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Benjamin Read Chapter 6 Outline AP Chemistry 11/28/13 Chapter 6: Electronic Structure of atoms Quantum Theory Explains much of the

e behavior in the electrons of atoms s Electronic Structure The number and distribution of electrons in an atomic structure and the energy of each electron I) The Wave Nature of Light A) Electromagnetic Radiation: Known as Radiant energy Carries energy through space 1) Move through a vacuum at a speed of 3.00 x 10^8 m/s. This is the speed of light. 2) Wavelike characteristics (Like waves in water) (a) Periodic the pattern of peaks and troughs repeats itself at regular intervals (b) Wavelength Distance between two peaks (c) Frequency The number of complete wavelengths (cycles) that pass a given point each second (d) The shorter the wavelength , the higher the frequency, v (e) Amplitude a measure of the intensity of the radiation The vertical distance from the midline to the peak of the wave (f) All move at the same speed Speed of light Meaning that determining the nature of the wave will always be straightforward. (g) Short wavelength, high frequency/Long wavelength, low frequency (i) Modeled by the equation c = v, or speed of light = wavelength (lambda) X frequency (nu) 3) Differences in wavelength and Frequency make up different types of light 4) Electromagnetic Spectrum the varying degrees of wavelengths in light (a) Wavelengths of gamma similar to diameters of atomic nuclei (b) Wavelengths of radio waves Can be longer than a football field 5) Frequency (a) Expressed in Cycles per second (Hertz, Hz) II) Quantized Energy and Photons Black body radiation Emission of light from hot objects Photoelectric effect emission of electrons from metal surfaces on which light shines Emission spectra Emission of light from electronically excited gas atoms A) Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy 1) Heating solids emits radiation Wavelength distribution of the radtiation depends on temperature (a) Red hot is cooler than whit hot 2) Max Planck energy can be either released or absorbed by atoms only in discrete chunks of minimal size. (a) Quantum (fixed amount) smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorved as electromagnetic radiation. (b) Energy of a single quantum equals a constant times the frequency of the radiation (i) E = hv

(1) Where E is energy, v is frequency, and h (Plancks Constant) is 6.626 x 10^-34 joule-second (J-s) (c) Matter can only emit/absorb energy in whole # multiples of hv (i) So, in a way, hv is one quanta of energy (ii) Quantized values of energy are restricted to certain quantities (only in specific amounts) B) The Photoelectric Effect and Photons 1) Photoelectric Effect When light is shone on a piece of metal, electrons will bounce off of it. (a) Einstein described the light as tiny packets, each energy packet called a photon. (b) Energy of Photon = E = hv (c) Sometimes, a photon can be absorbed by the metal, and the energy is transferred to electrons in the metal (i) Work function amount of energy required for an electron to overcome the attractive forces that hold it in the metal (ii) Kinetic energy is the access energy of the photons after they have freed electrons C) Since we arent sure of whether or not it is a wave or a particle, we must consider that light possess characteristics of both III) Line Spectra and the Bohr Model Bohr offers a theoretical explanation of line spectra in this exciting section of our chemistry textbook A) Line Spectra 1) Monochromatic Radiation composed of a single wavelength, but most commonly however, youre gonna get radiation in combinations of different wavelengths. 2) Spectrum A product of separated radiation into its wavelength components 3) Continuous spectrum The spectrum from a prism, or from anything that results in a continuous range of colors with no blank spots, and containing light of all wavelengths 4) Line spectrum A spectrum which contains radiation of only specific wavelengths 5) Rydberg equation calculates the wavelengths of all the spectral lines of hydrogen where lambda is the wavelength of the spectral line, R is the Rydberg constant (1.096776 x 10^7m^-1, and n1 and n2 are positive integers, n2 larger than n1 B) Bohrs Model 1) Bohr, to explain line spectrum of hydrogen, assumed that electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus and claimed that the laws of physics didnt quite work the same way for atoms 2) Bohrs Atomic Model (a) Only orbits of certain radii are permitted for the electron in a hydrogen atom (b) An electron is stuck in a specific energy and will not radiate energy so it wont spiral into the nucleus (c) Energy can only be transferred as the electron moves from one energy level to another. E=hv C) The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom

