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Los conectores discursivos en ingls

Los conectores discursivos son adverbios y conjunciones que ayudan a relacionar las diferentes ideas que constituyen un texto o una intervencin oral. Se trata de relaciones temporales, de causa y efecto, de contraste y de comparacin, etc. En la leccin de hoy dedicaremos tiempo a estas pequeas palabras que nos permiten articular nuestro discurso y transmitir nuestro mensaje con claridad. Los conectores en ingls se agrupan en diferentes categoras. En cada categora distinguiremos entre los conectores ms habituales y los de registro formal: 1. Conectores que indican la secuenciacin de las ideas o de los argumentos: Registro neutro: first, then, next, at the same time, finally, in the end First, watching TV every day is bad for your eyes. Second, watching TV is really a waste of time. Registro formal: firstly, secondly, thirdly, simultaneously, subsequently, lastly Subsequently, the disease spread to the rest of the village. 2. Conectores para aadir informacin o argumentos a una afirmacin anterior: Registro neutro: and, also / too, besides, what is more, as well I dont have a mobile phone. What is more, I totally dislike modern technology. Registro formal: moreover, in addition, furthermore He has been appointed Prime Minister. Furthermore, this popularity with the voters is at its highest. 3. Conectores para expresar un contraste con una afirmacin anterior: Registro neutro: although, though, even though, however, despite, inspite of, but I was tired. However, I went jogging. Registro formal: on the one hand / on the other hand, by contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, yet On the one hand, children eat lots of sweets. On the other hand, they do not do enough exercise to burn those extra calories. 4. Conectores para corregir o dar otro enfoque a una afirmacin anterior: Registro neutro: actually, in fact The weather was awful. Actually, it rained every day. Registro formal: as a matter of fact, in reality I didnt pass the exam. As a matter of fact, I failed with the lowest mark in the class. 5. Conectores para introducir ejemplos o especificaciones: Registro neutro: such as, like, this means that, namely Paintings by Impressionist artist such as Manet and Monet can be seen in the Orsay Museum in Paris. Registro formal: for example, for instance, that is to say, in other words We cannot continue losing money. That is to say, unless we start making profit soon, we will be out of business by the end of the year. 6. Conectores para indicar el resultado o las consecuencias de algo: Registro neutro: so, consequently, as a result They have hired new teachers and consequently they can offer new classes. Registro formal: therefore, thus, hence, thereby, accordingly The evidence has disappeared. Thus, it will be impossible for the police to continue their investigation. 7. Conectores para concluir: Registro neutro: to sum up, in short, briefly To sum up, we need to take urgent measures against corruption in our party.

Registro formal: in conclusion, in summary In conclusion, todays economic crisis is mostly due to financial speculation. 2. CONECTORES LINGSTICO EN INGLS POR CATEGORAS

2.1. Hablando sobre el presente, la actualidad


Hoy en da: Nowadays Actualmente: Currently, at present, at the present time, now, these days, in this day and age

2.2. Hablando sobre el pasado


Hace mucho tiempo: A long time ago En la antiguedad: In ancient times Hace poco tiempo: Not long ago En tiempos pasados: In former times Antiguamente: Formerly En los viejos tiempos: In the old days

2.3. Dando un ejemplo o una razn adicional


Adems: in addition, whats more, besides, furthermore, moreover Adems de esto: Besides this Tambin: Also, besides Es ms: Moreover Lo que es ms: Whats more

2.4. Diciendo la verdad


Para decir la verdad, para ser sincero: To tell the truth En realidad, a decir verdad: In fact Realmente, en realidad: Actually*

*NOTA: Actually no debe confundirse con actualmente. Para tal fin es ms comn utilizar los ejemplos del apartado 2.1.

2.5. Dando informacin en contra de las expectativas


Sin embargo, no obstante: However, nevertheless, all the same, still An as: Even so A pesar de que, a pesar de todo: notwithstanding, all the same, still, regardless

2.6. Mostrando el lado positivo y negativo de un asunto


Afortunadamente, por fortuna: Fortunately, happily Felizmente, alegremente: Happily Desafortunadamente, desgraciadamente: Unfortunately, sadly Tristemente: Sadly

2.7. Aportando similitudes y diferencias


Igualmente: Likewise Del mismo modo: In the same way, similarly Por otra parte, por otro lado: On the other hand, in contrast De todos modos: Anyway

2.8. Declarando que algo es cierto o probablemente cierto


Obviamente, evidentemente: Obviously Indudablemente: Undoubtedly Seguramente: Surely Verdaderamente, en realidad, en efecto: Indeed Claramente, aparenetemente, al parecer: Apparently Posiblemente: Possibly

2.9. Mostrando una conclusin, consecuencia o un resultado directo


Por lo tanto, por consiguiente: Therefore Consecuentemente, por consiguiente: Consequently En consecuencia, as: Thus, as a result

Los conectores o conjunciones son palabras que usamos para unir dos o ms frases o dos palabras dentro de la misma oracin. Aqu tienes los conectores ms comunes agrupados en categoras.

