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Formation of Economic and Social Networks (Tesfatsion)

Formation of Economic and Social Networks (Tesfatsion)

Formation of Economic and Social Networks

Last Updated: 9 January 2014

Site maintained by:Leigh Tesfatsion Department of Economics Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa 50011-1070 tesfatsi AT

Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) Website ACE Network Formation Research Table of Contents: Introductory Readings Research Sites Software, Toolkits, and Computer Demos Books and Journals Some Early Individual Researchers

Introductory Readings Albert-L?szl? Barab?si, "Network Overview"(pdf,3.3MB),2006 Keynote Address.Professor AlbertL?szl? Barab?si (Department ofPhysics, Notre Dame, Indiana) directs a research group focusing on theemergence and evolution of networks in various contexts (e.g., metabolic andgenetic networks, actor networks, collaborative networks).This fun slidepresentation provides a vivid visual summary of some of their key findings to date. Stephen P. Borgatti and Pacey C. Foster, "The Network Paradigm inOrganizational Research: A Review and Typology", Journal ofManagement, Vol. 29(6), 2003, 991-1013. The published article isavailable fromScience Direct.Abstract: This paper reviews and analyzes the emergingnetwork paradigm in organizational research.It begins with a conventionalreview of recent research organized around recognized research streams.Itthen analyzes this research, developing a set of dimensions along whichnetwork studies vary, including: direction of causality; levels of analysis,explanatory goals, and explanatory mechanisms.The latter is used toconstruct a 2-by-2 table cross-classifying studies of network consequencesinto four canonical types.The paper concludes by noting the risingpopularity of studies placing a greater stress on agency than was traditionalin network research. Vincent Cheung and Kevin Cannon, Introduction to Neural Networks,(pdf,1.5M)Abstract: Superb introduction to artificial neural networks. Giorgio Fagiolo (Laboratory of Economics and Management, Sant'Anna School of Advanced studies, Pisa, Italy)has prepared a ppt presentation, titledGames on Networks: Rationality, Dynamics, and Interactions (pdf,1.5MB),that reviews recent research by himself and others onthe endogenous formation of networks by strategically interacting players in a variety of application contexts. Bernd Fritzke, Growing Self-Organizing Networks - Why?"(pdf,550KB)In: M. Verleysen, (ed.), ESANN'96: EuropeanSymposium on Artificial Neural Networks, D-Facto Publishers,Brussels, 1996, 61-72 (invited paper).Abstract:"The reasons to use growing self-organizing networks areinvestigated. First an overview of several models of this kind is givenare they are related to other approaches. Then two examples are pre-sented to illustrate the specic properties and advantages of incrementalnetworks. In each case a non-incremental model is used for comparisonpurposes. The rst example is pattern classication and compares thesupervised growing neural gas model to a conventional radial basis func-tion approach. The second example is data visualization and contraststhe growing grid model and the self-organizing feature map."

