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Basin height

Bubble diameter

H
db

2
5
0.005
28
0.28
7
0.07
0.207
0.188
2
2
0.032
10
283.15
1

m
mm
m
cm/s
m/s
%
m3O2/m3H2O
m3O2/m3 total
m3O2/m3 total
mg/l
kg/m3
kg/mol
C
K
bar

Rising velocity

wB

Volume fraction of gas hold up

No. Of bubble
Atotal

6.54498E-08
7.85398E-05
1069521.218
2139042.435
168

m3
m2
bubble/m3 H2O
bubble/m3 H2O
m3O2/m3H2O

94.08
921.0526316 m/s

At

10695212.18 m3O2/m3H2O
7.85398E-05 m2
0.000608 Kg/m3

[O2]in
[O2]out
Oxygen concentration constant
Molar mass of O2
Temperaure

Pressure

B)
Volume
Surface
Nomber of bubble
2m in height
Total surface area

Vb
As

C)

D)
For the 10m
No. Of bubbles
total surface area
[CO2]out

N Anew O2 in O2 out
As the mass transfer area is 5x higher the [O2]out can be appromated in a linear manner

-0.0105

Basin Volume V
Dry sludge
[A]
Cell death rateKd
Substract utilization
A
Input stream V
Input stream1[BOD]
Input stream2[BOD]
out put strream1
[BOD]
out put strream2
[BOD]

2400
4
0.06
0.6
10
0.166666667
135
1.35E+11
200
0.2
15
0.015
20
0.02

m3
Kg/m3
l/day
m3/min
m3/s
mg/l
Kg/m3
mg/l
Kg/m3
mg/l
Kg/m3
mg/l
Kg/m3

b)
[B]T1

0.015 kg/m3

[B]1
[B]T2

0.135 kg/m3
0.020 kg/m3

Solver

[B]2

0.200 kg/m3

Left

-0.0018

[B]eq

0.005 kg/m3

Right

-0.0018

V
V
TB

2400 m3
0.1667 m3/s
14400 s

vB
[A]
k

-1
4 kg/m3
0.000208333 m3/kgs

vA
vad
kd
kd
TA1
TA2

0.6
-1
0.06
6.94444E-07
1800000
847059

1/day
1/s
s
s

4h

500 h
235 h

1
A K B Beq Ad kd

c)

d)

1
B Beq Ad kd

[A]

6.167 kg/m3

TA

500 h

V
TB

1200 m3
7200 s

[B]T1
TB
TA1

0.02357143
7200
614634

171

[B]T2
TB
TA2

0.00765306
7200
-2756250

-766

0
B k [ A]

[ B ] [ B ]0
1

B
0
eq
B k [ A] [ B ] [ B ]

Given data:
Basin Volume
CSTR 1
CSTR 2

VB1
VB2

initial input stream


Concentration of biomass
Cell death rate per day
Substrate utilisation

Biological Oxigen Demand


BOD of CSTR 1
BOD of CSTR 1+2

b)

residence time CSTR 1


residence time CSTR 1+2

Vdot ini

250 m/h

[A]

vB

4 kg/m
0.025 1 /day
0.6
-1
-1

[B]
[B] t1
[B] t2

600 mg/l
35 mg/l
27 mg/l

B1
B2

16 [h]

kd
vA
vad

[B]eq
[B]eq
K

c)

A
A

For CSTR 1 4000m


For CSTR 1+2 6000m

d)

4000 m
2000 m

24 [h]
1.0301E-02 Kg/m
10.301 mg/l
0.357 m/(kg*h)
h
235.0

s
8.46E+05

393.8

1.42E+06

Big ==>Small
initial input stream
Volume of 1st Reactor
nd

Volume of 2 Reactor

Vdot ini

250 m/h

VR1

4000 m

VR2

2000 m

Small ==>Big
initial input stream
Volume of 1st Reactor
nd

Volume of 2 Reactor

Vdot ini

250 m/h

VR1

2000 m

VR2

4000 m

There is no different if stream passes the small basin first, the outlet BOD concentration is nearly the same
refer cre levenspiel

Used data:

1.04E-03 1/h

B1 B0

0
B B A B1 Beq
1

V
1
B
V
B K A0

0.6 kg/m
0.035 kg/m
0.027 kg/m

B B0

B B
eq

B B B B B B B B

B B B B

Bequilibrium

B1

B2

B2

B1

B1 B0

0
B B A B1 Beq
1

1
A K B Beq Ad kd

[B]

kg/m

16

0.0350

235.0

8.46E+05

0.0123

-1623.9

-5.85E+06

[B]

kg/m

0.0577

109.6

3.94E+05

16

0.0123

-1623.9

-5.85E+06

first, the outlet BOD concentration is nearly the same.

