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A STUDY ON SETTING UP OF POWER PLANT WITH SUPERCRITICAL TECHNOLOGY

A PROJECT REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 5 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. A. B. C. 2. OVERVIEW OF THE POWER PLANT .................................................................................... 6 GENERAL LAYOUT OF THE PLANT.................................................................................... 7 THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SITE .................................................................................. 8 THE FUNCTIONING OF THE PLANT .................................................................................... 9 COAL USE IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION.................................................................... 11 DISADVANTAGES OF COAL ............................................................................................ 11 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL .................................................................................... 12 Ash................................................................................................................................. 12 Hydrocarbons & Gases................................................................................................. 13 Moisture ........................................................................................................................ 13

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES ................................................................ 14 2.1. MANAGEMENT APPROACH.................................................................................... 14 2.1.1. PRE-AWARD STAGE ............................................................................................... 14 a. Planning and Scheduling .............................................................................................. 14 b. Purchase Requisition (PR) ............................................................................................ 14 c. Floating of Enquiry and Bid receiving ......................................................................... 16 d. Technical Evaluation Report (TER) and Order Placement .......................................... 17 2.1.2. POST AWARD STAGE ............................................................................................. 18 a. Kick off Meeting ............................................................................................................ 18 b. Level Planning .............................................................................................................. 20 c. Document Release Schedule ......................................................................................... 20 d. Post award Engineering ............................................................................................... 20 e. Engineering Correspondence between Owner and CLIENT ........................................ 20 f. Obligations with the Owner .......................................................................................... 21 g. Quality/Inspection ......................................................................................................... 21 h. Commercial and other Conditions ................................................................................ 22 i. Material Dispatch and Billing ...................................................................................... 23 II. Establish project Organization ........................................................................................ 25

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PROJECT COORDINATION .......................................................................................... 26 1

A. B. C.

PLANNING & SCHEDULING ........................................................................................ 26 DOCUMENT CONTROL & DESIGN SUBMISSIONS.................................................. 29 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT .............................................................................. 36 1. The functions of construction project management ...................................................... 37 i. Construction management (CM): ................................................................................. 37 ii. Programme management (ProgM): .............................................................................. 38 iii. Project Control ............................................................................................................. 38 iv. Design, bid, build contracts .......................................................................................... 40 v. Design and build contracts ........................................................................................... 40 D. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ................................................................ 41 1. Monitoring & Progress Reporting ................................................................................ 41 2. Project Management Meetings ..................................................................................... 42 E. PROCUREMENT & FIELD CONTRACTING ............................................................... 47 1. Sub-Contract Management ........................................................................................... 47 2. Purchase specifications ................................................................................................ 49 F. INSPECTION & TESTING .............................................................................................. 50 G. QUALITY ASSURANCE ................................................................................................ 54 1.1. Quality Assurance Programme ................................................................................. 55 1.2. Independent Third Party Inspection ......................................................................... 57 1.3. Quality Audit ............................................................................................................. 58 1.4. Non-Conformance ..................................................................................................... 59 1.5. Quality Assurance Documents .................................................................................. 59 H. COMMISSIONING & TESTING .................................................................................... 60 1.1. General Requirement ................................................................................................ 60 1.2. Shop Test ................................................................................................................... 61 1.3. Pre-Commissioning................................................................................................... 62 1.4. Commissioning.......................................................................................................... 63 1.5. Reliability Test .......................................................................................................... 63 1.7. Taking Over .............................................................................................................. 68 I. SITE MANAGEMENT & INSURANCE ......................................................................... 68 1.2. Site Organisation ...................................................................................................... 70 1.3. Site Facilities ............................................................................................................ 71 1.4. Site Health And Safety Management......................................................................... 75 1.5. Storage And Preservation ......................................................................................... 77 1.6. Site Welding & Heat Treatment ................................................................................ 78 1.7. Labour Management and Site Industrial Relations .................................................. 78 1.8. Site employment policies and practices .................................................................... 79 A. A. B. C. D. E. A. A. FLOW CHARTS OF POWER PLANT ........................................................................... 82 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF POWER PLANT ............................................................................ 82 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER CYCLE .................................................................................. 83 ENERGY CONVERSION CYCLE ............................................................................................ 84 COAL TO ELECTRICITY ............................................................................................... 85 COAL HANDLING & PREPARATION ..................................................................................... 86 TIME SCHEDULE ............................................................................................................. 87 COST ESTIMATE FOR SUPER CRITICAL POWER PLANT .................................. 88 2

B. COST BREAK UP OF SUPER CRITICAL POWER PLANT ......................................... 89 C. COMPARISON OF BOILERS ......................................................................................... 90 D.COST COMPARISON OF BTG PER MW ................................................................................ 91 SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................... 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................................... 93

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Power Crisis has been a long clamor in India and this seems to persist for thecoming decade or so. Beyond optimistic illusions, ground realities are toofierce to be accepted.Seeds of improvement are however being planted at all possible arenasbroadly Indicating: Generation Transmission Distribution The Project Idea springs from one of the reforms Viz. generation of Power.To cater the accelerated need of the country Ultra Mega Power Plants (UMPPs) have been proposed. These are giant power plants of 4000 MW at one place. In addition to these, a number of Mega Power Projects (More than 1000 MW) are also being promoted. The unit size of power plants has also experienced a supercritical shift in technology. Thus focus is on more efficient supercritical units of 660 MW and 800 MW. However considering imported coals as the main fuel, unit size can go up to 1000 MW. As the domestic coalavailable for power sector is having very high (40 to 45%) ash contentfeasibility of higher size units are yet to be examined. Meanwhile after500MW / 600 MW (subcritical) the next suitable supercritical size wasdecided 660 MW or 800 MW for coal based thermal power plants.

1. INTRODUCTION a. A project is any related group of work activities which, when completed, will achieve specific objectives. A project has a stated scope, deliverables, tasks, work steps, duration and budget, as defined in a Project Charter. b. This Project is relevant to all related groups of work activities that have a business objective, whether the solution involves in providing Information, Technology and communicational inputs. A project: a) Has a beginning and an end; b) Is defined by specific objectives (deliverables); c) Is undertaken within a well-defined organizational structure; d) Has a single project manager who is responsible for its success; e) Has a defined starting point, a defined end point, and defined work breakdown structure comprising a path from the start to the end. c. To be successful, a project must move forward in a controlled manner, from initiation to completion. A project uses resources. These include work effort of the project team, including significant stakeholders not assigned directly to the team, infrastructure support, project

administration, money for project related travel and training, etc. Resources must be used effectively or the project will be late, or over budget, or both. d. Project milestones, comprised of specific deliverables, are developed to show tangible results of work done and to provide substance for quality assurance reviews. Quality Assurance (QA) reviews are essential, to identify issues at the earliest possible stage, to enable them to be addressed so that the overall project objectives, delivery date and budget are not adversely impacted.
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e. Risks are inherent in all projects. A risk management plan is an essential element of any project charter.Any and all foreseeable risks must be documented and relevant mitigation strategy devised. f. Project Management is the process by which a project is initiated, controlled, and brought to a successful implementation.The objective of project management is to plan and control a project from start to end, with high levels of productivity and quality. A project must be managed in terms of its structure, work performed by staff assigned to it, specific deliverables and budget constraints. Levels of control and monitoring will vary depending on the timeframe and criticality of the project at hand. g. As the gear of technology is experiencing a critical shift in power sector, India is keen to welcome the Supercritical technology. The first stage of capacity shift is seen to be 660 MW which is being adopted by NTPC and other private sector players for several upcoming projects. The assignment covers supply of complete main plant with BOP package on Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) basis. EPC work can exclude civil works, coal handling system, ash handling system, external raw water system and water intake system depending upon the projects. 1.1. Overview of the power plant With the world on a development spree, there is shortage of power in most places whilst the demand seems to be in a never ending upward spiral. There are several answers to this challenge such as the nuclear power plants, but the conventional thermal power plants also play an equally important role in this power equation. Selecting a proper site for a thermal power plant is vital for its long term efficiency and a lot many factors come into play when deciding where to install the plant. Of course it may not be possible to get
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everything which is desirable at a single place but still the location should contain an optimum mix of the requirements for the settings to be feasible for long term economic justification of the plant. Old is gold goes the equally old and wise saying and this is applicable to the black diamond as well, in the perspective of thermal power plants. Well if you are confused let me tell you that I am referring to coal which is one of the oldest used fuels in the world. Though technology has gone skywards in the previous couple of centuries, yet this source continues to occupy an important position in the energy production scenario worldwide. 1.2. General Layout of the Plant There are four main circuits in any thermal power plant and these are a. Coal & Ash Circuit this circuit deals mainly with feeding the boiler with coal for combustion purposes and taking care of the ash that is generated during the combustion process and includes equipment and paraphernalia that is used to handle the transfer and storage of coal and ash. b. Air & Gas Circuit we know that air is one of the main components of the fire triangle and hence necessary for combustion. Since lots of coal is burnt inside the boiler it needs a sufficient quantity of air which is supplied using either forced draught or induced draught fans. The exhaust gases from the combustion are in turn used to heat the ingoing air through a heat exchanger before being let off in the atmosphere. The equipment which handles all these processes fall under this circuit. c. Feed Water & Steam Circuit this section deals with supplying of steam generated from the boiler to the turbines and to handle the outgoing steam from

the turbine by cooling it to form water in the condenser so that it can be reused in the boiler plus making good any losses due to evaporation etc. d. Cooling Water Circuit this part of the thermal power plant deals with handling of the cooling water required in the system. Since the amount of water required to cool the outgoing steam from the boiler is substantial, it is either taken from a nearby water source such as a river, or it is done through evaporation if the quantity of cooling water available is limited. 1.3. The Requirements for the Site a. As the name implies the power plant is meant for generating power which obviously means that it will consume huge quantities of fuel. The exact quantity would depend on the size of the plant and its capacity but it is a general fact that ample quantities of fuel must be available either in the vicinity or it should be reasonably economical to transport the fuel till the power plant. Since most thermal power plants use coal (they can use other fuels as well) it must be ensured that sufficient coal is available round the clock. Just to give you a rough idea a power plant with 1000 MW capacity approximately would require more than ten thousand tons of coal per day hence the necessity for continuous supply and storage capability of coal in the power station. b. Ash if the main byproduct of combustion and since the amount of coal used is huge, you can intuitively imagine the amount of ash generated and it is certainly in the region of thousand tons per day. Ash is much more difficult to handle as compared to coal since it comes out hot from the boiler and is very corrosive in nature. Disposing of such huge quantities of ash requires a large amount of empty space where it can be safely dumped. c. There must be ample space for the storage of coal, disposal of ash, building of the power plant, residential colony of workers, markets and so forth. An
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approximate analysis suggests that for every MW of power generated there must be at least 3 acres of land available for the purpose. Hence the power plant site needs to have good amount of land and this land should have good bearing capacity in order to survive the static and dynamic loads during the operation of the plant. d. Large amount of water is required for cooling purposes in the power plant hence it is better if such a source is available nearby in the form of rivers etc. e. Apart from these major requirements there are also other requirements which are equally important such as the availability of skilled people to work for the plant and good transport facilities in the vicinity. Hence we see that setting up a thermal power plant requires a lot of factors to be considered simultaneously. 1.4. The Functioning of the Plant The four circuits of the thermal power plant make a complete picture when put together helping to generate electricity out of fuels such as coal which is the most widely used fuel. The calorific value of coals depends on the quality of the coal and the place from where it is mined. Let us perform a simple calculation regarding the amount of coal required in a power plant. Let us assume an imaginary thermal power plant which has a capacity of 1000 MW and try to find the amount of coal required for its consumption. Also assume that the boiler operates at an efficiency of 75% and the heat supplied per kg of steam is around 500 kcal per kg and that the amount of steam required per kWh is