Sanjeev Goyal (Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University, UKB),"Learning in Networks"(pdf,372KB),Working Paper, December 2003.Abstract: This paper surveys theoretical (analytical)research on learning, with a special focus on the interaction network betweenindividual entities.The survey first examines the nature of learning aboutoptimal actions for a given network architecture.It then discusses learningabout optimal links and actions in an evolving network. Sanjeev Goyal, Connections: An Introduction to the Economics of Networks, Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 2007.Abstract: In (this booKB), Sanjeev Goyal puts contemporary thinking about networks and economic activity into context.He develops a general framework within which this body of research can be located.Topics covered include: network concepts and empirics; games on networks; coordination and cooperation; social learning; social networks in labor markets; strategic network formation; one-sided link formation; two-sided link formation; and research collaboration among firms. Matthew Jackson (Cal Tech, Pasadena), "A Survey of Models of NetworkFormation: Stability and Efficiency"(pdf,441KB),Working Paper, Revised May 2003.Abstract: This study is an extensive survey of thetheoretical (analytical) literature on the formation of non-directednetworks, i.e., networks in which links require mutual consent.Jacksonnotes in conclusion that many important and interesting open questionsremain, many going well beyond what can currently be handled by analyticalmethods.He briefly mentions recent empirical research on network formation,as well as recent experimental research with human subjects and withcomputational agents. Michael Kosfeld (University of Zurich, Switzerland),"Network Experiments"(pdf,370KB),Working Paper, May 2003.Abstract: This paper surveys (human-subject) experimental research on social and economicnetworks.The experiments consider networks of coordination and cooperation,buyer-seller networks, and network formation. David G. Rand, Samuel Arbesman, and Nicholas A. Christakis, "Dynamic Social Networks Promote Cooperation in Experiments with Humans(pdf,361KB),Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Early Edition, 2011.Abstract:The authors conduct human-subject experiments to explore large-scale cooperation, where subjects' cooperative actions are equally beneficial to all those with whom they interact.Their experimental findings confirm the predictions of a set of evolutionary game theoretic models and demonstrate the important role that dynamic social networks can play in supporting large-scale human cooperation. Leigh Tesfatsion and Kenneth L. Judd, Eds., Handbook of ComputationalEconomics, Vol. 2: AgentBased Computational Economics, Handbooks in EconomicsSeries, North-Holland/Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Spring 2006.Abstract: This handbook includes two chapters on the agent-basedcomputational modeling of networks, one chapter (by Allen Wilhite) focusing oneconomic activities conducted on fixed-node networks and a second chapter (byNicolaas Vriend) focusing on the endogenous formation of economic relationalnetworks.The preface and table of contents of this handbook can be viewedhere. F. Schweitzer, G. Fagiolo, D. Sornette, F. Vega-Redondo, A. Vespignani, and D. R. White, "Economic Networks: The New Challenges"(pdf,1.1MB),Science, 24 July 2009, Vol. 325, No. 5939, pp. 422425.Abstract:"The current economic crisis illustrates a critical need for new and fundamental understanding of thestructure and dynamics of economic networks. Economic systems are increasingly built oninterdependencies, implemented through trans-national credit and investment networks, trade relations, orsupply chains that have proven difficult to predict and control. We need, therefore, an approach thatstresses the systemic complexity of economic networks and that can be used to revise and extendestablished paradigms in economic theory. This will facilitate the design of

policies that reduce conflictsbetween individual interests and global efficiency, as well as reduce the risk of global failure by makingeconomic networks more robust." Randall Verbrugge (BLS, Washington D.C.), "Interactive Agent Economies:An Elucidative Framework and Survey of Results", MacroeconomicDynamics 7(3), 2003, 424-472.Abstract: The author presents an analytical framework for exploring theimplications of economic interaction.The initial sections of the paperinclude a survey of previous work on interacting agent economies with astress on analytical studies. Anna Nagurney (John F. Smith Memorial Professor, Isenberg School ofManagement, University of Massachusetts, Amherst) is the Editor of a book series titled New Dimensions in Networks, to be published by Edward Elgar Publishing Company.This series is designed to publish original manuscripts and edited volumes that push the development of the theory and application of networks to new dimensions.It is interdisciplinary andinternational in its coverage, and aims to connect existing areas, unveil new applications, and extend existing conceptual frameworks as well as methodologies.For information regarding manuscript submission policy andprocedures, visithere.

Research Sites Agent-Based Computational Research on the Evolution of Interaction Networks(Tesfatsion)Leigh Tesfatsion (Iowa State University, Ames) maintains a resourcesite for researchers interested in taking an agent-based computationaleconomics (ACE) approach to studying theEvolution of Interaction Networks.ACE is the computational study of economies modeled as dynamic systems of interacting agents.The site provides annotated pointers toreadings, software, individual researchers, and research groups. CASOS: Center for Computational Analysis of Social and OrganizationalSystemsCASOS (Center for ComputationalAnalysis of Social and Organizational Systems)at Carnegie Mellon University brings together computer science, dynamicnetwork analysis, and the empirical study of complex sociotechnical systems.Computational and social network techniques are combined to develop a betterunderstanding of the fundamental principles of organizing, coordinating,managing, and destabilizing systems of intelligent adaptive agents (human andartificial) engaged in real tasks at the team, organizational, or sociallevel.CASOS is a university-wide center drawing on faculty, students, andprogramming staff in multiple departments at Carnegie Mellon. Coalition Theory NetworkTheCoalition Theory Network (CTN)is an association of high-level scientific institutions whose aim is theadvancement and diffusion of research in the area of coalition formation.The CTN, founded in 1995, sponsors annual meetings and summer schoolactivities. Complex Systems and Random Networks (Mendes)J. F. F. Mendes (University of Aveiro, Portugal) maintains a resourcesite titledComplex Systems and Random Networksthat provides pointers to publications, discussion papers, and links related to this topic area. Economics of Networks (Economides)The Internet Site for the Economics of Networks,maintained by Nicholas Economides (New York University), provides acollection of information on economic issues of networks, such asthe telephone and fax communications networks, the internet,financial exchange and credit card networks, and "virtual networks"such as the virtual network of all Windows or all Mac computers.