B K B1 A0 Beq B0

K
B

A 1
0

B1

B K B2 A0 Beq B1CSTR

K
B

B2 A 1
0

B1 B0

B B
eq
1

B B0
B Beq

0B2 B0 B2 B1 B2
0
B1B1 B2 B

K B1 A Beq B
0

K
B

A 1
0

B1

K B2 A Beq B1
0

K
B

CSTR

B2 A 1
0

[A]
vb
vadd
vA
vad
kd

B)

4 kg/m
-1
0
0.6
-1
0.025 1/d

V flow
m/h

V flow
V
m/s
m
250 0.069444
250 0.069444

1/K
K

[B]
mg/l
4000
6000

[B]T
mg/l

[B]
kg/m
600
600

0.6
0.6

[B]T
kg/m
35
0.035
27
0.027

10072.13115
9.92839E-05
0.010300546

C)
V
m3
4000
6000

D)

TA

TB

s
846022
1417555

57600
86400

If it Passed through in series


First
4000 then
2000
As before the outlet of the first basin is the same so

First
For

[B]1

TB1

0.035 kg/m

TA1

846022 s

[B]1

TB1

57600 s

TA1

For
TB2

2000 m3
28800 s

For
[B]2

[B]2

0.012286 kg/m

TA2

TA2

-5846175 s

TB2

No difference space time remains the same in total

Chart Title

0.04
0.035
0.03
0.025

x axis values
57600 2.45226E-06
86400 1.65799E-06

[B]T

TB
s

0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005

0
1.0E-06

2000 then
2000 m3
28800 s
0.057713568 kg/m
394468.5025 s
4000 m3
0.012286432 kg/m
-5846174.77 s
57600

4000

1.5E-06

2.0E-06

2.5E-06

Series1

3.0E-06

Given Data
V,react =
4000
T = constant
[A] =
4
kd =
0.025
0.00104
v,A =
0.6
v,B =
-1
[BOD]
Permitted limit =
40
0.04

m
kg / m
1/d
1/h
substrate utilisation
mg / l
kg / m

a)

b)

1996
1999
2000
2001

V, m / h

[B]o (mg/l)

[B] mg/l

[B]o kg/m

162
168
228
267

680
608
612
604

26
25
31
34

0.68
0.608
0.612
0.604

slope = 1 / k =
intercept = [BOD]eq =
k=
[BOD]eq =

2.7245
0.0082

BOD B

0.3670 m / (kg * h)
0.0082 kg / m

c)
volume basin
[B]o

4000 m
600 mg / L
0.6 kg / m

[B]

40 mg / L
0.04 kg / m

B
V

d)

12.00 h
333.46 m/h

1
k

BOD

B A

[B]o

600 mg / L
0.6 kg / m

for [B]

40 mg / L

Volume basin
B

[B]1, kg/m
0.15

2000 m

[ B]

2.26 h

[B]2, kg/m
0.04

Required
[B]2, kg / m
0.04

Diff
1.9791E-09

V (m / h)
886.01

k B B [ A
k B

0.04

0.035

[B] kg/m

B (h)

([BOD] - [BOD]o)/
vB*[A]*B

0.026
0.025
0.031
0.034

24.69
23.81
17.54
14.98

0.0066
0.0061
0.0083
0.0095

BOD B

BOD

BOD

B A B

0.015

eq

y = 2.7245x + 0.0082
R = 0.9973

0.01

BOD

BODB 1 BODB BOD BODeq


k
B AB
o

0.025

0.02

[ B] [ B]0
1

B
0
eq
B k [ A] [ B] [ B]

0.03

0.005
0
0.0000

0.0020

0.0040

BODB 1 BODB BOD BODeq


k
B AB
o

k B B [ A] [ B]eq [ B]
[ B]
k B B [ A] 1

y = 2.7245x + 0.0082
R = 0.9973

0.0060

0.0080

0.0100

Improvement of an activated sludge system

Into an industrial activated sludge system of 4000m (CSTR basin) the volume flow of wastewater has incre
concentration has decreased (long duration average values):

1996
1999
2000
2001

volume flow
inlet concentration
outlet concentration

162m/h
680mg/l
26mg/l
168m/h
608mg/l
25mg/l
228m/h
612mg/l
31mg/l
267m/h
604mg/l
34mg/l

Your task is to predict the maximum volume flow related to the permitted limit of 40mg/l in the outlet
a)
without any change in the process and
b)
when the basins will be divided in two parts of 2000m each and passed in series.