1) n relates to a quantum number, (1,2,3,4,), each value relates to a specific energy En Energy of the atom increases as n increases 2) Ground state Where n = 1 3) Excited States Where n is any other number 4) When electrons drop energy level, light is emitted D) Limitations of the Bohr Model 1) Bohrs model only describes the hydrogen atom spectrum, not other atom 2) Why wouldnt the negatively charged atom fall into the nucleus? 3) His model was merely an important step (a) Significance? (i) Electrons exist only in certain energy levels (quantum #s) (ii) Energy is needed for moving an electron from one level to another. IV) The Wave Behavior of Matter 1) Louis De Broglie If light can show wave-like properties as well as particle-like properties, then cant matter as well? (a) Suggested that as an electron moves around the nucleus, it has a particular wavelength. (i) Depends upon mass (m), velocity (v) to create equation : (ii) Lambda = h (plancks constant) / mv (1) mv = momentum (b) Matter waves the wave characteristics of material particles (c) So small that it is almost insignificant in matter B) The Uncertainty Principle 1) Werner Heisenberg dual nature of the electron creates the uncertainty principle That we can never know the precise location and speed of an object at the same time (a) Represented by the equation: , where x is uncertainty of position and p is uncertainty of momentum (mv) V) Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals A) Schrodinger introduces quantum mechanics (wave mechanics) with an equation combining both the wavelike and particlelike quatlities of electrons 1) Wave functions Describe the wavelike motions of the electrons in the atom 2) Schrodinger describes the location of the electron instead of a fixed path, more of a statistical probability 3) Probability density (electronic density) Where Psi is the wave function ||2 4) Electron density distribution a representation of the probability of the location of an electron in its ground state. Large values of Psi squared correspond to a higher density of dots B) Orbitals and Quantum Numbers 1) Orbitals Wave functions with their corresponding energies (a) Describes a specific probability of location for each energy level of electrons (b) Each has a characterisit cenergy and shape (c) Orbital and orbit are NOT the same (d) n describes the orbital number. Quantum mechanics uses n, l, and m to describe an orbital

(i) n The principal quantum number can have positive integral values. As n increases, the orbital becomes larger, and the electron spends more time away from the nucleus. Increase in n means a higher energy needed for separation from the nucleus (ii) l The second quantum number (angular momentum quantum number) can have integral values starting at 0 and going positive for each value of n. This number describes shape. (1) 0 = s, 1 = p, 2 = d, 3 = f (sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental) (iii) m The magnetic quantum number, has integral values between l and +l , including 0. Describes the orientation of the orbital in space 2) Electron Shell The collection of orbitals with the same value of n (a) Subshell Set of orbitals that have the same n and l values VI) Representations of Orbitals A) The s Orbitals 1) Spherically symmetric electron density at a given distance from the nucleus is the same regardless of the direction from the nucleus. All ss are Spherical 2) l quantum number is 0, so the m quantum number must be 0. For each value of n, there is only one s orbital 3) Radial probability density the probability that we will find the electron at a specific distance from the nucleus 4) Node An intermediate point at which the probability function goes to zero B) The p Orbitals 1) The orbital of p is shaped into a dumbbell shape 2) N = 2, each shell has three p orbitals. M = -1, 0, or 1 3) For each value of n, the three p orbitals have the same size and shape but differ in from one another in spatial orientation C) The d and f Orbitals 1) D is clovershape (and binky) 2) F is crazy complicated looking things VII) Many-Electron Atoms A) Orbitals and Their Energies 1) B) Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle VIII) Electron Configurations IX) Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table