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Explain the construction and working of Turbojet engine.

Explain the construction and working of Turboprop engine.

Explain the construction and working of Turbofan engine.

Derive the thrust equation.

Problem No:1

Problem No:2

Problem No:3

Problem No:4 Determination of the specific thrust and SFC for a simple turbojet engine, having the following component performance at the design point at which the cruise speed and altitude are M 0.8 and 10000 m.

Methods of Thrust Augmentation:

Characteristics of Turbojet, Turbofan and Turboprop Engines:


TURBOJET ENGINE Turbo jet creates the thrust by highly accelerating the mass of air flowing through the engine. This accelerated mass of air flows out through the nozzle is called high velocity jet. In order to obtain a high velocity jet in the engine the turbine is designed to extract enough power from the hot gas to drive the compressor and accessories.

Characteristics: 1. Low thrust at low forward speeds 2. Relatively high, thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) at low altitudes and airspeeds. This is a disadvantage of turbojet engine. But the TSFC decreases with increase in altitude and airspeed. 3. Long takeoff roll 4. Small frontal area, resulting in low drag and reduced ground clearance problems 5. Lightest specific weight (weight per unit thrust produced) 6. Ability to take advantage of high ram pressure ratios These characteristics suggest that the turbojet engine would be best for high speed, high altitude and long distance flights.

TURBOFAN The turbofan has a duct-enclosed fan mounted at the front or rear of the engine. The fan is driven by an independent turbine located to the rear of the compressor. The fan may run at the speed same as that of the compressor or at reduced speed with the help of gears. The efficiency of the fan engine is increased over that of the pure jet by converting more of the fuel energy into pressure energy rather than the kinetic energy of a high velocity exhaust gas stream. The fan produces additional thrust by pushing more mass of air across it without increasing the fuel flow. The primary engine exhaust gas velocity and pressure are low because of the extra turbine stages which extract the pressure energy from the gas stream to drive the fan. The first generation of turbofan designs, such as the Pratt & Whitney JT3D engine series had a bypass ratio of approximately 1:1. About 50% of the air went through the engine core as primary airflow, and about 50% went through the fan as secondary airflow. The second generation turbofan like the General Electric CF6, the Pratt & Whitney JT9D and the Rolls Royce Rb211 have bypass ratio on the order of 5:1 or 6:1. For these fan engines produces greater percentage of the total thrust produced by the engine. The fan engines show a definite superiority over the pure jet engines at speeds below Mach 1. The increased frontal area of the fan presents a problem for high speed aircraft. At high speeds, the increased drag offered by the fan is greater pronounced than the thrust produced by the fan. This disadvantage can be reduced partially by burning fuel in the fan discharge air. This process expands the gas. In order to keep the fan discharge air at the same pressure, the area of the fan jet nozzle is increased. This action results in increased gross thrust due to an increase in pressure times an area and increased TSFC.

Characteristics: 1. Increased thrust at low forward speeds results in a relatively short take off. Unlike turboprop, the turbofan thrust is not penalized with increasing airspeed, up to approximately Mach 1. 2. Weight of the turbofan engine falls between turbojet and turboprop. 3. Ground clearances are less than turboprop but not as good as turbojet 4. TSFC and specific weight falls between turbojet and turboprop resulting in increased operating economy and aircraft range over turbojet. 5. Considerable noise level reduction of 10 to 20 percent over the turbojet reduces acoustic fatigue in surrounding aircraft parts and is less objectionable to people on the ground. 6. The turbofan is superior to the turbojet in hot day performance. 7. Two thrust reversers are required if the fan air and primary engine air exit through separate fan nozzles, the advantage of which is the short fan duct with corresponding low duct loss. The above characteristics show that the fan engine is suitable for long-range, relatively high speed flight. TURBOPROP ENGINE Propulsion in a turboprop engine is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the energy available in the gas stream energy into mechanical power to drive the compressor, accessories and the propeller load. Only a small amount of thrust (approximately 10 percent) can be produced from a relatively low pressure, low velocity gas available in the exhaust nozzle. Characteristics: 1. High propulsive efficiency at low airspeeds, which results in shorter take off rolls. But the efficiency falls off rapidly as airspeed increases. The engine is able to develop high thrust at low speeds because the propeller can accelerate large quantities of air at zero forward velocity of the airplane. 2. More complicated design and heavier weight than a turbojet 3. Lowest TSFC 4. Large frontal area of propeller and engine combination that necessitates longer gears for low wing airplanes but does not necessarily increase parasitic drag 5. Possibility of efficient reverse thrust

These characteristics show that turboprop engines are superior for lifting heavy loads off short and medium length runways. Turboprops are currently limited in speeds to approximately 500 mph (805 km/h), since propeller efficiencies fall off rapidly with increasing airspeeds because of shock wave formations.