Assume a multi-component substrate and ideal CSTR conditions in all basins. The concentration of biomass
basins is to be estimated to 4kg/m and the normal cell death rate to 2,5% per day (kd = 0,025d-1). The substra
= 0,6). The temperature in the system is constant!
V,react =
T=
[A] =
kd =

4000 m
constant
4 kg / m
0.025 1 / d
0.001041667 1 / h
substrate
0.6
utilisation
-1
40 mg / l
0.04 kg / m

v,A =
v,B =
Permitted limit =

b)

Calculate the equilibrium concentration of BOD [BOD] eq and the rate constant k from the given dat
(graphical solution possible)! The linearized form of the equation for residence time is

BOD B

BOD

BOD

B A B

BOD

eq

Draw an adequate diagram!

1996
1999
2000
2001
Slope

V, m / h

[B]o, mg/l

[B]t, mg/l

162
168
228
267

680
608
612
604

26
25
31
34

2.724526598

[B]o, kg/m
0.68
0.608
0.612
0.604
0.0100

[B]t, kg/m
0.026
0.025
0.031
0.034

Intercept

0.0100

0.008202071

K
[BOD]eq

0.0090
0.0080

0.3670 m / (kg h)
0.0082 kg/m3

0.0070
0.0060

y = 0.366x - 0.003
R = 0.9973

0.0050
0.0040
0.0030
0.0020
0.0010
0.0000
0

c)

Calculate for the 4000m basin the maximum volume flow for an estimated inlet concentration of 60
limit of 40mg/l using the two coefficients from b) or take the value from the diagram!

Inlet [ ]
Outlet [ ]

Max volume

d)

0.01

600
0.6
40
0.04
12.00

mg/l
kg/m3
mg/l
kg/m3
h

333.46 m3/h

Calculate (iteration) for the two 2000m basins in series the maximum volume flow for an estimated
600mg/l and an outlet limit of 40mg/l using the two coefficients from b)!

Volume Basis
Inlet [ ]
Outlet [ ]

Volume flow

2000
4000
600
0.6
40
0.04
2.26

m3
m3
mg/l
kg/m3
mg/l
kg/m3
h

886.00 m3/h

Outlet
concentration B1
[kg/m3]
0.145379

Outlet
Final
concentration B2
concentration
[kg/m3]
required [kg/m3]
0.040

0.04

Difference
0.000

e flow of wastewater has increased, while the outlet

concentration

26mg/l
25mg/l
31mg/l
34mg/l
of 40mg/l in the outlet

ssed in series.

The concentration of biomass (dry sludge [A]) in the


ay (kd = 0,025d-1). The substrate utilisation is 60% (A

constant k from the given data by linear regression


esidence time is

11 points
Residence
time
24.69
23.81
17.54
14.98

Big Equation
0.0066
0.0061
0.0083
0.0095

BOD B

1
k

BOD

BOD

B A B

BOD

eq

y = 0.366x - 0.003
R = 0.9973

Big Equation
Linear (Big Equation)

0.02

0.03

0.04

mated inlet concentration of 600mg/l and an outlet


m the diagram!
4 points

1
B k [ A]0

[ B] [ B]0

eq
[ B] [ B]

m volume flow for an estimated inlet concentration of


b)!
6 points

1
B k [ A]0

[ B]

[ B] [ B]0

eq
[ B] [ B]

k B B [ A] [ B]eq [ B]
k B B [ A] 1

V,react
T
[A]
kd

4000
constant
4
0.025
0.00104
0.6
-1
40
0.04

v,A
v,B
Permitted limit

m
kg / m
1/d
1/h
substrate utilisation
mg / l
kg / m

a)

b)

1996
2001

V, m / h

[B]o (mg/l)

[B] mg/l

[B]o kg/m

[B] kg/m

162
267

680
604

26
34

0.68
0.604

0.026
0.034

BOD B
Slope = 1/K
[B]eq
k

BOD

B A B

2.76804636
0.007671 kg / m
0.3613 m / (kg * h)

c)

[B]o mg/l
580
600
620
640

d)

[B]o kg/m
0.58
0.6
0.62
0.64

1
B k [ A]0

[ B] [ B]0

eq
[ B] [ B]

tB (h)

V (m/h)

11.56
11.99
12.41
12.84

346.06
333.70
322.19
311.45

BOD

BOD

eq

V,each
V,total
[B]t
V, m / h
800
1000
1200

1330 m
3990 m
0.04 kg / m
t,B, h
1.66
1.33
1.11

[B]2, kg/m
0.1177
0.1021
0.0918

[ B ] 0 [ B ] k B B [ A ] 0 [ B ]

V
[B]1, kg/m
0.3819
0.2837
0.2265

[B]0, kg/m
1.2811
0.8142
0.5769

BOD B

BOD

BOD

B A B

BOD

BOD

B A B

V
B (h)

([BOD] - [BOD]o)/
vB*[A]*B

24.69
14.98

0.0066
0.0095

BOD

eq

BOD

eq

maximum Volume Flow


350.00
345.00
340.00
Max V (m/h)

335.00
330.00
325.00
320.00
315.00
310.00
305.00
0.56

0.58

0.6
[B]0 (kg/m)

