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Efficacy of water spray protection against

butane jet fires impinging on Liquefied


Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks
Prepared by
Shell Global Solutions (UK)
for the Health and Safety Executive

CONTRACT RESEARCH REPORT


298/2000

Efficacy of Water Spray Protection Against Butane Jet Fires


Impinging on LPG Storage Tanks

LC Shirvill and JF Bennett


HSE Consultancy
Shell Global Solutions (UK)
Cheshire Innovation Park
PO Box 1
CHESTER
CH1 3SH

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect
them in the event of a fire. In 1996 a project (Contract No. 3383/R75.009) was undertaken to
study, at full-scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel
under conditions of jet fire impingement from a nearby release of liquid propane. The results,
reported in HSE report CRR 137/1997, showed that a typical water deluge system found on an
LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel
surface in an impinging propane jet fire scenario.
The objective of the work described in this report (Contract No. 3985/R75.041) was to extend
the understanding to include butane jet fires. These were known to have somewhat different
characteristics and may result in different conclusions to those drawn from the earlier work
with propane.
A total of twenty butane tests are reported and these provide a direct comparison with the
propane study. The results were in fact similar in that the water deluge did not always prevent
dry patches appearing along the top of the vessel, although these were generally smaller than
with the propane jet fires. The deluge also had a similar significant effect on the fire itself,
reducing the luminosity and smoke, and resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the
dry patches, when compared with the un-deluged case. One of the tests was repeated and run
for a longer duration, 10 minutes, at which time the maximum temperature of the small dry
patch had stabilised at 360oC. In the final test this was repeated again for more than twice this
time, but with one of the spray nozzles blocked to produce a larger dry patch. The maximum
temperature of this larger patch stabilised at 580oC. At this temperature the steel wall will be
severely weakened but may not necessarily fail.
The results of this study will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on
LPG installations leading to BLEVE incidents.
This report and the work it describes were funded by the Health and Safety Executive. Its
contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the author(s) alone
and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy.

Crown copyright 2000


Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to:
Copyright Unit, Her Majestys Stationery Office,
St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ
First published 2000
ISBN 0 7176 1856 0
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior
written permission of the copyright owner.

ii

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1
2. EXPERIMENTAL PLAN ................................................................................................1
3. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT..................................................................................2
3.1 BUTANE SUPPLY AND DISCHARGE SYSTEM ....................................................2
3.2 BUTANE FLOW MEASUREMENT..........................................................................2
3.3 BUTANE PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES .....................................................4
3.4 TARGET VESSEL AND TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS ..............................4
3.5 DELUGE WATER SUPPLY AND DELIVERY SYSTEM.........................................6
3.6 AMBIENT WEATHER MONITORING ....................................................................8
3.7 DATA LOGGING ......................................................................................................8
3.8 PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIDEO.................................................................................9
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................................9
4.1 TESTS DEL0401 TO DEL0423 .................................................................................9
4.2 TESTS DEL0424 AND DEL0425 ............................................................................14
5. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................17
6. REFERENCES...............................................................................................................17
7. APPENDICIES A-T .......................................................................................................18

iii

iv

1. INTRODUCTION

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays, referred to
as water deluge, to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be
effective in a pool fire(1) but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded
in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. The essential difference
between a pool fire and a jet fire is that the latter can result in higher velocities and in the
extreme case of a high-pressure natural gas jet fire water deluge has been shown to be totally
ineffective(2).
In 1996 a project (Contract No. 3383/R75.009) was undertaken to study, at full-scale, the
performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet
fire impingement from a nearby release of liquid propane. The results, reported in HSE report
CRR 137/1997(3), showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel
cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging
propane jet fire scenario. The results of this study have been used by the HSE in assessing the
risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to BLEVE incidents, but they are specific
to propane fires only.
The objective of the work described in this report was to extend the understanding to include
butane jet fires, using the same equipment and a similar experimental plan to provide a direct
comparison with the propane study. Butane jet fires were known to have somewhat different
characteristics and it was felt that this may result in different conclusions to those drawn from
the earlier work with propane.
Section 2. of this report describes the experimental plan, developed in consultation with the
HSE sponsor, and Section 3. describes the equipment used. Selected results are presented and
discussed in Section 4. The complete sets of results for each of the twenty valid tests are
contained in Appendices A-T. Section 5. presents the conclusions drawn from the work,
however it should be noted that the data gathered has only been analysed to the extent that it
could be accurately presented. A more detailed analysis may reveal additional features.

2. EXPERIMENTAL PLAN

The plan was to repeat the earlier propane study using butane to provide a direct comparison.
The same hole sizes and distances, based on credible accident scenarios considered in the HSE
model ALIBI (Assessment of LPG Installations leading to Bleve Incidents)(4), were used.
The butane jet fires, from 12.5, 25 and 50 mm holes, were to impinge on a target vessel (an
empty 13 tonne LPG tank) from distances of 1, 3 and 5 m. The parametric study was based
on this 3x3 test matrix and each set of conditions were to be carried out both with the water
deluge on before the fire, and with a 30 s delay in initiating the deluge. It was decided that the
short duration tests without any water deluge, carried out in the propane study, would not be
repeated as sufficient data on heat transfer without water could be obtained during the first 30 s
of the delayed deluged tests.

Our aim was to release butane under conditions closely similar to those that would occur if a
pipe were punctured or severed on an LPG installation. The 12.5 and 25 mm holes were to be
sharp-edged orifice plates on the end of a 50 mm pipe to achieve liquid releases of
approximately 1 and 4 kg/s, respectively. The 50 mm release would be full-bore from the pipe,
resulting in a liquid release of approximately 9 kg/s.
The tests were to be of longer duration than typically used in the earlier propane study, and if
time permitted one test would be repeated and run for at least 10 minutes.

3. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT

The equipment used was the same as in the earlier propane tests, but with some modifications
to more precisely control the discharge conditions, and more thermocouples on the target vessel
to achieve better spatial resolution.
3.1 BUTANE SUPPLY AND DISCHARGE SYSTEM
A schematic diagram of the butane supply, control and measurement system is shown in
Figure 1. The LPG storage tank, containing commercial grade butane, was elevated to achieve
a positive liquid head at the discharge orifice. The objective was to maintain the liquid butane
at just above its vapour pressure at the point of discharge and to achieve this in a controlled
manner it was necessary to over-pressure the storage with nitrogen. During the tests, the
nitrogen pressure was maintained using an Alfa Laval ECA-40 controller and Valtek pressure
control valve. Using this arrangement some nitrogen becomes dissolved in the butane. Samples
were taken after two of the tests and analysed, the results are given in Section 4.
The butane was discharge from the tank through three independent valves into a common
50 mm i.d. pipe into an existing supply line. This line was constructed from 149 mm i.d.
stainless steel pipe and extended for about 25 metres between the storage tank and the
discharge platform. Several manual and remotely operated valves were located in the line,
together with thermal pressure relief valves. At the discharge platform the line reduced to
50 mm i.d. stainless steel and terminated in the final, remotely operated, valve used to initiate
the release. Spool pieces, also 50 mm internal diameter, were used beyond the final valve to
achieve the three discharge distances of 1, 3 and 5 metres. Details of the discharge distances
are shown in Figure 2. The 12.5, 25.0 mm releases were through sharp-edged orifice plates and
the 50 mm release was full-bore.
3.2 BUTANE FLOW MEASUREMENT
The mass flow rate of the butane was measured using a Coriolis-force mass flow meter,
mounted in the butane delivery line, approximately 8 m upstream of the final valve. This flow
meter comprised a Micro Motion flow sensor and a mass flow transmitter. The sensor was
calibrated by the manufacturer and is accurate to within 0.5% of the mass flow rate. The mass
flow transmitter relayed the output of the flow sensor to the data logging system, described in
Section 3.7. The butane mass flow rate achieved was not controlled but governed by the
diameter of the release orifice and the exit conditions.

Target vessel

Exit conditions:- pressure, barg.,


temperature, deg C.

N
2 inch LPG discharge line

LPG:- mass flow rate, kg/s.

Water supply
Tank liquid head conditions:pressure, barg.
temperature, deg C.

Water:- flow rate, l/min.


pressure, barg.

6 inch LPG discharge line

LPG storage tank


Water recirculation
Tank vapour head conditions:pressure, barg.

Vapour pressure make-up

Water pump

Nitrogen source

Buffer tank

Water storage tanks

Figure 1
Schematic diagram of fuel / water storage and release systems

5000
3000
1000

Figure 2
Fuel discharge point locations

3.3 BUTANE PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES


The static pressure and temperature of the butane was measured at a number of locations.
Pressure and temperature at the exit of the storage tank, together with pressure and temperature
close to the release point.
The storage tank liquid head pressure was measured using an Ellison Sensors Intl Ltd.
PR3100 pressure transmitter located in the liquid discharge from the tank. The range of this
instrument was 0-20 bar, with a typical accuracy of 1.0% full scale, and a calibration was
performed prior to installation. This instrument also served the Alfa Laval ECA-40 controller
to maintain the nitrogen pressure blanket on the storage tank.
A further Ellison Sensors Intl Ltd. PR3100 pressure transmitter, with a measuring range of 06 bar, with a typical accuracy of 1.0% full scale, was used to measure the pressure at the exit
measurement position, 0.2 m upstream of the release point. The transmitter was calibrated on
site, before and after the test series, using a Druck DPI 600 series digital pressure calibrator.
The butane temperature was measured in the supply line and at the exit measurement position,
using stainless steel sheathed mineral insulated type T thermocouples protruding inside the
pipe. The thermocouple has an accuracy of 0.5C, and was connected via suitable
compensating cable to the data logger.
Data from the pressure transducers and temperature transmitters were recorded on the logging
system described in Section 3.7 and converted to engineering units by applying the relevant
calibration coefficients for each instrument.
3.4 TARGET VESSEL AND TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
The target vessel was a redundant 13 tonne LPG storage bullet which had been modified for
these experiments. The cylindrical shell was 2.17 m dia. x 7.5 m long, and fitted with
torispherical end caps. The total surface area of the vessel was estimated to be 61.3 m2 (based
on the simplifying assumption of spherically dished end caps), 51.15 m2 over the developed
cylindrical surface. To measure the temperature of the 12 mm thick wall of the shell, 85
thermocouples were attached to the internal surface. These comprised the original locations, 1
to 56 for tests prior to this series plus an extra 29 thermocouples, 57 to 85. These were placed
in an area that could be subjected to hot spots and could therefore provide increased
resolution of the surface temperatures. The locations of these thermocouples are indicated and
defined in Figures 3 to 5.
At all locations the thermocouples were attached directly to the steel by capacitance discharge
welder. The welder, type TAU, was supplied by Cooperheat Ltd. Solid conductor, 0.7 mm
dia., type 'K' thermocouple wire supplied by Omega was used. Each leg of the thermocouple
was welded separately to the steel, approximately 5 mm apart. Thus the steel becomes part of
the thermocouple junction and the thermocouple accurately and unambiguously measures the
steel temperature. The thermocouple cable was extended out of and beyond the vessel into a
junction box. In this box type 'K' connector blocks were used to transfer the thermocouple
output signals into multicored type 'V' compensating cables and hence to the data collection
point.

