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Position and momentum space

In physics and geometry, there are two intertwined vector spaces. Position space (also real space or coordinate space) is the set of all position vectors r of an object in space (usually 3D). The position vector defines a point in space. If the position vector varies with time it will trace out a path or surface, such as the trajectory of a particle. Momentum space or k-space is the set of all wavevectors k, associated with particles - free and bound. The terms "momentum" (symbol p, also a vector) and "wavevector" are used interchangeably due to the De Broglie relation p = hk, meaning they are equivalent up to proportionality, although this is not true in a crystal, see below. This is an example of Pontryagin duality. The position vector r has dimensions of length, the k-vector has dimensions of reciprocal length, so k is the frequency analogue of r, just as angular frequency is the inverse quantity and frequency analogue of time t. Physical phenomena can be described using either the positions of particles, or their momenta, both formulations equivalently provide the same information about the system in consideration. Usually r is more intuitive and simpler than k, though the converse is also true, such as in solid-state physics.

Contents
1 Position and momentum spaces in quantum mechanics 2 Relation between space and reciprocal space 2.1 Functions and operators in position space 2.2 Functions and operators in momentum space 3 Unitary equivalence between position and momentum operator 4 Reciprocal space and crystals 5 See also 6 References

Position and momentum spaces in quantum mechanics


Further information: Momentum operator In quantum physics, a particle is described by a quantum state. This quantum state can be represented as a superposition (i.e. a linear combination as a weighted sum) of basis states. In principle one is free to choose the set of basis states, as long as they span the space. If one chooses the eigenfunctions of the position operator as a set of basis functions, one speaks of a state as a wave function (r) in position space (our ordinary notion of

space in terms of length). The familiar Schrdinger equation in terms of the position r is an example of quantum mechanics in the position representation.
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By choosing the eigenfunctions of a different operator as a set of basis functions, one can arrive at a number of different representations of the same state. If one picks the eigenfunctions of the momentum operator as a set of
1 of 4 01-Feb-14 1:27 PM [1] Position and momentum space - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Position_and_momentum_space

basis functions, the resulting wave function f(k) is said to be the wave function in momentum space.

Relation between space and reciprocal space


The momentum representation of a wave function is very closely related to the Fourier transform and the concept of frequency domain. Since a quantum mechanical particle has a frequency proportional to the momentum (de Broglie's equation given above), describing the particle as a sum of its momentum components is equivalent to describing it as a sum of frequency components (i.e. a Fourier transform).
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This becomes clear when we ask ourselves how we can transform from one representation to another.

Functions and operators in position space


Suppose we have a three-dimensional wave function in position space (r), then we can write this functions as a weighted sum of orthogonal basis functions or, in the continuous case, as an integral It is clear that if we specify the set of functions
j

(r): (r), say as the set of eigenfunctions of the momentum operator, the function f(k) holds all the information necessary to reconstruct (r) and is therefore an alternative description for the state . In quantum mechanics, the momentum operator is given by
j

(see matrix calculus for the denominator notation) with appropriate domain. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues hk. So and we see that the momentum representation is related to the position representation by a Fourier transform.