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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006

791

Short-Term Voltage Instability: Effects on Synchronous and Induction Machines

Emmanuel G. Potamianakis and Costas D. Vournas, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—This paper discusses a few aspects of short-term voltage instability: modeling of transient overexcitation limiters of synchronous generators; possible outcomes of instability, such as induction motor stalling, or generator loss of synchronism leading to a local blackout; eigenvalue tracking and use of eigenvector to identify and characterize the instability mode; and finally, induction motor disconnection to counteract short-term voltage instability. Results on a system with large penetration of induction wind generators, as well as on a small test system, commonly used in voltage stability studies, are included.

Index Terms—Eigenvalue tracking, eigenvector analysis, induc- tion motor stalling, loss of synchronism, overexcitation limiter, voltage stability.

I. INTRODUCTION

S HORT-TERM voltage stability as defined in [1]–[3] and [12] is relatively less well known than its more traditional

long-term counterpart, mainly because there are not as many well-documented incidents of short-term voltage instability as long-term ones. However, several factors, such as increasing proportion of air conditioning and in general induction motor load, growing penetration of dispersed generation consuming reactive power without voltage control, increased use of various types of elec- tronically controlled loads, and finally, introduction of HVDC ties linking weak areas, point out at an increasing risk of voltage instability in the short term. It was even suggested that part of the problems that led to the recent North American blackout of August 2003 might be linked to short-term voltage instability. Voltage instability on the short term is driven by fast recov- ering load components that tend to restore power consumption in the time scale of a second after a voltage drop caused by a con- tingency. A typical such component is the induction motor. The active power consumption of an induction motor restores almost to constant power after a voltage drop [3]. Moreover, if the dis- turbance is such that the electrical torque cannot overcome the mechanical load, the motor stalls, i.e., it decelerates, absorbing a high reactive current, thus precipitating a further voltage drop and occasionally a voltage collapse. Induction generators produce active power, but similarly to motors, they consume reactive power. In new wind farm

Manuscript received September 6, 2005; revised January 5, 2006. This work was supported in part by the EU Programs Dispower and MicroGrids. Paper no.

TPWRS-00564-2005.

The authors are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Na- tional Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens 100 22, Greece (e-mail:

manpot@power.ece.ntua.gr; vournas@power.ece.ntua.gr). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRS.2006.873022

installations, the trend is to use variable speed wind generators, which are controlled through power electronics converters and are thus able to regulate their own voltage by producing reactive power. However, many existing installations of wind farms in Greece and several other countries continue to be based on simple, uncontrolled (constant speed) induction generators. These machines behave in terms of voltage stability similarly to induction motors, with the difference being that when the torque equilibrium is lost, due for instance to a sustained voltage drop, the generator tends to overaccelerate instead of stalling. Thus, even if not literally a load, the induction generator is a factor contributing to short-term voltage instability. Induction machines are usually shunt-capacitor compensated to improve their power factor. The reactive support provided by shunt capacitors varies with the square of the voltage, and consequently, during a voltage drop, reactive support is greatly reduced. Thus, in order to avoid induction machine instability, dynamic and fast reactive compensation, such as provided by an SVC or a STATCOM, may become necessary [13]. Although voltage instability in the cases discussed in this paper is driven by induction machine loss of equilibrium, the latter is not likely to happen unless the voltage support pro- vided by local synchronous generators is lost or reduced. This is usually the result of rotor current limitation brought about by the overexcitation limiter (OEL) of the synchronous machine. Usually the OEL acts as a slow device allowing the transient overexcitation of the generator for about 20 s before actually en- forcing the rotor current limit. In this case, other control mech- anisms, such as load tap changers (LTCs) have time to act, and the voltage stability problem becomes a long-term one. How- ever, even transient overexcitation is not allowed above an in- stantaneous limit that must be enforced in the short term, i.e., in a fraction of a second. When this limit is overstepped, for instance, after a severe contingency, or if it is inappropriately set to a relatively low value, a short-term voltage stability problem can arise. Thus, in Section II, we review OEL models and in particular the mechanism of applying the fast overexcitation limit. In case of induction motor stalling or generator overspeed, protection equipment will normally disconnect the affected machine, thus relieving the system from the instability. It is noted, however, that small motors, in particular, are protected by thermal elements and may thus remain on stalled con- ditions for several seconds. In such and other similar cases, there is a danger that during the short-term instability phase and before protection equipment has the time to act, nearby synchronous machines may lose synchronism, thus leading to a local blackout.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 791 Short-Term Voltage Instability: Effects