Centre line of vessel


7000.0
6000.0
5000.0
4625.0
4250.0
3875.0
3687.5
3500.0 to Centre Line
3312.5
3125.0
2750.0
2375.0
2000.0
1000.0

E
F
DA
EA
DB
EB

CA

FA

Figure 3
Thermocouple ring locations

9
16

57

61
10

58

62

17

24

60

18

59
4

15

12

14
3

67

63

64

69

66

70

19

20

22
21

13

Ring B

Ring A

23

11

Ring C

68

71

25

32

Ring D

Ring CA
73

26

74

72

79

75

76

78
77

65
31

27

Flame
Direction

28

30
29

80

33

40

Ring E

Ring DB

Ring DA

85
34

81

41

82
48

84

Ring EA

Ring EB

49

53

42

83
39

35

47

36

38

Ring FA

50

56

54

44

46

37

Ring F

43 52

45

51

55

Ring G

Ring H

Ring I

Figure 4
Thermocouple locations on the various rings
The type 'K' thermocouple wire used to measure the vessel temperatures was supplied to
tolerance class 2 (International Thermocouple Reference Tables: IEC 584-2:1882 and BS 4937
Part 20:1983), giving a tolerance value of +/- 2.5C or 0.0075 x T, which ever is the greatest,

within the limits of -40C to +1200C. Although suitable for lower temperatures, these
thermocouples may not meet the tolerance value below -40C.

13

21

29

37

45

51

55

14

22

30

38

46

Bottom

Bottom rear

Rear

23

15
59
16

Top rear

60

31
65

24

77

66

32
69

61

62

67

57

17

71

Top front

52

56

49

53

50

54

51

55

Thermocouple

83

78

40

84

79

80

85

75

33

81

48

74
25

68
58

Front

63

47

Water spray
nozzle

73

70

Top of vessel

39

41

72

64

76

82

10

18

26

34

42

11

19

27

35

43

12

20

28

36

44

13

21

29

37

45

Bottom front

Bottom

Figure 5
Development of thermocouple locations

3.5 DELUGE WATER SUPPLY AND DELIVERY SYSTEM


The deluge system was designed by Wormald Fire Systems to achieve a minimum application
rate of 10.2 litres/min./m2 over the whole exposed surface of the vessel, in accordance with
NFPA 15(5). This design was originally used in an investigation of the efficacy of water deluge
systems used on offshore facilities (2) but it is identical to that commonly used to protect LPG
storage bullets, the design application rate being just above the minimum of 9.8 litres/min./m2
specified in HSG 34(6).
Twenty four spray nozzles were used in sets of four around the vessel at an axial spacing of
1475 mm, Figure 6. This Wormald design called for a total water flow rate into the system of
1064 litres/min. delivered at 2.4 barg, and this was the nominal flow rate used in all of the
tests. The vessel is 2.17 m dia. thus each set of four nozzles is spraying on an area of 10.06 m2.
It is interesting to note that this results in an actual application rate of 17.6 litres/min./m2 on
the cylindrical shell of the vessel, some 73% excess over the design value. This large excess is
apparently an inevitable consequence of incremental spray nozzle sizes, the minimum spacing

required to ensure complete coverage and the hydraulic gradient required to achieve a minimum
pressure of 1.4 barg at the most hydraulically remote nozzle, in this particular case.
Centre line of vessel

1475

1475

1475

1480

2460

2460

1480

Figure 6
The target vessel indicating deluge nozzles

The spray nozzles were Wormald type MV21-110, manufactured from leaded-gunmetal with
brass diffuser plates.
Figure 7, shows a photograph of the deluge operating and it can be seen that a water film was
obtained over the whole surface of the vessel.

Figure 7
The target vessel with deluge nozzles operating
The layout of the water supply system is included in Figure 1. Water for the deluge was stored
in two large tanks in which the levels were balanced. A single outlet supplied water to a skid
mounted water pump driven by a diesel engine. The speed of the pump could be varied

manually. Water was discharged into a 150 mm nominal bore pipe leading to the deluge
system. Remotely operated valves enabled the water to be recirculated to the storage tanks.
This arrangement permitted the pump engine to be brought up to operating temperature under
working conditions and also enabled water at the required rate to flow into the deluge system at
the desired instant during delayed deluge experiments.
Deluge water pressure was measured with a Druck series PTX500 static pressure transducer.
This instrument operated within the range of 0 to 10 barg with a typical accuracy of +/-1.0% of
full scale and was calibrated on site using a Druck TPI 600 series digital pressure calibrator.
The water flow rate was measured using a Krohne IFM1080 flow meter uprated to operate
between 0 and 3000 litres/min. This instrument was supplied with a calibration produced by
the Dutch Office of Measures and Weights. An uncertainty of +/-1.0% is quoted by the
supplier.
3.6 AMBIENT WEATHER MONITORING
Equipment was deployed to monitor the ambient weather conditions in the vicinity of the test
facility. The wind speed was monitored using four Vector Instruments A100 cup type
anemometers, located at heights of 1.2, 2.9, 6.0 and 6.4 m above the discharge axis on weather
mast located to the west of the facility. The wind conditions were also measured using a Gill
Instruments, Solent logging ultrasonic anemometer, located at a height of 10.0 m above the
ground, equating to 8.2 m above the discharge axis. This instrument provided horizontal and
vertical wind speed components together with the wind direction.
The cup type anemometers can measure wind speed in the range 0 to 25 m/s and the accuracy
is quoted by the manufactures as 1%. The ultrasonic anemometer is capable of measuring
horizontal wind speeds in the range 0 to 60 m/s. The wind speed accuracy is 2.5% between 0
and 30 m/s. The accuracy of the vertical component is within 5% of the horizontal
component. Wind direction is measured in meteorological format i.e. as the direction the wind
is coming from, measured clockwise from north, with an accuracy of 2% for wind speeds
between 0 and 30 m/s.
The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured using a Vaisala HMD 30YB
transmitter. This instrument was mounted on the control cabin roof. The atmospheric pressure
was also monitored using a Vaisala PTA427 transmitter. The accuracy of the measurements,
quoted by the manufacturers, are 0.2C for the temperature, 2% for the relative humidity
between 0 and 90% and 3% between 90 and 100%, and 0.2 mbar for the atmospheric
pressure.
Data from all the ambient weather monitoring equipment was recorded on the logging system
described in Section 3.7 and converted to engineering units applying the relevant calibration
coefficients for each instrument.
3.7 DATA LOGGING
Data from all instruments were recorded using a PC based computer logging system. This
system is based on multiplexing of signals at remote locations using equipment manufactured
by Computer Instrumentation Limited. The concept of using this approach is based on limiting
the amount of cabling running between the computer and the instrumentation. Individual cables
from the instruments are fed into a multiplexer system located close to a group of instruments
from which only one signal cable is returned to the computer. This system also has the added
advantage that signals can be amplified by the multiplexer close to their source, thus avoiding
the transmission of small signal levels over long distances.

Each instrument channel was sampled at once per second for the duration of each test.
3.8 PHOTOGRAPHY AND VIDEO
A video and photographic record was made of each test.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Tests DEL0401 to DEL0423


To complete the 3x3x2 test matrix (12.5, 25 and 50 mm holes, from distances of 1, 3 and 5 m,
with deluge on before the fire, and with a 30 s delay) a total of 23 tests were carried out to
achieve 18 valid tests. Tests DEL0401, DEL0406, DEL0407, DEL04014 and DEL04015 were
deemed invalid, due to sudden changes in the wind or failure to reach steady flow conditions,
and are not reported. Table 1 shows hole sizes, stand-off distances, and series test numbers for
the 18 valid tests, together with the time averaging period used in deriving the subsequent data
tables. Each test was run for at least 3 minutes and stopped when the vessel temperatures
appeared to have stabilised, or in one case just under 7 minutes was reached.

Table 1
Series test numbers and averaging periods
Deluge on
Hole dia., mm

Test number

12.5

Stand off
distance, m.
1

12.5

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Test number

DEL0402

Averaging
period, s.
9 to 335

DEL0403

Averaging
period, s.
56 to 277

DEL0417

9 to 402

DEL0416

57 to 244

12.5

DEL0418

7 to 364

DEL0419

97 to 279

25.0

DEL0404

6 to 231

DEL0405

57 to 235

25.0

DEL0412

4 to 302

DEL0413

56 to 252

25.0

DEL0420

6 to 302

DEL0421

57 to 243

50.0

DEL0408

9 to 243

DEL0409

62 to 302

50.0

DEL0410

20 to 208

DEL0411

56 to 221

50.0

DEL0422

8 to 242

DEL0423

63 to 302

Table 2 shows the time averaged wind speeds and directions for each test. The averaged wind
speeds of between 3 and 10 m/s were slightly higher than those encountered in the earlier
propane tests, 1.6-7.8 m/s. A south westerly co-flowing wind would have ensured that the jet
fire was central on the target vessel, however, a cross wind generally from the quadrant
between west and north was deemed acceptable.

