You are on page 1of 22

Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol.

31(2), April 2008, pp 191-212

191

GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POTENTIAL JURASSIC / CRETACEOUS SOURCE ROCKS IN THE SHUSHAN BASIN, NORTHERN WESTERN DESERT, EGYPT
A. S. Alsharhan* and E. A. Abd El-Gawad*+
Some 180 core and cuttings samples of shales and limestones from the Middle Jurassic Late Cretaceous succession (Khatatba, Masajid, Alam El-Bueib, Alamein, Kharita, Bahariya and Abu Roash Formations) were collected from wells Ja 27-2,Tarek1 and Jb 26-1 in the central, structurallylow part of the Shushan Basin and from well Lotus-1 in the structurally-elevated western part of the basin. All samples were screened for total organic carbon (TOC) content. Selected samples were then analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and extracted for biomarker analyses. Visual kerogen analysis and vitrinite reflectance measurements were also undertaken and oil - source rock correlations were attempted. The results indicate that the thermal maturity of the samples can be correlated closely with burial depth. Samples from the central part of the basin are more mature than those from the west. Samples from the central part of the basin (except those from the Albian Kharita Formation) have reached thermal maturities sufficient to generate and expel crude oils. Extracts from the Middle Jurasic Khatatba and Early Cretaceous Alam El-Bueib Formations can be correlated with a crude oil sample from well Ja 27-2. In well Lotus-1 in the west of the basin, four distinct organic facies can be recognized in the Jurassic-Cretaceous interval. One of the facies (facies 4) has a sufficiently high TOC content to act as a source rock. Thermal maturities range from immature to peak oil generation, and the top of the oil window occurs at approximately 8000 ft.
INTRODUCTION Perhaps 90% of undiscovered oil reserves and 80% of undiscovered gas reserves in Egypt are located in the Western Desert (Zein El-Din et al., 2001). Recent hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in the Abu Gharadiq Basin (Fig. 1), and the Shushan Basin to the NW is also thought to have significant exploration potential although many areas are virtually untested by the drill. Exploration here began in 1967 when Western Egypt Petroleum Company (WEPCO) drilled well Minqar-1, since when numerous wells have been completed. The NE-SW trending Shushan Basin is located within the so-called Unstable Shelf (c.f. Said, 1962). The basin is bounded to the north by the Umbarka
* Geology Department, Faculty of Science, UAE University, Al-Ain, PO Box 17551, UAE. + author for correspondence, email: esam.abdelgawad@uaeu.ac.ae

Platform and to the south by the Qattara Ridge, and subsided in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous in response to the opening of Neo-Tethys. Subsidence and sediment deposition took place throughout most of the Cretaceous and up to 7000 ft of Upper Cretaceous strata were deposited. The Shushan Basin appears to be one of a group of similar extensional basins but may be related to a pre-existing rift; it may therefore be a composite pull-apart basin (SSI, 1990). The source rock potential of the Shushan Basin is largely unexplored since the deepest wells have generally reached only 10,000 ft, and the pre- Middle Jurassic section is therefore poorly known. However, the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation includes both sandy reservoir intervals and organic-rich shales with source rock potential. Potential seals include the massive carbonates of the Upper Jurassic Masajid Formation (EGPC, 1992).
Keywords: Jurassic/Cretaceous, source rocks, Shushan Basin, Western Desert, Egypt.

2008 The Authors. Journal compilation 2008 Scientific Press Ltd

192

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

26o

28o

30o

MEDITERRANEAN
Matruh Basin Inter-Basin Shushan Basin Alamein Basin Faghur Plateau
30o

SEA
Nile Delta

Natrun Basin

Fig. 1. Location map of basins in the northern Western Desert, Egypt (EGPC, 1992) including the Shushan Basin, the focus of this paper.

Ghazalat Basin
t In

s Ba er-

in

Abu Gharadig Basin

Gindi Basin

INDEX MAP
MEDITERRANEAN SEA

Siwa Basin

Matruh STUDY AREA

Nile Delta

EGYPT

LIBYA

WESTERN

DESERT
Siwa Oasis
LIBYA EGYPT

Qattara Depression Bahariya Oasis

Birqet Qarun

28o

WESTERN DESERT

100 km

Geological setting and stratigraphy Sultan and Abdel Halim (1988) proposed that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic succession in the northern Western Desert (including the area of study) can be divided into four unconformity-bound cycles (Fig. 2), each terminated by a marine transgression. The earliest cycle consists of Early Jurassic non-marine siliciclastics (Ras Qattara Formation) which rest unconformably on the Silurian basement and which are overlain by the mid-Jurassic Wadi Natrun and Khatatba Formations. The Khatatba Formation is composed mainly of shales and sandstones with coal seams and minor limestones which become more abundant northwards. These sediments are interpreted to have been deposited in a deltaic environment. During the Late Callovian, shallow-marine carbonates of the Masajid Formation were deposited and represent the maximum Jurassic transgression. The Masajid Formation was either eroded from, or was not deposited on, parts of the north Qattara Ridge and Umbarka Platform although continuous marine sedimentation occurred in the Matrah sub-basin and the Sidi Birrani area. A major unconformity separates the Masajid Formation from the overlying Alam El Bueib Formation at the base of the second cycle, whose basal interval is composed of Early Cretaceous shallowmarine sandstones and carbonates (Units 6 and 5). These are followed by a marine shale (Unit 4) and a succession of massive fluviatile sandstones (Unit 3: Neocomian). Individual sandbodies are separated by marine shales. The sands are overlain by the alternating sands, shales and shelfal carbonates of Units 2 and 1, culminating in the Alamein Dolomite associated with the Aptian transgression. The Dahab Shale marks the end of this cycle. An unconformity separates the Dahab Shale from the Kharita Formation at the base of the third cycle, which extends from the Middle Albian to the latest

Cretaceous. The continental and shoreline sandstones of the Kharita Formation are overlain by the shallowmarine and nearshore deposits of the Bahariya Formation (Early Cenomanian). A marked deepening of depositional conditions is indicated by the deposition of the Abu Roash G (Late Cenomanian). Widespread transgression occurred during the Senonian with deposition of the Abu Roash F to A (predominantly carbonates). The unconformablyoverlying Khoman Chalk Formation was deposited in the northern Western Desert. The cycle is terminated by an unconformity above which lies the Eocene Apollonia Formation above which are the Dabaa and Moghra Formations (marine clastics) which are capped by the Marmarica Limestone (Zein El-Din et al., 2001). Structurally, the Shushan Basin is dominated by extensional and strike slip faults, mostly of Jurassic and Cretaceous age, which overprint the pre-existing north-south trending Palaeozoic framework. Mesozoic regional extension, associated with periods of dextral and sinistral shearing, resulted in the formation of a series of block-faulted horsts and half-grabens as a result of which the Jurassic to Turonian section generally dips and thickens to the north and east (Fig. 3). The section is therefore structurally elevated in the SW of the basin, whereas the north and east form a structural low. The purpose of the present paper is to integrate subsurface data from the Shushan Basin with the results of bitumen and kerogen analyses in order to identify organic-rich intervals which may have source rock potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS Geochemical analyses were performed on 180 samples (cores and cuttings) of shales and limestones from the Khatatba, Masajid, Alam El-Bueib, Alamein,

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

193

ERA

A G E
M i o c e n e O l i g o c e n e

FORMATION
M o g h r a D a b a a

LITHOLOGY

OIL/GAS SOURCE SHOWS ROCK

CENOZOIC

E o c e n e P a l e o c e n e S e n o n i a n

A p o l l o n i a

K h o m a n A

Late Cretaceous

T u r o n i a n

R o a s h

C D E

A b u

F G Cenomanian

B a h a r i y a

A l b i a n

K h a r i t a

Cretaceous

D A p t i a n

A l a m e i n Barremian

Early

Alam El Bueib Neocomian U p p e r

Jurassic

M a s a j i d Khatatba
Natrun Ras Qattara Bahrein

M i d d l e L o w e r

PALEOZOIC

S i l u r i a n

K o h l a Basement
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Pre-Cambrian

Fig. 2. Composite stratigraphic column for the northern Western Desert, Egypt (EGPC, 1992).