Economics of Networks Links (WebEc)WebEc maintains a list of annotated pointers focusing on theEconomics of Networks. Emergence (Resnick and Silverman)Mitchel Resnick and Brian Silverman (Epistemology and LearningGroup, MIT Media Laboratory) maintain an "active essay" that explores theidea of emergence of global regularities arising from simpleinteractions.Visitors with a Java-enabled browser can activate animationsthat illustrate the concepts under discussion.The site can be accessedhere. e-Social Science ProjectA group of researchers at the University of Manchester,managed by Gillian Sinclair, is conducting research on e-SocialScience, the application of grid technologies to social scienceresearch, including economics.They have funded several projects inqualitative data and one of special interest to economists entitledFINGRID.This group is also hosting the First InternationalConference on e-Social Science at Manchester this summer.For more information, visitthehere Graph Theory and Network Analysis (Batagelj)Vladimir Batagelj maintains a list of pointers tograph theory and network analysis resources(e.g., programs, algorithms, graph formats, data, and visualization tools). International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA)TheInternational Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA)contains information about INSNA and related subjects, including referencesources, links to related sites, and network software. Network Dynamics Bibliography (Crutchfield and Watts)The Network Dynamics Bibliographyis an on-line bibliography maintained by Jim Crutchfield and Duncan Watts atthe Santa Fe Institute that lists pointers to Web sites, books, papers, andreviews related to networks and network dynamics. Network Economics (Varian)Network Economicsis a site maintained by Hal Varian at the University of Berkeley.Itprovides a briefly annotated list of pointers to Web sites focusing onnetwork issues such: as the impact of the Internet on people, firms, andmarkets; new economic forces at work in the ever more networked globaleconomy; telecommunications issues (including the Microsoft anti-trust case);network externalities; and technical specs and services. Networks and Social DynamicsThe Social Dynamics Laboratory Groupat Cornell University studies the effects of network topology on the dynamicsof social interaction. Network Effects and Lock-In (Liebowitz)The Network Effectsmaintained by Stanley J. Liebowitz (University of Texas at Dallas) is devotedto network effects, path dependence, and lock-in.In particular, the siteprovides reviews, commentary, and resources related to a book by Leibowitzet al. titled Winners, Losers, and Microsoft (Independent Institute,March 2001).In the latter, the authors provide a detailed empiricalcritique of the network effects, path-dependence and lock-in purported tohave occurred in the software industry as well as in other often-cited cases(e.g., the triumph of the QWERTY configuration over the Dvorak configurationfor typewriter keyboards, and the triumph of the VHS format over the Betaformat for videocassette recorders). Scale-Free Networks and Small World Networks (INSNA)TheInternational Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA)maintains links to papers and other research resources related toscalefree (power law) networks and small world networks. Self-Organized Networks (Barab?si)Professor Albert-L?szl? Barab?si (Department ofPhysics, Notre