Table 2
Series winds speeds and directions
Deluge on
Hole dia., mm

Stand off
distance, m.

Wind speed,
m/s

12.5

12.5

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Wind speed, m/s

2.98

Wind
direction,
degs.
8

2.49

Wind
direction,
degs.
314

3.87

271

4.27

271

12.5

6.40

260

8.64

261

25.0

3.09

276

3.11

280

25.0

3.78

262

3.60

266

25.0

10.06

264

7.70

264

50.0

2.83

284

2.86

289

50.0

2.92

250

3.03

249

50.0

9.23

265

9.23

267

Table 3 shows the butane discharge conditions for each test. The nitrogen used to over-pressure
the butane storage was just sufficient to achieve fully liquid releases. The exit temperature,
measured just upstream of the hole, remained close to ambient, confirming that no flashing had
occurred at that point and that fully liquid releases had been achieved.

Table 3
Series discharge conditions
Deluge on
Hole dia.,
mm

Mass flow
rate, kg/s

12.5

Stand off
distance,
m.
1

12.5

1.02

7.6

12.5

1.01

25.0

25.0

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Mass
flow
rate, kg/s
1.01

Exit
temperature,
deg C
8.9

Exit
pressure,
barg.
1.3

1.4

1.03

7.6

1.4

7.1

1.4

0.90

6.5

1.4

3.87

6.6

1.2

3.86

6.6

1.2

3.77

8.1

1.5

3.63

8.0

1.6

25.0

4.02

8.0

1.4

3.88

8.8

1.4

50.0

9.40

5.6

1.0

8.71

4.5

1.0

50.0

8.94

5.5

1.2

8.54

T/C failed

1.3

50.0

9.61

8.3

1.1

9.10

7.8

1.1

1.00

Exit
Exit
temperature, pressure,
deg C
barg.
10.1
1.3

10

Liquid butane samples were taken from the storage tank part way through use of the first and
second deliveries of commercial butane. The results are shown in Table 4. Both samples
contained some propane, which is not uncommon in commercial butane. As expected a small
amount of the nitrogen used to over-pressure the storage had dissolved in the butane

Table 4
Analysis of butane samples
Component

Sample 1
% mole

Sample 2
% mole

Propane

11.6

4.0

Isobutane

21.1

21.9

N-butane

65.2

70.7

Trans-2-butene

0.1

0.1

Isopentane

1.4

2.6

N-pentane

0.2

0.5

Nitrogen

0.3

0.2

The full results from each of the 18 tests are contained in Appendices A to R. Each appendix
contains:
a summary of the test conditions
Figure x1 showing the fuel conditions during the test
Figure x2 showing the water deluge conditions during the test
Figures x3-x17, for each ring of thermocouples, showing the target vessel temperatures
during the test
Figures x18 and x19, development of the vessel surface with temperature contours, at 30 s
after ignition on the delayed deluge tests only, and for all at the end of the test .

Table 5 summarises the results, showing the different vessel wall temperature regimes found in
each test. The 120oC criterion, also used in the earlier propane study, was chosen based on the
work of Lev and Strachan(7) which showed that this temperature may be taken as "indicative of
having achieved critical conditions for failure of the water film".
Table 5 shows that when starting with the deluge on, only the larger releases result in dry
patches. The largest dry patch being in test DEL0422 (50 mm hole, 5 m distance) where 4
thermocouples exceeded 120oC, also see Appendix Q, Figure Q18.
With the deluge delayed by 30 seconds dry patches are more readily formed but for the smallest
hole size these do not persist. Again the largest dry patch occurred with the largest hole and the
greatest distance, test DEL0423, also see Appendix R, Figure R19.

11

Table 5
Series temperature regimes
Deluge on
Hole dia.,
mm

Stand off
distance,
m.

Maximum
temp., deg
C

Number
of T/Cs
exceeding
120 deg C

12.5

93

12.5

12.5

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Maximum
temp., deg
C

Number
of T/Cs
exceeding
120 deg C

Number
of T/Cs
staying in
excess of
120 deg C
0

137

10

Number of
T/Cs
staying in
excess of
120 deg C
0

95

137

10

98

98

25.0

103

185

19

25.0

101

239

30

25.0

174

283

18

50.0

140

229

28

50.0

107

292

26

50.0

233

332

20

Figure 8 shows an example of some target vessel wall temperatures during test DEL0409
(50 mm hole, 1 m distance, delayed deluge). The thermocouple responses plotted were chosen
to illustrate the different types of behaviour found in all of the tests. The last two digits of the
identifier give the thermocouple location, see Figure 5 in Section 3.4, thus TK-40925 is
thermocouple 25 located at the top of the vessel in the centre.

250

TK-40925
TK-40963

150

TK-40964
TK-40966
100

TK-40969
120 degs

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure 8
Example of wall temperatures during test DEL0409

12

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

200

The water deluge was initiated 30 seconds after ignition and the flow fully established by
50 seconds. At some thermocouples locations, e.g. 63 and 64, a water film was quickly
established and the wall temperature never exceeded the 120oC criterion. At location 66 a water
film was established at 50 seconds even though the wall had initially exceeded 120oC. At
locations 69 and 25 it is clear that once the water flow is fully established the rate of
temperature rise is reduced. After 90 seconds a water film is established at location 69 and the
temperature drops 120oC. At location 25, the temperature continues to rise at the reduced rate.
This reduced rate of temperature rise of dry patches was also seen in the earlier propane study
and results from the combustion process being affected by the water sprays. Less soot is
formed in the flame resulting in less luminosity and a reduction in the heat transfer by radiation
to the vessel surface. This is most clearly illustrated by reference to Figures 9 and 10. These
photographs were taken during test DEL0413, before and after establishment of the deluge.

Figure 9
Test DEL0413 before deluge

Figure 10
Test DEL0413 with deluge

13

In all of the tests where this behaviour was observed (DEL0409, DEL0411, DEL0413 and
DEL0423) we have estimated the reduction in the rate of temperature rise at dry patches by
comparing the essentially linear temperature rise before the water comes on, with that
immediately after the deluge has become fully established. The results do not allow specific
reductions in rate of temperature rise or heat transfer to be associated with particular
conditions, but typically the reduction is a factor of between 2 and 5, similar to that found with
propane (between 1.5 and 5.8) (3).
Some releases from 1 m and 3 m resulted in liquid butane impinging on the target vessel with
local low temperatures on the vessel wall. Test DEL0409 is a good example, see Appendix F,
Figures F18 and F19. In some tests some liquid butane poured onto the ground after hitting the
vessel and produced a pool fire under the vessel.
4.2 TESTS DEL0424 AND DEL0425
Test DEL04024 was a repeat of test DEL0413 (25 mm hole, 3 m distance, delayed deluge) run
for 10 minutes to establish the equilibrium temperature reached by a small dry patch. Test
DEL04025 was a further repeat of this test, but with one nozzle blocked to induce a larger dry
patch, and run for more than 20 minutes to establish the equilibrium temperature reached by a
larger dry patch.
Table 6 shows hole sizes, stand-off distances, and series test numbers for these two tests,
together with the time averaging period used in deriving the subsequent data tables.

Table 6
Long duration test numbers and averaging periods
Deluge on
Hole dia., mm
25.0

Stand off
distance, m.
3

25.0

Test number

Averaging
period, s.

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Test number
DEL0424

Averaging
period, s.
59 to 611

DEL0425

57 to 1578

Table 7 shows the time averaged wind speeds and directions for each test.

Table 7
Long duration tests wind speeds and directions
Deluge on
Wind speed,
m/s

Hole dia., mm

Stand off
distance, m.

25.0

5.55

Wind
direction,
degs.
259

25.0

7.40

261

14

Wind
direction,
degs.

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Wind speed, m/s

Table 8 shows the butane discharge conditions for each test.

Table 8
Long duration tests discharge conditions
Deluge on
Hole dia.,
mm
25.0

Stand off
distance,
m.
3

25.0

Mass flow
rate, kg/s

Deluge delayed by 30 s.

Exit
Exit
temperature, pressure,
deg C
barg.

Mass
flow
rate, kg/s
4.31

Exit
temperatur
e, deg C
7.7

Exit
pressure,
barg.
1.5

4.57

6.9

1.5

The full results from both of the tests are contained in Appendices S and T. Each appendix
contains:
a summary of the test conditions
Figure x1 showing the fuel conditions during the test
Figure x2 showing the water deluge conditions during the test
Figures x3-x17, for each ring of thermocouples, showing the target vessel temperatures
during the test
Figures x18 and x19, development of the vessel surface with temperature contours, at 30 s
after ignition on the delayed deluge tests only, and for all at the end of the test .Table 9
summarises the results, showing the different vessel wall temperature regimes found in each
test.
Table 9
Long duration tests temperature regimes
Deluge on

Deluge delayed by 30 s.
Maximum
temp., deg
C

Number
of T/Cs
exceeding
120 deg C

Number of
T/Cs
staying in
excess of
120 deg C

372

27

581

19

13

Hole dia.,
mm

Stand off
distance,
m.

25.0
25.0

Maximum
temp., deg
C

Number
of T/Cs
exceeding
120 deg C

15

Number
of T/Cs
staying in
excess of
120 deg C

Figure 11 shows some of the dry spot wall temperatures during tests DEL0424 and DEL0425.
Dry spot temperatures
600

500

Temperature, deg, C.

400
TK-42517
TK-42560
300

TK-42561
TK-42562
TK-42566
TK-42567

200

120 degs
TK-42417
TK-42457
100

1560

1500

1440

1380

1320

1260

1200

1140

1080

960

1020

900

840

780

720

660

600

540

480

420

360

300

240

180

120

60

Time from ignition, s.