Basic requirements of Inlet Ducts:

INLET DUCTS
Although the inlet ducts are made by the aircraft manufacturer, during flight operation it becomes very important to the overall jet engine performance and will greatly influence jet engine thrust output.

Requirements of inlet ducts / nacelle: 1. The inlet duct must be large enough to supply proper air flow at the highest possible pressure to increase the engine thrust. 2. The duct must be shaped correctly to deliver the air to the inlet of the compressor with an even pressure distribution. Poor air velocity and pressure distribution at the inlet to the compressor may result in compressor stall or compressor blade vibration.

3. Inlet ducts should be as straight and smooth as possible and should be designed in such a way that the boundary layer air (a layer of still, dead air lying next to the surface) will be held to a minimum. 4. The nacelle/duct must allow the engine to operate with minimum stall/surge tendencies. And permit wide variations in angle of attack and yaw of the aircraft. 5. For subsonic aircraft, the nacelle should not produce strong shock waves or flow separations and should be of minimum weight for both subsonic and supersonic designs. 6. The primary task, the duct must do during flight operation is to convert the kinetic energy of the rapidly moving inlet airstream into a ram pressure rise inside the duct.

7. The inlet duct must be shaped so that the ram velocity is slowly and smoothly decreasing, while the ram pressure is slowly and smoothly rising. 8. Spring loaded, blow-in or suck-in doors are sometimes placed around the side of the inlet to provide enough air to the engine at high engine rpm and low aircraft speed. 9. The inlet duct must operate from static ground run up to high aircraft Mach numbers with high duct efficiency at all altitudes and flight speeds.

Drags associated with the inlet duct: Inlet ducts add to the parasitic drag or aerodynamic resistance drag. Parasitic drag includes (a) skin friction drag due to the viscosity of the air, (b) form drag due to the shape of the duct and (c) interference drag that comes from the junctions of the aircrafts components. Rating inlet ducts: Inlet ducts are rated in two ways: 1. Duct pressure efficiency ratio 2. Ram recovery point Duct pressure efficiency ratio is defined as the ability of the duct to convert the kinetic or dynamic pressure energy at the inlet of the duct in to static pressure at the inlet of the duct. It will have a high value of 98% if the friction loss is low and if the pressure rise is accomplished with small losses. Ram recovery point is that aircraft speed at which the ram pressure rise is equal to the friction pressure losses or that aircraft speed at which the compressor inlet total pressure is equal to the outside ambient air pressure. A good subsonic duct will have low ram recovery point (about 160 mph or 257.4 kmph).

Classification: The inlet ducts may be divided into two broad categories: 1. Subsonic ducts 2. Supersonic ducts

STARTING PROBLEM OF SUPERSONIC INLET DUCT(successive steps in the acceleration and overspeeding of a supersonic inlet):
Starting a supersonic inlet duct means to make the aircraft to reach the desired supersonic speed and to make the inlet duct to operate at the design condition, with shocks at proper location or without any shocks. The aircraft is considered to have a fixed-area converging-diverging supersonic diffuser. The diffuser is initially at rest. But it has to operate supersonically at a design Mach number Md without any shocks. The diffuser has fixed inlet area, minimum area(throat), and exit area, which are designed for one particular freestream Mach number Md. When the aircraft flies at design Mach number Md, the flow enters the diffuser at supersonic speed. The supersonic flow decelerates in the converging passage and reaches the sonic condition (M = 1) at the throat. Then the flow decelerates further in the diverging passage and reaches subsonic condition (M < 1) at the exit of the diffuser. During this deceleration there is no formation of shock anywhere in the diffuser and hence there is no loss.