Kharita, Bahariya and Abu Roash Formations collected from four wells in the Shushan Basin. The wells were (Fig. 3a) Ja 27-2, Tarek1 and Jb 26-1, located in the central (structurally low) part of the basin; and Lotus-1 located in the structurally elevated part of the basin to the west. These wells were selected in order to investigate the effects of differential burial on the maturity of potential source rocks in the formations studied. Analyses were performed by geochemical companies including Gearhart (TOC and Pyrolysis), Exlog (visual examination) and Stratochem (GC and GC/MS) using standard techniques. All samples were screened for total organic carbon (TOC) content. Samples with a TOC greater than 0.4% were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Twelve of the samples from

well Lotus-1 were selected for visual kerogen analysis and vitrinite reflectance measurements. A further twelve samples were extracted for bitumen analysis and biomarker studies. Source rock characterization was as follows. About 50 grams of each rock sample was crushed and passed through a 20-micron sieve, accurately weighed, and Soxhlet extracted for 16 hours with dichloromethane. The solvent was evaporated and the residue weighed to obtain the total organic extract. Asphaltenes were precipitated with hexane and the soluble fraction was separated into saturates, aromatics and resins (NSO compounds) on a silica-alumina column by successive elutions with hexane, benzene and benzene-methanol. The solvents were evaporated and the weight-percent of each component was determined. The saturate

194

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

Fig. 3. Structural setting of the Shushan Basin, Western Desert (structure contours at top-Khatatba Formation). Fault pattern is inferred from seismic data.

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

195

Fig.4. Plot of HI versus Tmax for well Jb26-1, central Shushan Basin. Open circles: Abu Roash G, Bahariya and Kharita Formations, 5130-5910 ft; black circles: Abu Roash G, Bahariya and Kharita Formations, 5970-6910 ft; open triangles: Upper Alam El-Bueib Formation, 8920-9430 ft; black triangles: Upper Alam El-Bueib Formation, 9490-10,510 ft; open diamonds: Lower Alam El-Bueib Formation, 11,260-11,740 ft; black diamonds, Lower Alam El-Bueib Formation, 11770-11950 ft; + Upper Khatatba Formation, 12,160-13,050 ft).

Fig. 5. Burial history profile for well Tarek-1, central Shushan Basin.

196

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

fraction was analyzed with a gas chromatograph fitted with a fused silica capillary column. Analytical data were processed with a Nelson Analytical model 3000 chromatograph data system. Standard calculations were made including pristane / phytane ratio, carbon preference index and other key parameters. Computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or biomarker analysis is utilized to evaluate biologically derived compounds in oils or rock extracts (Peters and Moldowan, 1993). The saturate and aromatic fractions separated by liquid chromatography from whole oils or source rock extracts were injected into an HP5890 gas chromatograph coupled to an HP5971A MSD. The Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) capabilities of the data acquisition system permitted specific ions to be monitored, such as tricyclic terpanes and hopanes (m/ z = 191) and steranes (m/z = 217) (Abd El-Gawad et al., 1996). GEOCHEMICAL RESULTS In the following section, results of geochemical analyses for samples from wells in the central, structurally low part of the basin are presented separately from results from well Lotus-1 in the structurally elevated western part of the basin. Data are presented in Tables 1-6 (pp 210-212). Central Shushan Basin The TOC of the Albian Kharita Formation ranges from 0.17-2.13% and 1.98-5.5% for the Early Cretaceous Alam El Buieb Formation. TOC for the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation ranges from 0.11-3.5 %. Vitrinite reflectance in the basal unit of the Abu Roash Formation (Abu Roash G Member) was 0.4%. Ro for the Kharita Formation is 0.7-0.6%, indicating that it is early mature for oil generation; in the underlying Alam El Bueib Formation, Ro ranges from 0.7 to 1.3%, indicating that the formation is in the oil window. The Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation has a maximum Ro of 1.45% indicating that it is in the gas generation window. Rock-Eval S2 values for the Kharita Formation were 0.28 -5.2 mg HC/g rock; for the Alam El Bueib Formation, S2 was 0.5-2.5 mg HC/g rock; and it was 3.26 to 43.26 mg HC/g rock for the Khatatba Formation. The Cenomanian Bahariya Formation has a RockEval Tmax of 425C, the Kharita Formation has a Tmax of 450 C, while Tmax for the Alam El Bueib Formation ranges from 440 to 478 C. These data indicate that the Cretaceous section in general ranges from mature to post-mature in terms of oil generation (c.f. Hunt, 1996). Tmax in the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation ranges from 440 to 490 C.

Fig. 4a and b are plots of Tmax versus Hydrogen Index (HI) for various formations at well Jb26-1 in the central part of the basin. The plots show that Type I/II kerogen is present in the upper part of the Khatatba Formation and that Type II/III kerogen occurs in the Kharita and Alam EI-Bueib Formations and possibly in the topmost part of the Khatatba Formation. Type III kerogen is present in the remaining samples including the coaly shales and thin coals in the Khatatba Formation. Type IV kerogen was recorded in parts of the Alam EI-Bueib Formation. HI values range between 36 and 766 mg HC/g TOC, and most of the analyzed samples lie within the oil zone (Khatatba and Alam EI-Bueib Formations). Some samples plot within the gas zone (Khatatba and Alam EI-Bueib Formations), and others plot at the margin between the mature oil zone and the immature zone (Kharita Formation). The remainder of the samples (Bahariya and Abu Roash Formations) are immature. The S2/S3 ratio further indicates that a variety of kerogen types are present. Thus the Abu Roash Formation has an S2/S3 of <2.3 indicating the presence of gas-prone kerogen, whereas S2/S3 in the Bahariya, Alam El-Bueib and Khatatba Formations is <2.3 to >5.0 indicating that both oil- and gas-prone kerogen is present (c.f. Espitalie et al., 1985). Burial history Burial history curves (Fig. 5) indicate that the Khatatba Formation appears to have reached the gas generation window (Ro values >1.3) during the Oligocene. The Lower Alam El-Bueib Formation entered the late mature stage in the Early Miocene. The Upper Alam El-Bueib Formation is currently at the mid-mature stage (defined by 0.7-1.0% Ro). The Khatatba Formation may have reached the mid-mature stage (0.7-1.0% Ro) as early as the Cenomanian. B. Well Lotus-1, Western Shushan Basin At this location, four lithofacies are present and can be distinguished in terms of the quantity, quality and maturity of the component organic matter. Facies 1 comprises the sandstones and shales in the Bahariya, Kharita, and Alam El Bueib Formations, whose TOCs are generally 0.4%-1.0 %. Rock-Eval pyrolysis results (S2: generally less than 2 mg HC/g rock; Hydrogen Indices: 100-150 mg HC/g TOC) indicate that the lithofacies has little capacity to generate gas. Facies 2 (dolomites in the Alamein Formation) and facies 3 (limestones in the Masajid Formation likewise have low TOC contents (< 0.5%), indicating low sourcerock potential. Facies 4 comprises organic-rich intervals in the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation, in which TOC values are up to 6.4% (generally 1-2%). Rock-Eval

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

197

SOURCE BED POTENTIAL


DEPTH (ft.)
T.O.C. (Wt%) S2 (mg/g) 4 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 S2/S3 2.5 5.0 7.5
Gas Prone

MATURITY HYDROCARBON INDICATION


HYDROGEN 410 440 470 500 INDEX 100 300 500 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.4 3.0
Gas Prone
Immature
Oil Prone

