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# Chapter 33: Magnetic field--Part II Section 1: Magnetic field due to currents

Question: What can create magnetic field in space? I. Magnetic field due to magnets:
1. Conceptual model: B-field lines 2. Math model: B at any point P on the axis of a small magnet is B 1/x3

II. Currents: How doe we know that a current can create B field in space?
1. Observational experiment in the lab 2. Conceptual model: B-field lines 3. Math model for the magnetic field due to a current--Boit-Savart Law B at any point P due to a current wire E at any point due to a charged body

## r Ids = current element r ds = length element in the current direction

r r Ids dB p = K m 2 r r
r Bp = Km r Ids

dq = point charge
r dq dE p = K e 2 r r

Biot-Savart Law

## r r2 Where Km = 0/4 And 0 = 4 X 10-7 Tm/A 0 called permeability of free space

r dq E p = Ke 2 r r

Where Ke = 1/40 And 0 = 8.85 X 10-12 C2/Nm2 0 called permittivity of free space

4. Testing experiment of Biot-Savart law: A circular current loop a) Pictorial & physical representations shown at the right: Predict the magnetic field at an axial point P a distance z away from the center of a current loop (look at Section 28.5 on pp. 1076-1078 in the textbook)
P

r dB

Consider a current in a circular loop in the xy-plane. Calculate the magnetic field at an axial point p a distance z away from the loop.
If Biot-Savart holds, then v v 0 Ids r dB = 4 r 2 Magnitude: dB =

r ds

o Ids sin900 r 2 4 r

v = 1 , ds = ds , r = R 2 + z 2 , Where r

So

dB =

0 Ids 4 R 2 + z 2

## v v Direction: dB perpendicular to plane formed by ds and r

v Consider the symmetry, only z-components of all the dB will be added, the horizontal v components will be cancelled out. So the net B due to the current loop must be in z direction Ids And cos B = dB z = dB cos = 0 2 4 R + z 2 R Where cos = cos( 90 ) = sin = 2 R + z2
B=

0 Ids R = 0 2 2 loop 4 4 R +z R2 + z2

IR

(R

+z

2 3

ds = 4
loop

IR

(R

+z

2 3

(2R)

As a result, if Boit-Savart holds, then at an axial point P a distance z away from the center of a current loop, the magnitude of the magnetic field is

B=

0 I R2
2( z 2 + R 2 )
3/ 2

Special point 1--at the center of the loop, z = 0, the magnitude of the magnetic field is I B= 0 2R

0
2R

## I N, for N turns of a coil.

slope = N

0
2R

c) Special point 2--at a point is very far away from the loop, z >> R, the magnitude of the magnetic field is
B Recall: B

0 I R2
2 z3

1 for a bar magnet x3 v B due to a circular current loop 4. Summary of conceptual and mathematical model for v 1) Conceptual model- B field lines are similar to a bar magnet

v B =N

0 I R2
2( z 2 + R 2)
3/ 2

## (For N-turn loop or coil)

v 3) Direction of B - Right-hand rule. v Curl your 4 fingers in current direction, then your thumb points to the B direction.

## 5. Applications of Biot-Savart law

Example 1: Magnetic field surrounding a thin straight wire Case 1: A thin straight wire with a finite length

1. Pictorial representation ( 2. Physical Representation: 1) set up a x, y coordinate axes v 2) choose a length element ds 3. Math representation Biot-Savart law: v v v 0 Ids v 0 Ids r r dB = B= 2 2 4 r 4 r
1
I

P
r

a r
x

2
x

v 1) Direction of dB : out of page (for all current elements) v 2) Magnitude of dB : v Ids r dB = 0 sin 2 4 r

where:

= 1, r

v Ids = Ids ,

a a r= r sin

so,
B=

dB =

0 Ids sin 4 r 2

B=

## 0 I ds 3 0 I dx 3 0 I sin 3 a I I sin = = d = 0 d = 0 sin d sin sin 2 2 2 2 4 a 4a 4 a 4 a 4 a sin

2 1

B=

0 I (cos 1 cos 2) 4a

Case 2: A thin straight wire with an infinite length (i.e., length of the wire L >> a):