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006

In the rst system examined in [13] and presented here in Sec- tion III, short-term instability is contained to induction machines only, while the synchronous generators remain in synchronism. In Section IV, we will show a short-term voltage instability case followed by loss of synchronism. In this latter case, time-do- main simulations cannot provide a clear distinction between in- duction motor and synchronous generator instability. It is thus necessary to develop special tools and in particular an eigen- value tracking routine, which together with eigenvector and par- ticipation factor analysis is used to identify the components and systems variables involved in the instability. Section V provides the modal analysis of the system in case of local generator transient eld limitation. Section VI presents the linearization of the system during simulation (online lin- earization routine), as well as the results of eigenvalue tracking in the examined instability case. An undervoltage motor shed- ding preventing the above-mentioned instability is analyzed in Section VII. Finally, Section VIII presents the conclusions of this paper.

II. OEL MODELING ASPECTS

The simulation tool used in this paper for the analysis of short-term voltage stability stems from an educational purpose simulation software developed in Matlab/Simulink in conjunc- tion with the University of Liege [11] and was adapted for re- search purposes in a package called WHSSP suitable for wind and hybrid power systems [10]. Of particular interest to short- term voltage stability is the modeling of synchronous generator OELs shortly presented below.

A. Transient OEL Modeling

The modeling of OEL is detailed in [5] and has a signi- cant effect on voltage stability analysis [6]. A certain level of overexcitation (i.e., eld current exceeding the long-term limit ) can be tolerated for several seconds. There is, how- ever, a level of overexcitation that is not allowed to remain even for a short time and must be limited with very small delay. We note the corresponding eld current as . In the sequel, we concentrate on this transient OEL activation, assuming a pro- portional, summed-type OEL [5], [6]. The eld current fed back into the OEL is given in the per unit system of the synchronous machine [3] by the following equation:

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
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(1)

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

Fig. 1.

OEL transient block diagram.

Fig. 2. OEL block diagram.
Fig. 2.
OEL block diagram.

repeated transient activations and deactivations, in case the eld current is close to the value . The limiter steady-state block is similar to the transient block, that is, when the eld current exceeds the respective value for a longer period (ranging from several seconds to one minute), the discrete output signal changes from zero to unity. As shown in Fig. 2, the output of the transient block is added with that of the steady-state limiter block through a summing junction. Consequently, if either block has a positive discrete output signal or , the OEL output signal will be

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
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792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

subtracted from the reference voltage input of the AVR, thus forcing the eld current within the corresponding limit. Note that the two discrete variables or can both be zero but cannot normally take the value of one at the same time, because when the steady block is activated, the eld current re-

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

duces below

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst
792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

. Therefore, the OEL output signal is

given by the following function:

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

under no limitation

under transient limitation

under steady-state limitation.

(2)

The OEL model proposed in [3] introduces a block limiting

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

the OEL output to positive values only. In [13], this block is proven to have a detrimental effect on voltage stability if ap- plied during oscillatory transients and is thus removed in the

model. This means that the OEL is allowed to provide tran-

792 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 In the fi rst

siently negative values to the AVR corresponding to ex-

where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and

where is the transient EMF proportional to eld ux linkage, and , , and are, respectively, the direct axis stator cur- rent component, synchronous, and transient reactance. Fig. 1 shows in block diagram form the transient OEL com- ponent that limits the eld current to the maximum transient permissible value. When the eld current exceeds , a time counter is activated, and after a short time delay of (tenths of a second), the discrete output signal changes from zero

where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and
where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and
where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and
where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and
where is the transient EMF proportional to fi eld fl ux linkage, and , , and

citation boosting.