AGE

FORMATION

LITHOLOGY

1
Lo w Average

S1 S1 (mg/g) S1+S2

High

Poor

Fair

G as

M ix

Mix

Very High

Oil

GoodVery Good

Oil Prone

0.2 0.6 1.0

6000

BAHARIYA
6500

7000

KHARITA

7500

8000

ALAMEIN
8500

9000

9500

ALAM EL BUEIB

10000

10500

11000

MASAJID

11500

12000

KHATATBA

12500

13000

....................._ .._.._.._ ... _.. _ .. .. _. _ ._ ._ _ .............._ ._ _ _ _. _ .... .. ..._ .. .. ................ ._. ._ . .. _.. _ . . . . . . .... ._ _ _ _ ._ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ ........................_._ ._ _. _ ._ .. . ._. _. _ ........................._ ._ . ._ ._. . ...... . _.._ ... ..._.._ . _.. .. .. .. . ._ .. . .. _. _. _ _. _. _ _ ..... . . . . _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _. _ ._ ._. _ _ _. _. _ .^ _.^ _ _ .._..^ ..^ . . .. ^ ^ ^ ...... . . . . . . . . . . ^ .^ .^. ^. ^ ...^ ..^ ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .......... .^ . . . . . . . . . . .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. . ..........................^..^..^ .. ^. ........................^ .. . .. . .. ^. ^. ^ ^ .......................... . . . . ..... _. . . . . . . . . . . . . ._._._._ ._ .. ._ _.......................... ._._._._ ._ .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........._ ._ _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _. _ _. _ .. .._ ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ .. . .._ _ _ _. _ _ ..........._ ._ ._ _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ . .. ._ .. .. _.. _ _.. _ ._ _ _.. _ ..........._ . . . . . . _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ .. _. _ ._. _. _ _. _. ..........._ ._ ._ . _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ . . . . . . . . . . . .................................. .................................. _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _. ._._._._ ._ .. .. .. _.. _ ._ _. _ _ ._. _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ ._.._.._ .. .._ .. ..._. ._.._ .. .. .. ..._. _. _ _.. _ ._ ._ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _ _.. _ ._ _. _ _.. _ ._._ ._._ ._ ._._._._. ._ .. ._ .. _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _ . . . . . _. _. _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._._._._ ._ .. .._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. .._ ._ .. .__ _. _ _ _. _ _ _. _ _. _. _ _. ._ ._ ._ ._ _. _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ ._._._._ ._ . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ... ._ ._ .._.._.._ ... ._ ._ .._._ _. _ ._ _.. _ _.. _ ._ . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. ._. ._ ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ .. .. ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ .. _ _. _ _ _. _ _. _. _ _. _. ._ ._ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._. ._. ._ .. ._ .. _. _. _.. _ ._ _. _.. _ _.. _ ._ . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._._ .__ ._ .. _. _ _ ._. _.. _ ._. _. _ _ ._. _. ._ _ _ _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _ _ ._._._. ._ ._._._._. ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. .. ._ .. .__ _. _ _ _ _ ._. _. _ _. _. _ _. ._ ._ ._ ._ ._ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _. _ _ _ ._._._. ._ .. ._ .. ._ .. _ ._ _. _.. _ _. _ _ _ _.. _ _.. . . . . . . ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._._._._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ ._. _.._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ ._._._ _ _ . . . . _. _. _. _ _. _. _. ._._._._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ ._. _.._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ ._. _ _ _ _. _. _. _ _. _. _. . . . . _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._._._._ ._ .. .. _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _ ._ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._._ .__ ._ .. .. .. _. _ _ ._ _. _ ._. _. _ _ ._ _ ._ _ . _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ . _. _ ._._._. ._ ._._._._. ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ ._. _.. ._ .. .__ _ _ _ _ _ ._. _. _ _. _. _. _ _. . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .._.._ .._ ..._.._.._ .. .._ .._ ..._.._.._ .. _.. _ _.. _ . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._._._._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. .._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. _ _.. _ _ _.. _ ._ ._ ._ ._ _. _ _ _. _ ._._._._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. .._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. _. _ _. _ _. _ _. _. _. ._ ._ ._ ._ _. _ ._. _. _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._._._._ ._ .. ._ .. _.. _ ._ _. _ _.. _ ._ _ ._ ._ . ._ ._ ._ . _ _ _. _ ._ _.. _ _ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._._ ._._ ._ . . . . . . . . _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _ _ ._ ._. _. ._ _ _ _ _ _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _ ._._._._ ._ .. ._ ._ .. .__._._ .__ .. ._._ ._ .. .__ _. _ _ _. _ _. _. _ _. _. ._ ...... ...... .. .. ...... ..._. ..._ .. .. . . . . . . .................................. .................................. .._.._ .._ ..._.._.._ .. . _.._ .._ ..._.._.._ .. ._ ._ ._ _. _. _. _ _. _ ._._._._ ._ .. ._ ._ .. .__._._ ._ .. ._ ._ .. .__ _ _ _. _ _ _. ._ ._ ._ ._ _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _ ._._._._ ._ .. ._ .. .. ._ .. _ _.. _ _.. _ ._ _ _.. _ _.. _ . . . . . . _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _. _ _ _. _ .. ._. ._ ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ .. .. ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._ . ._ ._ ._ . ._ _ _. _ ._ _.. _ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._. . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _. _ ._ ._. _. ._ .__ ._. _ _. _ ._. _. _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._. ._._ ._ .. _ _ _ _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._ ._ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _ ._. ._ ._._. _.. ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ ._. _.. ._ .. .__ _ ._ ._. _. _ _. _. _. _ _ _. _ . . . . . . . . _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _ ._._._._ ._ .. .. .. _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ ._ ._ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _. _ ._ _.. _ ._ _ ._ .. .. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ _ _ _. _ ._. _. _ ._ ._ ._ _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ _. _ ._ ._. _. _ _ ._. ._ ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ ._. _.. ._ .. .__ ._._ ._ ._. _ _. _. _. _ _. _. _. . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ ._ ._ ._. _. _ .._ ..._.._.._ .. ._ .._ ..._. _. _ .._.._ .._ ..._.._.._ ._. _. _ .._ . ._.._.._ ._. _
_ _ _ _ _ _

JURASSIC

CRETACEOUS

.............. .. .... ........... . .............

Sandstone Coal Shale and Siltstone Limestone

Dolomite Chert Halite

S1: Free hydrocarbons present in rock S2: Hydrocarbons from kerogen pyrolysis S3: CO2 from kerogen pyrolysis Hydrogen index=S2/TOC

Fig. 6. Geochemical log of well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin.

S2 ranges from 10.1 to 12.6 mg/g. Hydrogen Indices are relatively low (generally 100-200) but indicate that there is some remaining potential to generate gas. The rocks are approximately at the stage of peak oil generation (Fig. 6) and therefore some of their original generating capacity has been exhausted. As pyrolysis yields prior to maturation are likely to have been higher (with Hydrogen Indices of the richest samples possibly as high as 300), the organic matter was probably capable of generating oil as well as gas (c.f. Berglund et al., 1994). Visual examination (Plate 1) shows that kerogen is composed predominantly of amorphous material (8090%), with minor vitrinite (10-15%) and exinite (up to 5%). Much of the amorphous material is probably degraded vitrinite together with alginite and liptinite. The occasional high S1 values recorded are interpreted

to reflect hydrocarbons generated in situ and not migrated oil. Analyses of bitumen extracts indicate the compositional differences between these indigenous hydrocarbons and the migrated oil present in facies 1 and 3. Maturity Assessment Assessment of the maturity of the studied interval comprising the Khatatba, Masajid, Alam El-Bueib, Alamein, Kharita, Bahariya and Abu Roash Formations at the Lotus-1 location was made using kerogen-related parameters such as vitrinite reflectance, TAI and pyrolysis Tmax, together with indicators related to C15+ bitumen extracts. Based on the high quality of the vitrinite histograms (>50 particles for each reading), comparison with the Tmax

198

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

100 80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 100

11%

Bahariya Formation Sample No. 1 Depth : 6160 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 37 0.53 (2) 23 0.73

10%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 9 Depth : 10350 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 6 0.51 (2) 54 0.79*

17%

Kharita Formation Sample No. 3 Depth : 6810 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 60 0.55*

11%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 10 Depth : 10650 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 60 0.82*

Relative Frequency

80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 80 60 40 20 0

15%

Kharita Formation Sample No. 4 Depth : 7260 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 55 0.59* (2) 5 0.79

10%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 11 Depth : 11090 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 10 0.50 (2) 50 0.82*

13%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 6 Depth : 8450 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 58 0.64* (2) 2 0.86

N/A

Masajid Formation Sample No. 13 Depth : 11788 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 11 0.75* (?)