0.62

0.64

0.66

] 0 [ B ] k B B [ A ] 0 [ B ] [ B ] eq

Volume flow vs. Inlet concentration


Volume flow, m/h

1300
1200
1100

First Basin

1000

Second Basin

900

Third Basin

800
700
600
0.0000

0.5000
1.0000
Inlet concentration, kg/m

1.5000

T
[A]
kd

constant
4
0.025
0.00104
0.6
-1
20
0.02

v,A
v,B
[BOD]

kg / m
1/d
1/h
substrate utilisation
mg / l
kg / m

a)

b)

BODB

1 BODB BOD

BODeq
k
B A B
o

([BOD] o

V, m / h

[B] (mg/l)

[B] mg/l

160
180
220

680
600
580

20
20
20

slope = 1 / k =
intercept = [BOD]eq =

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

k=
[BOD]eq =

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

m / (kg * h)
kg / m

[B] kg/m [B] kg/m

0.68
0.6
0.58

0.020
0.02
0.02

B (h)

[BOD] )/
vB*[A]*B

0.00
0.00
0.00

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

Given Data
V,react
T
[A]
kd

Permitted limit =

v,A
v,B
[BOD]

5000
constant
4
0.025
0.00104
0.6
-1
20
0.02

m
kg / m
1/d
1/h
substrate utilisation
mg / l
kg / m

a)

b)

1995
1998
2001
2004

V, m / h

[B]o (mg/l)

[B] mg/l

[B]o kg/m

220
250
270
300

580
520
510
470

30
32
33
35

0.58
0.52
0.51
0.47

slope = 1 / k =
intercept = [BOD]eq =
k=
[BOD]eq =

7.9484
-0.0174

BOD B

0.1258 m / (kg * h)
-0.0174 kg / m

c)

volume basin
o

[B]

Total
5000 m
400 mg / L
0.4 kg / m

[B]2
B
V

20.00 mg / L
0.02 kg / m
20.19 h
247.68 m/h

[ B] [ B]0
1

B
B k [ A]0 [ B] [ B]eq

V
volume basin
B
[B]o
[B]1 = [B]o2

BOD

B A

[ B] [ B]0
1

B
B k [ A]0 [ B] [ B]eq
d)
with additionally flow
V
272.68 m/h
volume basin
2500 m
B
9.17 h
[B]o
[B]2

400.00 mg / L
0.40 kg / m
0.05695 kg / m
56.95 mg / L

influence of the bypass flow on the outlet concentration


diff [B]2

0.00570 kg / m
5.70 mg / L

[ B]

k B B [ A] [ B]eq [ B
k B B [ A] 1

0.036

0.035
o

[B] kg/m

B (h)

([BOD] - [BOD] )/
vB*[A]*B

0.030
0.032
0.033
0.035

22.73
20.00
18.52
16.67

6.05E-03
6.10E-03
6.44E-03
6.53E-03

BOD B

BOD

BOD

B A B

0.034
0.033
0.032
0.031

BOD

eq

0.030

0.029
6.00E-03 6.10E-03 6.20E-03 6.30E-03

First
247.68 m/h
2500 m
10.09 h
400 mg / L
0.4 kg / m
0.05125 kg / m
51.25 mg / L

V
B K B1 A0 Beq B0

K B1 A 1
0

y = 7.9484x - 0.0174
R = 0.8298

[ B]

k B B [ A] [ B]eq [ B]
k B B [ A] 1

0.0174
R = 0.8298

6.30E-03 6.40E-03 6.50E-03 6.60E-03

Given Data
input stram
T
[A]
kd
v,A
v,B
[BOD]
[BOD]

15.6
constant
4
0.025
0.00104
0.6
-1
25
0.025
500
0.5

m3/min

0.26 m3/sec

kg / m
1/d
1/h
2.89352E-07 1/s
substrate utilisation
mg / l
kg / m
mg/l
kg/m3

lab
[A]

time in minseconds
30
1800
60
3600
120
7200
1440
86400

1000 mg/l
1 kg/m3

y axis
x axis
[BOD] in mg/l in kg/m3
135
0.135 0.000203 slope
40
0.04 0.000128 int
12
0.012 6.78E-05 K
10
0.01 5.67E-06

1
A K B Beq Ad kd

V
1
B
V
B K A0

Tau A
Tau B

B B

B B eq
0

634.17 1/K
0.0064 BOD EQ
0.001577 1/s

2142.636312 s
4048.800403 s

Volume of basiin

1 BOD B
BOD B
k B

1052.688 m3

1 BOD B BOD
OD B
BOD eq
k B A B
o

0.16
0.14

0.135

0.12

y = 634.17x + 0.0064
R = 1

0.1
Series1

0.08

Linear (Series1)

0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01
0
0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

0.00025