The typical eld current response of a synchronous generator equipped with the described proportional, summed-type OEL model is shown in Fig. 3. Note that a slight offset in the eld current limitation remains

for both transient and steady-state OEL cases. These voltage

errors are typical of proportional limiters [6].

to one. When the eld current returns below the transient limit for some time, the value of returns to zero. The small positive constant subtracted from in the input of the block diagram shown in Fig. 1 is used to avoid

In the following case studies, note that no synchronous ma- chine eld current reaches its steady-state limit value , be-

In the following case studies, note that no synchronous ma- chine fi eld current reaches its

cause both examined networks collapse a short time after the

respective transient limitation. Consequently, the steady-state block of the respective OEL remains inactive during simulation.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY

793

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 793 Fig. 3. Evolution of synchronous generator rotor current under

Fig. 3.

Evolution of synchronous generator rotor current under limitation.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 793 Fig. 3. Evolution of synchronous generator rotor current under

Fig. 4.

Simulation results for South Evia network.

III. CASE STUDY I: INSTABILITY OF INDUCTION WIND GENERATORS IN A REALISTIC SYSTEM

The system studied here corresponds roughly to the South Evia region of the Hellenic Interconnected System [8]. The examined network consists of a local conventional steam power plant with two synchronous generators of 176.5 MVA each and 19 wind farms of total nominal capacity of 200 MW connected to the distribution network. Each wind farm is modeled by an equivalent induction generator. The system interconnection to the main Hellenic Interconnected transmission system is simulated via two equivalent lines, with total impedance corre- sponding to the short-circuit level at the interconnection point. It was seen in [8] that with proper capacitor compensation, the system is voltage stable in the long term, even for very se- vere contingencies. It is important to note that long-term voltage stability is maintained mainly because the LTCs at the HV/MV substations where wind generators are connected are able to regulate MV voltage, thus decreasing reactive power consump- tion by the induction generators, before the activation of the re- maining synchronous generator OEL. These results led to the conclusion that normal shunt capacitor banks were sufcient to maintain stability by allowing the synchronous machines a wider margin of reactive support, and no dynamic reactive com- pensation was deemed necessary. In the present paper, we consider a slight variant of the above scenario considering the effect of a transient limitation of the generator excitation eld, such as that performed by the OEL shown in Fig. 1. In order to investigate the risk of short-term voltage instability, we assume a rather low value of . It should be noted that this is done as an academic exercise and does not reect the degree of security of the actual power system. With this setting, the system is unstable after the following double contingency.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 793 Fig. 3. Evolution of synchronous generator rotor current under

clear from the terminal voltage response of a selected wind farm in Livadi [8], as shown in Fig. 4(c). Even though the driving force of the short-term instability is provided by the induction generators, this instability could not occur without the transient overexcitation limitation of the synchronous machine presented in Fig. 4(a). The short-term voltage instability in this case involves only the induction generators as shown in Fig. 4(b) and (d), where the synchronous generator rotor angle and the speed of the se- lected equivalent induction generator are plotted. Clearly, the synchronous machine remains in synchronism while the induc- tion generators lose their equilibrium and overaccelerate. Dis- connection of the wind farms will be the only harm done in this unstable case. Thus, the cause of the instability in this case is the transient excitation limitation of the synchronous machine, the instability driving force is the induction generator dynamics, and the nal outcome is the overacceleration and disconnection of induc- tion generators, without any further effect on the interconnected system.