10%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 7 Depth : 8950 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 60 0.63*

10%

Khatatba Formation Sample No. 15 Depth : 12550 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 58 0.88* (2) 2 1.17

15%

Alam El-Bueib Formation Sample No. 8 Depth : 6160 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 37 0.53 (2) 23 0.73
0.5 1.0 1.5 0.0

14%

Khatatba Formation Sample No. 17 Depth : 12950 ft Pop. N Mean Ro (1) 60 0.51

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Reflectance (%Ro) Denotes vitrinite population interpreted as indigenous Denotes vitrinite population interpreted as migrated

Fig. 7.Vitrinite reflectance histograms for the studied source rocks, well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin.

data and the high level of maturity indicated by the bitumen extracts in the deepest section of the well, the Ro data are considered to be more reliable than the TAI data (Khalid, 1991; 1999). In the deeper parts of the section, amorphous kerogen is fluorescent, consistent with most of the penetrated section being at maturity levels below 1.0% Ro. At deeper levels, samples show only trace fluorescence as a result of increased maturation. In Fig. 7, Ro values between 6160 ft and 12,550 ft range from 0.53% to 0.88%, and the oil window (defined by an Ro value of 0.6%) is entered at approximately 8000 ft. Measured Ro values do not increase significantly below 10,350 ft, and the level of maturity may be slightly higher between 10,350 and 13,000 ft

than as indicated by Ro values. Pyrolysis Tmax values are reasonably consistent with Ro data. Tmax values of 450-455oC in the deepest part of the section are equivalent to Ro values of about 0.8-0.9%. Between 6160 and 10,650 ft, TAI values of 2.0 to 2.4 are in general in agreement with Ro and Tmax values. At 12,550 ft, the agreement between these parameters is good but at depths of 11,090 and 11,788 ft, the TAI value of 2.2 implies lower maturities than the Ro values (Halim et al., 1996). Vitrinite-reflectance histograms (Fig. 7) confirm the reliability of these data. Ro values in the section below 10,350 ft show little increase with depth. The Ro value of 0.51% at 12,950 ft is too low accurately to reflect the maturity of the rocks at this depth. This

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

199

Plate 1. Photomicrographs (A-F) showing organic matter in the Khatatba Formation from well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin. The kerogen present is composed of cuticles, and plant tissues range in colour from dark brown to orange, and in size from very fine to coarse; palynomorphs are represented by pollen grains.

may due to post-deformation changes in maturity (Pittion and Gouadain, 1985) or to Ro suppression (e.g. Price and Barker, 1985). Maturities in the well sections in Fig. 7 range from immature at approximately 6000 ft to levels approaching peak oil generation below 11,000-12,000 ft. The oil window is entered at approximately 8000 ft. Bitumen extract data from below 12,000 ft further indicate that maturity levels necessary for substantial generation of hydrocarbons have been reached. Two Lopatin-type burial-history reconstructions were made for well Lotus-1 (Figs. 8a and 8b). Applying the present-day geothermal gradient for the Meleiha area (0.93oC/100 ft: Parker, 1982) to the

period from the Middle Jurassic to the present day, the calculated maturities are much higher than those indicated by the measured data (Fig. 9a). Since the rocks are not at the high levels of maturity predicted by the modelling, the simple model must be modified, for example to take account of the fact that the presentday geothermal gradient in the Meleiha area is higher than the regional gradient in the Western Desert (Mosca and Aboul Gadayel, 1992; Abdel Aziz, 1994). In order to find a better fit between measured and calculated maturities, a lower geothermal gradient in the past was assumed and a second burial-history reconstruction was made (Fig. 9b). The present-day geothermal gradient of 0.93oC/ 100 ft was used for

200

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

DEPTH (ft )

GEOLOGIC TIME
MESOZOIC JURASSIC CRETACEOUS CENOZOIC TERTIARY

THERMAL MATURITY
1 420 0.4 1.4 1.8 10 440 100 460 1000 TTI 480 500 1.4 2.0 Tmax Ro % TAI

0.6 0.8 1.0 2.2 2.8

AGE
150 30 C
o

3.2 3.6

100

50

Immature

Oil

Gas

1000 40 C 2000 50 C 60 C 70 C 80 C 90 C 100 C 110oC 120 C 130 C 140 C 150 C 160 C


o o o o o o o o o o o o

3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

TTI Gradient Data Gradient Ro % Tmax TAI Oil Window

10000 11000 12000 13000

Geothermal Gradients o o 0 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C, dT/dZ = 0.93 C/100 ft o , o / 170 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C dT/dZ = 0.93 C 100 ft

14000 15000

DEPTH (ft )

GEOLOGIC TIME
MESOZOIC JURASSIC CRETACEOUS CENOZOIC TERTIARY

THERMAL MATURITY
1 420 0.4 1.4 1.8 10 440 100 460 1000 TTI 480 500 1.4 2.0 Tmax Ro % TAI

0.6 0.8 1.0 2.2 2.8

AGE
150 30 C
o

3.2 3.6

100

50

Immature

Oil

Gas

1000 2000 3000

40 C

50oC

4000 5000

70 C 6000 60 C
o

7000 8000

80 C 9000 90 C
o

100oC

TTI Gradient Data Gradient Ro % Tmax TAI Oil Window

10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000

110 C

120 C

Geothermal Gradients o o 0 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C, dT/dZ = 0.93 C/100 ft o , o / 3 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C dT/dZ = 0.93 C 100 ft o , o / 3 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C dT/dZ = 0.64 C 100 ft o , o 170 MYBP: surface temperature = 25 C dT/dZ = 0.64 C/100 ft

Fig. 8. Burial history curves and maturation plot for well Lotus-1, (A) using the present-day geothermal gradient; (B) assuming a lower geothermal gradient in the past (see text for details).

only the past 3 million years; before this, a gradient of 0.64oC/100 ft was used. This model results in a better agreement between measured and calculated maturities (Fig. 8b). Using this revised model, the maturation plot shows that oil generation in the potential source rocks of the Khatatba Formation probably began at about 40-55 Ma and has continued to the present day. Extract characterization i. Kharita extracts Extracts from the Kharita Formation have greater quantities of C25+ n-alkane waxy component than extracts from the Khatatba and Alam El-Bueib

Formations. Pristane /nC17 is higher than phytane/nC18 (Fig. 9), which suggests a predominantly terrestrial organic matter input and low thermal maturities (samples 6, 9, and 10 are shifted towards the top-right of the plot). There are strong odd carbon number preferences between nC25 and nC35, and the Carbon Preference Index (CPI) values are high (1.472.05) which also indicate a high input of terrestrial organic matter and low thermal maturities (Bray and Evans, 1961). In the terpane distribution (m/z 191) of the Kharita extracts, the low tricyclic indices (= tricyclics / 17hopanes), the high to very high C 19/C 23 tricyclic terpane ratios, the very high Tm/Ts ratios and C30

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

201

Pr / n-C17

Fig. 9. Plot of pristane /nC17 versus phytane/nC18 for the studied samples: 1: Alam El-Bueib #3 Member; I1: Alam El-Bueib #5 Member; 6, 9 &10: Kharita Formation; 2-5, 7,8: Khatatba Formation; 12-18: oil samples.