nearly 5 kgs. Further let us assume that the type of coal used in the plant has a calorific value of 5000 kcal/kg Then the quantity of coal required per hour would be given by Weight of Coal Required ==>Capacity * Steam Requirement * Heat Delivered/Calorific Value of Coal * Efficiency of Boiler ==> {1000 * 1000 * 5 * 500}/{5000 * 0.75 * 1000} = 666 tons/hr Normally it is a practice to store coal for up to one month usage in case the power plant is situated at a sufficient geographical distance from the coal source so that in case of any disruption of the transportation system, the region is not immediately affected. You can calculate that in case the above plant requires such a facility, we would require space to store and handle nearly 480, 000 tons of coal. Coming back to the actual operation this coal is then fed to the combustion chamber of the boiler where steam is generated giving rise to hot exhaust gases and ash which are handled by their respective circuits. The steam turbine is driven by the steam which converts this thermal energy into the mechanical energy and is coupled with an electric generator to convert it to electrical energy. The electricity generated through the generator coupled to the turbine is then fed to the main grid via a system of transformers and other electrical equipment and is usually taken to far off places via high voltage transmission lines before it is actually supplied in the domestic or industrial sectors at their respective voltage levels. Hence we see that how the energy hidden within the ordinary coal is harnessed through the use of a thermal power plant to light our homes and industries.
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1.5. Coal Use in Electricity Generation a. In the earlier days coal might have been used for providing heat for making food or in the blacksmiths furnace but as technology made strides, so did the level and importance of coal in the energy production arena went upwards. Currently thermal power plants produce hundreds of megawatts of electricity from burning coal. b. Despite the hue and cry of environmental concerns, which are of course true to a certain extent, various other parameters have still kept coal as one of the most important sources of power generation in thermal power plants. c. The very first parameter is the ample abundance of coal in most parts of the world including the United States. Estimates suggest that the US has reserves of coal which could last more than two centuries even at the current rate of consumption. Apart from the reserves found on land there is also presence of coal layers beneath the sea although it is difficult to commercially extract it from there, but there might be a technology for this in the future. d. The next factor is directly related to the above factor and is that of cost. As you know cost is closely associated with availability and more abundant any commodity is, the lesser will be its price and vice versa which is a law of economics. Hence producing electricity through the use of coal is much cheaper than other non-conventional forms of energy such as say wind, nuclear and so forth. 1.6. Disadvantages of Coal a. Of course all is not green in the literal sense in the use of coal in power plants. Environment and health hazards are one of the most prominent
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reasons why many groups are against the use of coal for power production. Disposal of large quantities of ash could pose problems in the coming years if the heaps continue to grow. b. Another major factor to be kept in mind is that despite the abundant supply of coal it is still a non renewable source of energy which was formed through a complex process lasting thousands of years and hence cannot be formulated at a short notice. Despite the disadvantages, coal is still very popular in its use as power plant fuel and continues to provide electricity to this power hungry planet. 1.7. Proximate Analysis of Coal Any substance can be analyzed in different ways such as proximate analysis, chemical analysis and so forth. We will carry out the proximate analysis of coal which gives the different categories of compound present in the substance. Apart from carbon which is an obvious constituent the other constituents are as follows. A. Ash this is an undesirable constituent of coal which is contained within the coal in two forms namely fixed ash and free ash. Fixed ash is inherent in the coal due to the formation process from vegetable matter and it is not possible to remove it except that it gets separated on burning. The free ash is removable via processes such as washing and screening. It is undesirable to have ash in the coal but normally different types of coal could have ash content anywhere between say around 2% to 30% which is an unnecessary burden adding to transportation costs, lowering of heat value of coal and producing large amounts of corrosive waste which needs to be disposed off in a proper manner. Another disadvantage is that inside the boiler combustion
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chamber if the ash gets subject to very high temperatures it can form clinkers which could choke the passages and decrease efficiency of the boiler. It is best to use such coal in the powdered form if such a possibility exists. B. Hydrocarbons & Gases coal contains a variety of combustible gases such as hydrogen, methane and non-combustible gases such as carbon dioxide etc. This volatile content could be as low as 3% or even as high as nearly 50%. These constituents especially the non-combustible gases are just a waste as far as heat value of the fuel is concerned and an unnecessary burden which needs to be transported around and stored without any useful value in return. C. Moisture the moisture content of coal could vary from just over 1% to nearly 30-40% and just like ash it has two forms inherent moisture and free moisture. The former is not easily removable as it is a costly process whilst the latter can be removed by normal drying using slightly heated air. Obviously since coal is used in the boiler combustion chamber any excess moisture would interfere with the combustion lowering the actual heat available to generate steam.

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2. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES 2.1. MANAGEMENT APPROACH I. II. Define sequence of work Establish project organization.

Sequence of work mainly consists of 2.1.1. PRE-AWARD STAGE The processes in the pre-award stage areelaborated below; a. Planning and Scheduling 1. Planning and scheduling of the complete project including pre-award schedule, L1 and L2 schedule is prepared by planning department. However, each package owner shall coordinate with the planning department for correct planning of their respective packages. 2. The initial project deliverables in the project are monitored/expedited on the basis of pre-award schedule till L1/L2 schedules are prepared. Once Master Control Network (Plant L2 Schedule) is prepared, it supersedes the preaward schedule for all further monitoring of the Project. b. Purchase Requisition (PR) 1. Manual Purchase requisitions (PR) of all the Packages are created by Engineering Department. However, PR of certain materials which are not directly related to the Main Plant such as Construction Power materials, miscellaneous site materials, Construction Lights etc may be raised by Project Management Group/ Site official. 2. Planning department prepared the schedule of the package in consultation with Project Management group.
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3. Engineering department prepare the list of the Potential Vendors. However, Package owner (PMG) has to the right to review the same and can modify the vendor list based on the feedback of the officials in other projects. 4. There shall be no modification in the vendor list once the PR is signed by Q&A. However modification in the vendor list can be made with the consent of Q&A. 5. The Engineering departments attach the technical specifications along with all the required Drawings/Documents as per the requirement of Owner and modify the same (As the case may be) with the PR and submit the same to the Package owner (PMG) for further action. 6. The package owner in the PMG check the PR (Hard Copy) submitted by the Engineering department with respect to the following information; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Technical Specification, Budgeted Cost, Schedule, Q&A, List of Vendors,

7. In the technical specification, the package owner (PMG) shall check the followings; (a) Scope (b) Battery Limits (c) Exclusions (d) Interface with other packages/suppliers (e) Owners contract/specification 8. Once the package owner is satisfied with PR and the necessary documents submitted by the Engineering department, the same shall be submitted by the package owner to the HOD (PMG) for necessary approval in SAP.
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9. Once the PR is approved by the HOD (PMG), the same shall be circulated to the P&C department for further processing. c. Floatingof and EnquiryBid receiving 1. The package owner (PMG) should follow up with the P&C department after circulation of the PR for the bid schedule. The bid schedule shall consist of the followings; (a) (b) (c) (d) Date of Floating for enquiry, Last date of receipt of offers, Date of TER, Date of award,

2. P&C should float the tender enquiry to the various vendors once the PR is received by them. However, there may be a case where the vendors can be contacted directly for getting the offers in time. Package owner (PMG) shall obtain a copy of the enquiry letter circulated to the various vendors. 3. Once the techno-commercial offer is submitted by the vendor to the P&C, the same shall be reviewed by the package owner (PMG) with respect to the following requirements; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Scope Battery Limits Exclusions Interface with other packages/suppliers Owners contract /specification

4. Simultaneously one copy of the offer submitted by the vendor is circulated to the Engineering department for technical review. The commercial review
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is carried out by the P&C department. 5. The P&C shall follow the following time limit (duration of award of Package from date of receipt of PR ) as mentioned in the table below;

Table 1: Duration of award of package from date of receipt of PR

S.No.

Description

No. of days

1 2

For Equipment items For System Package

30-35 days 45 days

d. Technical Evaluation Report (TER) and Order Placement 1. Engineering department carried out a technical review of the offer submitted by the vendor. In case of any deviation/deficiency in the offer from the technical point of view, clarifications are demanded from the respective vendors and the replies of the vendor on the same are analysed. 2. Engineering department hold a meeting for sorting out the issues with the vendor, the agenda of the meeting includes the following points; a. b. c. d. Schedule Exclusion Engineering inputs ( required by Owners ) General clarification on technical specifications

3. Once the Engineering department is satisfied with the replies of the vendor,
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TER is prepared by them and submitted to the Package owner (PMG). The package owner (PMG) review the TER submitted by the Engineering and circulate the same to the P&C. 4. The commercial offer is reviewed by the P&C. Based on technical and commercial review, the order is placed by P&C and the same is released by Finance department. 5. Initially the LOI/LOA is issued to the vendor. The PO/WO (subject to supply or services) is issues within seven (7) days after the issuance of LOI/LOA. Package owner shall ensure the following to enable P&C to issue PO/WO in SAP; a. b. c. PR is raised in SAP, Two separate PRs in SAP ( One for supply and other for service), All line items are correctly entered in SAP,

6. The status of all the packages from release of specification to Award is maintained at a common location in server which is continuously updated by all the package owners.

2.1.2. POST AWARD STAGE The processes in the post -award stage are elaborated below; a. Kick off Meeting 1. The package owner has to organize a kick off meeting within 15 days from date the contract/LOA. The package owner (PMG) shall prepare an agenda and it should at least cover the followings; (a) (b) Clarifications on all technical points, if any, LOA Acceptance
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(c)

Freezing of L2 schedule, Master Procurement schedule / material sourcing,

(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

Finalization of makes/vendors, Manpower loaded site mobilization plan, Billing Break up and Payment schedule, Progress report and review mechanism, Format of Documents, List of T&P& consumables required Quality Plan , Customer inspection, Master document list to be finalised for approval/information category,

(l) (m) (n) (o)

Organization for the Package, Communication Procedure Insurance Cash flow statement etc.