IV. CASE STUDY II: VOLTAGE INSTABILITY AFFECTING SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

Not all short-term instability cases are as simple to charac- terize as the one examined in the previous section. In this sec- tion, we demonstrate that even in a simple system, it may be difcult to distinguish the cause, the driving force, and the nal outcome of short-term instability.

A. Test System Description

The test system analyzed is the 11-bus network presented in [1] and commonly used in voltage stability studies. The one-line equivalent diagram is shown in Fig. 5.

At

• At , there is an outage of one local generator. The system consists of an

, there is an outage of one local generator.

The system consists of an area fed through ve 500-kV par-

At

, there is loss of one interconnection line.

allel lines by a remote generator SG2 of nominal capacity 2200

The voltage instability resulting from the transient overex- citation limitation of the synchronous machine eld winding is

MVA and an innite bus (SG1) representing a large intercon- nection. The presence of the innite bus ensures that the system

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006

794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 5. One-line equivalent

Fig. 5.

One-line equivalent diagram of the examined test system.

frequency will remain at its nominal value during the simula- tion. The above-mentioned area is heavily shunt compensated and contains a 1600-MVA local synchronous generator SG3 and two aggregate loads, one industrial directly served via the off nom- inal constant ratio transformer T4, and one commercial-residen- tial on bus 6. The terminal voltage of the local generator is controlled by an AVR of type AC4 according to IEEE denitions [2] (the tran- sient gain reduction block is neglected), equipped with propor- tional, summed-type OEL with a transient eld current limita- tion block. The industrial load is represented by two equivalent industrial induction motors with different parameters: a large one (IM1) of 3375 MVA and a small one (IM2) of 500 MVA. The 3000-MW commercial-residential load is half resistive of constant admit- tance and half motor. The 2440-MVA single motor equivalent (IM3) is an aggregate of motors heavily dominated by air-condi- tioning load. This load is connected to the transmission network through two transformers (T5 and T6) and a 115-kV transmis- sion line between buses 10 and 11. The latter transformer T6 is equipped with LTC mechanism, in order to keep the bus voltage of the commercial-residential load in a desired range of values. In the simulation, the synchronous generators are modeled through a fourth-order model, representing the eld winding and one damper winding in the rotor quadrature axis. The induction motors are described through their third-order model, including rotor mechanical and electrical transients. The motor mechan- ical load includes both constant and quadratic torque compo- nents. Since the time frame of interest extends to a few seconds, the response of the synchronous generator prime movers can be neglected. As a result, the mechanical input torque of generators is considered constant during the simulation. In the initial operation point, the remote generator and the innite bus deliver about 5000 MW to the load area.

B. Simulation Results

Typically, transient limitation of eld current is applied at 140% of rated with a time delay of about 1 s [7]. However, as in the previous case study, we assume a much tighter tran- sient eld current limitation on the local synchronous generator

(
(

p.u. for 100 ms). The disturbance simulated is the tripping of one line circuit

between buses 8 and 9 at

794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 5. One-line equivalent

. This leads to short-term

794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 5. One-line equivalent

Fig. 6.

Simulation results (a), (b) Induction motors. (c) ,(d) Static loads.

voltage instability as seen in Fig. 6(a), while the simulation is terminated a short time after , due to the unacceptably low value of the local generator terminal voltage. To demonstrate the prominent role of the induction motors in the instability, the system is simulated again with the mo- tors modeled as static loads (constant active power, exponential function of voltage with exponent of 1.5 for ). The result is shown in Fig. 6(c). Even though this is a stiff load model, the responses are stable, and voltage is maintained. The cause of the instability is again the transient overexcita- tion limitation of the local synchronous generator. This is shown in Fig. 6(b), where again, the effect of induction machine insta- bility in overexciting the generator is clear. However, for the static load representation [see Fig. 6(d)], the eld current is limited to its transient value without any problem. Thus, it can be deduced that the driving force of the instability is induction motor dynamics. Of particular interest is that the nal outcome of instability in the above case is the local generator (SG3) loss of synchronism at about the same time that the induction motors are stalling. This is shown in Fig. 7(a) and (b). From this gure, it could be argued that we have a transient angle instability case as well as motor stalling. The generator loss of synchronism makes this case more se- vere than the previous one examined in Section III, as the loss of synchronism, if not contained, will lead to a local blackout. At the same time, this demonstrates that clear distinction between induction motor and synchronous generator stability is not al- ways possible at rst glance. A deeper examination of this case using modal analysis and an online linearization tool will follow.