Dame, Indiana) conducts research focusing on theemergence and evolution of networks in various contexts (e.g., metabolic andgenetic networks, actor networks, collaborative networks). For more information about his research, visithere. Self-Organizing Innovation Networks (Gilbert)Nigel Gilbert (University of Surrey, UK)conducts research on self-organizing innovation networks.For more information, visithere.A key paper on this topic is Nigel Gilbert(University of Surrey, UKB), Andreas Pyka (University of Augsburg, Germany),and Petra Ahrweiler (University of Hamburg, Germany),"Innovation Networks -- A Simulation Approach"(html),Journal of Artificial Societies and SocialSimulation, Volume 4, No. 3, 2001. Social Network Analysis (Snijders)A Social Network Analysis Pageis maintained by Tom A. B. Snijders (Department of Sociology, University ofGroningen, the Netherlands).The site provides annotated pointers to avariety of downloadable programs for social network analysis developed bySnijders and his collaborators, together with pointers to related articles. Social Network Links (White)Doug White (Anthropology and Social Science, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA)maintains a listing ofSocial Network Web Sitesthat includes galleries, projects, vitae, home pages, articles, journals,associations, newsletters, listservers, and classes related to social networkresearch. Virtual Center for Supernetworks (Nagurney)A supernetwork is a network consisting of nodes, links (virtual orphysical), and flows that is over and above a collection of existingnetworks.Examples include teleshopping and telecommuting networks.TheVirtual Center for Supernetworks at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst,is directed by Anna Nagurney (John F. Smith Memorial Professor, IsenbergSchool of Management).The primary objective of this interdisciplinarycenter is to foster the study and application of supernetworks and to serveas a resource to academia, industry, and government on such networks.Resources available at this site include project descriptions, a compilationof software tools, and pointers to related links.For more information,visithere. Visualization of NetworksThe Visual Complexity Siteprovides an astonishing array of network visualizations created by complexity researchers.Types of visualized networks include art, business, computer systems, food webs, the Internet, knowledge networks, music, pattern recognition, political networks, social networks, transportation networks, and the World Wide Web.

Software, Toolkits, and Computer Demos Boids - Flocking Creatures (Reynolds)Craig Reynolds (Sony, Research and Development Group) maintains aweb site titledBoidsfeaturing his simulations of flocking creatures called "boids."His basicflocking model consists of three simple steering behaviors possessed by eachindividual boid that govern how each boid maneuvers itself based on thepositions and velocities of its nearby flockmates.As illustrated by theJava applets at this site, the model results in amazingly lifelikecollective flocking dynamics.Also available at this site is a link to workby Reynolds on an interactive system permitting user interaction with largegroups of autonomous characters.The characters respond in real time to theuser's interaction as well as to each other and their environment. Computational Laboratories and Demonstration Software (Tesfatsion)Leigh Tesfatsion (Economics

Department, Iowa State University, Ames)maintains a list of annotated pointers toACE/CAS Computational Laboratories and Demonstration Software.Included are many demos of possible interest for the agent-basedcomputational modeling of networks (e.g., demos for several distinct versionsof the Schelling Segregation Model, a Trade Network Game demo, demos ofcellular automata, and demos of flocking behavior). Multiple-Agent Modeling Software and Toolkits (Tesfatsion)Leigh Tesfatsion (Economics Department, Iowa State University,Ames) maintains an extensive sitehereproviding annotated pointers to general software and toolkits designedspecifically for the modeling of systems with multiple interacting agents.Several of the toolkits, for exampleRepast,provide specific capabilities for the representation and visualization ofinteraction networks. Network Analysis Software (Benta)Marius Benta (University College, Cork, Ireland) has developedfree application software called Agna for social network analysis,sociometry, and sequential analysis.The purpose of the software is toassist in the study of group communication relations, kinship relations,the structure of animal behavior, and organizational psychology.For moreinformation, visithere. Network Visualization (Kempel)Lothar Kempel (MPI f?r Gesellschaftsforschung, K?ln,Germany) maintainsNetVis: A Gallery of Social Structures.This network visualization site documents work in progress regarding effortsto visualize social structures using a combination of automatic proceduresand aesthetics. Network Visualization for Real-World SystemsVisualcomplexity.commaintains an intriguing site devoted to the visual exploration of real-world complex networks. Neural Network Toolbox (Mathworks)The Mathworks, Inc., has released version 4.0.1 of its Neural NetworkToolbox (NNT) for the design and use of artificial neural networks in variouspractical application settings (e.g., banking and finance, business, creditcard activity checking, defense, engineering, electronics, entertainment,industrial, insurance, manufacturing, medical, oil and gas, robotics, speech,securities, telecommunications, and transportation).A printable version ofthe NNT user's guide is available online in pdf format that provides anintroduction to neural networks, help with NNT installation, a discussion ofNNT capabilities, and sample applications.For more information, visithere. ORA: Social Network Analysis Tool (CASOS)ORA is a social network analysis tool that enables the user tosimultaneously reason about multiple networks connecting people, knowledge,resources, and tasks (or events).Both traditional and dynamic networkmeasures are included.ORA can be used for risk assessment to locateindividuals that are potential risks to the group or organization given oneor more of the following types of relational or network information: social;knowledge; resource; and task/event.The GUI is used to set uporganization(s) and perform two broad functions: run risk measures on theorganization(s); and optimize the organizational structure.ORA is supportedby CASOS, the Center for Computational Analysis of Social and OrganizationalSystems at Carnegie Mellon University.For more information, visithere. Schelling Segregation Model (Cook)Chris Cook (Computer Science Department, Iowa State University,Ames) has developed an interactive computer demo for an extended version ofthe Schelling Segregation Model (SSMB), due to Thomas Schelling(Micromotives and Macrobehavior, Norton, 1978).Agents are located ona chess board with 64 locations. The user determines the population mix fromamong three agent types (red, green, and blue), or chooses from among variousdefault settings.The user can also specify a "happiness rule" foreach agent type or select a