4.0

ion at ur t Ma
2.0

10

n tio i da Ox g ci n du Re

1.0 0.8 0.6

a tri es rr e T

an rg lO

cM

r te at
6

oa t-C a Pe

iro nv E l
1

ts en m n

0.4
13 12 15 11 14,16,17 4 3 2,18 7,8

ed ix M

n ga Or

ic

ce ur So

s la (A l ga -R

uc ed

in

g)

0.2

e in ar M

ni ga Or

r te at M c

io at ad r eg od Bi

1 11 6,9,10 2-5, 7,8 12-18 0.4 0.6 0.8

Alam El-Bueib #3 Mbr. Alam El-Bueib #5 Mbr. Kharita Formation Khatatba Formation Oil Samples 1.0 2.0

0.1 0.1 0.2

Ph / n-C18

moretane /C30 hopane ratios, and the very low C23 tricyclic/C30 hopane ratios all indicate predominantly bacterial and terrestrial organic matter with minor algal material (Peters and Moldowan, 1991). The very high Tm/Ts and C30 moretane /C30 hopane ratios are also consistent with low thermal maturities. The low C35 homohopane indices suggest mildly anoxic or slightly oxic conditions. The sterane distribution (m/ z 217) of the studied samples shows much higher concentrations of C29 (20R) steranes than C27 aaa (20R) steranes, indicating a high terrestrial organic matter contribution relative to algal material (Peters and Moldowan, 1993). On a plot of 20S/ (20S+20R) versus the ratio /(+) for C29 steranes, the Kharita samples plot in the immature to low maturity fields (Fig. 10). Alam El-Bueib Formation extracts Extracts from the Alam El Bueib Members 3 and 5 in general have similar n-alkane distributions to Khatatba Formation extract (see below), except for samples from the 4437-4440 m depth interval in well Jb26-1. The two Alam El-Bueib extracts have lower maturities than the Khatatba extracts as indicated by biomarkerderived maturity indices (Fig.10). The two Alam El Bueib extracts show minor differences; the Member 5 extract from well Ja 27-2 appears to be more mature, and perhaps has a more terrestrial character, than the Member 3 extract from well Jb 26-1. Hopane and sterane isomerisation ratios (Tables 1-6) for the Member 5 sample from well Ja 27-2 (Figs. 11 and

12) indicate maturity close to peak oil generation (0.80%Ro) (Mackenzie and Maxwell, 1981). Khatatba Formation extracts Except for samples from the interval 44374440 m in well Jb 26-1 (sample 5), Khatatba extracts show general similarities in terms of C16+ n-alkane (nC16nC35) contents and isoprenoid distributions. C25+ nalkanes are present in significant proportions relative to C<25 n-alkanes. Pristane/phytane ratios are moderate to high (1.4-2.2) indicating oxidizing conditions. A plot of pristane/nCl7 versus phytane/nCl8 suggests a mixed organic facies and highly mature extracts (Fig. 9) (Shanmugam, 1985). The sample from the 44374440 m depth interval in well Jb 26-1 has a low extract quality and a low pristane/phytane ratio (0.7). This suggests a relatively higher algal and lower terrestrial organic matter contribution and more anoxic conditions compared to the other samples. This is also indicated in the terpane distribution by the very high tricyclic index (892), low C19 tricyclic/C23 tricylic terpane ratio (0.53), and high C23 tricyclic/C24 tetracyclic terpane ratio (6.5). In terms of sterane distribution, the sample from the interval 44374440 m in well Jb 26-1 well also has the highest C27 (20R)/C29 (20R) sterane ratio (0.94) of the samples analyzed. Hopanes /steranes ratio is 3.73, which indicates a greater bacterial contribution compared to terrestrial plus algal matter (Peters and Moldowan, 1993).

202

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

60

4 7 8 2

50
1

11

Mature

Fig.10. Correlation of thermal maturity parameters based on isomerisation of asymmetric centres in the C29 steranes: 1: Alam El-Bueib #3 Member; 1I: Alam El-Bueib #5 Member; 6, 9 and 10: Kharita Formation; 2-5, 7,8: Khatatba Formation; 12-18: oil samples.

C 29 2 0 S / ( 2 0 S + 2 0 R ) ( % )

40

30

Low-Mature
10 9

20
6

Immature 10 1 11 6,9,10 2-5, 7,8 12-18 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Alam El-Bueib #3 Mbr. Alam El-Bueib #5 Mbr. Kharita Formation Khatatba Formation Oil Samples

C29 / ( + ) (%)

Samples from 42374240 m, 42974300 m and 43574360 m in well Jb 26-1 can be grouped into a distinct source facies containing mixed organic matter. Within the terpane distribution (Fig. 12), the tricyclic indices (82-383) and the C19 tricyclic /C23 tricyclic terpane ratios (0.40-2.45) are moderate to high. The Tm/Ts ratios (1.20-3.88) and the C30 moretane/C30 hopane ratios are moderate, which distinguishes these samples from the Kharita samples. In the sterane distribution (Fig. 12), these extracts show C27 (20R)/ C29 (20R) sterane ratios between 0.55 and 0.84 which suggests a higher contribution of terrestrial organic matter than algal organic matter. Hopane / sterane (TT/ST) ratios are 2.63-6.99, which indicate that input of bacterial OM was greater than that of terrestrial plus algal OM. The Khatatba samples from 4257-4260 m and 4304.2 m in well Ja 27-2 have low to moderate biomarker concentrations and indicate a source facies with mixed organic matter (Fig. 12). Compared to the other Khatatba extracts, the source facies of samples from well Ja 27-2 indicate less bacterial, more terrestrial and less algal organic matter. In the terpane distribution, the tricyclic indices are very high (10761176) due to very high C19 and C20 tricyclic terpanes. The C19 tricyclic/C23 tricyclic terpane ratios are 2.8816.53. The Tm/Ts ratios are 0.89-1.46, while the C30

moretane/C30 hopane ratios are 0.21-0.27. These ratios are comparable to those in the other Khatatba extracts and are lower than those in Kharita samples. The C35 homohopane indices are zero. In the sterane distribution (Fig. 12), Khatatba extracts from Ja 27-2 have C27 (20R)/C29 (20R) sterane ratios of 0.30-0.33, which are higher than those in the Kharita samples but lower than those in the other Khatatba extracts. Hopane / sterane (TT/ ST) ratios of the two Khatatba extracts from well Ja 27-2 are the lowest (1.71-1.79) of all the samples, indicating the smallest contribution of bacterial organic matter relative to terrestrial plus algal material. On a plot of 20S / (20S+20R) C29 steranes versus / ( + ) C29 steranes, all the Khatatba extracts plot in the mature field (Fig. 10) ii. Well Lotus-1, Western Shushan Basin C15+ bitumen extracts from the Masajid-Bahariya section to a depth of 11,350 ft (Fig. 6) are of little value as maturity indicators, as they are not indigenous. By contrast, the two extracts from the Khatatba Formation from 12,000 and 12,650 ft provide valuable information for assessing maturities at this depth. The gas chromatograms of these extracts (Fig.13) are typical of mature extracts and indicate there has been substantial hydrocarbon generation.

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

203

28000 26000 24000 22000

Tricyclic Terpanes
C19 C29 C24 Tetracyclic

C30

Hopanes

20000 18000

Response

Isomers Isomers 17 (H)-diahopane Olenane M/Z = 191

16000

C20

14000 12000

C23

Tm

Ts

C21

10000

C22

C27

C33

6000 4000 2000 0 30 40 50

C25

C26

C29 C30

C28 C29

C32

8000

C24

C31

C34

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

C35

130

C27 diasteranes
6000

C27

C28

C29

C29 diasteranes

H
5000

Steranes (20S) Steranes (20R) M/Z = 217


C29 diasteranes

Response

C28 diasteranes
62 64 66 68

4000

3000

2000

1000 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Fig. 11. Triterpanes and sterane fingerprints of the saturate fraction from an extract sample from the Alam ElBueib Member 5 (sample 11, well Ja 27-2, depth 3588.9 m).