794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 5. One-line equivalent
794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 5. One-line equivalent

V. MODAL ANALYSIS

A. Saddle Node Bifurcation

As discussed in the previous section, the cause of induction motor instability is the overexcitation limitation of the local gen-

erator. In this section, we investigate further the driving force of

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY

795

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction

Fig. 7.

(a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction motor speed.

Fig. 8. Critical eigenvalue versus SG3 .
Fig. 8.
Critical eigenvalue versus SG3
.

the instability mechanism. For this reason, the transient OEL limit value is increased so that the system is able to reach post-disturbance equilibrium, and for equilibrium points corre- sponding to different values of , the system is linearized, and the respective eigenvalues are computed.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction
POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction

In Fig. 8, we present the evolution of the real eigenvalue closest to the origin (critical eigenvalue) as a function of the local generator transient limit value ( ). Note in Fig. 8 that as the limited value of eld current is reduced, the critical eigenvalue is approaching zero; thus, the system tends to a saddle node bifurcation (SNB) marked by the loss of post-disturbance equilibrium. The last eigenvalue before the SNB is equal to , cor-

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction
POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction
responding to p.u. If the value of
responding to
p.u. If the value of

p.u. or equivalently to

is only slightly reduced (i.e.,

p.u.), the system will become unstable, and the

equilibrium will disappear.

TABLE I TEST SYSTEM MODAL ANALYSIS FOR p.u.
TABLE
I
TEST SYSTEM MODAL ANALYSIS FOR
p.u.

Clearly, the critical eigenvalue corresponds to a monotonic

mode. In order to characterize this mode, an eigenvector anal- ysis is necessary.

B. Eigenanalysis

The eigenanalysis of the post-disturbance equilibrium point for p.u. is summarized in Table I, where the eigen- values, the dominant state variables, and the respective eigen- vectors and participation factors are given.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 795 Fig. 7. (a) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (b) Induction

Ten eigenvalues are associated with the two synchronous gen-

erators SG2 and SG3, giving four oscillatory and two mono-

tonic modes. Similarly, nine eigenvalues are related to induc-

tion motor dynamics, giving rise to three oscillatory and three monotonic modes.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006

The modes in Table I are characterized based upon the relative phase of the right eigenvector elements, as well as the magnitude of the participation factors. In multimachine systems, the combined modes of response for interacting synchronous or induction machines may form common modes (where the same variables of different machines respond in phase) and interaction modes (where similar vari- ables of different machines respond in opposite directions, i.e.,

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
  • 180 out of phase) [15].

As seen in Table I, the industrial motors IM1 and IM2 exhibit

large induction machine dynamics [14], i.e., they have an oscil- latory response that involves slip and internal EMF angle and a monotonic mode involving magnetic ux. This is evident in the participation factors of relevant modes where the slip ( ) and

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

state variables dominate, while the monotonic responses, as expressed by the real eigenvalues, are related to variables. On the other hand, the modes of the residential-commercial motor IM3 correspond to small induction machine dynamics [14]. This means that it exhibits an oscillatory behavior of the electrical state variables representing the rotor windings (i.e., an oscillation involving and ), while the mechanical speed response is relatively slower and monotonic. It is interesting to note that the critical eigenvalue, which is prone to enter the right-hand side of the complex plane, corre- sponds to the industrial motors common ux mode. Note nally that the frequency of the local generator excita- tion oscillation mode is very high, due to the transient excita- tion limitation, and that the interaction synchronous generator electromechanical oscillatory mode appears to be less damped than the respective common mode. The above analysis clearly shows that the industrial motors form the driving force of the instability. However, this analysis required the modication of the system in order to establish an equilibrium point. The following section describes a tech- nique that allows online linearization and tracking of eigen- values during simulation.

