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Introduction to python: Python is a high-level general purpose programming language.

Because code is automatically compiled to byte code and executed, Python is suitable for use as a scripting language, Web application implementation language, etc. Importance of python:

Built-in high level data types: strings, lists, dictionaries, etc. The usual control structures: if, elif, else, while, plus a powerful collection iterator (for). Multiple levels of organizational structure: functions, classes, modules, and pac ages. These assist in organizing code. !n e"cellent and large e"ample is the #ython standard li$rary. %ompile on the fly to $yte code -- &ource code is compiled to $yte code without a separate compile step. &ource code modules can also $e 'pre-compiled' to $yte code files.
Statements: Print: The print statement sends output to stdout .
EX: print obj O/p:obj

Import: (These are just like ur import in java )


The import statement makes a module and its contents available for use.
---- import test mport module test. !efer to x in test "ith #test.x#.

---- from test import x mport x from test. !efer to x in test "ith #x#. ----- from test import * mport all ob$ects from test. !efer to x in test "ith #x#. This form of import is usually not recommended.

FUNCTIONS:

(se def to define a function. )ere is a simple e"ample:


def test(ms ! "ount): for idx in ran e("ount):

print #$s $d# $ (ms ! idx) test(#Test %#! &)

%omments: (this is for the a$ove program )


!fter evaluation def creates a function o$*ect. %all the function using the parentheses function call notation, in this case 'test(#Test %#! &)'. !s with other #ython o$*ects, you can stuff a function o$*ect into other structures such as tuples, lists, and dictionaries. )ere is an e"ample:
% 'reate a tuple: val ( (test! #) label:#! *) % 'all the fun"tion: val+,-(val+.-! val+/-)

2.5.1.2 A function with default arguments


#roviding default arguments allows the caller to omit some arguments. )ere is an e"ample:
def test0efault)r s(ar .(#default.#! ar /(#default/#): print #ar .:#! ar . print #ar /:#! ar / test0efault)r s(#Expli"it value#)

The a$ove e"ample prints:


ar .: Expli"it value ar /: default/ 1234T 35 625'T3O57: Function: 3n pro rammin a fun"tion is a portion of "ode 8ith in a lar er pro ram 8hi"h performs a spe"ifi" task 8hi"h is relativel9 independent of 8ritin "ode. :rint(;hello<) 3t prints the text. o/p: hello abs

x )

+eturn the a$solute value of a num$er. The argument may $e a plain or long integer or a floating point num$er. ,f the argument is a comple" num$er, its magnitude is returned.
cmp

x, y)

%ompare the two o$*ects x and y and return an integer according to the outcome. The return value is negative if x = y, zero if x (( y and strictly positive if x > y. float(-x. ) %onvert a string or a num$er to floating point. list -sequence.) ( +eturn a list whose items are the same and in the same order as sequence/s items. 0or instance, list(#ab"#) returns +#a#! #b#! #"#- and list( (.! /! ?) ) returns +.! /! ?-. ,f no argument is given, returns a new empty list, +-. raw_input(-prompt.) ,f the prompt argument is present, it is written to standard output without a trailing newline. The function then reads a line from input, converts it to a string (stripping a trailing newline), and returns that. round(x-, n.) +eturn the floating point value x rounded to n digits after the decimal point. ,f n is omitted, it defaults to zero. The result is a floating point num$er. 1alues are rounded to the closest multiple of 23 to the power minus n4 if two multiples are e5ually close, rounding is done away from 3 (so. for e"ample, round(,.*) is .., and round(-,.*) is -..,). len s) ( +eturn the length (the num$er of items) of an o$*ect.

try-except and raise -- Exceptions


(se a tr9:ex"ept: $loc to catch an e"ception. (se raise to raise an e"ception. %omments and hints:

%atch all exceptions "ith a #bare# ex"ept:. &or example:


>>> tr9: ... x ( 9 ... ex"ept: ... print #9 not defined# ... 9 not defined

6ote, however, that it is usually $etter to catch specific e"ceptions.