B=

## I 0 I (cos 1 cos 2) = 0 (cos 0 cos ) 4a 4a

>

B=

0 I 2a

v In summary, conceptual and mathematical models for B due to a thin straight current wire v 1) Conceptual model: B field lines form circles around the wire

2) Math model: The magnitude of magnetic field at a point P which is a distance a from the wire: I B = 0 (cos 1 cos 2) ( finite length) 4a
B=

## 0 I (inf inite length, i.e., length of wire >> a ) 2a

v 3) Direction of B - Right-hand rule: Grasp the wire with the right hand, positioning the thumb along the direction of current. The four gingers wrap in the direction of the magnetic field.
Example 2: Find the force between long straight parallel wires with length L, separated by a distance a and carry currents I1 and I2 in same direction. (Assume L >> a)

1) Determine the force exerted on wire 1 due to the magnetic field by current I2

L I1 B2

a
F1on 2

F2 on1

## I 3) B2 at the location of wire 1, B2 = 0 2 , directed out of the paper 2 a

on current I1, This B2 exerts v a magnetic v force v FB 2 on1 = I 1 L B2 = I 1 LB2 sin 90 = I 1 LB2 ,

I2

directed downward

v I L F2 on1 = I 1 L 0 2 = 0 I 1 I 2 2 a 2a 2) Determine the force exerted on wire 2 due to the magnetic field generated by current I1 By Newton's 3rd law:
v L F1on 2 = 0 I1 I 2 , directed upward 2a

In summary, parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction attract each other.
Example 3: Find the force between long straight parallel wires with length L, separated by a distance a and carry currents I1 and I2 in the opposite direction. (Assume L >> a)

Conclusion: Parallel wires carrying currents in the opposite direction repel each other.

## Section 2: Study more magnetic field concepts

Concepts Flux Magnetism Magnetic Flux v v B = B dA = BdA cos v where dA is a vector to the surface v Special Case: B is uniform: B = BA cos v v where = angle between B and A Gauss's law Gauss's Law in Magnetism v v B dA = 0
The magnetic flux through any closed loop is always zero.

Electrostatics Electric Flux r v e = E dA = EdA cos v where dA is a vector to the surface r Special Case: E is uniform: B = EA cos r v where = angle between E and A
v v q E = E dA = in

Line integral

Ampere's Law v v B ds = 0 I

E ds = 0
v v

v where ds = a small length element on a closed path, pointing in the tangent direction.

B ds = ?
B=

0 I 2a 0 I
0

2a ds cos 0 = 2a ds = 2a (2a) =
v v B ds = 0 I
Ampere's Law

0 I

0 I

v v The line integral of B ds around any closed path, where I is the total continuous current passing through any surface bounded by the closed path.
Example 1: Magnetic field inside of a slinky (i.e., solenoid)

## 1) Solenoid or slinky is a long wire wound into the form of a helix.

7

2) Ideal solenoid: the turns are closely spaced and the length is much greater than the radius of the turns.

3) For an ideal solenoid: v Magnitude of B inside: B = CIn = 0 In where, n = # of turns per unit length

v Magnitude of B outside : B 0

v For an ideal solenoid, the magnitude of B v outside is ZERO; B inside is uniform.(exp. evidence)
4

out Ids 1

in 3

If Ampere's ( 0 I ) holds v v B ds =

path1

v v v v v v v v B ds + B ds + B ds + B ds
2 3 4

BL = 0 nLI B = 0 nI where N = total turns, L= total length, n = # turns per unit length

## Example: The magnetic field created by a toroid.

Toroid: A device that consists of a conducting wire wrapped around a ring (i.e. torus) made of non conducting material N turns, a = radius of the torus.

B ds = B ds cos 0

B(2r ) = 0 nI

B=

0 nI 2r

1) when r>>a,

B=

0 nI 2r

## is approximately uniform inside the torus.

2) If the turns are closely spaced, the magnetic field outside the torus, B = 0