Figure 11
Dry spot wall temperatures during tests DEL0424 and DEL0425
The maximum temperature reached by the small dry spot (thermocouple location 17) in test
DEL0424 was 360oC after 10 minutes. See also Appendix S, Figure S19, for details of the dry
spot.
The maximum temperature reached by the large dry spot (thermocouple location 62) in test
DEL0425 was 580oC. It appears that thermocouple location 67 may be on the edge of the dry
patch as the temperature was falling during the second half of the test. The gap in the data
around 23 minutes was caused by the necessity to change disks in the data logging system. See
also Appendix T, Figure T19, for details of the dry spot. The blocked water spray nozzle was
the one above thermocouple location 24, see Figure 5 in Section 3.4.
At the maximum temperature of 580oC the steel wall will be severely weakened but may not
necessarily fail, resulting in a BLEVE if the vessel had contained LPG.

Figure 12
Test DEL0425

16

5. CONCLUSIONS

The following conclusions are based on an analysis of the data sufficient only to allow it to be
accurately reported. A more detailed analysis may reveal additional features.
1.

The results from the twenty tests reported show that a typical water deluge system
found on an LPG storage tank cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the
whole tank surface in an impinging butane jet fire scenario.

2.

The results are similar to those found in the earlier propane work, although any dry
patches were generally smaller with the butane jet fires. The deluge also had a similar
significant effect on the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, and resulting in
a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case, typically by a factor between 2 and 5.

3.

The equilibrium temperature reached by a small dry patch was about 360oC after 10
minutes, in one repeated test, run until an equilibrium temperature had been reached.

4.

The equilibrium temperature reached by a larger dry patch, induced by blocking one of
the spray nozzles, was 580oC after about 20 minutes.

5.

Some releases resulted in liquid butane impinging on the target vessel with local low
temperatures on the vessel wall. In some tests some liquid butane poured onto the
ground after hitting the vessel and produced a pool fire under the vessel.

6. REFERENCES

1.

Billinge, K, Moodie, K and Beckett, H. The use of Water Sprays to Protect Fire
engulfed Storage Tanks, 5th International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety
Promotion in Process Industries, 1986.

2.

Shirvill, LC and White, GC. Effectiveness of Deluge Systems in Protecting Plant and
Equipment Impacted by High-Velocity Natural Gas Jet Fires, ICHMT 1994
International Symposium on Heat and Mass Transfer in Chemical Process Industry
Accidents, Rome 1994.

3.

Bennett, JF, Shirvill, LC and Pritchard, MJ. Efficacy of Water Spray Protection
Against Jet Fires Impinging on LPG Storage Tanks, HSE Contract Research Report
137/1997.

4.

Goose, MH. Recent Developments with ALIBI, a Model for Site Specific Prediction of
LPG Tank BLEVE Frequency, IChemE Symposium Series No. 139, Major Hazards
Onshore and Offshore II, Manchester 1995.

5.

NFPA 15, Water Spray Fixed Systems, National Fire Protection Association.

6.

HSG 34, The Storage of LPG at fixed Installations, HMSO.

7.

Lev, Y and Strachan, DC. A Study of Cooling Water Requirements for the Protection
of Metal Surfaces Against Thermal Radiation, Fire Technology, August 1989.

17

7. APPENDICIES A-T

18

Appendix A - DEL0402

Averaging period

9 - 335

seconds after ignition

12.50
1.00
1.02
1.33
10.13

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Summary of Release Exit Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure:
Exit temperature
Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.35
1069.75

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.7
2.8
3.1
3.2
No data
No data
8.31
87.2
12.2
961.1

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

19

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0402


5.0
4.5
4.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

3.5

Mass flow , kg/s

3.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0402


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A2 - Water deluge conditions

20

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40201

250

TK-40202
200

TK-40203
TK-40204

150

120 deg C.

100
50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure A3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40205

250

TK-40206
200

TK-40207
TK-40208

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

21

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40209
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40210
TK-40211

250

TK-40212
200

TK-40213
TK-40214

150

TK-40215
TK-40216

100

120 deg C.
50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40257
250

TK-40258
TK-40259

200

TK-40260
TK-40261

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

22

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40217
TK-40218

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40219
250

TK-40220
TK-40221

200

TK-40222
TK-40223

150

TK-40224
100

TK-40262
120 deg C.

50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40263
250

TK-40264
TK-40265

200

TK-40266
TK-40267

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

23

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40268
TK-40269

200

TK-40270
120 deg C.

150
100
50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40225
TK-40226
TK-40227
250

TK-40228
TK-40229

200

TK-40230
TK-40231

150

TK-40232
100

TK-40271
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

24

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40272
TK-40273

200

TK-40274
120 deg C.

150
100
50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40275
250

TK-40276
TK-40277

200

TK-40278
TK-40279

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

25

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40233
TK-40234

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40235
250

TK-40236
TK-40237

200

TK-40238
TK-40239

150

TK-40240
100

TK-40280
120 deg C.

50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40281
250

TK-40282
TK-40283

200

TK-40284
TK-40285

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

26

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40241
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40242
TK-40243

250

TK-40244
200

TK-40245
TK-40246

150

TK-40247
TK-40248

100

120 deg C.
50

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40249

250

TK-40250
200

TK-40251
TK-40252

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

27

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40253

250

TK-40254
200

TK-40255
TK-40256

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure A17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

28

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure A18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 335s after ignition.

29

Appendix B - DEL0403

Averaging period

56 - 277

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure:
Exit temperature

12.50
1.00
1.01
1.31
8.86

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.35
1069.38

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.0
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.49
0.9
314.29
88.7
12.0
961.6

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 53, 54, 55, 79

30

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0403


5.0
4.5
4.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

3.5

Mass flow , kg/s

3.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0403


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


m^3/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B2 - Water deluge conditions

31

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40301

250

TK-40302
200

TK-40303
TK-40304

150

120 deg C.

100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure B3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40305

250

TK-40306
200

TK-40307
TK-40308

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

32

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40309
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40310
TK-40311

250

TK-40312
200

TK-40313
TK-40314

150

TK-40315
TK-40316

100

120 deg C.
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40357
250

TK-40358
TK-40359

200

TK-40360
TK-40361

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

33

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40317
TK-40318

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40319
250

TK-40320
TK-40321

200

TK-40322
TK-40323

150

TK-40324
100

TK-40362
120 deg C.

50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40363
250

TK-40364
TK-40365

200

TK-40366
TK-40367

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

34

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40368
TK-40369

200

TK-40370
120 deg C.

150
100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40325
TK-40326
TK-40327
250

TK-40328
TK-40329

200

TK-40330
TK-40331

150

TK-40332
100

TK-40371
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

35

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40372
TK-40373

200

TK-40374
120 deg C.

150
100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40375
250

TK-40376
TK-40377

200

TK-40378
TK-40379

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

36

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40333
TK-40334

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40335
250

TK-40336
TK-40337

200

TK-40338
TK-40339

150

TK-40340
100

TK-40380
120 deg C.

50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40381
250

TK-40382
TK-40383

200

TK-40384
TK-40385

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

37

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40341
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40342
TK-40343

250

TK-40344
200

TK-40345
TK-40346

150

TK-40347
TK-40348

100

120 deg C.
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40349

250

TK-40350
200

TK-40351
TK-40352

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

38

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40353

250

TK-40354
200

TK-40355
TK-40356

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure B17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

39

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure B18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure B19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 277s after ignition.

40

Appendix C - DEL0404

Averaging period

6 - 231

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure:
Exit temperature

25.0
1.00
3.87
1.23
6.62

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.34
1071.53

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.3
2.5
2.7
2.8
3.09
0.9
276.20
91.3
11.7
962.0

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

41

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0404


6.0
5.5
5.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

4.5
4.0

Mass flow , kg/s

3.5

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0404


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C2 - Water deluge conditions

42

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40401

250

TK-40402
200

TK-40403
TK-40404

150

120 deg C.

100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure C3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40405

250

TK-40406
200

TK-40407
TK-40408

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

43

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40409
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40410
TK-40411

250

TK-40412
200

TK-40413
TK-40414

150

TK-40415
TK-40416

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40457
250

TK-40458
TK-40459

200

TK-40460
TK-40461

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C6 - Temperature - thermocouples 57 - 61

44

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40417
TK-40418

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40419
250

TK-40420
TK-40421

200

TK-40422
TK-40423

150

TK-40424
100

TK-40462
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40463
250

TK-40464
TK-40465

200

TK-40466
TK-40467

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C8 - Temperature - thermocouples 63 - 67

45

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40468
TK-40469

200

TK-40470
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C9 - Temperature - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40425
TK-40426
TK-40427
250

TK-40428
TK-40429

200

TK-40430
TK-40431

150

TK-40432
100

TK-40471
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C10 - Temperature - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

46

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40472
TK-40473

200

TK-40474
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C11 - Temperature - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40475
250

TK-40476
TK-40477

200

TK-40478
TK-40479

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C12 - Temperature - thermocouples 75 - 79

47

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40433
TK-40434

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40435
250

TK-40436
TK-40437

200

TK-40438
TK-40439

150

TK-40440
100

TK-40480
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40481
250

TK-40482
TK-40483

200

TK-40484
TK-40485

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

48

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40441
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40442
TK-40443

250

TK-40444
200

TK-40445
TK-40446

150

TK-40447
TK-40448

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40449

250

TK-40450
200

TK-40451
TK-40452

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

49

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40453

250

TK-40454
200

TK-40455
TK-40456

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure C17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure C18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 231s after ignition.

51

Appendix D - DEL0405

Averaging period

57 - 235

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure:
Exit temperature

25.0
1.00
3.86
1.23
6.62

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.36
1069.69

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.1
2.3
2.5
2.6
3.11
0.9
279.81
92.1
11.6
962.4

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

52

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0405


6.0
5.5
5.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

4.5
4.0

Mass flow , kg/s

3.5

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0405


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


m^3/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D2 - Water deluge conditions

53

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40501

250

TK-40502
200

TK-40503
TK-40504

150

120 deg C.

