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DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. ELECTRICITY - The science dealing with the physical phenomena arising from the existence and interaction of electric charges. 2. DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY - Dynamic electricity is the flow of electric charges through a conductor; in other words, an electric current. 3. STATIC ELECTRICITY - Static electricity is the result of an accumulation of electric charges that occurs when two non-metallic objects rub against each other: for example, when we rub a balloon and it sticks to the wall. Electrons jump from one object to the other, causing a positive charge in one and a negative charge in the other. 4. BATTERY A group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current. a. PRIMARY BATTERIES - Disposable (or "primary") batteries typically lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at room temperature (2030C).This is known as the "self discharge" rate, and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions which occur within the cell even if no load is applied. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at lower temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low working temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery, this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts. b. SECONDARY BATTERIES - Storage life of secondary batteries is limited by chemical reactions that occur between the battery parts and the electrolyte; these are called "side reactions". Internal parts may corrode and fail, or the active materials may be slowly converted to inactive forms. Since the active material on the battery plates changes chemical composition on each charge and discharge cycle, active material may be lost due to physical changes of volume; this may limit the cycle life of the battery.

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5. ALTERNATING CURRENT - electricity is the type of electricity commonly used in homes and businesses throughout the world. While direct current (DC) electricity flows in one direction through a wire, AC electricity alternates its direction in a back-and-forth motion. The direction alternates between 50 and 60 times per second, depending on the electrical system of the country.

6. DIRECT CURRENT - DC electricity is the continuous movement of electrons from an area of negative () charges to an area of positive (+) charges through a conducting material such as a metal wire. Whereas static electricity sparks consist of the sudden movement of electrons from a negative to positive surface, DC electricity is the continuous movement of the electrons through a wire. 7. OHMS LAW The law that for any circuit the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. I = V/R 8. SHORT CIRCUIT An abnormal, usually accidental condition of low resistance between two points in an electric circuit resulting in a flow of excess currents. 9. CIRCUIT - An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors,transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another. Circuits can be constructed of discrete components connected by individual pieces of wire, but today it is much more common to create interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a printed circuit board or PCB) and solder the components to these interconnections to create a finished circuit. In an integrated circuit or IC, the components and interconnections are formed on the same substrate, typically a semiconductor such as silicon or (less commonly) gallium arsenide. 10. AMPACITY - is a portmanteau for ampere capacity defined by National Electrical Safety Codes, in some North American countries. Ampacity is defined as the maximum amount of electrical current a conductor or device can carry before sustaining immediate or progressive deterioration. Also described as current rating or current-carrying capacity, ampacity is the RMS electric current which a device or conductor can continuously carry while remaining within its temperature rating. Assignment Number 2. Page 2

R E F E R E N C E S
A Visual Dictionary of Architecture by Francis D. K. Ching http://www.hydroquebec.com/learning/notions-de-base/pop-atome-statique-dynamique.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_(electricity)#Primary_batteries_2 http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/dc.htm http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/ac.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampacity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_circuit

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