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Figure 2: Some Key Global Health Milestones and Developments Since 2000

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): All UN Member states agreed to eight international development goals to achieve by 2015. Three of the goals are directly related to health: MDG 4 reduce child mortality, MDG 5 improve maternal health, and MDG 6 combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) : A new public-private partnership and multilateral funding mechanism supporting immunization programs in poor countries established.

2000 2000 2001 2001 2002 2003 2003 2005 2007 2007 2010 2012
2012

Abuja Declaration: African leaders pledged to increase their governments' spending on health to 15% of domestic budgets. In the Declaration the leaders also declared "AIDS is a state of emergency in the continent". United Nations General Assembly (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS: This special session of the UN General Assembly led to a "Declaration of Commitment" by UN Member nations on HIV/AIDS. At the most recent UNGASS meeting on HIV/AIDS, in June 2011, world leaders adopted a new Declaration reaffirming prior commitments and establishing new targets to combat the epidemic. Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: A new independent, multilateral institution which finances HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria programs in low- and middle- income countries established.

U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR): A U.S. government program established to address HIV/AIDS in developing countries, initially authorized as a $15B, five-year initiative. The initiative was re-authorized in 2008 for an additional five years and up to $48B. World Health Organization 3x5 Initiative: An initiative with the goal of providing treatment to 3 million by the end of 2005 established.

G8 Gleneagles Commitments: Leaders of the G8 countries agreed to increase aid by $60 billion over five years including $25 billion to Africa, with a strong emphasis on global health. International Health Regulations: Revised international agreement obligates Member States of the WHO to develop the capacity to detect, report, and respond to public health emergencies of international concern, such as serious outbreaks of infectious diseases. International Health Partnership Plus: Agreement among several donor and partner countries calling for accelerated action to scale up coverage and use of health services, and deliver improved outcomes against the health related MDGs and other commitments.

United Nations MDGs' Review Summit: Reaffirmed the commitment to the MDGs; secured $40B in pledges to support women's and children's health programs over the subsequent five years. Global Child Survival Call to Action: Donors, developing countries, and organizations came together to declare renewed support for ending preventable child deaths globally. London Family Planning Summit: Renewed global support for family planning programs and generated $2.6 billion in donor commitments to support family planning programs in developing countries.

THE U.S. GOVERNMENT ENGAGEMENT IN GLOBAL HEALTH: A PRIMER