2. The package owner (PMG) should take the approval of the HOD (PMG) on agenda before circulation of the same to the vendor and other department like a. b. c. d. e. f. 3. Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering ( on requirement basis ), Planning, Quality, P&C (optional ), Site (on requirement basis ),

The package owner (PMG) shall give an intimation of at least seven (7) days and circulate the agenda in advance to the vendor and concerned division so
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that all can have sufficient time for the preparation of the meeting. Kick off meeting of small packages may be avoided. b. Level Planning 1. During kick-off meeting, vendor shall prepare the L3 level schedule in consultation with the Package owner (PMG) and concerned official from planning department and it should be based on the L2 level schedule. The same has to be agreed and signed off during the Kick off meeting by all concerned officials. c. Document Release Schedule 1. The vendor shall submit the Master Document List (MDL) and it must include the drawing/document release schedule and BBU. Based on the BBU, P.O/W.O will be prepared. 2. In some of the cases, MDL may be submitted by Client to vendor. But in either case, document number in required format is to be provided by Client. d. Post award Engineering 1. Once the contract is awarded to the vendor, all the engineering issues are dealt between vendor and Engineering department. However, the package owner (PMG) has to ensure that supplier/vendor supplies all the drawings/documents as per MDL and same shall be approved from the Engineering Department. e. Engineering Correspondence between Owner and CLIENT 1. Engineering in consultation with the Owner with information to package owner (PMG) shall finalise the various categories of drawings/documents such as for approval/for information etc.
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2. Vendor shall submit a copy of all the drawings / documents (in soft) to Client document controller. Document controller in turn submits the same to the Owner in the category already decided for their

comment/approval/information as the case may be. 3. The package owner (PMG) has to follow up with the Owner to obtain their approval/comments and after receipt of the Approval/comments, the same has to be communicated to Engineering for resolution f. Obligations with the Owner 1. The package owner (PMG) has to discuss and finalise the following activities with the Owner ; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Categorization of Document List Approval Category, Information Category etc. Approval of Package wise BBU, Document submission procedure,

g. Quality/Inspection 1. The quality department has to play an important role in the post award stage. Some of main activities to be performed by the quality department are listed below; (a) (b) Signing of PR, Discussion on Quality aspects during technical discussion before award, (c) Discussion on Quality aspects and Q&A formats during Kick off meeting, (d) Deciding make of equipment/vendor approval based on pre
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definedformat,

(e) (f)

Arranging inspection of material, Release of MDCC for dispatch of material

2. In case of system packages, a copy of offer should also be circulated to the concerned official in the Q&A for obtaining approval on make of items/Bought out items. 3. In case, where it is not possible to circulate the complete offer, at least make of equipment and Quality related portion should be circulated to the Q&A for their review. h. Commercial and other Conditions 1. Once the contract is awarded, the package owner(PMG) has to performed the following activities; a) Ensure that the Bank Guarantee formats are attached along with the order b) Obtaining Advance Bank Guarantee (ABG) from the vendor in the desired format c) Checking the ABG in terms of correctness and completeness d) Getting the BG vetted by Finance, e) Processing of all Bills of the suppliers, f) Issue of Notice of Payment approval (NOPA), g) Material dispatch and clearance, h) Issuance of Road Permit, i) Issuance of Form C if required, 2. The various guidelines pertaining to the various processes which are part of the project management has been issued from time to time by the management.
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3. The various circulars issued by the management are listed in the table below;

Circular Nos System Circular-01

Guidelines with reference to Procedure submission for preparation of DBR

Description and Activity and Responsibility &

Specifications to owner System Circular-02 System Circular-03 System Circular-04 System Circular-05 Procedure for Enquiry floating and Activity and Responsibility Award of the Packages Project Management System to be Practices and Responsibility Followed Revised Procedure for release of Activity Initial Advance Procedure for Purchase Indent Activity and Responsibility

Table 2: Various circulars issued by the management i. Material Dispatch and Billing 1. Package owner (PMG) has to follow up with the vendor for timely dispatch and delivery of the equipment at site as per the requirement. 2. Package owner (PMG) has to also ensure the processing of vendors bill and billing to the Owner. The package owner (PMG) has to follow the procedures as listed below;

(a)

The package owner (PMG) should check all the necessary documents submitted by the vendor as per the format attached in the Annexure-V
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before processing the vendors bill. (b) After verification of the documents, the package owner (PMG) should forward the NOPA (As per the format attached in Annexure-VI), vendors bill along with the check list as attached in Annexure -V to the Project Assistant (PA) of HOD. (c) PA should check the NOPA, vendors bill along with the check list submitted by the package owner. After verifying all the details, PA should submit the NOPA (mark a billing MIS number on the NOPA for keeping the record), vendors bill to the HOD along with the check list for further processing. (d) The NOPA signed by the HOD along with the vendors bill and check list must be submitted to the concerned department such as CEO Office / Finance etc. by the PA for further processing of the bill.

The Package Owner (PMG) should follow up with the concerned department for release of payment against the Bill submitted.

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II. Establish project Organization

Project Diirector

Asst. Mgr. MIS Vice President (Mech)

Secretary / Project Asst.

Sr. Manager, SWYD, BTG, ESP & Misc.

DGM (Civil)

GM, Mech., BOP & Site Coordn.

Mgr., SW, NGE, SY.GTs, PTs, ST Grounding, Bus duct & DG

AGM (C&I)

Engr., EHF. Const., Power Commn. System, Mis & Cabling

Sr. DGM, Mech, BTG-1, TG & PCP

DGM (Mech), BTG-1, Boiler, ESP & UPCL Coordination

Sr. Engineer

Engineer

Asst. Manager

Sr. Manager Boiler & ESP

AGM, FGD, PHB Structure

Manager CHP

Sr. Manager AHP, FPS

Dy. Manager DM/PT, Desalination Plant

Manager CWS & Piping

Asst. Manager EOT / AC / Comp.

Data Analyst

Engineer

Typical Organization chart of thermal power plant

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3. PROJECT COORDINATION

Project coordination stages usually include creating an overall goal, planning essential tasks, plus executing and controlling the project. Develop a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) or STEP (social, technological, economic, and political) analysis throughout different stages to evaluate project progress. Coordination is essential for a business that deals with two or more related projects. Projects vary based on business objectives but may include launching a new product or expanding services into new areas. A project coordinator often holds different roles and responsibilities, depending on the industry, business size, and project goal. For example, corporations might designate separate project coordinators to handle domestic and international affairs; whereas, small businesses might weave basic project coordination duties into a management role. Project coordinators can serve as decision makers or assistantsto lead managers. It is very important at all levels Viz. Engineering, Procurement, Construction, and Start Up. Important aspects of project management are as follows:A. PLANNING & SCHEDULING 1. Project planning has the following objectives and deliverables: a. Confirm all previous assumptions regarding skills required, number of project staff, effort and duration, etc. b. Confirm specific skill requirements, confirm that those resources are available (in-house or by external contract resources), identify the individuals who will be assigned according to the skill requirements for
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various tasks and sub-projects c. Document work breakdown structure, including specific tasks, milestones and deliverables d. Refine estimates of task efforts e. Determine task dependencies f. Determine external dependencies g. Determine interface and interaction dependencies h. Determine milestones that will represent quality assurance checkpoints and their completion dates i. Schedule the work plan, inclusive of constraints j. Prepare and review the project plan k. Submit the initial project plan for approval by the relevant executive sponsor, project sponsor and steering committee

2. Project planning is an iterative and ongoing process. However, the initial project plan must be approved and signed-off before the project commences. At this point, the project plan is to be base lined, to ensure that any and all variances from that plan are tracked and recorded.Detailed plans must be revised as necessary throughout the life of the project. 3. When planning a project, the project manager must confirm and build on the business case developed during the project initiation phase to prepare an appropriately detailed project charter. The project manager is responsible to create the project plan. The detailed project plan is used to document deliverables and to achieve the project objectives detailed in the project charter.

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4. Project plans should include: a. task schedules, being project specific detailed work plans, b. resource schedules, c. quality management and review plans, d. a risk management plan, e. a communications plan, f. an issue management plan, g. a scope management plan, and h. a detailed budget addressing all aspects of the project and its management

5. When preparing the detailed work plans, the project manager must ensure consideration of: a. task dependencies b. task and resource scheduling c. Addition of any new tasks manifested as the project progresses (assuring also that the scope of the project is closely managed and changes to that scope are documented thoroughly).

6. Project plans must be reviewed regularly to identify any slippage from original delivery dates, to implement corrective measures and to evaluate the flow on effect on the project schedule overall.

7. The master project plan and all subsidiary plans must include milestones. Milestones will usually be the completion of project stages. Resource constraints, quality issues and project risks need to be factored into the milestone plan.

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8. Each task within a project plan has a narrative description sufficient to communicate: a. What is to be achieved/delivered; b. The steps involved in achieving the deliverable; c. The completion criteria of each deliverable.

9. During the planning process, it is essential to recognize that some or all of the project team, and potentially some of the extended stakeholder team, will need training. Determine the type and duration of training required and include that training in the detailed project plan.

10.A project plan has many uses, not only as a schedule to manage the timeliness, sequence and inter-dependency of tasks, but as a tool to assure clear communications.

B. DOCUMENT CONTROL & DESIGN SUBMISSIONS 1. Calculation with supporting documents to prove the proposed Plants availability as guaranteed/stated (this will include quantitative data of break down losses, planned maintenance outages and derating losses, as against the design margins, redundancy and buffer storage offered) 2. Quality Assurance Programme as relevant to the Contract. 3. Total plan (schedule duration & frequency) on the regular maintenance work of the proposed Plant, also describing the how employers personnel will be trained and utilised in the work. Note:Client will furnish a proposed maintenance program/schedule as called for here to enable assessment of preventive maintenance. The program will indicate
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details such as interval between outages, duration of outage, man-hours required for outage, and the basis of such a program. A proposed shift working pattern to meet above outage program will also be furnished. It will also furnish a typical maintenance schedule for plant and other equipment detailing information such as time required, timing of the activity, nature of activity etc. 4. Clients proposed man-power schedule for the regular and emergency operation/maintenance of the plant and chart of distribution of manpower at various location including organizational structure. 5. Drawings as follows A. Overall plant area layout showing the: 1. Main Plant area 2. Ash dump area 3. Water intake and outfall points with pipe routes 4. Effluent discharge points. 5. Rail-tracks and roads connecting the plant site. 6. Township location B. Plot plan showing all buildings, outdoor plants & equipment, as well as the coal stock pile, fuel oil storage area, transformer yard, switch yard, workshop, green areas, reservoirs, drainage & other pits, effluent treatment areas, roads, rail tracks, temporary storage areas & buildings required during erection and also all future provisions if applicable.

C. Equipment layout drawings for 1. All floors of the power house 2. Boiler area 3. Ash handling plant 4. Coal handling plant
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5. Desalination and Demineralization plant 6. Central Control Room and Control equipment room. 7. Fuel oil handling plant 8. CW pump house 9. Sea water intake pump house 10.Fire water pump house D. General Arrangement drawing and sectional drawing for i. ii. iii. Turbine assembly Steam Generator All major equipment

E. Schematic drawings/one line diagrams along with a brief write-up on design, operation and control philosophy for 1. SG, TG and Power cycle piping systems (including drains & vents) 2. Cooling water systems (CW as well as auxiliary cooling water systems) 3. Compressed air systems. 4. Auxiliary steam systems, including the water & steam system for the auxiliary boilers. 5. Fuel oil handling system. 6. Ash handling system. 7. Coal handling plant 8. Desalination and Demineralising system 9. Fire fighting system 10.Water balance diagram for the entire plant water system including drainage/effluent flow. 11.Single line diagram (SLD) of electrical power distribution system 12.SLD of 400KV / 220 KV Switchyard with detail bus configuration,
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metering and protections scheme 13.MV and LV system 14.D.C. & A.C emergency system 15.Tripping logic/scheme for generator, generator transformer, and unit transformer. 16.SCADA system configuration for 400 KV / 220KV switchyard 17.Waste water treatment 18.Overall water treatment scheme. 19.Flue gas desulphurisation plant 20.Air conditioning and ventilation system 21.Fire fighting system F. Heat balance diagrams for the power cycle system showing TG gross heat rate, power generation, auxiliary power consumption and all relevant parameters (pressure, temperature, enthalpy & flow rate) for the following conditions (with 0% and 3% make-up)

1. Turbine VWO 2. 100% TMCR 3. 75% TMCR 4. 60% TMCR 5. Best efficiency condition 6. Maximum power generation condition when top H.P. heater is out. 7. HP-LP bypass condition with and without turbine on house load. G. Steam generator unit performance chart with performance coal as well as worst coal for 1. 100% BMCR 2. 100% TMCR
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3. 75% TMCR 4. 60% TMCR 5. All HP heaters out condition The above chart will provide the complete heat balance information, fuel consumption, boiler efficiency, flow rate, pressure and temperature at all the essential points of the furnace and its draught plant, and also of the feed water and steam systems. H. Performance and characteristic curves for TG, boiler ,Generator ,ESP and all major fans and pumps in Main Plant and in Auxiliary systems. I. All correction curves for all parameters needed to establish the guaranteed performance value from the corresponding figures obtained during the Acceptance test (if parameters vary from specified design conditions), including the correction curves due to i. Ambient wet bulb temperature ii. Dry bulb temperature iii. Humidity iv. Fuel properties/composition v. Na2O Content in ash/Sulphur content in coal vi. Sea water analysis values vii. Supply frequency viii. Supply voltage

J. Correction curves for condenser vacuum for following parameter variation.


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a) Tubes Plugged conditions b) Changes in load c) Changes in CW temperature. d) Make up water flow K. A complete list of the internationally accepted codes & standards which will follow in the design, material selection, manufacturing erection, tests at works and tests at site for all major plant & equipment as well as piping, cabling, steel structures etc. L. A list of statutory regulations which proposed Plant will follow and for which will prepare all documents needed to obtain the approval of the statutory bodies. M. A bar-chart for proposed design, manufacturing, procurement and delivery activities. N. A bar-chart for proposed Site activities up to Taking Over of the Unit(s). This will be supplemented by a detailed write-up on proposed procedure of project implementation, deployment schedule of key personnel with their bio- data, schedule of construction machinery etc. 6. Characteristic curves (capacity vs TDH, power, efficiency and NPSH) for the following pumps: a) Boiler feed pumps at various operating speeds. b) Condensate extraction pumps. c) CW pumps.

