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PLASCO ENERGY GROUP INC. ARGENTINE OPPORTUNITY

Table of Contents:

Situational Overview Plasco Energy Solution Qualifications Technical Operations and Project Concept Project Economics and Financing

Situational Review

Situational Review

Waste Management

In late 2005, the City Council in Buenos Aires unanimously passed a Zero Waste law which set goals and milestones to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste going to landfill disposal. The first milestone is a 30 percent reduction of waste to landfill by 2010, which is followed by a 50 percent reduction by 2012, and a 75 percent reduction by 2017. The law bans landfilling of recyclable and compostable waste by 2020. The baseline used in the law is the tons of solid waste disposed in 2004 (1.5 million metric tons).

The city of Buenos Aires, with a population of over 3 million people, represents nearly 9% of the Argentine population. The annual amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) produced in Buenos Aires alone is approximately 5000 metric tons per day. However, recycling remains marginal, sporadic and accomplished in large part by cartonero cooperatives. It is estimated that less than 15% of the total amount of MSW generated in Buenos Aires is recycled.

Land in Buenos Aires is scarce. Due to the large population, the increasing spread of urban areas and its geographical location, it is difficult to find adequate space for new landfills. Two of the three existing landfills have been closed in 2008, not as a result of capacity constrains but as a result of lobbying from municipalities. In fact, landfills have been facing strong political opposition by the population and environmental groups.

It is clear that landfills in Buenos Aires and most urban areas in Argentina face important political, geographical and environmental challenges that make them a non sustainable alternative for MSW management. Therefore there is an urgent need to investigate new waste management alternatives.

alternative for MSW management. Therefore there is an urgent need to investigate new waste management alternatives.

The Power Sector in Argentina

Argentina has a competitive and deregulated electric power sector, with a majority of generation, transmission and distribution assets owned by the private sector. Electricity generation is dominated by hydro (35%), and natural gasfuelled thermal (54%). Gas supply problems and water shortages in the Andes are causing generation shortfalls in winter and summer months, forcing Argentina to import significant amounts of electricity from Brazil. Although electricity rates in Argentina were frozen by the government following the 2001 economic crisis, rates did begin to rise in 2007. Officials anticipate the need for at least 7,000 megawatts of new installed capacity by 2012. Given Argentina’s growing demand for electricity (between 5% and 9% annually), the country may experience severe shortages as early as 2009 without new installed capacity.

In an effort to reduce the environmental impact of providing energy services and diversify its power generation towards a more balanced energy mix, the Argentine Government is adopting policies aimed at encouraging investment and exploration in the energy sector, while also promoting the development of non conventional sources of energy. Specifically, Argentina’s renewable energy policy calls for 8% of electricity to be generated from renewable energy sources by 2018. Given the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable generating capacity.

the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
the combined waste and energy situation in Argentina, there is a strong need for rapidly deployable
The Plasco Energy Solution

The Plasco Energy Solution

The Plasco Energy Solution
Plasco Energy is a leading provider of alternative energy solutions offering sensible and safe waste
Plasco Energy is a leading provider of
alternative energy solutions offering
sensible and safe waste disposal
programs and a reliable supply of
clean, affordable energy. Plasco
Energy has the ability to satisfy
Argentina’s rapidly growing appetite
for energy while managing the
burgeoning volumes of refuse that
threaten the environment.
rapidly growing appetite for energy while managing the burgeoning volumes of refuse that threaten the environment.

Over the past twenty years, Plasco Energy has developed an advanced gasification and refining process that converts municipal solid waste into a clean synthetic gas (similar to natural gas) and other valuable co products. While there are various applications for the synthetic gas (or syngas) produced by the Plasco process, including using it as a feedstock in the production of ethanol or hydrogen, the most efficient use of this valuable resources is as a fuel supply for the net production of clean, renewable power.

supply for the net production of clean, renewable power. Through its combined cycle power generation, the

Through its combined cycle power generation, the Plasco process generates approximately 1.2 MW/h of base load power for each ton of unsorted municipal solid waste. Unlike other sources of renewable energy such as run of the river hydroelectric generation or wind powered electricity production, the Plasco process does not depend on unpredictable weather conditions to produce its electricity. Instead it serves as a base load substitute to other forms of power generation including fossil fuel based thermal power production. Through the use of Plasco Energy technology, Argentina will be able to diversifying its electricity production towards renewable energy sources.