%atch a specific error by refering to an exception class in the ex"ept:. To determine "hat error or exception you "ant to catch, generate it and try it. Because Python reports errors "ith a "alk-back that ends "ith reporting the exception, you can learn "hich exception to catch. &or example, suppose "ant to learn "hich exception is thro"n "hen a Python can't open a file. can try the follo"ing from the interactive prompt:
5ote that multiple ex"eptions to be "au ht b9 a sin le ex"ept: "lause are in parentheses@ the9 are a tuple. (ou can customi)e your error handling still further by passing an ob$ect on the raise and catching that ob$ect in the ex"ept:. By doing so, you can pass information up from the raise statement to an exception handler. *ne "ay of doing this is to pass an ob$ect.

+ reasonable strategy is to define a sub-class of a standard exception. &or example:

f you catch an exception using tr9:ex"ept:, but then find that you do not "ant to handle the exception at that location, you can #re-raise# the same exception ,"ith the same arguments- by using raise "ith no arguments.

Frameworks
The process of creating code to run we$ sites involves writing code to provide various services. The code to provide a particular service often wor s the same way regardless of the comple"ity or purpose of the we$ site in 5uestion. !$stracting these common solutions into reusa$le code produces what are called 7framewor s8 for we$ development. #erhaps the most well- nown framewor for we$ development is +u$y on +ails, $ut #ython has its own framewor s. &ome of these were partly inspired $y +ails, or $orrowed ideas from +ails, $ut many e"isted a long time $efore +ails. 9riginally #ython we$ framewor s tended to incorporate all of the services needed to develop we$ sites as a giant, integrated set of tools. 6o two we$ framewor s were interopera$le: a program developed for one could not $e deployed on a different one without considera$le reengineering wor . This led to the development of 7minimalist8 we$ framewor s that provided *ust the tools to communicate $etween the #ython code and the http protocol, with all other services to $e added on top via separate components. &ome ad hoc standards were developed that allowed for limited interopera$ility $etween framewor s, such as a standard that allowed different template engines to $e used interchangea$ly. &ince the advent of :&;,, the #ython we$ framewor world has $een evolving toward interopera$ility $ased on the :&;, standard. 6ow many we$ framewor s, whether 7full stac 8 (providing all the tools one needs to deploy the most comple" we$ sites) or minimalist, or anything in $etween, are $uilt from collections of reusa$le components that can $e used with more than one framewor . The ma*ority of users will pro$a$ly want to select a 7full stac 8 framewor that has an active community. These framewor s tend to $e well documented, and provide the easiest path to producing a fully functional we$ site in minimal time.

Some notable frameworks

There are an incredi$le num$er of framewor s, so they cannot all $e covered here. ,nstead we will $riefly touch on some of the most popular.
Django

<*ango is a framewor consisting of several tightly coupled elements which were written from scratch and wor together very well. ,t includes an 9+M which is 5uite powerful while $eing simple to use, and has a great online administration interface which ma es it possi$le to edit the data in the data$ase with a $rowser. The template engine is te"t-$ased and is designed to $e usa$le for page designers who cannot write #ython. ,t supports template inheritance and filters (which wor li e (ni" pipes). <*ango has many handy features $undled, such as creation of +&& feeds or generic views, which ma e it possi$le to create we$ sites almost without writing any #ython code. ,t has a $ig, international community, the mem$ers of which have created many we$ sites. There are also a lot of add-on pro*ects which e"tend <*ango=s normal functionality. This is partly due to <*ango=s well written online documentation and the <*ango $oo . 6ote !lthough <*ango is an M1%-style framewor , it names the elements differently, which is descri$ed in the <*ango 0!>.
TurboGears