100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure D3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40505

250

TK-40506
200

TK-40507
TK-40508

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

54

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40509
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40510
TK-40511

250

TK-40512
200

TK-40513
TK-40514

150

TK-40515
TK-40516

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D5 - Temperature - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40557
250

TK-40558
TK-40559

200

TK-40560
TK-40561

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

55

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40517
TK-40518

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40519
250

TK-40520
TK-40521

200

TK-40522
TK-40523

150

TK-40524
100

TK-40562
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40563
250

TK-40564
TK-40565

200

TK-40566
TK-40567

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

56

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40568
TK-40569

200

TK-40570
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40525
TK-40526
TK-40527
250

TK-40528
TK-40529

200

TK-40530
TK-40531

150

TK-40532
100

TK-40571
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

57

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40572
TK-40573

200

TK-40574
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40575
250

TK-40576
TK-40577

200

TK-40578
TK-40579

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

58

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40533
TK-40534

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40535
250

TK-40536
TK-40537

200

TK-40538
TK-40539

150

TK-40540
100

TK-40580
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40581
250

TK-40582
TK-40583

200

TK-40584
TK-40585

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

59

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40541
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40542
TK-40543

250

TK-40544
200

TK-40545
TK-40546

150

TK-40547
TK-40548

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40549

250

TK-40550
200

TK-40551
TK-40552

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

60

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40553

250

TK-40554
200

TK-40555
TK-40556

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure D17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

61

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure D18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure D19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 235s after ignition.

62

Appendix E - DEL0408

Averaging period

9 - 243

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure:
Exit temperature

50.0
1.00
9.40
1.04
5.63

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.40
1067.29

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

1.8
1.9
2.2
2.3
2.83
0.9
284.31
93.1
11.2
963.2

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

63

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0408


11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


7.0
Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0408


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E2 - Water deluge conditions

64

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40801

250

TK-40802
200

TK-40803
TK-40804

150

120 deg C.

100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure E3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40805

250

TK-40806
200

TK-40807
TK-40808

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

65

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40809
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40810
TK-40811

250

TK-40812
200

TK-40813
TK-40814

150

TK-40815
TK-40816

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40857
250

TK-40858
TK-40859

200

TK-40860
TK-40861

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

66

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40817
TK-40818

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40819
250

TK-40820
TK-40821

200

TK-40822
TK-40823

150

TK-40824
100

TK-40862
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40863
250

TK-40864
TK-40865

200

TK-40866
TK-40867

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

67

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40868
TK-40869

200

TK-40870
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40825
TK-40826
TK-40827
250

TK-40828
TK-40829

200

TK-40830
TK-40831

150

TK-40832
100

TK-40871
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

68

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40872
TK-40873

200

TK-40874
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40875
250

TK-40876
TK-40877

200

TK-40878
TK-40879

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

69

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40833
TK-40834

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40835
250

TK-40836
TK-40837

200

TK-40838
TK-40839

150

TK-40840
100

TK-40880
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40881
250

TK-40882
TK-40883

200

TK-40884
TK-40885

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

70

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40841
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40842
TK-40843

250

TK-40844
200

TK-40845
TK-40846

150

TK-40847
TK-40848

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40849

250

TK-40850
200

TK-40851
TK-40852

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

71

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40853

250

TK-40854
200

TK-40855
TK-40856

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure E17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

72

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure E18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 243s after ignition.

73

Appendix F - DEL0409

Averaging period

62 - 302

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

50.0
1.00
8.71
1.05
4.51

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.37
1064.02

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.1
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.86
0.9
289.47
93.2
11.1
963.5

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

74

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0409

11.0
10.0
9.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

8.0

Mass flow , kg/s

7.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0409


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


l/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F2 - Water deluge conditions

75

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-40901

250

TK-40902
200

TK-40903
TK-40904

150

120 deg C.

100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure F3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-40905

250

TK-40906
200

TK-40907
TK-40908

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

76

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-40909
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40910
TK-40911

250

TK-40912
200

TK-40913
TK-40914

150

TK-40915
TK-40916

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-40957
250

TK-40958
TK-40959

200

TK-40960
TK-40961

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

77

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-40917
TK-40918

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40919
250

TK-40920
TK-40921

200

TK-40922
TK-40923

150

TK-40924
100

TK-40962
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-40963
250

TK-40964
TK-40965

200

TK-40966
TK-40967

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

78

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40968
TK-40969

200

TK-40970
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-40925
TK-40926
TK-40927
250

TK-40928
TK-40929

200

TK-40930
TK-40931

150

TK-40932
100

TK-40971
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F10 - Temperature - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

79

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-40972
TK-40973

200

TK-40974
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F 11 - Temperature - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-40975
250

TK-40976
TK-40977

200

TK-40978
TK-40979

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F12 - Temperature - thermocouples 75 - 79

80

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-40933
TK-40934

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40935
250

TK-40936
TK-40937

200

TK-40938
TK-40939

150

TK-40940
100

TK-40980
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F13 - Temperature - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-40981
250

TK-40982
TK-40983

200

TK-40984
TK-40985

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F14 - Temperature - thermocouples 81 - 85

81

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-40941
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-40942
TK-40943

250

TK-40944
200

TK-40945
TK-40946

150

TK-40947
TK-40948

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F15 - Temperature - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-40949

250

TK-40950
200

TK-40951
TK-40952

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F16 - Temperature - thermocouples 49 - 52

82

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-40953

250

TK-40954
200

TK-40955
TK-40956

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure F17 - Temperature - thermocouples 53 - 56

83

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure F18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure F19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 302s after ignition.

84

Appendix G - DEL0410

Averaging period

20 - 208

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

50.0
3.00
8.94
1.17
5.46

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Deluge Flow
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.38
1065.47

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.92
1.0
249.70
95.5
10.5
981.5

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

85

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0410


10.0
9.0
8.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

7.0

Mass flow , kg/s

6.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0410


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G2 - Walter deluge conditions

86

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41001

250

TK-41002
200

TK-41003
TK-41004

150

120 deg C.

100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure G3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41005

250

TK-41006
200

TK-41007
TK-41008

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

87

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41009
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41010
TK-41011

250

TK-41012
200

TK-41013
TK-41014

150

TK-41015
TK-41016

100

120 deg C.
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41057
250

TK-41058
TK-41059

200

TK-41060
TK-41061

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

88

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41017
TK-41018

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41019
250

TK-41020
TK-41021

200

TK-41022
TK-41023

150

TK-41024
100

TK-41062
120 deg C.

50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41063
250

TK-41064
TK-41065

200

TK-41066
TK-41067

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G8 - Temperature - thermocouples 63 - 67

89

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41068
TK-41069

200

TK-41070
120 deg C.

150
100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G9 - Temperature - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41025
TK-41026
TK-41027
250

TK-41028
TK-41029

200

TK-41030
TK-41031

150

TK-41032
100

TK-41071
120 deg C.

50

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 0 32 plus 71

90

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41072
TK-41073

200

TK-41074
120 deg C.

150
100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41075
250

TK-41076
TK-41077

200

TK-41078
TK-41079

150

120 deg C.
100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

91

Ring F
400
350
TK-41033
TK-41034

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41035
250

TK-41036
TK-41037

200

TK-41038
TK-41039

150

TK-41040
100

TK-41080
120 deg C.

50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41081
250

TK-41082
TK-41083

200

TK-41084
TK-41085

150

120 deg C.
100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

92

Ring G
400
350
TK-41041
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41042
TK-41043

250

TK-41044
200

TK-41045
TK-41046

150

TK-41047
TK-41048

100

120 deg C.
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41049

250

TK-41050
200

TK-41051
TK-41052

150

120 deg C.

100
50

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

93

Ring I
400
350

TK-41053

250

TK-41054
200

TK-41055
TK-41056

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure G17 - Temperature - thermocouples 53 - 56

94

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure G18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 208s after ignition

95

Appendix H - DEL0411

Averaging period

56 - 221

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

50.0
3.00
8.54
1.28
Thermocouple failed

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.35
1071.28

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.6
3.0
3.1
3.0
3.03
0.9
248.76
95.0
10.9
981.6

Thermocouples not operating properly


Fuel exit temperature, 15, 79

96

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0411


10.0
9.0
8.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

7.0

Mass flow , kg/s

6.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0411


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


l/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H2 - Water deluge conditions

97

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41101

250

TK-41102
200

TK-41103
TK-41104

150

120 deg C.

100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure H3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41105

250

TK-41106
200

TK-41107
TK-41108

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

98

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41109
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41110
TK-41111

250

TK-41112
200

TK-41113
TK-41114

150

TK-41115
TK-41116

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H5 - Temperature - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41157
250

TK-41158
TK-41159

200

TK-41160
TK-41161

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H6 - Temperature - thermocouples 57 - 61

99

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41117
TK-41118

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41119
250

TK-41120
TK-41121

200

TK-41122
TK-41123

150

TK-41124
100

TK-41162
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H7 - Temperature - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41163
250

TK-41164
TK-41165

200

TK-41166
TK-41167

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H8 - Temperature - thermocouples 63 - 67

100

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41168
TK-41169

200

TK-41170
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H9 - Temperature - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41125
TK-41126
TK-41127
250

TK-41128
TK-41129

200

TK-41130
TK-41131

150

TK-41132
100

TK-41171
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H10 - Temperature - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

101

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41172
TK-41173

200

TK-41174
120 deg C.

150
100
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H11 - Temperature - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41175
250

TK-41176
TK-41177

200

TK-41178
TK-41179

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H12 - Temperature - thermocouples 75 - 79

102

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41133
TK-41134

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41135
250

TK-41136
TK-41137

200

TK-41138
TK-41139

150

TK-41140
100

TK-41180
120 deg C.

50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H13 - Temperature - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41181
250

TK-41182
TK-41183

200

TK-41184
TK-41185

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

103

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41141
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41142
TK-41143

250

TK-41144
200

TK-41145
TK-41146

150

TK-41147
TK-41148

100

120 deg C.
50

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H15 - Temperature - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41149

250

TK-41150
200

TK-41151
TK-41152

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H16 - Temperature - thermocouples 49 - 52

104

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41153

250

TK-41154
200

TK-41155
TK-41156

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure H17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

105

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure H18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.
A

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure H19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 221s after ignition.