default setting.The happiness rule determineswhen an agent is happy with his current board location, taking into accountboth the number and the types of his neighbors.If unhappy, the agent eitherattempts to move to a more desirable board location or exits the boardaltogether. Chris Cook has released his SSM demo as freeware under the GNUPublic License.Automatic installation software for his SSM demo can beobtained atThe Schelling Segregation Model: Demonstration SoftwareAlso available at this site is a more detailed description of the SSM, adescription of the SSM demo's capabilities, instructions for using theautomatic installation software, a link for accessing the SSM demosource code (C#), and copyright information. Trade Network Game Lab (Tesfatsion)The Trade Network Game Laboratory (TNG Lab) is acomputational laboratory for exploring the evolution of trade networks amongstrategically interacting buyers, sellers, and dealers.The TNG Lab istargeted for the Microsoft Windows desktop and is both modular andextensible.It permits visualization of the formation and evolution of tradenetworks by means of run-time animations, run-time charts, and run-time datadisplays.A clear, easily operated graphical user interface permits testingof key parameters pertaining to learning, payoffs, types and numbers ofagents, and the physics controlling network displays.Automatic installationsoftware for the TNG Lab, together with tutorials and research articles, canbe obtained at theTNG Home Page.

Books and Journals

Books and Monographs on Economic and Social Network Formation Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination Netnomics: Economic Research and Electronic Networking Networks Review of Network Economics Social Networks

Some Early Individual Researchers Important Disclaimer: Research on social network formation is now so extensive it is impossible to keep the links below either current or complete.These links were last thoroughly updated in 2009 and can be viewed as an historical record of some early researchers in this area.


John E. Abraham,(Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada):Microsimulation of urban economic and transportation systems fortransportation planning, urban planning and policy

analysis.Part of a teamof Canadian researchers focusing on locational decisions of firms andhouseholds and the related decisions of land developers, and how these areinfluenced by the economic flows/trips that occur among given locations. Howard E. Aldrich(Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, U.S.A.):Entrepreneurship; Origins of new organizational populations; Organizationalevolution. Holly Arrow(Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene):Human-subject experiments withendogenous formation of socioeconomic networks; Social psychology

Venkatesh Bala(Economics, McGill University, Montreal, Canada):Noncooperative theory ofnetwork formation; learning from neighbors; a strategic model of networkreliability Albert-L?szl? Barab?si(Physics, University of Notre Dame, Indiana): Networks; Internet; CellularNetworks; Parasitic computing. Jennifer L. Berdahl(Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto):The dynamics of composition and socialization in small groups -- insightsgained from a computational model; A theory of groups as complex systems;Dynamics of diversity in work groups Phillip Bonacich(Professor Emeritus, Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles):Social networks; Evolution of exchange networks. Steve Borgatti(Organization Studies, Boston College, Massachusetts):Social networks; Knowledge flows inorganizations; Network methodology. Yann Bramoulle(Department of Economics, University of Laval, Quebec, Canada):Interdependent utilities andsocial networks.

Antoni Calv?-Armengol(Economics, ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and CEPR):Bargaining networks; Referral networks; Formation of socioeconomic networks. Kathleen M. Carley(School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA): Computational andsocial and organization theory; dynamic social networks; multi-agent network models; group,organizational, and social adaptation and evolution; statistical models for dynamic networkanalysis and evolution; computational text analysis; and the impact of telecommunicationtechnologies on communication and information diffusion within and among groups. Alessandra Casella(Economics, Columbia University, N.Y.): Trade networks Dean Corbae(Economics, University of Texas, Austin): Directed matching and monetaryexchange; Endogenous market participation.