C28 diasteranes

The chromatograms show a smooth distribution of nalkanes with a predominance of low molecular-weight compounds, the waxy alkanes (C25-C31) have almost completely lost their odd-carbon preference (hence have low CPI values), and isoprenoid/n-alkane ratios are very low. The six bitumen extracts analysed may be divided into two groups. The four extracts of Group A come from Organic Facies 3 and 1, and probably represent petroleum that has migrated into the rocks. The second group of extracts (Group B) from the Khatatba Formation have a different character and are thought to be indigenous. Group A extracts contain high absolute quantities of extractable bitumen (4567-13,457 ppm) and their high extract/TOC ratios (42-70%) indicate that hydrocarbons are not indigenous and probably

comprise migrated oil. Liquid-chromatography data indicate that the extractable material is composed largely of hydrocarbons (68-75%) whose high saturate contents (46-55%) are typical of mature migrated oils. Gas chromatograms of the four extracts are almost identical and are characterized by a smooth n-alkane distribution with a predominance of low-molecularweight compounds, and low quantities of terrestriallyderived waxy n-alkanes. This distribution, together with Pr/Ph ratios close to 1.0, suggest that the migrated material is a marine-sourced oil with little terrestrial contribution. The two Group B extracts have high absolute quantities of extractable bitumen (3803-5160 ppm). The moderate extract/TOC ratios (10-18%), however, suggest that the extracts are indigenous and that some generation of hydrocarbons has taken place. The

204

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

28000 26000 24000 22000 20000 18000

M/Z = 191

Formation: Alam El-Bueib#3 Well: Jb 26-1 Sample: 1 Depth: 3237-3240 m

3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400

M/Z = 217

Formation: Alam El-Bueib#3 Well: Jb 26-1 Sample: 1 Depth: 3237-3240 m

Response

16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 30


16000

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130
3800

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

M/Z = 191
14000

Formation: Khatatba Well: Jb 26-1 Sample: 4 Depth: 4357-4360 m

M/Z = 217
3400

Formation: Khatatba Well: Jb 26-1 Sample: 4 Depth: 4357-4360 m

12000

3000

Response

Response
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

10000

2600

8000

2200

6000
1800

4000
1400

2000
1000 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Retention

Time
1200

Retention

Time

M/Z = 217

Formation: Khatatba Well: Ja 27-2 Sample: 7 Depth: 4257-4260m

1100

1000

Response

900

800

700

600

500 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Fig. 12

Retention

Time

Fig. 12. Triterpane and sterane fingerprints of extracts from wells Jb 26-1 and Ja 27-2, central Shushan Basin.

extractable material in both samples is composed of hydrocarbons comprising 16-17% saturates, 29% aromatics and 36% asphaltene. The gas chromatograms display a smooth n-alkane profile with a predominance of low molecular weight compounds. They differ from the Group A extracts in that they also show a moderate amount of terrestriallyderived longer-chain n-alkanes (C25-C31), have higher Pr/Ph ratios (1.69-1.78), and much lower isoprenoid/ n-alkane ratios. The Pr/Ph ratios and presence of some waxy n -alkanes suggest a normal oxidizing environment with significant terrestrial contribution. The low isoprenoid/n-alkane ratios, low CPI values and predominance of low molecular weight compounds are a result of maturation. The GC/MS data further differentiate the extracts from Groups A and B, and provide additional support for the Group A extracts represent the same migrated material.

The m/z 217 sterane mass chromatograms (Fig. 14) of the Group A extracts are closely similar, particularly in terms of the C27 diasteranes and the C27 and C29 regular steranes. The two Group B extracts show lower quantities of steranes, but differ slightly in their relative abundances of various compounds. For example, the sample from 12,650 ft is dominated by C29 diasteranes and regular steranes, consistent with the greater influence of terrestrial material in this sample. The triterpane distributions of the two groups are relatively similar; however, the m/z 191 mass chromatograms display a number of differences which can be used to distinguish between the two groups. The Group A extracts show substantial amounts of the C23 and C24 tricyclics, whereas in the Group B extracts, the C26 tricyclic is more evident. Also present in Group B extracts is a peak eluting at approximately 39.3 mins (C30 17 (H) diahopane) which is absent

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

205

Fig. 13. Gas chromatographs of C15+ saturated hydrocarbons in extracts from well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin.

206

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

Fig. 14. Sterane fingerprints of extracts from well Lotus-1.

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

207

Fig. 15. Triterpane fingerprints of extracts from well Lotus-1.

208

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

from Group A extracts. This peak is evident on the m/ z 191 mass chromatogram (Fig. 15) of the sample from 12,650 ft, and confirms the high terrestrial input to that sample (c.f. Peters and Moldowan, 1993). Although the two groups of extracts are very similar compositionally, the Group A extracts show minor differences in peak abundances related to maturity. The m/z 191 mass chromatogram of the sample from 6650 ft shows significant amounts of the C29 and C30 moretanes, compounds usually absent in mature samples. Another sign of relative immaturity in this sample is the dominance of the 14 form of the C29 regular sterane 20R over the 14 form (see m/ z 217 mass chromatogram). By comparison, a predominance of the 14 form of the C29 regular steranes and lesser amounts of moretanes indicate that the other samples in Group A are more mature. Thus, this sample may be influenced by immature indigenous material. The same biomarker maturity parameters can be used to illustrate the advanced state of maturity of Group B extracts. Moretanes are present in only very minor amounts and the 14 forms of the C29 regular steranes are dominant over the 14 forms. CONCLUSIONS This paper reports on the organic geochemical characteristics and source rock potential of JurassicCretaceous units in the Shushan Basin, Northern Western Desert, Egypt. Main conclusions are as follows: 1. In general, the thermal maturity of the potential source rocks analysed can be correlated with burial depth. Source rocks in the central structurally-low part of the Shushan Basin were more mature than those in the western (structurally elevated) part. 2. With the exception of the Albian Kharita Formation, the source rocks from the central part of the Shushan Basin have the potential to generate liquid hydrocarbons where they have reached sufficient thermal maturities. However, only the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation had a high enough TOC content to serve as a potential rock in the western part of the basin. 3. Gas chromatography and GC/MS data indicates that the Khatatba Formation is not the source for the migrated material in the upper part of the studied section, and therefore a second, more marineinfluenced source rock is assumed to be present. 4. With the exception of the extracts from the Middle Jurassic Khatatba Formation from the depth interval 44374440 m in well Jb 26-1 in the west of the Shushan Basin, all the source rock extracts analysed in general have a terrestrial signature to

varying degrees. Extracts from the Kharita Foramation appear to be the most terrestrially dominated. Extracts from the Alam El Bueib Formation can be grouped with extracts from the Khatatba Formation from well Jb 26-1 and are probably the least terrestrially dominated source rocks in the central part of the basin. 5. Extracts from the Khatatba Formation from well Ja 27-2 appear to be the most mature and contain more terrestrial organic matter than the other Khatatba extracts. However, the Khatatba extract from the interval 44374440 m in well Jb 26-1 appears to represent a unique source facies with the lowest contribution of terrestrial organic matter. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation for providing the raw data upon which the present work is based. Reviews by S. Luning and an anonymous referee on a previous version of the manuscript are acknowledged with thanks. REFERENCES
ABDEL AZIZ, A.L., 1994,. Jurassic source rock maturity and thermal history modeling of the Khalda West area, North Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC 12th Petrol. Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, 217-233. ABD EL GAWAD, E.A., PHILP, R.P. and ZEIN EL DIN, M.Y., 1996. Evaluation of possible source rocks in Faghur-Siwa basin, Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC 13th Petrol. Conf., Cairo, 417-431. BERGLUND, L.T., BOCTOR, J., GJELBERG, J., EL MASRY, M. and SKOGEN, J.H., 1994. The Jurassic hydrocarbon habitat of Ras Kanayis area, North Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC 12th Petrol. Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, 53-66. BRAY, E.E. and EVANS, E.D., 1961. Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds. Geochim. et Cosmochimica Acta, 22, 2-15. EGPC (EGYPTIAN GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION), 1992. Western Desert, oil and gas fields, a comprehensive overview. EGPC, Cairo, 431 p. ESPITALIE, J., DEROO, G. and MARQUIS, F. 1985. Rock-Eval Pyrolysis and its application. Institute Francais due Petrole (IFP), Preprint 33578, 22p. HALIM, M.A., SAID, M. and EL AZHARY, T., 1996. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesozoic and Tertiary hydrocarbons in the Western Desert and Nile Delta basins, Egypt. EGPC 13th Petrol. Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, 401416. HUNT, J.M., 1996. Petroleum geochemistry and geology, 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York, 743 p. KHALED, K.A., 1991. Pyrolysis of Lower Cretaceous Matruh Shales, Mersa Matruh well no.1, Western Desert, Egypt. M.E.R.C. Ain Shams Univ. Earth Science 5, 171-180. KHALED, K.A., 1999. Cretaceous source rocks at Abu Gharadig oil and gas field, northern Western Desert, Egypt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 22 (4), 377-395. LOPATIN, N.V., 1971.Temperature and geologic time as factors in calcification (in Russian). Akad. Nauk SSSR Izv. Ser. Geol..3, 95-106. MACKENZIE, A.S. and MAXWELL, J.R., 1981. Assessment of thermal maturation in sedimentary rocks by molecular measurements. In: Organic Maturation Studies and Fossil