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d) Sea water intake pumps. e) Auxiliary CW pumps. f) Closed cycle DM cooling water pumps. g) Fuel oil unloading pumps. h) Condenser air extraction pump 7. Characteristic curves for the following fans at various speeds and damper positions. a) ID fan b) FD fan c) PA fan 8. Vibration analysis results for condenser and feed heaters under worst operating conditions 9. Data on control & instrumentation a) Plant operational philosophy b) DDCMIS system architecture drawings and write-up. c) Description and write-up of control and interlocking system d) Proposed general arrangement of panels, consoles, system cabinets, instrument power supply panels e) Scheme for power supply distribution to equipment / systems

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f) Manufacturers catalogues of instruments, control

gadgets and

other accessories proposed to be supplied for main plant and auxiliaries. g) Scheme for steam & water analysis system. h) Scheme for machine monitoring system. i) Schematic drawings of offsite PLC system and hook-up with DDCIMS j) Details of plant security and Monitoring system k) Details of station management system C. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Construction Project Management is the overall planning, co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting a clients requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project that will be completed on time within authorized cost and to the required quality standards. Project management is the process by which a project is brought to a successful conclusion. Construction project management (CPM) is project management that applies to the construction sector. The most common responsibilities of a Construction Manager fall into the following 7 categories: 1. Project Management Planning 2. Cost Management 3. Time Management
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4. Quality Management 5. Contract Administration 6. Safety Management CM Professional Practice which includes specific activities like defining the responsibilities and management structure of the project management team, organizing and leading by implementing project controls, defining roles and responsibilities and developing communication protocols, and identifying elements of project design and construction likely to give rise to disputes and claims. 1. The functions of construction project management 1. Specifying project objectives and plans including delineation of scope, budgeting, scheduling, setting performance requirements, and selecting project participants. 2. Maximizing resource efficiency through procurement of labor, materials and equipment. 3. Implementing various operations through proper coordination and control of planning, design, estimating, contracting and construction in the entire process. 4. Developing effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts i. Construction management (CM): 1. Management of the site. 2. Form of delivery

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ii.

Programme management (ProgM): 1. Programme management is concerned with managing time in a project and is thereby part of the CPM function. 2. Management of a clients portfolio (clients programme in this sense is equivalent to a clients brief)

iii.

Project Control

1. The Project Control function is concerned with gathering data regarding project progress, producing progress reports, monitoring time, cost, and quality. Compared to the CPM function, the Project Control function can be characterized to be passive, whereas a construction project manager needs to take action. Project leader (PL): The PL is responsible for achieving the projects objectives. He is the manager in line. Project director (PD): The PD is the leader of a big project that can be broken down in sub-projects (e.g. Channel tunnel). He can also be the head of a PM organization. OR: The OR is the representative of the owner. This function can be provided either internally or externally. DC: Document Control - A key function of a Project Manager. FBOT: finance build operate transfer BOT: build operate transfer DBOT: design build operate transfer BOO: build own operate
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EPC: engineering procurement construction PFI: private finance initiative GC: general contractor GMP: Guaranteed maximum price Typically the construction industry includes three parties: a. an owner, b. a designer (architect or engineer), c. the builder (usually called the general contractor). Traditionally, there are two contracts between these parties as they work together to plan, design, and construct the project. 1. The first contract is the owner-designer contract, which involves planning, design, and construction administration. 2. The second contract is the owner-contractor contract, which involves construction. An indirect, third-party relationship exists between the designer and the contractor due to these two contracts. An alternate contract or business model replaces the two traditional contracts with three contracts: 1. owner-designer, 2. owner-construction project manager, 3. Owner-builder.

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The construction project management company becomes an additional party engaged in the project to act as an advisor to the owner, to which they are contractually tied. The construction manager's role is to provide construction advice to the designer, on the owner's behalf, design advice to the constructor, again on the owner's behalf, and other advice as necessary. iv. Design, bid, build contracts

Design, bid, build describes the prevailing model of construction management in which the general contractor is engaged through a tender process after the designs have been completed by the architect or engineer. v. Design and build contracts

Recently a different business model has become more popular. Many owners particularly government agencies have let out contracts which are known as Design-Build contracts. In this type of contract, the construction team is known as the design-builder. They are responsible for taking a concept developed by the owner, completing the detailed design, and then pending the owner's approval on the design, they can proceed with construction. Virtual Design and Construction technology has enabled much of the ability of contractors to maintain tight construction time There are two main advantages to using a design-build contract. 1. The construction team is motivated to work with the design team to develop a design with constructability in mind. In that way it is possible for the team to creatively find ways to reduce construction costs without reducing the

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function of the final product. The owner can expect a reduced price due to the increased constructability of the design. 2. The other major advantage involves the schedule. Many projects are given out with an extremely tight time frame. By letting out the contract as a design-build contract, the contractor is established, and early mobilization and construction activities are able to proceed concurrently with the design. Under a traditional contract, construction cannot begin until after the design is finished, the project is bid and awarded, and the team can mobilize. This type of contract can take months off the finish date of a project. D. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM 1. Monitoring & Progress Reporting 1. The progress reports would be issued every month, one from the head office of CLIENT and another from the site office. Reports will include such schedules, charts and drawings as the Owner/Owners Engineer considers necessary for adequately monitoring the Contract. The reports will be made available to the Owner/Owners Engineer at least five working days prior to scheduled progress review meeting. 2. The progress report issued from the head office should necessarily include the following sections: a) Report on key milestones. b) Management summary indicating critical areas with details of actions initiated and effect of any on the project. c) Action needing attention of the Owner/Owners Engineer.

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d) Detailed package wise status of engineering submissions, quality plan submissions and approval, procurement manufacture and dispatch. 3. The monthly report generated from the site office should necessarily include: a) Report on key milestones. b) Management summary indicating critical areas with details of action initiated and effect if any on the project. c) Action needing attention of the Owner/Owners Engineer. d) Details relating to the receipt of the equipment at the port, port clearance, transport, receipt at site, erection and commissioning. 4. In addition to the above, as the project execution progresses, CLIENT will also be responsible for generating more frequent reports on progress in critical areas so that actions can be expedited. The exact format and contents of the progress reports will be agreed at the time of signing of the Contract.

2. Project Management Meetings i. In order to track the physical and financial progress, it is very essential to have the meeting with the different agencies. The agenda of the various meetings are; (a) Issues faced and by the stakeholders and finding solutions of the same, (b) Actual progress vs Schedule progress of the project,
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(c)

Resource planning in terms of manpower, money, infrastructure for the future,

ii.

In a project, there are various meetings held between the PMG and various other agencies like; (a) Site officials (b) Other department officials (c) Vendor (d) Top Management

iii.

There are various meetings arranged by the Project Management Group (PMG) for smooth and speedy execution of the project. The purposes of the individual meetings are elaborated below; (a) Daily meeting: To sort out the issues faced by the package owner (PMG) and the daily activities to be performed by the package owner (PMG). Also to track the progress of the project. It is chaired by the HOD (PMG) (b) Engineering Review Meeting: The meeting is held with the Engineering department to sort out the issues (Technical

specifications, drawings etc.) associated with the Engineering department and discuss the future plan for avoiding the delays in the parameters which ultimately affect the project. (c) P&C Review Meeting: The meeting is held with the P&C department to sort out the issues (Contract, LOA, T&C etc.) associated with the P&C department and discuss the future plan for avoiding the delays in the parameters which ultimately affect the project. (d) Weekly Site Review Meeting by Video Conferencing: In this, a review meeting with the use of video conferencing facility is held
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with the site to gauge the progress of the project and discuss the future strategy for speedy completion of the work. In case of any issues associated with the work, an appropriate action is taken to sort out the same. (e) Project Review Committee (PRC) at Site: In the PRC, a meeting with the Owner is held at the site to review the progress of the project and appropriate action is taken to expedite the work. (f) Project Review Team (PRT) at Site: A Project Review Team headed by the Head of the Project with various departments of the Project is constituted for project to review the project on a monthly basis. The PRT include senior executives of the functions. The basic purpose of the meeting is to (i) Review the progress of the project i.e. identification of the constraints and resolution of the same (ii) Severe schedule slippages and other critical matters like nonavailability of desired drawings, clarifications, documents from various departments, non-receipt of required material from various vendors, impact of delays on the project including the exception reports are discussed and the decisions on the same are taken. (iii) Interface problems amongst Engineering, Contracts and Site affecting project execution are also reviewed and appropriate decisions are taken to expedite the work. (iv) Budgetary review is also done during PRT meeting and shortfall, if any, identified and responsibility are fixed Engineering Review By Owners Engineer: In this the Owner review
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(g)

the status of the various drawings and takes the appropriate action for expedition of the same (h) Engineering Progress Review for Entire Project: In this the Engineering progress is reviewed from the point of view of the entire project and depending on the progress, appropriate action is taken for expedition of the work. (i) Budget & Commercial Review: It is used for reviewing the budget allotted and cash flow in the project and the future requirements. (j) CEO Review Meeting: CEO reviews the Critical Packages and the progress of Project as per the schedule and discuss the future strategy for completion of the project. (k) Vice Chairman Review: Vice Chairman reviews the Critical Packages and the progress of Project as per the schedule and discusses the future strategy for completion of the project. (l) Contract Review Meetings (CRM) With Vendor Contract Review Meetings are held with the vendors and is generally held at manufacturing works. The basic objectives of CRM meetings are; (i) (ii) (iii) To ascertain the status of the manufacturing. Review the progress of manufacturing &dispatch. Resolves various contractual issues for expediting supplies. Progress of manufacturing is reviewed with respect to L-2 Network. With Owner Contract Co-ordination / Review Meeting will be held once a month to review the progress of the Contract and discuss various issues
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affecting the progress of work and suggest / agree remedial measures to overcome the same. CLIENT and OWNER shall ensure participation of all concerned in the meeting (m) Technical Co-ordination Meeting (TCM) With Vendor Technical Coordination Meetings take place with the vendor and the discussion revolves around various engineering requirements, finalization of engineering details within the time frame and schedules of engineering activities. With Owner TCMs will be held initially TWICE in a month and thereafter at least once in a month. Should there be a pressing requirement, the Owner & PM can also call for additional technical meeting by providing adequate notice to concerned parties. The Engineering Co-ordinators (ECs) shall depute their concerned engineers for the meetings. CLIENT shall arrange for the participation of their vendors also, if required, for the meeting. (n) Weekly Review Meeting: a weekly review meeting with owner is conducted at site to review the progress and to discuss any other immediate requirements with site engineers. (o) Safety Meeting: Safety meeting with owner is conducted once in every month and is also attended by the vendor. The basic purpose of the meeting is to ensure; (i) All the personal protective equipments are available to the workers (working at site). (ii) (iii) Safe working conditions at the work sites. Safe working methods practiced by their workers and their
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sub-contractor workers all the time. (iv) All the electrical installations of Client and their Contractors & sub-contractors shall be in line with statutory regulations. (v) All accidents are reported to Owner Safety Officer promptly and record of such accidents shall be maintained by Client. Client has to co-ordinate with Owner in investigation of accidents providing all possible assistance. (vi) Accept and implement all Safety rules / orders that are issued from time to time by Owner. (vii) Co-operate in promotion of Safety programs and in prevention of accidents by displaying safety posters, conducting safety lectures, screening safety films etc. / arranging safety displays etc. E. PROCUREMENT & FIELD CONTRACTING 1. Sub-Contract Management I. The Contractor and / or his sub-contractor shall procure or sub-contract all system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) including castings, forgings and finished components / equipment to (or from) only such established sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) who have adequate for similar or higher size, rating and duty condition and which are in their regular manufacturing / supply range. II. All the sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) for system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) including castings, forgings and finished components / equipment shall be subject to Owners / Owners Engineers approval. III. A tentative list of sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) for some
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of the system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) acceptable to Owner. The Contractor shall submit a complete list system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) proposed to be sub-contracted by the Contractor or his sub-contractor alongwith the proposed sub-contractor(s) /

manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) for such system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) for Owners / Owners Engineers review & approval. IV. The Contractor shall submit the details of all proposed sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) alongwith the above list in the format to enable Owner / Owners Engineer to consider the proposal. The details of proposed sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) shall include following information / details in respect of each case: a. The system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) which the Contractor proposed to sub-contract. b. The basis on which the Contractor has assessed the quality assurance arrangement of the sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) alongwith details of assessment. c. The results of any recent evaluations and audits of the subcontractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) which have been performed by the Contractor or other organizations external to the sub-contractor. d. Reference list & experience for execution / supply of system(s) / equipment / component(s) / service(s) along with details of year of supply / commissioning, feedback (if any), type tests done etc. The Contractor shall submit all such information / details as may be required to establish the capability, experience & reliability of the sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) to the satisfaction of the owner / owner Engineer. Incase the details / information for any of the sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) /
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supplier(s) are not submitted to the satisfaction of the Owner / Owners Engineer within the scheduled date, the proposal shall be deemed to have been withdrawn and the Contractor shall procure / sub-contract to already approved subcontractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) . e. A list of all manufacturer / sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) as approved by the Owner / Owners Engineer pursuant shall be complied and shall form part of the Contract. The Contractor or the sub-contractor through the Contractor may propose additional sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) for Owners / Owners Engineers approval (to be added to list of all manufacturer / sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) as approved by the Owner / Owners Engineer) for which the Contractor shall submit the details. However no additional proposal for approval of subcontractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) shall be considered by Owner / Owners Engineer after the scheduled dated of finalization of such consolidated list of manufacturer / sub-contractor(s) / manufacturer(s) / supplier(s) as approved by the Owner / Owners. The Contractor shall procure / sub-contract from / to already approved sources only. 2. Purchase specifications I. All the purchase specifications for the major bought-out items (equipment, packages and systems), list of which shall be mutually discussed and finalized between the Contractor and the Owner, shall be furnished to the Owner for comments and subsequent approval before orders are placed by the Contractor. These approved purchase specifications shall be part of the Contract.
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F. INSPECTION & TESTING A. The QCP shall cover all checks / tests, standard Quality Control Practices of the Contractor / manufacturer / sub-contractor which shall include tests for material properties (as required by specification, Codes & Standards, etc), in process checks, final inspection at manufacturer works. The QCP for field activities shall include receipt inspection, storage requirements, erection & Commissioning. In-addition to this, the tests listed below shall be part of the QCP. B. Type, Acceptance, Routine & performance tests on following equipment & systems but not limited to same as per the Contract requirements, drawing data sheets, codes & standards etc. The type, routine and acceptance tests as defined in applicable codes & standards and also in this Technical Specification shall be applicable. Where-ever it is not clearly defined, the type tests shall include all such tests required to establish such of those characteristics which are predominantly effected by design / engineering. Whereas the routine or production tests shall include all such tests required to establish those characteristics of the equipment & systems which are predominately affected by the process or the manufacturing variations. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Fans (ID, FD, PA etc.) BFP including cavitation, NPSH and string tests, Centrifugal pumps (CEP, CW pump, DM water pumps etc.) Screw pumps (fuel oil, seal oil etc.) Coal feeders including checks for accuracy. Valves (Stop valve, control valve, Bypass valves etc.) Butterfly Fly valves Generator Excitor including for temperature rise, excitation response etc.
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1.10

AVR

1.11 Coal Handling Plant components like idlers, Belts, gearboxes, fluid couplings, Belt scales, Coal sampler, pumps etc. 1.12 Ash handling equipment like pipes, pumps, grinders, ejectors, compressors, valves, material handling equipment etc. 1.13 Vacuum pumps (shall include performance test for visual cavitation, performance with moist air). 1.14 Miscellaneous pumps 1.15 Expansion bellow 1.16 Fluid couplings 1.17 Valves & actuators 1.18 Compressors 1.19 Various components/equipment of Fire Protection system 1.20 Various components/equipment of Air Conditioning and Ventilation 1.21 Cranes EOT, Hoists etc. 1.22 All electrical equipment like Bus ducts, GCB, Transformers, switchgears (EHV, MV & LV), CB, Motors, Isolators, CT, CVT, LA, Insulators, Hardware, cables, cabling and its accessories, station lighting equipment etc. 1.23 C&I equipment like sensors, Electronics, Transmitters, control valves etc. 1.24 Cooling Tower Components 1.25 Chimney Accessories 1.26 External Coal Handling C. Inspection & test program shall be designed to verify / ensure that the equipment conforms to the specified & intended requirement of this Technical Specification. Test on various components, raw material, casting
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& forgings, semi-finished / in-process components etc. To be carried shall be as per relevant codes and standard, drawings, data sheets, manufacturing standards etc. In addition to same following shall be included but not limited to same. D. NDTT / FATT on Turbine & Generator Rotors E. Resonance frequency analysis of last three stages of LP turbine free standing / last stage blade before mounting on the rotor. It shall also be checked / tested after mounting and after over speed. In addition to above the predicted vibration characteristic in running condition at designed frequency range shall be verified on one production rotor. F. Residual stress checks to establish the process in case of erosion shield of LP blades. G. Test for thermal stability of turbine rotors. H. Creep & rupture test for all high Pr. & high temp casings. I. Balancing &over speed test of all rotors including of turbine rotor (for

5min), Generator Rotor, Fan rotor, Pumps rotors etc. J. Running tests on one fully assembled Generator at works which shall include all tests as per IEC 34, VDE 0530 and IEEE 115 including test for leakage, OCC, SCC, heat run, harmonic factor / wave form deviation, sudden short circuit tests, tests to establish Xd, Xd, Xd, time constants, X2, X0 test for interterm fault before and after sudden short circuit test. Measurement of vibration of overhang stator winding and stator core during the running tests in open circuit & short circuit conditions to identify the resonance frequencies and maximum amplitude of vibration of winding overhang and core. The routine tests on Generators as per IEC 34, VDE 0530 & IEEE 115 and it shall include measurement of potiers reactan ce, winding resistance, leakage tests, PI test on stator and rotor winding, test for
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inter-turn fault in rotor, high voltage test on stator and rotor winding, partial discharge test on stator winding. K. Testing of insulation of electrical rotating machine as per VDE 0530, IEC 34. The tests shall include following but not limited to same: L. Type tests on stator bars (voltage rating greater than or equal to 11 KV). M. Routine tan delta on stator bars greater than or equal to 11 KV. N. Tan delta on 10 % of the stator bars of all electrical machines with voltage greater than or equal to 3.3 KV and less than 6.0 KV). O. Routine delta on stator bars voltage greater than or equal to 6 KV but less than 11KV. This may be reduced to 10% if the process is statistically proven to be stable / established. P. Tan delta on all completed machine up to 1.2 UN for voltage rating greater than or equal to 3.3 KV. Q. Type test on bushings as per DIN. R. Dissolved Gas Analysis on EHV transformer after Type & Routine tests. S. PD tests on all dry type power and instrumentation transformer of voltage rating greater than or equal to 3.3 kV. T. Tests on Boiler circulating pumps which shall include Hydro tests of Complete unit, Overspeed test of rotor as Routine, Pump performance including performance test of motor (Starting current at rated voltage, cold start up tests), Endurance test, noise level, checks for joints & seals, HV test on windings. U. Type test on boiler circulating pumps / motor including test for NPSH test, Temperature rise test for motor, hot stand still & startup test/ QA proof test., V. Acceptance test on cables for all Fire resistant low smoke (FRLS) property as detailed in Technical Specification namely, Oxygen index and temperature index, Acid gas generation, Smoke density, Ladder test as per
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IEC/IEEE (Type test). W. All tests on electronic equipment & systems as per IEC. It shall include all tests on electronic equipment / systems such as PLC, DCS, etc as per IEC 1131 X. Test on Transformer oil after filling / before commissioning including Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). The Contractor shall monitor DGA of oil for GT, UAT during Defect Liability Period for regular interval Y. Leak detection of boiler by pressurizing to 250mm of water column and using sonic guns or similar procedure Z. Model tests shall be carried out for sea water intake system, Circulating water system, Stack, ESP and FGD. The model tests on ESP & FGD shall be carried out together G. QUALITY ASSURANCE 1. The Contractor shall prepare, submit, finalize and implement an effective quality management system (Quality Assurance Arrangements) which shall inter-alia include, reliability and maintainability programme / dependability programme as per ISO 9000 / ISO 9001 / ISO 9004 / BS 5760 and it shall cover all equipment & services under the scope of the Contract. 2. The Contractor shall supply field proven equipment / systems (i.e. such equipment / systems with comparable operating parameters, rating, service conditions, etc. have been in successful operation for a period and for such equipment / systems the records of successful type tests / design proving tests as per the requirement of this Contract, codes and standards shall be submitted to Owner / Owners Engineer for review and acceptance / approval. The type tests / design proving tests need not be repeated for the Contract in case the records of type tests / design proving tests already
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carried out and submitted to the satisfaction of the Owner. However, in case of any changes / difference between proposed equipment / system and field proven equipment / systems, same shall be clearly brought out by the Contractor before or during engineering stage and shall establish the basis of its suitability for its specified / intended use by way of calculation, tests, etc to Owner / Owners Engineers satisfaction without any cost implication to Owner. Owner / Owners Engineer reserves the right to insist on supply of field proven tested equipment / systems. 3. Involvement of Owner / Owners Engineer by way of approval of drawings, quality assurance programs, sub-vendor, purchase specification or witnessing of tests / review of records or quality audit etc. as required by this Contract, shall not limit the liabilities and responsibility of the Contractor to meet the requirements of the Contract. 1.1. Quality Assurance Programme 1. To ensure that the equipment & services under the scope of the Contract are in accordance with the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall adopt a comprehensive quality assurance arrangements for the Contract, detailed in a document (hereafter referred as Quality Assurance Programme or QA Programme) to control activities at all stages. Such project specific Quality Assurance Programs shall be prepared by the Contractor and shall be submitted to Owner / Owners Engineer for their revi ew & approval as per the agreed schedule. The QA Programme shall be in line with ISO 9000 / IS 14000 series of standards and shall include the requirements listed below. 2. The Quality Assurance Programme of the Contractor shall cover the following: a. Organization structure for the management and implementation of the
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proposed Quality Assurance Programme. b. Contractors quality system manual in line with ISO 9001. c. Qualification data for key personnel & use of suitably qualified and experienced personnel in required number for each type of work. d. Design control system. The procedure for quality assurance in design & engineering shall include the methods, procedures and programme for presenting, collating and assessing information from the various sources and its incorporation in design submission. e. Documentation control system. f. The procedure for purchase of materials, parts, components, selection of sub-contractor, vendor analysis, source inspection, incoming raw material inspection, verification of materials purchased etc. g. The method of protection, storage, stock control and issue of material at site. h. System for shop manufacturing and site erection control including process controls and fabrication and assembly controls. i. Inspection, sampling, testing and acceptance procedures for plant and materials delivered to site. j. Control of non-conforming items and system for corrective actions. k. Inspection and test procedure both for manufacture and all site related works. l. Control of calibration and testing of measuring and testing equipment. m. System for quality audit and self assessment. n. System for indication and appraisal of inspection status. o. System for authorizing release of manufactured products to the Owner. p. System & procedures for packing, handling, storage and delivery to
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site. q. Final inspection and certification of completed sections of work. r. Site security procedures. s. The recording and processing of variations to the Works and their incorporation on record drawings. t. System for maintenance of records. Documents setting out plans for control of quality during manufacturing and field activities detailing the specific quality control procedure adopted for controlling the quality characteristics relevant to each item of work / equipment. 1.2. Independent Third Party Inspection a. The Contractor shall appoint an independent third party inspection agency acceptable to Owner and with prior written consent of the Owner for witnessing inspection of components / equipment at manufacturers works abroad. The equipment / components to be inspected by the third party agency, if imported, are as follows: b. HP, IP, LP turbine, stop & control valves and governing system tests / check during manufacture and final assembly. c. Generator - tests / check during manufacture and final assembly and type and routine tests. d. Boiler feed pumps and BFP turbines - tests / check during manufacture and final assembly and type and routine tests. e. Performance test of CW pumps and CEP pumps. f. Generator Transformer - Manufacture and final tests g. Performance test of vacuum pumps for condenser. h. Performance test of ID fan, PA fan and FD fan. i. Pressure parts of Steam Generator - - tests / check during manufacture and
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final assembly j. Boiler circulation pumps - acceptance & routine tests. k. Model tests of ESP, FGD, CW Intake and Sea water intake. l. The scope of third party inspection agency shall include following but not limited to following. i. Witnessing and certification of inspection and tests for stages as defined in QCP. ii. iii. Quality surveillance Analysis of non-conformance and to provide recommendation to Owner. m. The costs of such Third Party inspection agency shall be included in the total Contract Price. The Owner reserves the right to decrease the scope of such Third party inspection agency with appropriate reduction in the Total Contract Price. 1.3. Quality Audit a. Owner / Owners Engineer reserves the right to carry out quality audit and quality surveillance of the systems and procedures of the Contractors or their sub vendors quality management and control activities. The Contractor shall provide all necessary assistance to enable the Owner / Owners Engineer to carry out such audit and surveillance. b. Quality audit / approval of the results of tests and inspection shall not prejudice the right of the Owner / Owners Engineer to reject an equipment not giving the desired performance after erection and shall not in any way limit the liabilities and responsibilities of the Contractor in ensuring satisfactory performance of equipment / system as per specification, standards, data sheets, drawings etc.,
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1.4. Non-Conformance 1. The Quality Assurance Programme shall inherently be designed, established & implemented to identify and prevent non-conformance in early stages of work. The programme shall inherently provide for replacement of nonconformance in design, specification, materials, or any other work to ensure compliance to Contract. All deviation / non-conformance to drawing, specification, codes & standard including those which effects