Margarida Corominas-Bosch(Economics, Universitat Pompeau Fabra, Barcelona): Bilateral trading networksmodelled as bargaining models under rigid communication

Catherine Dibble(Geography, University of Maryland, College Park):Agent-based simulation;Computational laboratories in economic geography; Formation and effects ofsocioeconomic networks in spatial landscapes; Small-world networks. Elenna Dugundji(Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands):Land use transportation planning and policy; Long-term effects of multi-modal transportationinfrastructure planning andpricing policy in relation to the residential choice behavior of households;Agent-based simulation within the framework of the AMADEUS research program. Bhaskar Dutta(Economics, Warwick University, UKB): Endogenous formation ofnetworks; Analyzing conflict between stability and efficiency in networks.

Victor M. Eguiluz(IMEDEA, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain): Dynamical modelsof socio-economical network formation and evolution.

Marcel Fafchamps(Center for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University, UK): Networks,communities, and markets in Subsahara Africa; Risk sharing in networks inrural Philippines; Market emergence, trust, and reputation. Giorgio Fagiolo(St. Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy): ACE Labor marketdynamics; Local interaction models; Evolution of social and economicnetworks; Learning; Endogenous interactions; Economics of innovation andtechnical change. Linton C. Freeman(Sociology and Institute for Mathematical Behavioral Sciences, University ofCalifornia at Irvine):Social network analysis; Visualizing social networks;Uncovering organizational hierarchies.

Nigel Gilbert(Department of Sociology, University of Surry, UK): Innovation networks;Simulation in the social sciences; Sociology of the environment and sciencepolicy. Sanjeev Goyal(Department of Economics, University of Essex, Colchester, UK):Noncooperative theory of network formation; learning from neighbors;Collaboration and competition in networks; Strategic analysis of networkreliability

Amy Greenwald(Computer Science, Brown University, Providence, RI): Learning in networkcontexts; Automated buyer search on electronic markets; Strategic dynamicpricing by software agents; Game theory.

Nobuyuki Hanaki(GREQAM, Aix-Marseille University, France): Co-evolution of individual behaviors and interaction structures; Networks and markets; Dynamics of collaboration networks Joseph E. Harrington, Jr.(Economics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.):Endogenous networks; Centralization versus decentralization in multi-unitorganizations; Progressive ambition, electoral selection, and the creation ofideologues. Dirk Helbing(Institute for Economics and Traffic, Dresden University of Technology,Germany): Concepts from physics applied to the study of supply networks andbusiness cycles; Pedestrian and vehicle traffic; Sociodynamics and gametheory; Econophysics. Midori Hirokawa(Faculty of Economics, Hosei University, Tokyo): Formation of communities bynatives and newcomers; Network design

Matthew O. Jackson(Economics, Stanford University, CA):Strategic models of social and economicnetworks; Evolution of social and economic networks; Coalition and PartyFormation in legislative voting games; Reputation versus social learning.

Raja Kali(Economics, Sam M. Walton College of Business, University ofArkansas, Fayettesville): Institutional foundations of industrialorganization; Endogenous business networks as a response to inadequate legaland financial institutions; The role of business networks in the process ofeconomic development; Financial interlinkage and assortative matching. Maureen Kilkenny(Resource Economics, University of Nevada-Reno): Spatial economics; Computablegeneral equilibrium modelling Alan Kirman(GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en ?conomie Quantitative d'AixMarseille, France): Market organization and trading relationships; Tradenetwork structures; Endogenous interactions. Rachel Kranton(Economics, University of Maryland, College Park): A theory ofbuyer-seller networks; Vertical integration, networks, and markets.

Valdis Krebs(Organizational Consultant, Organizational Network Anaysis, DotCom):Building adaptive organizations in the networked knowledge economy;Organizational network mapping; Terrorist networks.

Michael W. Macy(Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.): Informal social control inon-line trading communities; Coalition formation in exchange networks;Trust and cooperation in the U.S. and Japan; Management fads; Collectiveaction; Evolutionary game theory; Deviance and social control; Socialpsychology; Social Exchange theory; Rational choice. Filippo Menczer(School of Informatics and Department of Computer Science, IndianaUniversity, Bloomington):Evolutionary agents to model societies andorganizations; Referral networks in labor markets; Management networks inorganizations.