(i) Initially, the aircraft will be moving very slowly (for example at takeoff) that is, at low subsonic speed. For this condition, the flow enters the diffuser and accelerates in the converging passage and decelerates in the diverging passage, but the flow remains subsonic throughout(from inlet to exit M < 1). (ii)

Next, the aircraft speed increases to high subsonic speed. The flow accelerates and Mach number reaaches the value of one(M = 1) at the throat. In the diverging passage, the flow decelerates and becomes subsonic at the exit.

(iii)

Then, as the aircraft speed increases to supersonic value, a normal shock develops outside of the diffuser. Initially, this shock is weak because of a low supersonic Mach number but it becomes strong with further increase in aircraft speed until the design speed Md is attained. The diffuser continues to operate with M = 1 at the throat, and strong shock wave stands infront of the diffuser. The inlet is not yet operating efficiently.

(iv)

Next, the aircraft must be overspeeded to a Mach number Ms so that the shock wave moves towards the inlet and is suddenly swallowed (Ms is greater than Md) into the diverging part of the diffuser. At this condition the flow is supersonic in the converging passage of the diffuser. Supersonic flow in converging passage is decelerated and becomes low supersonic at the throat. When the low supersonic flow enters the diverging passage it accelerates up to the normal shock. Across the shock the flow becomes subsonic. The standing shock is still undesirable because it results in large losses in the diffuser.

(v)

As a final step, when the aircraft Mach number is reduced back to Md, the normal shock in the diverging passage moves to the throat. In this condition the flow is supersonic in the converging passage, sonic at the throat (i.e., it is an infinitely weak shock), and subsonic in the diverging section. At this point the diffuser is operating at maximum efficiency. It is important to note that the area ratio was selected for the given nominal flight Mach number Md and does not apply to other Mach numbers.

SHOCK SWALLOWING BY AREA VARIATION:

A second, more mechanically complex method can be used to start a shockless inlet, but it does not require overspeeding. For example, consider an aircraft with a fixed area diffuser operating at design Mach number Md. This condition is shown in the above figure. Note that for this condition the Mach number in the throat is unity.

Next, if the throat area is increased, the shock will be swallowed or move into the diverging region. Now the Mach number in the throat is supersonic but less than the Mach number at the inlet.

Finally, if the minimum area is decreased to the proper value, the shock will move back to the throat and become infinitely weak, that is, the Mach number at the throat is unity. Thus, the Mach number at the inlet is supersonic and the flow decelerates in the converging passage, reaches M = 1 at throat and again decelerates in the diverging passage.

Another method of changing the areas is by an axially moving plug, as shown in figure below.

By proper design of the plug and internal cowl shapes and by controlling the axial placement of the plug, the throat area and inlet area are varied. In the figure two plug placements are shown depicting how the inlet and throat areas change with axial plug position. In general,

the position and area can be changed during acceleration at different altitudes and Mach numbers, increasing the envelope of efficient operation over a fixed geometry inlet.

MODES OF OPERATION OF SUPERSONIC INLET DUCTS:


A fixed area diffuser will only operate at maximum efficiency at one condition called design operating condition. However, it has to operate at many different conditions called off design conditions. To understand the off design performance of supersonic inlets and to determine the required area variation to extend the design condition, the so-called mass flow or area ratio is used. This parameter will assist in defining the different off-design conditions at which a diffuser may operate. At the design condition, a supersonic diffuser will operate as shown in following figure.

As shown in the figure, the oblique shock intersects the diffuser cowl and does not extend any farther. For this condition, all of the air that crosses the oblique shock enters the engine. One of the off-design conditions is shown in figure. As can be seen, for this condition the oblique shock extends outside the diffuser.

Several definitions are made in this figure. For example, the area Alc is the projected area based on the outside diameter of the cowl, Aa is the area defined by the streamline that intersects the cowl, and A1 is the cross-sectional area normal to the flow at the inlet plane of the diffuser. A reference parameter with the dimensions of mass flow rate is defined as

True ingested mass flow rate is

The mass flow ratio is defined as

Therefore

The mass flow that enters the engine is also given by

This is also equal to Therefore, mass flow ratio can be written as,

Where

is called area ratio.