interchangeability, performances, safety etc. shall be reported to Owner / Owners Engineer immediately on its occurrence. The details of its review alongwith details of proposed corrective actions & its justification shall be submitted to Owner / Owners Engineer for his review. The justification shall include drawings, detailed calculation & explanations on the impact of deviation on performance, interchangeability, safety, past record of such deviation, etc.. 2. The Owner/ Owner's Engineer reserves the right to accept or reject the work having deviation. In case of rejection, the Contractor shall immediately take corrective action to meet the Contract requirement in totality. 1.5. Quality Assurance Documents a. The Contractor shall be required to submit four (4) hard copies of the following quality assurance documents within three (3) weeks after dispatch of the equipment or commissioning of equipment. b. Material mill test reports of components as specified by the specification / QCP. c. The inspection plan with verification, inspection plan check points, verification sketches, if used and methods used to verify that the inspection and testing points in the inspection plan were performed satisfactorily.
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d. Non-destructive

examination

results/reports

including

radiography

interpretation reports. e. Factory tests results for testing required as per applicable codes and standards referred in the specification. f. Welder identification list listing welders and welding operators qualification procedure and welding identification symbols. g. Sketches and drawings used for indicating the method of traceability of the radiographs to the location on the equipment. h. Stress relief time temperature charts. i. Inspection and test reports duly signed by QA personnel of the Owner / Owners Engineer and Contractor for the agreed customer hold points. During the course of inspection, the following shall also be recorded. j. When some important repair work is involved to make the job acceptable. k. The repair works remain part of the accepted product quality. l. Letter of conformity certifying that the requirement is in compliance with finalized specification requirements. m. Approved QCP, Applicable drawing, datasheets etc. H. COMMISSIONING & TESTING 1.1. General Requirement a. The Contractor shall provide sufficient number of competent commissioning & start-up personnel, specially identified, for the period commencing with start-up, extending through initial & trial operations, all testing, to placing the plant to full commercial operation up to the issue of Taking Over certificates. During this period, the Contractor shall provide all the consumable materials, tools and tackle, temporary equipment, tapping points, calibration devices, special test instruments etc. necessary for start60

up/pre-commissioning,

Commissioning,

trial

and

initial

operation,

Reliability Test and Performance Tests. The Owner shall associate his operators in shifts, as required, for commissioning & testing under the supervision and work instruction of Contractors commissioning & start -up personnel. All other labours, fitters etc. for starting, trial operation, initial operation, testing, repairs and adjustments shall be supplied by the Contractor. b. The Contractor shall start training the Owners personnel sufficiently in advance of Commissioning process and during the Commissioning & startup period to make them familiar with the Unit(s)/Plant and intended operation techniques and to ensure safe and efficient operation & maintenance of the Unit(s)/Plant after Taking Over. c. The Contractor shall inform the Owner about his programme of conducting Commissioning and operator training well in advance and this has to be agreed by the Owner at least three (3) months in advance of the commencement of the Commissioning process of the Unit(s)/Plant. d. The Contractor shall submit to the Owner, not later than 12 months from the date of Contract a proposed procedure for all the tests for approval. 1.2. Shop Test a. All plant equipment / items shall be tested at manufacturers works to ensure its compliance to Technical Specification, codes, standards, drawings, data sheets, etc prior to site delivery. The details of the test, test procedures, acceptance norms for the equipment / item shall be covered in Quality Control Plans which shall be finalised/approved/agreed and implemented.

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1.3. Pre-Commissioning a. On completion of erection of the equipment and before start-up, each item of the equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned by the Contractor and then inspected jointly by the Contractor and the Owner/Owners Engineer for correctness and completeness of installation and acceptability for start-up, leading to initial pre-commissioning tests at Site conducted by the Contractor. The list of pre-commissioning tests to be performed and the proposed start-up report formats shall be submitted by the Contractor to the Owner/Owners Engineer at least twelve (12) months before the scheduled date of initial start-up, which shall be mutually discussed and agreed and included in the Contractors quality assurance programme. The Contractor shall be responsible for carrying out all the pre-commissioning tests/checks, for which the Contractor shall specifically identify commissioning/start-up engineers. The checkouts/tests during the pre-commissioning period shall be programmed to follow the construction completion schedule. On completion of inspection, testing, checking, cleaning and after the pre-commissioning tests are satisfactorily over, the complete equipment shall be placed on trial run during which period the complete equipment shall be operated integral with sub-systems and supporting equipment as a complete Plant. b. During this period all adjustments and repairs, as required, shall be made by the Contractor. The plant/equipment may be shutdown, if necessary, to carry out such adjustments and repairs. On completion of satisfactory trial run, the plant /equipment shall be placed under initial operation. c. When the equipment is operating properly, its characteristics shall be recorded on the start-up report sheets by the Contractor. Start-up reports for all equipment shall be completed before the start of the Commissioning.

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1.4. Commissioning a. Upon completing pre-commissioning of all systems, sub systems, auto loops and integrity of the Plant as a whole, synchronization, trial operation and tuning shall be carried out. b. Once each Unit (generating set) along with its auxiliaries is established, the Contractor upon 15 days notice to the Owner shall conduct the Commissioning test. The Commissioning test is aimed to establish the performance of the Unit(s) / Plant steady-state operation at a required load level including full load and to provide base-line operating data. c. During this Commissioning period all necessary adjustments and final testing of all controls and protections shall be made by the Contractor by operating over the full load range enabling the Plant to be made ready for Reliability Tests and subsequently for Performance Tests. d. During this Commissioning period, the operational requirements, as mentioned elsewhere in the Technical Specification, are to be demonstrated to the full satisfaction of the Owner/Owners Engineer. e. All the necessary data, adjustments, repairs etc. made during this operation are to be recorded properly by the Contractor and submitted to the Owner/Owners Engineer for his verification prior to Reliability Tests and Performance Tests. f. The Unit(s)/Plant shall be considered to have been satisfactorily Commissioned when the performance of the Unit(s)/Plant at its rated capacity is established for 72 hours continuous operation. 1.5. Reliability Test a. Within two months of Commissioning of Unit(s)/Plant, the Contractor shall carryout the Reliability Test to the satisfaction of the Owner/Owners
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Engineer. The Unit(s)/Plant shall be on Reliability Test during which period all necessary adjustments shall be made while operating over the full load range enabling the Unit(s)/Plant to be made ready for Performance Test. b. The duration of the Reliability Test of each Unit for the Plant in the automatic position of control system under varying load shall be fourteen (14) days, out of which at least seventy-two (72) hours shall be in continuous operation on full load or any other duration as may be agreed to between Owner and the Contractor. c. The Unit(s)/Plant will be put on Reliability Test when the Owner/Owners Engineer is fully satisfied that the offered Unit(s)/Plant has been commissioned & fully proven with regard to its safety. d. The Unit(s)/Plant operation shall be continuous without any failure or interruption of any kind during this fourteen (14) days period. It will be required to operate the Unit(s)/Plant under various operating modes along with range of fuels as specified during this period. It is the Contractors responsibility to make the Unit(s)/Plant capable of running continuously for the 14 days period. For the period of Reliability Test, the time of operation with any load shall be counted. Minor interruptions not exceeding four (4) hours at a time caused during the continuous operation shall not affect the total duration of Reliability Test. However, if in the opinion of the Owner /Owners Engineer, the interruption is long (beyond 4 hrs), the Reliability Test shall be prolonged for the period of interruption. e. A Reliability Test report comprising observations and recordings of various parameters to be measured, in respect of the above Reliability Test shall be prepared by the Contractor. This report besides recording the details of start and finish of the Reliability Test and shall be signed by the Owner /Owners Engineer and the Contractor. The report shall have sheets, recording all the
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details of interruptions occurred, adjustments made and any minor repairs done during the Reliability Test. Based on the observations, necessary modifications/repairs to the plant shall be carried out by the Contractor to the full satisfaction of the Owner to enable the latter to accord permission to carry out Performance Test on the Unit(s) or the Plant. However, minor defects which do not endanger the safe operation of the equipment, shall not be considered as reasons for withholding the aforesaid permission. f. Should any major failure or interruption occur in any portion of the Unit(s)/Plant due to or arising from faulty design, materials, workmanship or omissions or incorrect erection, sufficient to prevent safe and full use of the Unit(s)/Plant, the Reliability Test shall be considered void and the Reliability Test period of 14 days shall recommence after the Contractor has remedied the cause of defect, without any cost implication to the Owner. In case of any alteration or redesign is required, it has to be discussed and approved by the Owner/Owners Engineer before implementation.

