-xx

Cable without connectors

244957-01

Mating element on connecting cable Connector (female), to coupling on encoder cable or 12-pin, flange socket shield on housing

Mating element on connecting cable Coupling (female), to connector on encoder cable 12-pin, shield on housing

For connecting cable

8 mm

291697-05 Connector (male), 12-pin, shield on housing

For connecting cable

8 mm

291698-02

Connector on cable for connection to subsequent electronics

For connecting cable

8 mm

291697-08

Flange socket for connecting cable to subsequent electronics

Flange socket (female), 12-pin: 315892-08 Coupling on mounting base (female), for cable 8 mm, 12-pin: 291698-07

43

General Electrical Specifications

Power supply
The encoders require a stabilized dc voltage UP as power supply. The respective specifications state the required power supply and the current consumption. The permissible ripple content of the dc voltage is: High frequency interference UPP < 250 mV with dU/dt > 5 V/s Low frequency fundamental ripple UPP < 100 mV

Electrically permissible speed/ Traversing speed


The maximum permissible shaft speed or traversing velocity of an encoder is derived from the mechanically permissible shaft speed/traversing velocity (if listed in Specifications) and the electrically permissible shaft speed/ traversing velocity. For encoders with sinusoidal output signals, the electrically permissible shaft speed/traversing velocity is limited by the 3dB/ 6dB cutoff frequency or the permissible input frequency of the subsequent electronics. For encoders with square-wave signals, the electrically permissible shaft speed/ traversing velocity is limited by the maximum permissible scanning/ output frequency fmax of the encoder and the minimum permissible edge separation a for the subsequent electronics. For angular/rotary encoders

Cable
Lengths The cable lengths listed in the Specifications apply only for HEIDENHAIN cables and the recommended input circuitry of subsequent electronics. Durability All encoders use polyurethane (PUR) cables. PUR cables are resistant to oil, hydrolysis and microbes in accordance with VDE 0472. They are free of PVC and silicone and comply with UL safety directives. The UL certification AWM STYLE 20963 80 C 30 V E63216 is documented on the cable. Temperature range HEIDENHAIN cables can be used: for rigid configuration 40 to 85 C (40 to 185 F) for frequent flexing 10 to 85 C (14 to 185 F) Cables with limited resistance to hydrolysis and microbes are rated for up to 100 C. Bending radius The permissible bending radii R depend on the cable diameter and the configuration:

UPP

500 ms (approx.) Initial transient response of the supply voltage e. g. 5 V 5 %

The values apply as measured at the encoder, i.e., without cable influences. The voltage can be monitored and adjusted with the devices sensor lines. If a controllable power supply is not available, the voltage drop can be halved by switching the sensor lines parallel to the corresponding power lines. Calculation of the voltage drop: L I U = 2 103 C 56 AP where U: Line drop in V LC: Cable length in m I: Current consumption of the encoder in mA (see Specifications) AP: Cross section of power lines in mm2

nmax =

fmax 60 103 z

For linear encoders

Rigid configuration
3

vmax = fmax SP 60 10

where nmax: Electrically permissible shaft speed in rpm, vmax: Electrically permissible traversing velocity in m/min fmax: Maximum scanning/output frequency of the encoder or input frequency of the subsequent electronics in kHz, z: Line count of the angle encoder/ rotary encoder per 360 SP: Signal period of the linear encoder in m

Frequent flexing

Frequent flexing

HEIDENHAIN Rigid concables figuration 3.7 mm

Frequent flexing

R 8 mm R 40 mm R 10 mm R 50 mm R 20 mm R 75 mm R 40 mm R 100 mm R 35 mm R 75 mm R 50 mm R 100 mm

HEIDENHAIN cables 3.7 mm

Cross section of power lines AP EnDat/SSI 11 APP 1 VPP/TTL/HTL 0.05 mm2 0.05 mm2 0.05 mm2 0.08 mm2 0.5 mm2
1) 2)

4.5 mm 5.1 mm 6 mm 8 mm 10 mm1) Metal armor Only on length gauges 3) Only for LIDA 400 14 mm1)