Copulativos: and, not only but also , not only but as well, both and , no sooner than Disyuntivos: or, either or , neither nor , whether or , else, otherwise Condicionales: if, whether, unless, provided, providing, as long as, in case, in case of Concesivos: although, though, even though, even if, despite, in spite of, not even if, regardless of

Conclusivos: therefore, hence, thus, so, consequently Continuativos: then, moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to Adversativos: but, however, nonetheless, yet, still, on the other hand, instead, instead of, on the contrary Causales: because, for, because of, as a result of, due to, owing to, since, as Comparativos: as, as as , not as as , not so as , just as so , as if, as though Funcionales: so, so that, so as to, so as not to, in order to

actually: en realidad, exactamente although: aunque, a pesar de and: y as: como, tal como as... as...: tan como beacuse: porque, a causa de because of: debido a both and : tanto como but: pero consequently: por consiguiente finally: al fin, finalmente for: ya que, pues however: no obstante, ahora bien if: si in adittion to: adems in case of: en caso de in order to: con el fin de

just as so : as como... like: como maybe: quizs, a lo mejor moreover: adems not only but also : no slo sino que tambin now: ahora bien on the other hand: por otro lado on time: a tiempo only: slo que or: o, ni otherwise: de otro modo perhaps: quizs really: realmente since: ya que, puesto que so that: a fin de que so then: por tanto so: tan, as que still: no obstante, todava then: entonces, luego therefore: por lo tanto unless: a menos que until: hasta que while: mientras que, en tanto que yet: sin embargo

Copulativos and, not only but also , not only but as well, both and , no sooner than

Disyuntivos or, either or , neither nor , whether or , else, otherwise

Condicionales if, whether, unless, provided, providing, as long as, in case, in case of

Concesivos although, though, even though, even if, despite, in spite of, not even if, regardless of

Conclusivos therefore, hence, thus, so, consequently

Continuativos then, moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to

Adversativos but, however, nonetheless, yet, still, on the other hand, instead, instead of, on the contrary

Causales because, for, because of, as a result of, due to, owing to, since, as

Comparativos as, as as , not as as , not so as , just as so , as if, as though

Funcionales so, so that, so as to, so as not to, in order to

a corto plazo: as soon as possible

a decir verdad: actually; in fact; to tell the truth

a deshora: at an unusual time; very late

a diario: day in day out; everyday

a fin de cuentas: finally

a intervalos: on and off

a la intemperie: in the open air; out of doors

al fin: at last

a la vez: at the same time

a lo mejor: maybe; perhaps

a mi parecer: in my opinion

a pesar de: despite; in spite of

a pesar de todo: all the same; despite everything

a tiempo: just in time; on time

a ttulo de ejemplo: as an example; by way of example

a ttulo de informacin: by way of information

a toda costa: at all costs

a todas luces: anyway you look at it; clearly; evidently; obviously

a travs: trough

a travs de los tiempos: through the ages

a ltima hora: at the eleventh hour; at the last minute; at the last moment

a veces: at times; sometimes

a ltima hora: at the last moment

actualmente: currently

adems: in addition; moreover

al azar: at random

al fin: finally; in the end; in conclussion

al parecer: apparently

al principio: at the begginning; ath the start

al revs: backwards

ambos (ninguno): both (neither)

ante m: in my presence

ante todo: above all; before all else

antes: before; earlier; previously

aparentemente: apparently

a parte de esto: apart from this

as: as; thus

as y todo: and yet; just the same

an: still

an as: even so

aunque: although; even though

aunque no lo parezca: incredible as it may seem

aunque parece extrao: curiosly enough

aunque sea cierto / verdad: although this may be true bajo ningn concepto: not at all; on no account

bajo ningn motivo: on no account; under no circumstances

bajo todos los conceptos: from every point of view; in every respect

bueno: well asi: almost

cerca: near; nearly

ciertamente: certainly

claramente: clearly

como: like

como consecuencia: as a result

como corresponde: as is only fair

como ejemplo: as an example

como quiera que sea: however it be; in any case

como remate: to top it all

como resultado: as a result

como se dice: as the saying goes

como si dijramos: as it were; so to speak

como ltimo recurso: as a last resort

como sea: at all costs

completamente: absolutely

completamente de acuerdo: absolutely

con buen fin: with good intentions

con detenimiento: at length

con efecto: actually; in effect; really

con el tiempo: in the course of time; in time; with time

con esa finalidad: to that end

con ese fin: to that end; with that end in view

con ese motivo: as a result

con este fin: for this purpose; to this end; with this aim

con este motivo: for this reason

con este propsito: for this purpose

con ms motivo: even more so

con mayor razn: with all the more reason

con todo: after all; all in all; on the whole; still

consecuentemente: accordingly; consequently

contrario a: opposite

cuanto antes: as soon as possible

cueste lo que cueste: at all costs LA REDACCION DE INGLES ESPECIFICO


Hay que tener en cuenta que en la tercera parte del examen de ingles especifico (production) lo unico que te piden es una redaccion de aproximadamente 100 palabras. Asi que nos hace falta un buen mapa para tener claro las frases principales que no debemos olvidar y que nos van a ayudar a comenzar las frases de la redaccion y llegar rapidamente a las 100 palabras que nos piden. Un ejemplo sencillo de mapa seria algo asi como:

PRESENTACION ARGUMENTACION CONCLUSION

Veamos algunos ejemplos. Las frases subrayadas son las frases que os decia antes y el resto son slo un ejemplo para que le veais la forma de como quedara. La importancia de leer/ The importance of reading

PRESENTACION

In this written exercise I am going to talk about the importance of reading. Otra forma seria: I would like to take advantage of the opportunity that I have today with this written exercise to talk about

ARGUMENTACION

What can we do to find a solution for this problem? What can we do about it? (Son preguntas retricas q podemos colar en casi cualquier redaccin) From my personal point of viewthere are a lot of reasons to say that reading is really important in these days, and I also think that The first one is. blah blah blah. The second one is. blah blah blah. At last it develops our imagination, we adquire culture, to gain knowledge for example. On the other hand, and to be honest about it, I would like to say that blah blah blah.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion and as a final summary i would like to encourage everybody to read as much as possible. Otra sera: Finally, and as a personal conclusion, I would not like to forget