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

VI. EIGENVALUE TRACKING

A. Online Linearization

A special feature incorporated in the WHSSP simulation package is the eigenvalue tracking facility. This program lin- earizes the simulated system by building the state Jacobian matrix [4] at selected time instants during the simulation and computes its eigenvalues. To be more specic, the dynamics of a power system are cap- tured by the following differential equations:

  • (3)

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

where are smooth functions, is the state vector, is the vector of algebraic variables, and is the input vector. Because the system is not necessarily at equilibrium during the simulation, the state Jacobian computed during simulation can be thought to belong to an implicit equilibrium point [3], for which the inputs have been changed to obtain an equilibrium point for the current values of the state variables. This means that at a specic time instant , the input vector is considered

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

Fig. 9.

Evolution of critical eigenvalue in the instability case.

to have changed from its actual value order to satisfy the following equation:

to have changed from its actual value order to satisfy the following equation: to a value

to a value

to have changed from its actual value order to satisfy the following equation: to a value

in

(4)

(4)

In case of synchronous generators, the input vector includes the reference voltage of AVR, the limiting values of OEL, as well as the prime mover reference. For the induction machines, the input vector contains the mechanical torque input. The information provided by the online linearization eigen- values is not a strictly rigorous indication of stability, but it is quite useful in practice in order to characterize the nature of a possible instability, as will be done in the sequel for the case of Section IV.

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
  • B. Induction Motor Stalling

Fig. 9 shows the evolution of the dominant critical real eigen- value in the instability case of Fig. 6(a). The examined eigenvalue corresponds to industrial motor IM1+IM2 common ux mode and becomes positive at

. After this point, the motor demagnetization and stalling process has started, and even reduction of torque to achieve an equilibrium will not sufce to contain the instability, as the achieved equilibrium would be unstable. Thus, it is clear from the online linearization that the induction motors drive the short-term instability. The initial oscillations of the critical eigenvalue are due to the oscillations of the limited eld current of the local generator

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

[see Fig. 6(b)].

  • C. Synchronous Generator Loss of Synchronism

As seen in Section IV, the outcome of the examined instability scenario was the local generator loss of synchronism. Eigen- value tracking is used again to explain the mechanism of angle instability in this case. Fig. 10 presents an enlargement of the root locus diagram during simulation for the time interval be- tween (marked with circle) and (marked

796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table
796 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 The modes in Table

with square).

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY

797

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability

Fig. 10.

Root locus from to in the instability case.

The root locus contains three eigenvalues, which appear ei- ther as a complex pair and a real one or as three real ones. At the start of the root locus ( ), the complex pair of the eigenvalues corresponds to the common electromechan- ical oscillation mode, while the real one is the monotonic mode of the commercial-residential induction motor IM3. While the simulation is running, the complex pair is moving to the real axis with almost constant real part, while the real eigenvalue is moving to the right. At , the complex pair of eigenvalues collapses on the real axis, and the resulting two real eigenvalues are moving to opposite directions. At this point, the local generator is losing synchronism, as the equivalent synchronizing coef- cient is rapidly approaching zero. Following the loss of synchronism, one real eigenvalue enters the right-hand side of the complex plane, describing a mono- tonic angle instability. Note that this is the second real positive eigenvalue, as the one shown in Fig. 9 already has a value close to 4 . Thus, the induction motors stall rst, and the generator loss of synchronism follows after roughly 34 s.

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability
POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability
POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability
POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability

Fig. 11.

Machines terminal voltage (IM2 undervoltage shedding).