106

Appendix I - DEL0412

Averaging period

4 - 302

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
3.00
3.77
1.55
8.07

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.38
1066.87

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.9
3.1
3.4
3.5
3.78
1.3
261.67
94.2
11.3
982.2

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

107

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0412


6.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

5.0
Mass flow , kg/s

4.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

3.0

2.0

1.0

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0412


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


l/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I2 - Water deluge conditions

108

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41201

250

TK-41202
200

TK-41203
TK-41204

150

120 deg C.

100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure I3 - Temperature - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41205

250

TK-41206
200

TK-41207
TK-41208

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

109

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41209
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41210
TK-41211

250

TK-41212
200

TK-41213
TK-41214

150

TK-41215
TK-41216

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41257
250

TK-41258
TK-41259

200

TK-41260
TK-41261

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

110

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41217
TK-41218

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41219
250

TK-41220
TK-41221

200

TK-41222
TK-41223

150

TK-41224
100

TK-41262
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41263
250

TK-41264
TK-41265

200

TK-41266
TK-41267

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

111

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41268
TK-41269

200

TK-41270
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41225
TK-41226
TK-41227
250

TK-41228
TK-41229

200

TK-41230
TK-41231

150

TK-41232
100

TK-41271
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

112

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41272
TK-41273

200

TK-41274
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41275
250

TK-41276
TK-41277

200

TK-41278
TK-41279

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

113

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41233
TK-41234

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41235
250

TK-41236
TK-41237

200

TK-41238
TK-41239

150

TK-41240
100

TK-41280
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41281
250

TK-41282
TK-41283

200

TK-41284
TK-41285

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

114

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41241
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41242
TK-41243

250

TK-41244
200

TK-41245
TK-41246

150

TK-41247
TK-41248

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41249

250

TK-41250
200

TK-41251
TK-41252

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

115

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41253

250

TK-41254
200

TK-41255
TK-41256

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure I17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 -56

116

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

480

REAR

360

240
TOP
120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure I18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 302s after ignition.

117

Appendix J - DEL0413

Averaging period

56 - 252

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
3.00
3.63
1.59
7.97

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.37
1063.13

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.9
3.0
3.3
3.3
3.60
1.1
265.91
94.5
11.4
982.3

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

118

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0413


6.0
5.5
5.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

4.5
4.0

Mass flow , kg/s

3.5

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0413


3.00

2.50

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

-0.50
Time from ignition, s.

Figure J2 - Water deluge conditions

119

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.00

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41301

250

TK-41302
200

TK-41303
TK-41304

150

120 deg C.

100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure J3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41305

250

TK-41306
200

TK-41307
TK-41308

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

120

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41309
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41310
TK-41311

250

TK-41312
200

TK-41313
TK-41314

150

TK-41315
TK-41316

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41357
250

TK-41358
TK-41359

200

TK-41360
TK-41361

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

121

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41317
TK-41318

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41319
250

TK-41320
TK-41321

200

TK-41322
TK-41323

150

TK-41324
100

TK-41362
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41363
250

TK-41364
TK-41365

200

TK-41366
TK-41367

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

122

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41368
TK-41369

200

TK-41370
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41325
TK-41326
TK-41327
250

TK-41328
TK-41329

200

TK-41330
TK-41331

150

TK-41332
100

TK-41371
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

123

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41372
TK-41373

200

TK-41374
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41375
250

TK-41376
TK-41377

200

TK-41378
TK-41379

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

124

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41333
TK-41334

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41335
250

TK-41336
TK-41337

200

TK-41338
TK-41339

150

TK-41340
100

TK-41380
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41381
250

TK-41382
TK-41383

200

TK-41384
TK-41385

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

125

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41341
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41342
TK-41343

250

TK-41344
200

TK-41345
TK-41346

150

TK-41347
TK-41348

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41349

250

TK-41350
200

TK-41351
TK-41352

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

126

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41353

250

TK-41354
200

TK-41355
TK-41356

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure J17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

127

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure J18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure J19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 252s after ignition.

128

Appendix K - DEL0416

Averaging period

57 - 244

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

12.5
3.00
1.03
1.41
7.58

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.32
1071.90

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

3.2
3.4
3.8
3.8
4.27
1.1
270.57
93.5
10.8
982.9

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 53, 54, 55, 79

129

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0416


4.0
3.5
3.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


2.5
Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0416


3.00

2.50

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

-0.50
Time from ignition, s.

Figure K2 - Water deluge conditions

130

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.00

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41601

250

TK-41602
200

TK-41603
TK-41604

150

120 deg C.

100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure K3 - Temperature - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41605

250

TK-41606
200

TK-41607
TK-41608

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K4 - Temperature - thermocouples 5 - 6

131

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41609
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41610
TK-41611

250

TK-41612
200

TK-41613
TK-41614

150

TK-41615
TK-41616

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K5 - Temperature - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41657
250

TK-41658
TK-41659

200

TK-41660
TK-41661

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K6 - Temperature - thermocouples 57 - 61

132

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41617
TK-41618

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41619
250

TK-41620
TK-41621

200

TK-41622
TK-41623

150

TK-41624
100

TK-41662
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K7 - Temperature - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41663
250

TK-41664
TK-41665

200

TK-41666
TK-41667

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K8 - Temperature - thermocouples 63 - 67

133

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41668
TK-41669

200

TK-41670
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K9 - Temperature - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41625
TK-41626
TK-41627
250

TK-41628
TK-41629

200

TK-41630
TK-41631

150

TK-41632
100

TK-41671
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K10 - Temperature - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

134

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41672
TK-41673

200

TK-41674
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K11 - Temperature - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41675
250

TK-41676
TK-41677

200

TK-41678
TK-41679

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K12 - Temperature - thermocouples 75 - 79

135

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41633
TK-41634

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41635
250

TK-41636
TK-41637

200

TK-41638
TK-41639

150

TK-41640
100

TK-41680
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K13 - Temperature - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41681
250

TK-41682
TK-41683

200

TK-41684
TK-41685

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K14 - Temperature - thermocouples 81 - 85

136

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41641
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41642
TK-41643

250

TK-41644
200

TK-41645
TK-41646

150

TK-41647
TK-41648

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K15 - Temperature - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41649

250

TK-41650
200

TK-41651
TK-41652

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K16 - Temperature - thermocouples 49 - 52

137

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41653

250

TK-41654
200

TK-41655
TK-41656

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure K17 - Temperature - thermocouples 53 - 56

138

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure K18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure K19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 244s after ignition.

139

Appendix L - DEL0417

Averaging period

9 - 411

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

12.5
3.00
1.02
1.38
7.57

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.33
1063.40

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

2.8
3.0
3.4
3.4
3.87
1.1
270.63
94.0
10.7
983.1

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 53, 54, 55, 79

140

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0417


4.0
3.5
3.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


2.5
Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0417


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L2 - Water deluge conditions

141

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41701

250

TK-41702
200

TK-41703
TK-41704

150

120 deg C.

100
50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure L3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41705

250

TK-41706
200

TK-41707
TK-41708

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

142

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41709
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41710
TK-41711

250

TK-41712
200

TK-41713
TK-41714

150

TK-41715
TK-41716

100

120 deg C.
50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41757
250

TK-41758
TK-41759

200

TK-41760
TK-41761

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

143

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41717
TK-41718

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41719
250

TK-41720
TK-41721

200

TK-41722
TK-41723

150

TK-41724
100

TK-41762
120 deg C.

50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41763
250

TK-41764
TK-41765

200

TK-41766
TK-41767

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

144

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41768
TK-41769

200

TK-41770
120 deg C.

150
100
50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41725
TK-41726
TK-41727
250

TK-41728
TK-41729

200

TK-41730
TK-41731

150

TK-41732
100

TK-41771
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

145

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41772
TK-41773

200

TK-41774
120 deg C.

150
100
50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41775
250

TK-41776
TK-41777

200

TK-41778
TK-41779

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

146

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41733
TK-41734

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41735
250

TK-41736
TK-41737

200

TK-41738
TK-41739

150

TK-41740
100

TK-41780
120 deg C.

50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41781
250

TK-41782
TK-41783

200

TK-41784
TK-41785

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

147

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41741
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41742
TK-41743

250

TK-41744
200

TK-41745
TK-41746

150

TK-41747
TK-41748

100

120 deg C.
50

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41749

250

TK-41750
200

TK-41751
TK-41752

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

148

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41753

250

TK-41754
200

TK-41755
TK-41756

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure L17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

149

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure L18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 411s after ignition.

150

Appendix M - DEL0418

Averaging period

7 - 364

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

12.5
5.00
1.01
1.43
7.14

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.29
1058.06

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

4.8
5.4
6.0
6.1
6.40
1.3
259.69
92.4
10.3
984.6

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 53, 54, 55, 79

151

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0418


4.0
3.5
3.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


2.5
Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0418


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M2 - Water deluge conditions

152

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41801

250

TK-41802
200

TK-41803
TK-41804

150

120 deg C.

100
50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure M3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41805

250

TK-41806
200

TK-41807
TK-41808

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

153

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41809
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41810
TK-41811

250

TK-41812
200

TK-41813
TK-41814

150

TK-41815
TK-41816

100

120 deg C.
50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41857
250

TK-41858
TK-41859

200

TK-41860
TK-41861

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

154

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41817
TK-41818

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41819
250

TK-41820
TK-41821

200

TK-41822
TK-41823

150

TK-41824
100

TK-41862
120 deg C.

50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41863
250

TK-41864
TK-41865

200

TK-41866
TK-41867

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

155

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41868
TK-41869

200

TK-41870
120 deg C.