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

209

Fuel Exploration. BROOKS, J. (Ed.) Academic Press, London, pp 239-254. METWALLI, F.I. and PIGOTT, J. D., 2005. Analysis of petroleum system criticals of the Matruh-Shushan Basin, Western Desert, Egypt. Petroleum Geoscience, 11, 2, 157-178. MOSCA, F. and ABOUL GADAYEL, O., 1992. Geochemical modeling within the Kanayis area, Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC 11th Petrol. Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, 263-271. PARKER, J.R., 1982. Hydrocarbon habitat of the Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC Sixth Exploration Seminar, Cairo, 710 March PETERS, K.E. and MOLDOWAN, J.M., 1991. Effects of source, thermal maturity, and biodegradation of the distribution and isomerization of homohopanes in petroleum. Org. Geochem., 17, 47-61. PETERS, K.E. and MOLDOWAN, J.M., 1993. The biomarker guide: interpreting molecular fossils in petroleum and ancient sediments. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy, 363 pp. PITTION, J.L. and GOUADAIN J., 1985. Maturity studies of the Jurassic coal unit in three wells from the Haltenbanken area. In: B.M.THOMAS et al. (Eds), Petroleum geochemistry in exploration of the Norwegian Shelf. Proceedings of Norwegian Petroleum Society Conference, Stavanger, pp.22-24, 1984. London: Graham & Trotman for the Norwegian Petroleum Society, pp.205 -211. PRICE, L.C. and BARKER, C.E. 1985.Suppression of vitrinite reflectance in amorphous rich kerogen-A major unrecognized problem. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 8 (1), 59-85.

ROBERTSON RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, 1982. Petroleum potential evaluation, Western Desert, Egypt. Unpublished report No. ER.2150, 1, 306 p. SAID, R. 1962.The Geology of Egypt. Balkema,A. A., Rotterdam, Netherlands, 733 p. SCIENTIFIC SOFTWARE INTERNATIONAL (SSI), 1990. Assessment of Petroleum Resources of the Western Desert of Egypt. Prepared for EGPC under US AID, Contract no: 263-0105-EGPC-88-01: Minerals, Petroleum and Ground Water Assessment Program. SHAHIN, A.N. and SHEHAB, M.M., 1988. Undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves and their preservation time limits in West Qarun area, Abu Gharadig basin, Western Desert, Egypt. EGPC 9th Petrol. Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, p. 134-163. SHANMUGAM, G., 1985. Significance of coniferous rain forests and related organic matter in generating commercial quantities of oil, Gippsland basin, Australia. AAPG Bull., 69, 12411254. SULTAN, N. and ABDELHALIM, M. A. 1988. Tectonic Framework of Northern Western Desert, Egypt and Its Effect on Hydrocarbon Accumulations. EGPC 9th Exploration and Production Conference, Cairo. p. 1-23 volume II. ZEIN EL-DIN, M.Y., ABD EL-GAWAD, E.A., EL-SHAYB, H.M. and HADDAD, I.A., 2001. Geological studies and hydrocarbon potentialities of the Mesozoic rocks in Ras Kanayis onshore area, Northwestern Desert, Egypt. Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt, XXIV, 115-134.

210

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Well Name Jb 26 - I Jb 26 - 1 Jb 26 - 1 Jb 26 - 1 Jb 26 - 1 Jb 26 - 1 Ja27-2 Ja 27- 2 Ja 27 - 2 Ja27-2 Ja27-2

Interval (m) 3237-3240 4237-4240 4297-4300 4357-4360 4437-4440 2397-2400 4257-4260 4304.2 2297-2300 2477-2480 Core Extract 3588.9

Formation AEB # 3 Khalatba Khatatba Khalatba Khatatba Kharita Khatatba Khatatba Kharita Kharita AEB # 5

Extract (ppm) 642 721 860 716 516 1128 4714 2938 1400 3765 443

Pr / Ph 2.20' 1.4 1.7 1.9 0.7 3 1.8 2.1 2.6 5.6 2.6

Pr/nC17 Ph / nC18 0.48 0.15 0.17 0.2 0.36 1.2 0.07 0.04 0.99 3.17 0.31 0.25 0.1 0.11 0.13 0.42 0.41 0.04 0.02 0.41 0.76 0.12

CPI 1.16 1 0.97 1.01 1.05 2.05 1.01 0.99 1.47 1.76 1.1

Table 1. Results of bitumen analyses for the studied source rocks, wells JB 26-1 and Ja 27-2, central Shushan Basin.

Sample No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Well Name Ja 28 - I Ja 28 - I Ja 28 - 1 li 28 - 1 Jb 26 - 1 Jb 26 - I Ja27-2

Interval (m RKB) DST #1 4420.6-4426.6 DST #l 4420.6-4426.6 DST #2 4396.7-4415.7 DST #2 4290.5-4297.0 DST #1 4448.9-4456.9 DST #3 4171.1-4185.1 DST #1

Formation Khatatba Khatatba Khatatba Khatatba Khatatba Khatatba Khatatba

API 38 39.5 50 43 50.2 46 50

Pr/Ph 3.1 3 4.4 4.2 3.4 3.5 1.4

Pr/nCl8 0.26 0.31 0.28 0.21 0.28 0.28 0.16

Ph / nC18 0.09 0.1 0.06 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.07

Table 2. Results of GC whole oil analyses, Khatatba Formation, Central Shushan Basin.
BIOMARKER (m/z 217} Regular steranes C27 C28 C29 Total Diasteranes C27 C28 C29 Total Normalized % C27 (20R) C28 (20R) C29 (20R) Normalized % C27 (20R + 20S) C28 (20R + 20S) C29 (20R + 20S) Ratio Diasterane Index Diasterane / regular steranes C27 (20R) /C29 (20R) C27 (20S) / C 29 (20R) Ja 28-1 DST#1 TOTAL % 27.83 14.29 18.44 60.56 18.78 11.53 9.14 39.44 40.67 35.75 23.58 40.72 25.02 34.25 92.5 n/a 1.73 1.95 1.45 66.13 46.87 n/a 2.55 n/a Jb 26-1 DST#3 TOTAL % 26.66 10.65 22.1 59.41 13.1 8.7 18.79 40.59 50.37 0 49.63 30.72 14.43 54.85 101.58 0.68 1.01 0.81 0.87 44.81 48.97 76.31 0.37 3.1

BIOMARKER (m/z 191) Tricyclic Terpanes C19-C29 C30-C36 Pentacvclic Terpanes Hopanes Non-Hopanes RATIO Tricyclic Index C19 Tricyclic / C23 Tricyclic C23 Tricyclic / C24 Tetracyclic Tm/Ts C28 Hopane / C29 Hopane C28 Hopane / C30 Hopane C28 Hopane/ (C28 + C30 Hopane) C29 Hopane / C30 Hopane C30 Moretane / C30 Hopane C30 Oleanane / C30 Hopane Gammacerane Index 22S/ (22S+22R) C31Hopane (%) 22S / (22S+22R) C32 Hopane (%) C35 / C34 Extended Hopanes Tricyclic / 17aH - Hopane Ratio C35-Homohopane Index. (%)

Ja 28-1 DST#1 TOTAL % 63.97 2.05 26.8 2.82 1209.49 n/a 4.09 0.69 0.17 0.19 n/a 1.11 0 0.53 0 n/a 61.77 n/a n/a 6.02

Jb26-1 DST#3 TOTAL % 31.74 0 51.64 0 498.8 0 0.76 0.72 0 0 0 1.01 1.06 0 0 n/a n/a n/a 0 n/a

( + ) C 27 sterane (%)
Hopanes / Steranes (TT / ST) (Steranes+Diasteranes) / C27-C30 hopanes

C29 (20R) / C29 (20R) 20S / (20S + 20R) C29 sterane % / ( + ) C 27 sterane (%)

Table 3. Results of biomarker analyses for the studied oils, wells Ja 28-1 and Jb 26-1, central Shushan Basin.

