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Abigail M. Villa IE 32 AB 2L


Westinghouse Method Of Rating

The method is also called LMS carrying the initials of its founders’ names (Lowry, Maynard and Stegemerten). This rating method was developed at Westinghouse and published in 1927. This method has four factors; skill, effort, conditions and consistency. The official definitions of the four factors are as follows:

Skill Measures the workers proficiency in adhering to a given method, coordination of proper hand and eye movements, rhythm of the movements. The skill has been classified into six degrees, each degree indicating a specified class of skill within which an operator performs the task.

Effort Measures the speed with which the skill is applied. The effort is also divided into six degrees.

Consistency Measures factors which affect the consistency of the operator to perform the work cycle repeatedly within the same time. Elements which affect consistency are variation in materials, hard spots, and presence of foreign elements. Consistency is subdivided into six classes.

Conditions Measure the extent to which the conditions like temperature, vibrations, light and noise affect’s the operator’s performance.

light and noise affect’s the operator’s performance. In short, skill is the proficiency in following the

In short, skill is the proficiency in following the given method; effort is the will to work; conditions refer to the general work surroundings; and consistency refers to the performance itself.

Central Limit Theorem

The normal distribution is used to help measure the accuracy of many statistics, including the sample mean, using an important result called the Central Limit Theorem. This theorem gives you the ability to measure how much the means of various samples will vary, without having to take any other sample means to compare it with. By taking this variability into account, you can use your data to answer questions about a population, such as “What’s the mean household income for the whole U.S.?”; or “This report said 75% of all gift cards go unused; is that really true?” (These two particular analyses are made possible by applications of the Central Limit Theorem called confidence intervals and hypothesis tests, respectively.)

The Central Limit Theorem (CLT for short) basically says that for non-normal data, the distribution of the sample means has an approximate normal distribution, no matter what the distribution of the original data looks like, as long as the sample size is large enough (usually at least 30) and all samples have the same size. And it doesn’t just apply to the sample mean; the CLT is also true for other sample statistics, such as the sample proportion. Because statisticians know so much about the normal distribution, these analyses are much easier.















(2) Rumsey, D. (n.d.) How the Central Limit Theorem Is Used in Statistics. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from