150
100
50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41825
TK-41826
TK-41827
250

TK-41828
TK-41829

200

TK-41830
TK-41831

150

TK-41832
100

TK-41871
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

156

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41872
TK-41873

200

TK-41874
120 deg C.

150
100
50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41875
250

TK-41876
TK-41877

200

TK-41878
TK-41879

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

157

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41833
TK-41834

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41835
250

TK-41836
TK-41837

200

TK-41838
TK-41839

150

TK-41840
100

TK-41880
120 deg C.

50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41881
250

TK-41882
TK-41883

200

TK-41884
TK-41885

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

158

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41841
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41842
TK-41843

250

TK-41844
200

TK-41845
TK-41846

150

TK-41847
TK-41848

100

120 deg C.
50

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41849

250

TK-41850
200

TK-41851
TK-41852

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

159

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41853

250

TK-41854
200

TK-41855
TK-41856

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure M17 - Temperatures - 53 - 56

160

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure M18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 364s after ignition.

161

Appendix N - DEL0419

Averaging period

92 - 279

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

12.5
5.00
0.90
1.44
6.52

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.33
1072.62

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

6.5
7.2
7.9
8.1
8.64
1.3
261.15
91.8
10.5
984.5

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 53, 54, 55, 79

162

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0419


4.0
3.5
3.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


2.5
Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0419


3.00

2.50

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

-0.50
Time from ignition, s.

Figure N2 - Water deluge conditions

163

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.00

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-41901

250

TK-41902
200

TK-41903
TK-41904

150

120 deg C.

100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure N3 - Temperature - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-41905

250

TK-41906
200

TK-41907
TK-41908

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N4 - Temperature - thermocouples 5 - 8

164

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-41909
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41910
TK-41911

250

TK-41912
200

TK-41913
TK-41914

150

TK-41915
TK-41916

100

120 deg C.
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N5 - Temperature - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-41957
250

TK-41958
TK-41959

200

TK-41960
TK-41961

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N6 - Temperature - thermocouples 57 - 61

165

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-41917
TK-41918

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41919
250

TK-41920
TK-41921

200

TK-41922
TK-41923

150

TK-41924
100

TK-41962
120 deg C.

50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N7 - Temperature - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-41963
250

TK-41964
TK-41965

200

TK-41966
TK-41967

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N8 - Temperature - thermocouples 63 - 67

166

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41968
TK-41969

200

TK-41970
120 deg C.

150
100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N9 - Temperature - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-41925
TK-41926
TK-41927
250

TK-41928
TK-41929

200

TK-41930
TK-41931

150

TK-41932
100

TK-41971
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N10 - Temperature - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

167

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-41972
TK-41973

200

TK-41974
120 deg C.

150
100
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N11 - Temperature - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-41975
250

TK-41976
TK-41977

200

TK-41978
TK-41979

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N12 - Temperature - thermocouples 75 - 79

168

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-41933
TK-41934

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41935
250

TK-41936
TK-41937

200

TK-41938
TK-41939

150

TK-41940
100

TK-41980
120 deg C.

50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N13 - Temperature - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-41981
250

TK-41982
TK-41983

200

TK-41984
TK-41985

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N14 - Temperature - thermocouples 81 - 85

169

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-41941
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-41942
TK-41943

250

TK-41944
200

TK-41945
TK-41946

150

TK-41947
TK-41948

100

120 deg C.
50

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N15 - Temperature - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-41949

250

TK-41950
200

TK-41951
TK-41952

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N16 - Temperature - thermocouples 49 - 52

170

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-41953

250

TK-41954
200

TK-41955
TK-41956

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure N17 - Temperature - thermocouples 53 - 56

171

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure N18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure N19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 279s after ignition.

172

Appendix O - DEL0420

Averaging period

6 - 302

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
5.00
4.02
1.38
8.04

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.33
1070.60

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

8.1
8.6
9.3
9.5
10.06
1.2
263.74
87.3
11.4
982.8

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 79

173

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0420


5.0
4.5
4.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

3.5

Mass flow , kg/s

3.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0420


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Fuel O2 - Water deluge conditions

174

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-42001

250

TK-42002
200

TK-42003
TK-42004

150

120 deg C.

100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure O3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-42005

250

TK-42006
200

TK-42007
TK-42008

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

175

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-42009
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42010
TK-42011

250

TK-42012
200

TK-42013
TK-42014

150

TK-42015
TK-42016

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-42057
250

TK-42058
TK-42059

200

TK-42060
TK-42061

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

176

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-42017
TK-42018

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42019
250

TK-42020
TK-42021

200

TK-42022
TK-42023

150

TK-42024
100

TK-42062
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-42063
250

TK-42064
TK-42065

200

TK-42066
TK-42067

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

177

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42068
TK-42069

200

TK-42070
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-42025
TK-42026
TK-42027
250

TK-42028
TK-42029

200

TK-42030
TK-42031

150

TK-42032
100

TK-42071
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

178

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42072
TK-42073

200

TK-42074
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-42075
250

TK-42076
TK-42077

200

TK-42078
TK-42079

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

179

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-42033
TK-42034

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42035
250

TK-42036
TK-42037

200

TK-42038
TK-42039

150

TK-42040
100

TK-42080
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-42081
250

TK-42082
TK-42083

200

TK-42084
TK-42085

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

180

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-42041
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42042
TK-42043

250

TK-42044
200

TK-42045
TK-42046

150

TK-42047
TK-42048

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-42049

250

TK-42050
200

TK-42051
TK-42052

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

181

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-42053

250

TK-42054
200

TK-42055
TK-42056

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure O17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

182

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure O18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 302s after ignition.

183

Appendix P - DEL0421

Averaging period

57 - 243

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
5.00
3.88
1.37
8.83

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.35
1063.58

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

6.2
6.6
7.3
7.4
7.70
1.6
264.36
86.0
11.4
982.8

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 79

184

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0421


5.0
4.5
4.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

3.5

Mass flow , kg/s

3.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0421


3.00

2.50

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

-0.50
Time from ignition, s.

Figure P2 - Water deluge conditions

185

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.00

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-42101

250

TK-42102
200

TK-42103
TK-42104

150

120 deg C.

100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure P3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-42105

250

TK-42106
200

TK-42107
TK-42108

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

186

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-42109
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42110
TK-42111

250

TK-42112
200

TK-42113
TK-42114

150

TK-42115
TK-42116

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-42157
250

TK-42158
TK-42159

200

TK-42160
TK-42161

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

187

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-42117
TK-42118

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42119
250

TK-42120
TK-42121

200

TK-42122
TK-42123

150

TK-42124
100

TK-42162
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-42163
250

TK-42164
TK-42165

200

TK-42166
TK-42167

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

188

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42168
TK-42169

200

TK-42170
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-42125
TK-42126
TK-42127
250

TK-42128
TK-42129

200

TK-42130
TK-42131

150

TK-42132
100

TK-42171
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

189

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42172
TK-42173

200

TK-42174
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-42175
250

TK-42176
TK-42177

200

TK-42178
TK-42179

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

190

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-42133
TK-42134

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42135
250

TK-42136
TK-42137

200

TK-42138
TK-42139

150

TK-42140
100

TK-42180
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-42181
250

TK-42182
TK-42183

200

TK-42184
TK-42185

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

191

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-42141
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42142
TK-42143

250

TK-42144
200

TK-42145
TK-42146

150

TK-42147
TK-42148

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-42149

250

TK-42150
200

TK-42151
TK-42152

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

192

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-42153

250

TK-42154
200

TK-42155
TK-42156

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure P17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

193

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure P18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.
A

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure P19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 243s after ignition.

194

Appendix Q - DEL0422

Averaging period

8 - 242

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

50.0
5.00
9.61
1.08
8.31

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Deluge on
2.33
1073.54

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

7.3
7.9
8.6
8.7
9.23
1.6
264.75
88.5
11.3
982.5

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 79

195

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0422

10.0

8.0
Mass flow, kg/s
& Pressure, barg.

Mass flow , kg/s


Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

6.0

4.0

2.0

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0422


3.00

2.00

1.50

Water pressure,
barg

1.00

Water flow rate,


m^3/min

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q2 - Water deluge conditions

196

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-42201

250

TK-42202
200

TK-42203
TK-42204

150

120 deg C.

100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-42205

250

TK-42206
200

TK-42207
TK-42208

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

197

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-42209
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42210
TK-42211

250

TK-42212
200

TK-42213
TK-42214

150

TK-42215
TK-42216

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-42257
250

TK-42258
TK-42259

200

TK-42260
TK-42261

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

198

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-42217
TK-42218

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42219
250

TK-42220
TK-42221

200

TK-42222
TK-42223

150

TK-42224
100

TK-42262
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-42263
250

TK-42264
TK-42265

200

TK-42266
TK-42267

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

199

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42268
TK-42269

200

TK-42270
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-42225
TK-42226
TK-42227
250

TK-42228
TK-42229

200

TK-42230
TK-42231

150

TK-42232
100

TK-42271
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

200

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42272
TK-42273

200

TK-42274
120 deg C.

150
100
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-42275
250

TK-42276
TK-42277

200

TK-42278
TK-42279

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

201

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-42233
TK-42234

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42235
250

TK-42236
TK-42237

200

TK-42238
TK-42239

150

TK-42240
100

TK-42280
120 deg C.

50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-42281
250

TK-42282
TK-42283

200

TK-42284
TK-42285

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

202

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-42241
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42242
TK-42243

250

TK-42244
200

TK-42245
TK-42246

150

TK-42247
TK-42248

100

120 deg C.
50

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-42249

250

TK-42250
200

TK-42251
TK-42252

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

203

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-42253

250

TK-42254
200

TK-42255
TK-42256

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure Q17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

204

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure Q18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 242s after ignition.

205

Appendix R - DEL0423

Averaging period

53 - 302

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

50.0
5.00
9.10
1.11
7.84

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.33
1066.29

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

7.5
8.1
8.7
8.8
9.23
1.5
266.66
87.9
11.3
982.5

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 24, 79

206

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0423


10.0
9.0
8.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

7.0

Mass flow , kg/s

6.0

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0423


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


m^3/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R2 - Water deluge conditions

207

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-42301

250

TK-42302
200

TK-42303
TK-42304

150

120 deg C.