Critical Operation: Critical operation is also known as the design operating condition. This is shown in the figure below.

For this case the mass flow rates m1, and mi are the same and the oblique shock occurs just at the cowl lip and no spillage occurs. Oblique shock is followed by a normal shock as shown. The Mach number reaches one at the place where normal shock forms.

Subcritical Operation:

If the flow rate of air entering the compressor is decreased, the compressor rotational speed decreases. This results in increased pressure in the diffuser and the Mach number of the air entering the diffuser decreases. As a result, the normal shock will be pushed outside of the inlet plane. It will be stronger and will result in a larger total pressure loss. The normal shock will also join with the oblique shock to form a "-shock." Note that, ideally (i.e., at design condition), air encompassed by Al c (far from the inlet) enters the diffuser. However, for this condition some of the air within Al c (far from the diffuser) will be "spilled." The axial position of the spike can affect the resulting area ratio. This condition is undesirable for a variety of reasons. One reason is

that the engine is compressing air using the shock (and thus working on the fluid) outside of the diffuser that is not being used, thereby wasting power.

Supercritical Operation:

As the flow increases beyond the critical condition, the pressure in the diffuser decreases. Thus, the normal shock moves into the diffuser. Now, part of the diffuser acts like a supersonic nozzle. Shocks occur in the diverging section of the diffuser at high Mach numbers. This results in more total pressure loss. This condition is the supercritical condition and is shown in figure. Now the Mach number in the inlet plane is greater than unity. For this case the mass flow rates m1, and mi are same. No spillage occurs for this condition.

With neat sketches, explain the flow pattern for sunsonic inlets:

Relation between mimimum area ratio and external deceleration ratio:

Types of Combustion Chambers:

Essential considerations in the design of combustion chamber:

Criteria to be considered for the design of combustion chamber geometry:

Explain the process of combustion in a gas turbine combustor:

Explain the various methods of Flame Stabilization:

Advantages and Disadvantages of different combustors:

Advantages of CAN combustors: 1. The fuel-to-air ratio can easily be controlled circumferentially 2. If a failure occurs in a Can combustor, only the particular Can where there is failure can be removed for inspection and repair. 3. During testing of combustion chamber, all Cans need not be tested. It is enough to test any one of the Cans. It reduces the required flow rates, the size of the test chamber and cost. 4. Each Can has small diameter and long lengths. Therefore, Can combustors have good survivability characteristics. They are used extensively in small turboshaft engines with centrifugal compressors. Disadvantages of CAN combustors: 1. When all Cans are assembled to form an whole Can combustor, the combustor becomes larger and heavier than the other types. 2. Pressure drop in Can combustors is higher (about 7%) 3. Each Can must contain its own igniter 4. The temperature distribution at the exit of the combustion chamber is less uniform than the other types. 5. Because of these disadvantages, Can combustors are rarely used in modern large engines.

Advantages of Annular Combustors: 1. Annular combustors are the simplest, the most compact, and the lightest of the three types of combustors. 2. Pressure drop in the combustion chamber is about 5% of the compressor exit pressure. 3. Air fuel mixing is good and combustion efficiency is high. Disadvantages of Annular Combustors: 1. Controlling the circumferential variation of temperature is most difficult with annular combustors, but produces uniform exit temperatures. 2. Mechanically, they are not as strong as the other types but use of improved materials have increased the strength of the combustors. 3. Servicing the annular combustor is hard. The entire engine must be removed from an aircraft and disassembled for repairing the combustors.

Advantages of Cannular Combustors: 1. Cannular combustors have smaller cross-sectional areas and thus the weight is less than Can combustors. 2. Less number of ignition systems are required because flow can propagate circumferentially. 3. Pressure drops are lower than for Can combustors approximately 6% of the compressor exit pressure. Disadvantages of Cannular Combustors: 1. Controlling the circumferential variation of temperature is most difficult with annular combustors, but produces uniform exit temperatures. 2. If one component fails, replacing only that component can be more expensive than for a Can combustor. 3. Method by which the combustion areas are connected, causes thermal stresses to be generated. In general cannular combustors have the advantages of the other two types and are used on both turbojets and turbofans.