A. S. Alsharhan and E. A. Abd El-Gawad

211

Biomarker

well

Ja27 Jb26-1 23974257-4260m 2400 m

Ja27-2 4304.2m

Ja27-22972300m m

Ja27-2477- Jb26-1 3237- Jb26-1 4237- Jb26-1 4297- Jb26-1 4357- Jb26-1 44372480 m 3240m 4240m 4300m 4360m 4440m TOTAL% COMPOSITION

Tricyclic Terpanes C19-C29 C30-C36 Pentacyclic Terpanes Hopanes Non-Hopanes RATIO Tricyclic Index C19 Tricyclic / C23 Tricyclic C23 Tricyclic / C24 Tetracyclic Tm /Ts C28 Hopane / C29 Hopane C28 Hopane / C30 Hopane C28 Hopane /(C28 + C30 Hopanes) C29 Hopane / C30 Hopane C30 Moretane / C30 Hopane C30 Oleanane / C30 Hopane Gammacerane Index 22S/(22S + 22R) C31 Hopane (%) 22S/(22S + 22R)C32 Hopane (%) C35 / C34 Extended Hopanes Tricyclic / 17aH - Hopane Ratio C35-Homohopane Index (%) Regular steranes C27 C28 C29 Total Rearranged (diasteranes) C27 C28 C29 Total NORMALIZED % C27 (20R) C28 (20R) C29 (20R) NORMALIZED % C27 (20R + 20S) C28 (20R + 20S) C29 (20R + 20S) RATIO Diasterane index Diasteranes / regular steranes C27(20R) / C29(20R) C29 (20S) / C29 (20R) C29 (20R) / C29 (20R)
20S/(20S+20R)C29 sterane(%) / (+ ) C29 sterane (%) / ( +) C27 sterane (%)

17.16 0.52 81.29 0.15 127.63 6.08 1.34 35.45 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.87 0.65 0.01 0 57.75 51.08 0.53 0.03 1.89 26.16 12.71 27.83 66.7 13.27 9.19 10.84 33.3 27.09 24.1 48.82 30.75 18.46 50.79 102.58 0.5 0.55 0.87 0. 85 46.55 45.64 65 6.99 0.26

68.38 0 28.65 0 1075.81 2.88 2.76 0.89 0 0 0 0.81 0.21 0 0 47.73 57.48 n/a 0.21 0 27.53 16.77 24.83 69.13 15.9 7.65 7.32 30.87 31.05 26.97 41.98 34.52 22.16 43.32. 140.92 0.45 0.74 0.87 0.98 46.55 50.21 64.2 2.63 0.73

69.72 0 27.72 0 1158.5 16.53 1.15 1.46 0 0 0 0.75 0.27 0 0 56.79 59.9 n/a 0.15 0 23.49 13.2 22.52 59.21 18.1 11.56 11.13 40.79 31.37 30.61 38.02 34.49 22.31 43.2 66.45 0.69 0.83 1.06 1.16 51.57 50.51 62.12 3.68 0.48

3.73 0.48 95.03 0 25.92 1.05 0.72 46.68 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.96 0.63 0 0 58.81 52.15 0.49 0.01 1.22 26.4 14.43 27.64 68.47 12.7 9.75 9.08 31.53 41.21 9.94 48.85 38.16 14.29 47.55 92.91 0.46 0.84 1.09 1.21 52.13 51.79 59.5 3.31 0.55

12.37 0.5 86.25 0 95.14 13.16 0.45 53.88 0.03 0.03 0.03 1 0.53 0 0 58.08 54.12 0.42 0.01 1.53 28.7 15.43 22.83 66.97 16.64 6.25 10.13 33.03 34.86 27.87 37.27 38.54 22.47 38.99 102.58 0.49 0.94 0.87 0.81 46.58 46.68 58.07 3.73 0.5

18.21 1.33 77 .47 0 121.95 2.45 0.9 3.88 0.05 0.05 0.05 1.09 0.27 0 0 60.1 59.32 0.64 0.02 4.82 18.88 12.52 44.06 75.47 4.34 6.54 13.65 24.53 8.85 19.79 71.36 11.93 17.82 70.25 44.56 0.33 0.12 0.23 0.02 18.48 22.01 69.09 9.96 0.2

45.99 2.01 48.1 0.46 490.97 0.54 2.93 1.2 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.87 0.19 0.05 0 48.6 62.91 0.71 0.25 7.01 18.13 22.65 32.59 73.37 7.33 10.68 8.62 26.63 15.51 37.15 47.35 18.58 32.91 48.51 90 0.36 0.33 1.03 1.19 50.69 52.58 67.35 1.71 0.93

13.47 11.7 69.85 3.66 82.33 0.4 1.39 1.49 0.22 0.14 0.13 0.67 0.21 0.22 0 55.19 59.71 0.76 0.11 7.54 15.34 23.79 30.68 69.81 12.95 10.13 7.12 30.19 16.77 27.82 55.42 15.63 37.83 46.55 128.47 0.43 0.3 0.97 1.04 49.3 51.3 67.31 1.79 0.86

42.69 3.32 50.74 1.08 382.81 1.04 3.42 1.35 0.13 0.11 0.1 0.78 0.17 0.1 0 52.08 60.06 0.96 0.15 8.71 15.66 23.87 39.5 79.02 6.24 7.75 6.99 20.98 10.68 35.67 53.65 14.15 31.58 54.27 52.87 0.27 0.2 0.3 0.2 23.37 26.58 51.7 32.43 0.07

61.9 0.52 35.11 0.41 892.22 0.53 6.5 1.85 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.88 0.19 0.06 0 53.82 61.12 0.91 0.12 7.87 15.21 17.97 48.39 81.56 3.75 2.2 12.49 18.44 5.39 20.24 74.37 7.73 17.42 74.85 70.62 0.23 0.07 0.36 0.17 26.63 27.47 76.15 12.36 0.17

Hopanes/Steranes.(TT/ST)
(Steranes+Diasteranes)/C27-C30hop.

Table 4. Results of biomarker analyses for the studied source rocks, central Shushan Basin.

212

Potential Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks in the Shushan Basin, NW Egypt

WELL Lotus-1 (MD-1X) Lotus-1 (MD-1X Lotus-1 (MD-1X Lotus-1 (MD-1X

Fm. Khat. AEB Khar. Baha.

DEPTH 12000 12600-12650 9400 11240-11350 7400-7450 6600-6650

EXTRACT /TOC% 18.3 10.45 41.92 51.78 70.46 47.32

CPI 1.14 1.1 1.12 1.09 1.11 1.1

Pr/Ph 1.69 1.78 1.16 1 1.07 1.17

Pr/ nC17 0.25 0.24 0.6 0.64 0.67 0.64

Ph/ nC18 0.16 0.15 0.55 0.66 0.62 0.58 SAT. 27.4 26.2 27.3 27.5 26.9 27.3

CIR ARO. 24.8 24.3 26 26.8 26.5 26.3

Table 5. Results of GC analyses for the studied source rock extracts, well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin.
% Hopane % BB C29 Sterane % 20S C29 Sterane

% C30M

Ts / Tm

% C27 Sterane

% C28 Sterane

WELL

Fm.

DEPTH 1299013020 1302013040 1328013320 12000 1260012650 9400 1124011350 7400-7450 6600-6650

0.62 0.64 0.47 0.66 1.08 0.7 0.85 0.88 0.66

44.4 50.3 51.8 39.3 26.4 32.6 32 32.8 34.5

12.3 10.3 12.2 10.9 11.3 16.8 12.2 13.2 18.7

14.1 12 10 9.5 10.3 19.3 17.6 15.3 15.4

42 42 41 45 47 45 45 45 34

59 60 58 57 58 59 56 57 50

42 41 41 41 33 46 47 40 40

22 22 20 27 26 22 21 24 24

Lotus-1 (MD-1X)

Khat.

Lotus-1 (MD-1X) Lotus-1 (MD-1X) Lotus-1 (MD-1X) Lotus-1 (MD-1X)

Khat.

AEB Khar. Baha.

Table 6. Results of GC/MS analyses for the studied source rock extracts, well Lotus-1, western Shushan Basin.

% C29 Sterane

% Tri

36 37 39 32 42 32 32 26 36