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability

Fig. 12.

Local generator rotor current (IM2 undervoltage shedding).

VII. UNDERVOLTAGE MOTOR SHEDDING

The analysis of instability driving force and mechanism of the previous sections is not a mere academic exercise, as it may lead to the correct assessment of possible countermeasures to contain the instability. For instance, if the above case was diag- nosed as angle instability, based solely on Fig. 7(a), the means of control would be sought in generation rejection. Since, how- ever, the case has been identied as induction motor instability, the measures to be taken are related to motor disconnection. Thus, the instability can be corrected by undervoltage shed- ding of the small industrial motor IM2. It is assumed that IM2 is disconnected from the network, if its terminal voltage drops below 0.9 p.u. for a time interval of few seconds. However, this delay should not exceed a critical value, because after this time, the remaining motors will be no longer attracted to their post-disturbance equilibrium point. This critical time is calcu- lated using repeated simulations, as shown in Fig. 11, where the

terminal voltages of the machines are shown, as well as the un- dervoltage threshold and the critical time delay with dashed line in Fig. 11(c). The solid-line curves marked with 1 in Fig. 11 present the simulation results of a stable scenario, considering that the time delay of IM2 disconnection is equal to the critical interval of 3.54 s. On the other hand, assuming that the examined time delay is equal to 3.55 s, the post-tripping response becomes un- stable, as shown in dotted-line curves marked with 2 in Fig. 11. As seen in Fig. 11, the small industrial motor IM2 is discon- nected from the network a little before , leading to the reduction of system total load. As a result, the bus voltages are restored, and the network reaches a stable post-disturbance equi- librium point. The rotor current of the local generator SG3 is shown in Fig. 12. For the stable scenario 1, note that following the IM2 discon- nection, the local generator eld current is reduced below its

POTAMIANAKIS AND VOURNAS: SHORT-TERM VOLTAGE INSTABILITY 797 Fig. 10. Root locus from to in the instability

798

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006

798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 13. (a), (b)

Fig. 13.

(a), (b) Synchronous generator rotor angle. (c), (d) Induction motor

speed (IM2 undervoltage shedding).

transient limit. As a result, the OEL transient block is deacti- vated after 600 ms (at about ), leading to further reduc- tion of the respective rotor current. Synchronous generator rotor angles, as well as the rotor speed of the two remaining motors, are shown in Fig. 13. Note that the unsuccessful delayed IM2 undervoltage tripping results in short-term instability of the remaining motors, leading again to local generator loss of synchronism.

798 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, MAY 2006 Fig. 13. (a), (b)

VIII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we presented short-term voltage stability results on two test systems. In both cases, the instability was initiated after a contingency that forced a local synchronous generator to its transient overexcitation limit, which was taken to be lower than is usual in practice. The driving force of the instability was identied in both cases to be the induction machines, either wind generators or equivalent motors representing industrial and res- idential components of load. Of particular interest in the second case was that the instability of induction motors was also affecting the local syn- chronous generator that was losing synchronism, thus leading to a local blackout. Eigenvalue tracking and eigenvector and participation factor analysis was used to help identify the components and system variables involved in the instability. Finally, an induction undervoltage motor shedding was pro- posed, in order to prevent the detected instability from leading to a local blackout.

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Emmanuel G. Potamianakis was born in 1978. He received the Diploma of Electrical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece, in 2000. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at NTUA. His research mainly deals with the integration of distributed generation to the electric grids from the viewpoint of stability.

Costas D. Vournas (S77M87SM95F05) received the Diploma of Elec- trical and Mechanical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece. in 1975, the M.Sc. degree in electrical engi- neering from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, in 1976, and the D.Eng. from NTUA in 1986. He is currently a Professor in the Electrical Energy Systems Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NTUA. His research interests are in the area of power system dynamics, stability, and control and include voltage stability analysis, wind generator integration in power systems, and the effect of deregulation on power system operation and control.