4.5/5.1 mm 0.14/0.052) mm2 6/101) mm 8/141) mm

0.19/ 0.143) mm2 0.5 mm2 1 mm2

44

Reliable signal transmission


Electromagnetic compatibility/ CE compliance When properly installed, HEIDENHAIN encoders fulfill the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility according to 89/336/EEC with respect to the generic standards for: IEC 61000-6-2 Electromagnetic compatibility Immunity for industrial environments Specifically: ESD IEC 61000-4-2 Electromagnetic fields IEC 61000-4-3 Burst IEC 61000-4-4 Surge IEC 61000-4-5 Conducted disturbances IEC 61000-4-6 Power frequency magnetic fields IEC 61000-4-8 Pulse magnetic fields IEC 61000-4-9 IEC 61000-6-4 Electromagnetic compatibility Generic emission standard Specifically: for industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment IEC 55011 for information technology equipment IEC 55022 Transmission of measuring signals electrical noise immunity Noise voltages arise mainly through capacitive or inductive transfer. Electrical noise can be introduced into the system over signal lines and input or output terminals. Possible sources of noise are: Strong magnetic fields from transformers and electric motors Relays, contactors and solenoid valves High-frequency equipment, pulse devices, and stray magnetic fields from switch-mode power supplies AC power lines and supply lines to the above devices. Isolation The encoder housings are isolated against all circuits. Rated surge voltage: 500 V (preferred value as per VDE 0110 Part 1) Protection against electrical noise The following measures must be taken to ensure disturbance-free operation: Use only original HEIDENHAIN cables. Watch for voltage attenuation on the supply lines. Use connectors or terminal boxes with metal housings. Do not conduct any extraneous signals. Connect the housings of the encoder, connector, terminal box and evaluation electronics through the shield of the cable. Connect the shielding in the area of the cable inlets to be as induction-free as possible (short, full-surface contact). Connect the entire shielding system with the protective ground. Prevent contact of loose connector housings with other metal surfaces. The cable shielding has the function of an equipotential bonding conductor. If compensating currents are to be expected within the entire system, a separate equipotential bonding conductor must be provided. Also see EN 50178/4.98 Chapter 5.2.9.5 regarding protective connection lines with small cross section. Connect HEIDENHAIN position encoders only to subsequent electronics whose power supply is generated through double or strengthened insulation against line voltage circuits. See also IEC 364-4-41: 1992, modified Chapter 411 regarding protection against both direct and indirect touch (PELV or SELV). Do not lay signal cables in the direct vicinity of interference sources (inductive consumers such as contacts, motors, frequency inverters, solenoids, etc.). Sufficient decoupling from interferencesignal-conducting cables can usually be achieved by an air clearance of 100 mm (4 in.) or, when cables are in metal ducts, by a grounded partition. A minimum spacing of 200 mm (8 in.) to inductors in switch-mode power supplies is required. See also EN 50178/4.98 Chapter 5.3.1.1 regarding cables and lines, EN 50174-2/09.01, Chapter 6.7 regarding grounding and potential compensation. When using multiturn encoders in electromagnetic fields greater than 30 mT, HEIDENHAIN recommends consulting with the main facility in Traunreut. Both the cable shielding and the metal housings of encoders and subsequent electronics have a shielding function. The housings must have the same potential and be connected to the main signal ground over the machine chassis or by means of a separate potential compensating line. Potential compensating lines should have a minimum cross section of 6 mm2 (Cu).

Minimum distance from sources of interference

45

HEIDENHAIN Measuring and Test Equipment

In exposed linear encoders the scanning head moves over the graduation without mechanical contact. Thus, to ensure highest quality output signals, the scanning head

needs to be aligned very accurately during mounting. HEIDENHAIN offers various measuring and testing equipment for checking the quality of the output signals.

PWM 9 Inputs Expansion modules (interface boards) for 11 APP; 1 VPP; TTL; HTL;EnDat*/SSI*/commutation signals *No display of position values or parameters Measures signal amplitudes, current consumption, operating voltage, scanning frequency Graphically displays incremental signals (amplitudes, phase angle and on-off ratio) and the reference mark signal (width and length) Displays symbols for reference mark, fault detection signal, counting direction Universal counter, interpolation selectable from 1 to 1024-fold Adjustment aid for exposed encoders Inputs are fed through for subsequent electronics BNC sockets for connection to an oscilloscope 10 to 30 V, max 15 W 150 mm 205 mm 96 mm

Features

The PWM 9 is a universal measuring device for checking and adjusting HEIDENHAIN incremental encoders. There are different expansion modules available for checking the different encoder signals. The values can be read on an LCD monitor. Soft keys provide ease of operation.

Outputs

Power supply Dimensions

The PWT is a simple adjusting aid for HEIDENHAIN incremental encoders. In a small LCD window the signals are shown as bar charts with reference to their tolerance limits.

PWT 10 Encoder input Features 11 APP

PWT 17 TTL

PWT 18 1 VPP

Measuring the signal amplitude Tolerance of signal shape Amplitude and position of the reference-mark signal Via power supply unit (included) 114 mm x 64 mm x 29 mm

Power supply Dimensions

The SA 27 adapter connector serves for tapping the sinusoidal scanning signals of the LIP 372 off the APE. Exposed pins permit connection to an oscilloscope through standard measuring cables.

SA 27 Encoder Function Power supply Dimensions LIP 372 Measuring points for the connection of an oscilloscope Via encoder Approx. 30 mm x 30 mm

46

Evaluation Electronics

IK 220 Universal PC counter card The IK 220 is an expansion board for AT-compatible PCs for recording the measured values of two incremental or absolute linear or angle encoders. The subdivision and counting electronics subdivide the sinusoidal input signals up to 4096-fold. A driver software package is included in delivery.

IK 220 Input signals (switchable) Encoder inputs Input frequency (max.) Cable lengths (max.) Signal subdivision (signal period: meas. step) 1 VPP 11 APP EnDat 2.1 SSI

Two D-sub connectors (15-pin), male 500 kHz 33 kHz 10 m (32.8 ft)

60 m (197 ft)

Up to 4096-fold

Data register for measured 48 bits (44 bits used) values (per channel) Internal memory Interface Driver software and demonstration program For 8192 position values PCI bus (plug and play) For Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP in VISUAL C++, VISUAL BASIC and BORLAND DELPHI Approx. 190 mm 100 mm

Dimensions For more information see IK 220 data sheet.

Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation.

47

CN

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