1.6. Performance Test And Taking Over a. After completion of satisfactory Reliability Test, the Contractor shall prepare the Unit(s)/Plant for Performance Test. The final tests for establishing the performance and guarantees shall be conducted at Site, by the Contractor. The Performance Tests shall be carried out for equipment & systems as specified in respective sections of the Technical Specification. The test shall be carried out on a mutually agreed date and completed not later than four (4) months after successful completion of Reliability Test or within such other period as may be mutually agreed between the Owner and the Contractor, within which period no de-rating of the equipment
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performance will be permitted. The performance measurements shall be undertaken with the plant set-up and operation in accordance with the recommendations of the Contractor for maximum Plant life and integrity. b. These tests shall be carried out by the Contractor to the requirements of the Owner/Owners Engineer. The Owner will provide the requisite load and fuel for the test free of cost. c. In case of delay in carrying out the Performance Test for reasons not attributable to the Owner, the Contractor shall be required to prove the specified performance guarantee without any de-rating / ageing factor. The Performance Tests shall be conducted by the Contractor in accordance with the codes and standards and the conditions listed in Section V of Technical Specifications. The Contractor shall submit the test procedure for Owners/Owners Engineers approval within twelve (12) months from the date of the Contract. This procedure shall indicate the tentative date & program, the arrangement & form of the tests, log sheets, duration, control periods, readings to be taken, number of observers required etc. and any other requirements in accordance with applied test code. All measuring & monitoring instruments shall be calibrated by the Contractor in a recognised laboratory not exceeding three (3) months prior to the date of test and shall furnish the certified calibration reports. All flow measuring devices (fuel, water or steam) and thermocouples with their indication shall be certified by an independent authority approved by the Owner/Owners Engineer. The Owner/Owners Engineer reserves the right to witness the calibration tests. Batch calibration shall not be acceptable. The class and accuracy of the instruments shall be as specified in the applicable code and the Technical Specifications. The Performance Tests shall be conducted at the specified load points, and as near the specified cycle conditions as practicable. The Owner shall apply proper corrections in calculations as elaborated in Performance
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Guarantee requirements enumerated in respective sections of this Technical Specification to take into account of deviations in conditions from those at which guarantees are furnished. d. All special test grade instruments, equipment, tools and tackle, required for the successful completion of the Performance Tests shall be provided free of cost by the Contractor. e. The guaranteed performance figures of the plant and equipment shall be established by the Contractor during these tests. The Contractor shall submit a detailed test report in the manner, already agreed to (as a part of test procedure) within one (1) month of completion of the test, for Owners/Owners Engineers approval. Should the Owners/Owners Engineers assessment of these tests show any deterioration from the guaranteed values or failed to meet the guaranteed requirements, the Contractor shall modify the equipment as required at no extra cost to enable it to meet the guarantees. In such case Performance Tests shall be repeated after the equipment is ready for retest. The entire cost of the repeated tests including the costs of fuel and consumables necessary to carry out the tests, less any revenue received by the Owner from electricity sales, to prove that the equipment meets the guarantees, shall be borne by the Contractor. However, if the Contractor is not able to demonstrate the guarantee even after the modifications within a reasonable period allowed by the Owner as mentioned in Volume-I, the Owner shall have the right to reject the equipment / system / plant thereof and to proceed with replacement of the Plant or any part thereof and the cost and expenses incurred by the Owner in connection therewith shall be paid to the Owner by the Contractor or accept the equipment / system / plant after levying Liquidated Damages. f. Six copies and one CD of copies of the test reports shall be furnished by the
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Contractor to the Owner backed up with jointly signed data sheets recorded during the test period. 1.7. Taking Over a. Upon successful completion of the Performance Test by the Contractor, the Owner shall issue to the Contractor a Taking Over certificate as a proof of the final acceptance of the equipment. Such certificate shall not

unreasonably be withheld nor will the Owner delay the issuance thereof on account of minor omissions or defects, which do not affect the commercial operation and/or cause any serious risk to the equipment. Such certificate shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations which otherwise survive, by the terms and conditions of the Contract after issuance of such certificates. I. SITE MANAGEMENT & INSURANCE 1.1. Site Services a. These services shall be rendered by the Contractor as part of the overall project management service. The services shall broadly include but not be limited to the following. b. Arranging material dispatch from the shop and transportation by rail, road, air or sea as applicable; transit insurance. c. Monitoring movement of materials as necessary with carriers, port clearance etc. from the time of dispatch F.O.R. works/F.O.B. port of shipment by the Contractor till receipt of the same at site. d. Unloading of materials at Railway Station/Railway Siding inside project area/air port/sea port, transportation to site store, assessment of lost/damaged items in transit and arranging insurance claims and arranging replacement of
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lost/damaged items. e. Taking custody of all the materials till the Plant is Taken Over by the Owner after complete erection and successful Commissioning, Reliability Test and Performance Tests. f. Comprehensive insurance for the Plant, equipment and materials. g. Transportation of materials to their respective places of erection and erection of the complete plant and equipment as supplied under this Technical Specification. h. Trial run and commissioning of individual equipment/sub-systems including supply of temporary equipment and services for chemical cleaning, steam blowing and trial run and Commissioning of the Plant as a whole to the satisfaction of the Owner, as well as Performance Tests. Provision for preservation of individual equipment after trail run and commissioning e.g. Nitrogen blanketing etc., as necessary. i. Supply and application of the final paints on all the equipment to be erected under this specification. j. Development of all skilled and unskilled manpower required for erection, supervision of erection, watch & ward, commissioning and other services to be rendered under this Technical Specification. k. Deployment of all erection tools &tackles, construction machinery, transportation vehicles and all other implements in adequate number, capacity and size. l. Supply of all consumables, e.g. welding electrodes, cleaning agents, diesel oil, lubricant etc. as well as materials required for steam blowing, temporary supports, scaffolding etc. as necessary. m. Construction of all civil, structural & architectural works, including construction of foundation for all equipment supplied as required, grouting
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of equipment on

foundation after alignment, and all other related activities

as detailed elsewhere. n. Obtaining approval of all statutory authorities e.g. Boiler Inspector, Factory Inspector, Inspector of Explosives etc. for respective portions of work as applicable o. Quality assurance of all work executed at site. p. Providing support services for the Contractors erection staff e.g. construction of site offices, temporary stores, residential accommodation and transport to work site for erection personnel, insurance cover, watch & ward for security and safety of the materials under the Contractor custody etc. as required. q. Maintaining proper documentation of all the site activities undertaken by the Contractor as per the proforma mutually agreed with the Owner. r. Providing Industrial Relations unit and Medical unit to take care of his erection staff. The Owner shall have no obligation in this regard. 1.2. Site Organisation a. The Contractor shall maintain a site organisation of adequate strength in respect of manpower, construction machinery and other implements at all times for smooth execution of the Contract. This organisation shall be reinforced from time to time, as required, to make up for slippages from the schedule without any commercial implication to the Owner. The site Organisation shall be headed by competent construction manager having sufficient authority to take decisions at site. b. A separate Quality Control Department shall be included in the site organisation with adequate number of competent quality control personnel, instruments etc. to ensure desired quality standards of all site-works.
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c. On signing of the Contract, the Contractor shall submit to the Owner a site organisation chart indicating the various levels of experts to be deployed on the job. The Owner reserves the right to reject or approve the list of personnel proposed by the Contractor. The persons, whose bio-data have been approved by the Owner, will have to be posted at site and deviations in this regard will not generally be permitted. d. The Contractor shall also submit to the Owner for approval a list of construction equipment, erection tools, tackle etc. prior to commencement of site activities. These tools or tackles shall not be removed from site without written permission of the Owner. 1.3. Site Facilities a. Contractors Central Administration Area i. The Contractor shall submit, drawing showing proposed locations of both his and his sub-contractors central office area together with any other temporary buildings associated with site administration. Car parks, cycle sheds, and access ways shall also be shown. b. Contractors Site Office Accommodation ii. Before the erection of any temporary site accommodation commences, the Contractor must obtain approval from the Owner of the size, type, condition, location, access and services proposed. The Owners approval shall be obtained before any accommodation is dismantled or removed from the site. The site office accommodations shall be reasonably maintained and suitably identified with the Contractors name and that of his site Engineer. c. Owners Office Accommodation iii. The Contractor shall provide, and pay all charges in connection with high quality site fully furnished and equipped office accommodation of the
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Owners Engineer and the Owners and Owners Engineers employees within the Contractors Central Administration Area. This accommodation should be based on the following: i. ii. iii. iv. v. An office for the Owners Project Manager. An office for the Owners Site Engineer. An office for Owners Engineer. A conference room. Office for thirty (30) Engineers and staff with drawing office facilities. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. Store/Drying room. Kitchen including cooking and food refrigeration equipment. Day rest room. Office furnishings. Photocopying and facsimile equipment, personal computers. Close access to suitable western style WC facilities.

d. This accommodation should be available for occupation by the Owner / Owner's Engineer within 4 weeks after the site access date. e. The office for the Owner / Owner's Engineer shall be adequate with all modern office gadgets and shall be with telecommunications facility. f. The above accommodation including all services (internal/external telecom, electricity & water), furniture and facilities shall be made available to the Owner by the Contractor at the latters cost and the facilities shall be to the approval of Owner. g. Telecommunication Facilities i. ii. The Contractor shall provide site telephone facilities for his staff. The Contractor shall state the proposed extent of supply for telephone facilities, indicating the number of lines to be connected on site for the
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duration of the Contract. iii. The Contractor shall obtain permission, from the appropriate authorities before any radio wave emanating system is used at the Site. This includes radio telephones and pagers, transreceivers, cordless and cellular telephones and such any other systems. The Contractor shall ensure that the radio communication systems do not cause interference to control and instrumentation and communication systems installed in the Unit already commissioned, if any..

h. Site Record Office 1. The Contractor shall maintain a suitably staffed records office to maintain updated records of all relevant documentation and test certificates and to see that these are available to meet obligations to all statutory bodies and to any commissioning committees, working parties or test teams which are established to meet the needs of the Contract. These records shall be maintained and retained until handover on completion of all works on Site and shall be subject to audit by the Owners Engineer. The relevant documents envisaged will include: a) Site Register for lifting appliances, cranes, slings, hooks, lifting beams and tackle for construction of the works either mobile or fixed. b) Site Register for lifting appliances, cranes, slings, hooks beams and tackle supplied as part of the permanent works. c) Scaffold Register. d) Commissioning documents. e) Test Certificates from works and site. i. ii. Civil Mechanical
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iii. iv.

Electrical Control and Instrumentation

f) Operation and Maintenance Instructions. g) Quality Assurance Documents. h) Site Register for all portable electrically powered apparatus and tools, both temporary and permanent. i) Site Registers of all modifications carried out during execution by deviating from the approved drawing giving modification number against each. Such modifications shall have to be authorized/approved by the Owner / Owners Engineer. j) Measurement, inspection & alignment protocols k) Mechanical completion protocol. l) Performance test protocols. m) Handing over/taking over protocols n) Final Acceptance Protocol. i. Canteen Facilities i. An automated food facility shall be provided for 250 persons at a time on the Site by the Contractor for the reasonable use of both his and his subcontractors employees, the Owner / Owner's Engineer and his staff. ii. There shall also be an appropriate canteen for professional managerial staff. The Contractor shall submit the details of his proposals for the canteen facilities for Owners approval. j. Site Security The Contractor shall furnish a schedule for security facilities for the site and temporary storage areas, including but not limited to: i. Road access gates manned during construction by uniformed security personnel.
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ii. iii. iv.