!nother popular we$ framewor for #ython is Tur$o;ears. Tur$o;ears ta es the approach of using already e"isting components and com$ining them with glue code to create a seamless e"perience. Tur$o;ears gives the user fle"i$ility in choosing components. 0or e"ample the 9+M and template engine can $e changed to use pac ages different from those used $y default. The documentation can $e found in the Tur$o;ears wi i, where lin s to screencasts can $e found. Tur$o;ears has also an active user community which can respond to most related 5uestions. There is also a Tur$o;ears $oo pu$lished, which is a good starting point. The newest version of Tur$o;ears, version ?.3, moves even further in direction of :&;, support and a component-$ased architecture. Tur$o;ears ? is $ased on the :&;, stac of another popular component-$ased we$ framewor , #ylons.
Zope

The @ope framewor is one of the 7old original8 framewor s. ,ts current incarnation in @ope? is a tightly integrated full-stac framewor . 9ne of its most interesting feature is its tight integration with a powerful o$*ect data$ase called the @9<B (@ope 9$*ect <ata$ase). Because of its highly integrated nature, @ope wound up in a somewhat isolated ecosystem: code written for @ope wasn=t very usa$le outside of @ope, and vice-versa. To solve this pro$lem the @ope A effort was started. @ope A re-engineers @ope as a set of more cleanly isolated components. This

effort was started $efore the advent of the :&;, standard, $ut there is :&;, support for @ope A from the +epoze pro*ect. @ope components have many years of production use $ehind them, and the @ope A pro*ect gives access to these components to the wider #ython community. There is even a separate framewor $ased on the @ope components: ;ro . @ope is also the infrastructure used $y the #lone content management system, one of the most powerful and popular content management systems availa$le.
Other notable frameworks

9f course these are not the only framewor s that are availa$le. There are many other framewor s worth mentioning. !nother framewor that=s already $een mentioned is #ylons. #ylons is much li e Tur$o;ears, $ut with an even stronger emphasis on fle"i$ility, which comes at the cost of $eing more difficult to use. 6early every component can $e e"changed, which ma es it necessary to use the documentation of every single component, of which there are many. #ylons $uilds upon #aste, an e"tensive set of tools which are handy for :&;,.

Modules
,f you 5uit from the #ython interpreter and enter it again, the definitions you have made (functions and varia$les) are lost. Therefore, if you want to write a somewhat longer program, you are $etter off using a te"t editor to prepare the input for the interpreter and running it with that file as input instead. This is nown as creating a script. !s your program gets longer, you may want to split it into several files for easier maintenance. Bou may also want to use a handy function that you=ve written in several programs without copying its definition into each program. To support this, #ython has a way to put definitions in a file and use them in a script or in an interactive instance of the interpreter. &uch a file is called a module4 definitions from a module can $e imported into other modules or into the main module (the collection of varia$les that you have access to in a script e"ecuted at the top level and in calculator mode). ! module is a file containing #ython definitions and statements. The file name is the module name with the suffi" .py appended. :ithin a module, the module=s name (as a string) is availa$le as the value of the glo$al varia$le CCnameCC. 0or instance, use your favorite te"t editor to create a file called fi$o.py in the current directory with the following contents:
% 6ibona""i numbers module def fib(n): % 8rite 6ibona""i series up to n a! b ( ,! . 8hile b = n: print b! a! b ( b! aAb

def fib/(n): % return 6ibona""i series up to n result ( +a! b ( ,! . 8hile b = n: result.append(b) a! b ( b! aAb return result

6ow enter the #ython interpreter and import this module with the following command:
>>> import fibo

This does not enter the names of the functions defined in fibo directly in the current sym$ol ta$le4 it only enters the module name fibo there. (sing the module name you can access the functions:
>>> fibo.fib(.,,,) . . / ? * B .? /. ?& ** BC .&& /?? ?DD E., CBD >>> fibo.fib/(.,,) +.! .! /! ?! *! B! .?! /.! ?&! **! BC>>> fibo.FFnameFF #fibo#

DDD 0or methods it is *ust as the *ava or oop concepts DDDD

Everything here is related to the concepts of 99# . Because this is a related to 99#& concept. ,t is a high level language .