Kai Nagel(Computer Science, TU Berlin): Large-scale agent-based microsimulations fortransportation planning; Simulation of the economic decision-making thatleads to demand for transportation; General micro-simulation ofsocio-economic systems. Matthew G. Nagler(Economics, Lehman College, City University of New YorKB): Network effects of sport utility vehicles; Negative externalities that breed network externalities (i.e. "stick networks" as opposed to "carrot networks"); Consumer behavior. Anna Nagurney(Finance and Operations Management, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, Massachusetts):Network models of large-scale financial,transportation, and regional economic systems; Algorithms on serial andparallel computer architectures to predict flows of funds, people, goods, andservices.

John M. Orbell(Professor Emeritus, Political Science, University of Oregon, Eugene):Evolution ofcooperation and trust; Coordination issues and social chess; Intersection ofevolutionary theory, cognitive science, and the study of human socialrelations; Evolutionary psychology. David O'Sullivan(Geography, Penn State University, University Park): Cellular automata andgraph based models applied to urban spatial phenomena; Internet geography;Geocomputation and agentbased modelling.

Denis Phan(Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Rennes, France):Global and local effects of interaction structures; Network externalities;Small-world networks, phase transitions, and avalanches in ACE frameworks;Moduleco (an agent-based computational laboratory); Cognitive economics;Generic properties of complex adaptive systems. Margaret M. Polski(Institute for Development Strategies, Indiana University, Bloomington, andA. T. Kearney, New YorKB): Agent-based modelling; Economic development andinstitutional change; Innovation and growth in the new economy; Institutionalevolution and change in U.S. commercial banking; Legislative games.

James E. Rauch(Economics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California):Impact of bureaucratic structure on bureaucratic and economic performance;Incomplete information and networks in international trade; Networks andmarkets.

Giora Slutzki(Computer Science, Iowa State University, Ames): Graph theory;networks and game theory. Tom A. B. Snijders(Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands):Evolution of social networks; Statistical methods; Simulation models; Randomutility; Markov chain Monte Carlo; Simulation-based estimation. Raphael Suire(Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Rennes, France):Local interaction models; Socialcapital; Social networks; Spatial dynamics.

Leigh Tesfatsion(Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa):Agent-basedcomputational economics; The design of restructured wholesale power markets;A computational laboratory for visualizing and analyzing the formation ofbuyer-seller trade networks under alternative market structures; Marketpower, hysteresis, and excess earnings heterogeneity in labor markets arisingfrom network and behavioral effects. Ted Temzelides(Economics, University of Pittsburgh, PA): Directed matching and monetaryexchange; Search equilibrium; Learning in market games.

Brian Uzzi(Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston):How professionals, entrepreneurs, and firms develop and use social networks tomake markets and manage transactions.

Anne van de Nouweland(Economics, University of Oregon, Eugene): Link formation in cooperativesituations Fernando Vega-Redondo(Facultad de Econ?micas, Universidad de Alicante, Spain): Learning ingames; Evolution; Networks; Complex dynamics. Bal?zs Vedres(Sociology and Social Anthropology, Central European University): Social and economic transformation froma network perspective; The analysis of the sequences of network events;Inter-organizational and intra-organizational networks; Conceptual anddiscourse networks. Nick Vriend(Economics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University ofLondon):Dynamics of interactive market processes; Emergent properties ofevolving market structures and outcomes.

Douglas White(Anthropology and Social Science, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA):Social networksand sociocultural complexity; longitudinal fieldsite and network ethnography;cross-cultural comparisons. Allen Wilhite(Economics, University of Alabama in Huntsville): Small-world networks;Decision making when agents are influenced by the decisions of others. Ian F. Wilkinson(Marketing, University of Sydney, Australia):Evolutionof institutional and network structures; Structural dynamics of industrialnetworks; the Kauffman NK model. Randall D. Wright III(Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia): Dynamic matching inmonetary exchange; Pricing and matching with frictions; Search equilibria.

Martin G. Zimmermann(Department of Physics, University of Buenos Aires): Dynamical models ofsocio-economic network formation and evolution.

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