Gate control arrangements and search lights. Peripheral road and lighting. Security fencing: The location shall be agreed with the Owner. The type shall be proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Owners Engineer.

v.

A manned security building/stores/compound for receipt/temporary storage of equipment prior to erection.

The Contractor shall submit his proposed site security policy and procedures for the Owners approval. The Contractor shall have responsibility for the security of the site. Security for all or part of the site, on completion of the works, will be taken over by the Owner at a time to be agreed with the Owner. k. Contractors Storage Areas i. The Contractor shall submit details of proposed requirements of space for storage and construction facilities for the Owners approval. ii. The Contractor shall be responsible for provision of suitable temporary storage facilities including external hard standings. l. Sign Boards i. The erection of sign boards or posters will not be allowed without the Owners Engineers approval of the size, type, location, wording etc. 1.4. Site Health And Safety Management 1. The Contractor shall be responsible for: a. The management organisation for implementation of health and safety on site. b. The identification of site hazards and assessment of risks. c. The system of notifying all employees of the site safety plan, method statements and site safety rules.
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d. A schedule of safety meetings. The arrangements for site induction course, training and security. The arrangements for emergency plans, safety inspections and auditing. 2. The Contractor shall ensure the safety of all workmen, materials and equipment either belonging to him or to other working at site. He shall observe safety rules & codes applied by the Owner at site without exception. 3. The Contractor shall notify the Owner /of his intention to bring to site any equipment or material which may create hazard. The Owner shall have the right to prescribe the conditions under which such equipment or material may be handled or prohibit the use of the same for safety reasons. The Contractor shall abide by Owners decision in such cases. No claim for compensation due to such prohibition will be entertained by the Owner. 4. Storage of petroleum products & explosives for construction work shall be as per rules and regulation laid down in Petroleum Act, Explosive Act and Petroleum and Carbide of Calcium Manual. Approvals as necessary from Chief Inspector of Explosives or other statutory authorities shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. 5. The Contractor shall be responsible for safe storage of his and his subcontractors radioactive source. 6. All requisite tests & inspection of handling equipment, lifting tools & tackle shall be periodically done by the Contractor. Defective equipment shall be removed from service. Any equipment shall not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load. 7. All combustible waste and rubbish shall be collected and removed from the work site at least once each day. Use of undercoated canvas paper, corrugated paper, fabricated carton, plastic or other flammable materials shall be restricted to the minimum and promptly removed.
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8. The Contractor shall provide adequate number of fire protection equipment of the required types for his stores, office, temporary structures, labour colony etc. Personnel trained for fire-fighting shall be made available by the Contractor at site during the entire period of the Contract. 9. All electrical appliances used in the work shall be in goods working condition and shall be properly earthed. No maintenance work shall be carried out on live equipment. The Contractor shall maintain adequate number of qualified electricians to maintain his temporary electrical installation. 10.All workmen of the Contractor working in construction site shall wear safety helmets, safety boots and safety belts. The Contractor shall take appropriate insurance cover against accidents for his workmen as well as third party. 11.First Aid A central fully equipped first aid post shall be provided at site by the Contractor. The facilities shall comprise first aid personnel, including a registered/qualified nurse, the provision and manning of an ambulance, and the retention of the services of medical practitioners for advice and attendance where necessary. These arrangements shall not relieve the Contractor of any legal/statutory obligations. 1.5. Storage And Preservation i. The Contractor shall arrange for proper and safe storage of materials till the same are Taken Over by the Owner as per terms of the Contract. Manufacturers instructions for preservation shall be strictly followed. ii. All empty containers, packing materials, gunny bags, transport frames as also surplus and unused materials shall be the property of the Owner and returned to the Owner by the Contractor.
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1.6. Site Welding & Heat Treatment i. The Contractor shall submit detailed procedures and specification in respect of the following for the approval of Owner/ Owners Engineer: a. Welding and Brazing (codes, procedures and electrode specifications). b. Welders Qualification Test. c. Destructive and Non-Destructive Tests (DT/NDT). d. Pre/Post heating and stress relieving. e. Quality Assurance of Welding and Bracing. 1.7. Labour Management and Site Industrial Relations i. The Contractor shall be wholly and entirely responsible for establishing and maintaining a strategy for good labour management practices, good industrial relations and acceptable levels of labour productivity to achieve completion of the works within programme. A statement of this strategy must be submitted. ii. The Contractor shall establish to the satisfaction of the Owner/ Owners Engineer a site contractors Group, to determine site labour practices and ensure their effective implementation and observance by all concerned. The Owner/ Owners Engineer reserves the right to observe proceedings at Group meetings. iii. The Contractor, to the satisfaction of the Owner/ Owners Engineer shall employ a site industrial relations manager (together with any necessary staff) to support line management in operating an effective labour strategy and to collect and collate employment data covering all site workers. iv. The Contractor shall be required to promptly inform and advise the Owner/ Owners Engineer of all matters relating to the management of site labour affairs both current and anticipated. The Contractor and all his sub78

contractors shall also make available to the Owner/ Owners Engineer details of labour deployed, by occupation or trade, on each of the major site activities arranged so that manning levels involved in modules and elements set out are clearly identifiable. v. The appointment of all sub-contractors remains the responsibility of the Contractor including the assessment of their proposed site labour policies.

1.8. Site employment policies and practices a. The Contractor shall furnish full details of his own and his intended subcontractors proposed labour practices and policies for the employment of labour for site erection work, and the regulation of industrial relations on a multi-contractor project. b. Submission of such information shall in no way affect the Contractors obligations under the Contract, nor does it affect his responsibility for the adequate suitability of such proposals to meet the requirements of the contract, which responsibility remains entirely with the Contractor. c. The Contractor shall provide the following information: i. The Contractor shall detail the experience he has on managing Indian construction projects site-wise indicating the staffing, organisation, procedures, co-ordination, labour management matters etc. ii. Name of Company. (For Sub-contractors, type and extent of work let in the Sub-contract to be indicated.) iii. List the Employer Federations(s) or Association(s) of which the Contractor is a member. iv. The labour agreement(s) the Contractor will adhere to when employing labour on site.
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v.

The Contractors experience in operating Labour Agreements on major construction projects.

vi.

Details of any other types of payment, benefits or allowances which the Contractor anticipates making on site in addition to those determined by the relevant Labour Agreement.

vii.

The daily and weekly hours of work including all weekday and weekend overtime and shift work systems. The Contractors policy concerning the numbers of workforce representatives, their representational areas normally recognized for the works, together with a senior or works convenor and whether such appointments are a full time or some other basis. Indicate the facilities normally granted to workforce representatives on site.

viii.

ix.

The likely sources of labour supply and the numbers to be employed from the Contractors existing labour force and those to be recruited for the project. The anticipated percentage of local employees and non local employees should be provided.

x. xi.

Details of the intended method(s) of recruitment of the site workforce. A list of sub-contracts the Contractor intends to let for the purposes of labour supply.

xii.

A detailed graph of the build up and depletion of each of: a. Directly employed labour force b. Sub-contractors workforces.

xiii.

The Contractor shall indicate his policy assuring quality and competence of the labour and supervision and provide an outline of what skill testing will be carried out for the site works, how employees skill standards will be maintained throughout the Contract and the nature of any employee training he intends to provide for the
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project works. xiv. The Contractor shall state the intended supervisory ratio i.e. number of employees reporting to each foreman or supervisor of staff employees on site for each trade or group of employees on site. xv. The Contractor shall demonstrate how his supervision and other first line management are provided with acceptable conditions of employment in relation to the work people they supervise. xvi. The Contractor shall indicate any other factors he considers relevant to the manning of the works or of significance to the projects industrial relations.

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A. FLOW CHARTS OF POWER PLANT A. Schematic diagram of power plant

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B. Block Diagram of Power cycle

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C. Energy Conversion Cycle

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D. COAL TO ELECTRICITY

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E. Coal Handling & preparation

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A. TIME SCHEDULE

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A. COST ESTIMATE FOR SUPER CRITICAL POWER PLANT


Sr.No 100 200 300 401 401 402 403 404 404 404 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 500 501 505 600 Preliminary cost estimate for 3 X 660MW Preliminary investigation & survey Civil Works Mechanical Works Main Plant Steam generator with associated auxiliaries Turbo generator with associated auxiliaries Coal handling Plant Ash Handling Plant Water System Sea Water Intake including intake piping and outfall Water treatment plant( Desalination & DM) Cooling tower including pumps LP & CW piping including valves, specialities and fittings Air conditioning system and ventilation system Fire protection system Cranes/ Hoisting Equipments Compressed air System Miscellaneous Equipments, tanks, Piping, Insulation etc Sub Total GRAND TOTAL MECHANICAL Electrical Works Electrical cost AS PER ROW Cost of transmission line & plant instrument & control Lumpsum Total works Cost ( Prelims+ civil + mech+ elec+ C& I) Total Project Cost 200 180 160 65 20 60 10 13 19.4 5367.4 5367.4 350 300 200 7019.9 7019.9 2.85% 2.56% 2.28% 0.93% 0.28% 0.85% 0.14% 0.19% 0.28% 76.46% 76.46% 4.99% 4.27% 2.85% 100.00% 100.00% 2500 1400 480 260 35.61% 19.94% 6.84% 3.70% Cost ( Crore ) 2.5 800 % Cost 0.04% 11.40%

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B. COST BREAK UP OF SUPER CRITICAL POWER PLANT


S.No 1 a b 2 a b 3 4 5 COST BREAK UP Supply Of Main Plant Equipment System Supercritical Boiler Including Auxiliaries Supercritical STG & Auxiliaries Supply of BOP Equipment System Other mechanical Equipment System Electrical Equipment System and C&I Engineering & Project management Erection & commissioning Civil Works 1467.4 850 351 352 800 4% 4% 9% 2500 1400 2317.4 26% COST (Crore) 3900 % Total cost (9023 Crores) 43%

Total

7720.4

86%

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C. COMPARISON OF BOILERS

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D. COST COMPARISON OF BTG PER MW


COST COMPARISON
660 MW vs. 500 MW

FOR

DESCRIPTION
1.

660 MW 1970.73 Cr 153.00 Cr

500 MW 1020.54 Cr Included above

Cost 1 of Boiler alone

2 Cost of ESP

3 Total cost of Boiler + ESP 4 Boiler cost Per MW


5 Cost of TG for entire stage

2124.00 Cr 1.07 Cr
1204.72 Cr

1020.54 Cr 1.02 Cr
634.31 Cr

6 Cost of TG Per MW

0.6Cr

0.63 Cr

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SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Growing economies always need a proportional need for power. Country likeIndia has a required growth in power sector close to 15 %. In order to matchthe accelerated need of country, there is urgent need is to take the challenge tosqueeze the time and cost required to complete a coal based power project. Ifsome more R&Ds could fetch some reductions in total costs and couldincrease operating efficiencies, it would be a great relief to fund hungry powerprojects.

We should go for large size projects which are more efficient and lesspolluting than several smaller units. One more field which needs to beprioritized is Risk management and project management that play a verycrucial role in carrying out such big projects.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY www.cea.nic.in www.ntpc.co.in http://www.worldenergy.org/ www.google.com http://en.wikipedia.org/ Project management Handbook ACU Natianal

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