100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure R3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-42305

250

TK-42306
200

TK-42307
TK-42308

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

208

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-42309
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42310
TK-42311

250

TK-42312
200

TK-42313
TK-42314

150

TK-42315
TK-42316

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-42357
250

TK-42358
TK-42359

200

TK-42360
TK-42361

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

209

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-42317
TK-42318

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42319
250

TK-42320
TK-42321

200

TK-42322
TK-42323

150

TK-42324
100

TK-42362
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-42363
250

TK-42364
TK-42365

200

TK-42366
TK-42367

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

210

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42368
TK-42369

200

TK-42370
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-42325
TK-42326
TK-42327
250

TK-42328
TK-42329

200

TK-42330
TK-42331

150

TK-42332
100

TK-42371
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

211

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42372
TK-42373

200

TK-42374
120 deg C.

150
100
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-42375
250

TK-42376
TK-42377

200

TK-42378
TK-42379

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

212

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-42333
TK-42334

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42335
250

TK-42336
TK-42337

200

TK-42338
TK-42339

150

TK-42340
100

TK-42380
120 deg C.

50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-42381
250

TK-42382
TK-42383

200

TK-42384
TK-42385

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

213

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-42341
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42342
TK-42343

250

TK-42344
200

TK-42345
TK-42346

150

TK-42347
TK-42348

100

120 deg C.
50

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-42349

250

TK-42350
200

TK-42351
TK-42352

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

214

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-42353

250

TK-42354
200

TK-42355
TK-42356

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure R17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

215

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure R18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition

.
A

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure R19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 302s after ignition.

216

Appendix S - DEL0424

Averaging period

59 - 611

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
3.00
4.31
1.50
7.66

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.32
1070.09

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

4.2
4.7
5.2
5.3
5.55
1.0
259.45
92.0
11.1
982.1

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 23, 24, 79

217

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

Fuel flow 0424


6.0
5.5
5.0

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

4.5
4.0

Mass flow , kg/s

3.5

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0424


3.00

2.00
Water pressure,
barg

1.50

Water flow rate,


m^3/min
1.00

0.50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S2 - Water deluge conditions

218

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0.00
0

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min

2.50

Ring A
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
TK-42401

250

TK-42402
200

TK-42403
TK-42404

150

120 deg C.

100
50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
Time from ignition, s.

Figure S3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B
400
350

TK-42405

250

TK-42406
200

TK-42407
TK-42408

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

219

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring C
400
350
TK-42409
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42410
TK-42411

250

TK-42412
200

TK-42413
TK-42414

150

TK-42415
TK-42416

100

120 deg C.
50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA
400
350

TK-42457
250

TK-42458
TK-42459

200

TK-42460
TK-42461

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

220

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring D
400
350
TK-42417
TK-42418

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42419
250

TK-42420
TK-42421

200

TK-42422
TK-42423

150

TK-42424
100

TK-42462
120 deg C.

50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA
400
350

TK-42463
250

TK-42464
TK-42465

200

TK-42466
TK-42467

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

221

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring DB
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42468
TK-42469

200

TK-42470
120 deg C.

150
100
50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E
400
350
TK-42425
TK-42426
TK-42427
250

TK-42428
TK-42429

200

TK-42430
TK-42431

150

TK-42432
100

TK-42471
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

222

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring EA
400
350

Temperature, deg C.

300
250

TK-42472
TK-42473

200

TK-42474
120 deg C.

150
100
50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB
400
350

TK-42475
250

TK-42476
TK-42477

200

TK-42478
TK-42479

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

223

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring F
400
350
TK-42433
TK-42434

Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42435
250

TK-42436
TK-42437

200

TK-42438
TK-42439

150

TK-42440
100

TK-42480
120 deg C.

50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA
400
350

TK-42481
250

TK-42482
TK-42483

200

TK-42484
TK-42485

150

120 deg C.
100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

224

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring G
400
350
TK-42441
Temperature, deg C.

300

TK-42442
TK-42443

250

TK-42444
200

TK-42445
TK-42446

150

TK-42447
TK-42448

100

120 deg C.
50

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H
400
350

TK-42449

250

TK-42450
200

TK-42451
TK-42452

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure S16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

225

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

Ring I
400
350

TK-42453

250

TK-42454
200

TK-42455
TK-42456

150

120 deg C.

100
50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure 17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 5

226

600

570

540

510

480

450

420

390

360

330

300

270

240

210

180

150

120

90

60

30

0
0

Temperature, deg C.

300

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure S18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure S19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 611s after ignition.

227

Appendix T - DEL0425

Averaging period

57 - 1578

seconds after ignition

Summary of Release Conditions


Discharge hole diameter:
Stand-off Distance:
Butane mass flow rate:
Exit static pressure
Exit temperature

25.0
3.00
4.57
1.50
6.92

mm
m
kg/s
barg
deg. C

Flow Measurement
Water sprays:
Water pressure
Water flow rate

Delayed by 30 secs
2.35
1044.80

barg
litres/min

Ambient Weather Conditions


Wind speed (cup anemometer 1 at 1.2m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 2 at 2.9m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 3 at 6.0m)
Wind speed (cup anemometer 4 at 6.4m)
Horizontal wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Vertical wind speed (sonic at 8.2m)
Wind direction
Relative humidity
Ambient temperature
Atmospheric pressure

5.9
6.4
7.0
7.1
7.40
1.3
260.52
87.3
11.3
981.7

Thermocouples not operating properly


15, 79

228

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
degrees clockwise from North
%
deg C
mbar

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Pressure, barg
& Flow m^3/min
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Mass flow, kg/s


& Pressure, barg.

Fuel flow 0425

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

4.0
Mass flow , kg/s

3.5

Vapour pressure,
barg
Liquid head
pressure, barg
Discharge
pressure, barg

1.0

0.5

0.0

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T1 - Fuel conditions

Water flow 0425

3.00

2.50

2.00

1.50
Water pressure,
barg

1.00
Water flow rate,
m^3/min

0.50

0.00

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T2 - Water deluge conditions

229

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring A

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42501

350
TK-42502

300
TK-42503

250
TK-42504

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T3 - Temperatures - thermocouples 1 - 4

Ring B

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42505

350
TK-42506

300
TK-42507

250
TK-42508

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T4 - Temperatures - thermocouples 5 - 8

230

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring C

600

550

500

450
TK-42509

400
TK-42510

TK-42511

350
TK-42512

300
TK-42513

250
TK-42514

200
TK-42515

150
TK-42516

100
120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T5 - Temperatures - thermocouples 9 - 16

Ring CA

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42557

350
TK-42558

300
TK-42559

250
TK-42560

200
TK-42561

150
120 deg C.

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T6 - Temperatures - thermocouples 57 - 61

231

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring D

600

550

500
TK-42517

450
TK-42518

400
TK-42519

350
TK-42520

300
TK-42521

250
TK-42522

200
TK-42523

150
TK-42524

TK-42562

100

50
120 deg C.

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T7 - Temperatures - thermocouples 17 - 24 plus 62

Ring DA

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42563

350
TK-42564

300
TK-42565

250
TK-42566

200
TK-42567

150
120 deg C.

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T8 - Temperatures - thermocouples 63 - 67

232

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring DB

600

550

500

450

400

350
TK-42568

300
TK-42569

250
TK-42570

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T9 - Temperatures - thermocouples 68 - 70

Ring E

600

550

500
TK-42525

450

400
TK-42526

TK-42527

350
TK-42528

300
TK-42529

250
TK-42530

200
TK-42531

150
TK-42532

TK-42571

100

50
120 deg C.

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T10 - Temperatures - thermocouples 25 - 32 plus 71

233

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring EA

600

550

500

450

400

350
TK-42572

300
TK-42573

250
TK-42574

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T11 - Temperatures - thermocouples 72 - 74

Ring EB

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42575

350
TK-42576

300
TK-42577

250
TK-42578

200
TK-42579

150
120 deg C.

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T12 - Temperatures - thermocouples 75 - 79

234

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring F

600

550

500
TK-42533

450

400
TK-42534

TK-42535

350
TK-42536

300
TK-42537

250
TK-42538

200
TK-42539

150
TK-42540

TK-42580

100

50
120 deg C.

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T13 - Temperatures - thermocouples 33 - 40 plus 80

Ring FA

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42581

350
TK-42582

300
TK-42583

250
TK-42584

200
TK-42585

150
120 deg C.

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T14 - Temperatures - thermocouples 81 - 85

235

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring G

600

550

500

450
TK-42541

400
TK-42542

TK-42543

350
TK-42544

300
TK-42545

250
TK-42546

200
TK-42547

150

100
TK-42548

120 deg C.

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T15 - Temperatures - thermocouples 41 - 48

Ring H

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42549

350
TK-42550

300
TK-42551

250
TK-42552

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T16 - Temperatures - thermocouples 49 - 52

236

0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
390
420
450
480
510
540
570
600
630
660
690
720
750
780
810
840
870
900
930
960
990
1020
1050
1080
1110
1140
1170
1200
1230
1260
1290
1320
1350
1380
1410
1440
1470
1500
1530
1560

Temperature, deg C.

Ring I

600

550

500

450

400
TK-42553

350
TK-42554

300
TK-42555

250
TK-42556

200
120 deg C.

150

100

50

Time from ignition, s.

Figure T17 - Temperatures - thermocouples 53 - 56

237

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR
120

80
TOP
40

0
FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure T18 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 30s after ignition.

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure T19 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 611s after ignition.

238

BOTTOM

Water spray
nozzle

Thermocouple

REAR

480

360

TOP

240

120

FRONT

-20
Temperature
scale
BOTTOM

Figure T20 Development of vessel with temperature contours at 1578s after ignition.

239

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CRR 298

35.00

ISBN 0-7176-1865-0