The Plasco Conversion System is designed in standard modules, each having a nominal capacity of

The Plasco Conversion System is designed in standard modules, each having a nominal capacity of 100 tons per day. This modular approach allows for the “right sizing” of the facility for the needs of the community (including available space) and allows for additional incremental capacity to be easily installed as required. All modules are designed and standardized to identical performance criteria and achieve the highest environmental results. This approach also allows for increased quality control and reduces construction and commissioning time. Plasco Energy facilities are normally operational within 18 months of contract signing.

and commissioning time. Plasco Energy facilities are normally operational within 18 months of contract signing.
and commissioning time. Plasco Energy facilities are normally operational within 18 months of contract signing.

Plasco Energy’s patented technology achieves the highest energy yield of any of the waste toenergy conversion technologies demonstrated on a commercial scale. The Plasco conversion process can recover over 70% of the energy in municipal waste which provides half the energy required to power a typical household from their garbage. This has contributed, among other factors, to a significant interest in the Plasco technology. In fact, Plasco Energy has been short listed on four projects in California, including the City of Los Angeles. The conversion of waste to useful products without air emission and without contamination of water or land is a concept established by legislation in the State of California under the progressive “Waste as a Resource Policy”. Plasco technology achieves all of the legislated environmental objectives of the State of California.

Resource Policy”. Plasco technology achieves all of the legislated environmental objectives of the State of California.
Resource Policy”. Plasco technology achieves all of the legislated environmental objectives of the State of California.
The Plasco Conversion process is NOT an incineration process. This means that the plant does

The Plasco Conversion process is NOT an incineration process. This means that the plant does NOT emit flue gases or particulates in the atmosphere, does NOT inject pathogens or toxins into the air or groundwater and does NOT risk the health of plant workers or the community it surrounds. Instead, a Plasco plant not only meets but surpasses the most stringent environmental standards established by the European Union, the State of California and Canadian provinces. The Plasco conversion process yields a clean consistent syngas, an inert slag that may be used as a commercial grade construction aggregate, commercial salt, sulfur in the form of an agricultural fertilizer, recoverable metals and potable quality water. All of the by products can be used as a commercial resource. As a result, Plasco’s conversion of waste represents a 99.8% diversion from already over taxed landfills without producing air emissions.

Landfills release the potent greenhouse gas methane from decomposing waste and carbon emissions from transportation methods used in the long distance shipping of waste to open sites. As a greenhouse gas, methane is arguably one of the most offensive of the greenhouse gases and is 23 times more damaging to the ozone layer than carbon dioxide. High levels of methane emissions often make landfills dangerous and difficult places to redevelop. For every ton of waste processed through Plasco Energy systems, GHG emissions are reduced by 2.1 tons of CO2e.

Many communities are currently dealing with leakage from closed landfills. The financial and social cost implications of leaching landfills and groundwater contamination are enormous. Protecting water resources is one of society’s greatest challenges. This risk can only be mitigated through diversion and reducing the amount of waste entering landfills. There are numerous examples where landfill leachate has contaminated the water table beyond the boundary of the landfill. These costs and risks are permanently eliminated with Plasco Energy technology.

beyond the boundary of the landfill. These costs and risks are permanently eliminated with Plasco Energy
Plasco Energy recognizes the importance of being a good neighbor and citizen. It takes more

Plasco Energy recognizes the importance of being a good neighbor and citizen. It takes more than technical proficiency to run a successful project. Success also depends on understanding the community in which Plasco works, communicating openly and designing attractive sites. Prior to undertaking the construction of a facility, Plasco works with local governments to develop and implement outreach efforts which include public meetings and the creation of a public advisory committee to report on Plasco’s environmental commitments. To ensure accountability, Plasco establishes an informative website to enable the community to review ongoing environmental performance against its commitments. All of Plasco’s proposed facilities contain an Environmental Interpretation Centre, where guests can learn about the importance to the environment of minimizing waste and how the partnership between the government and Plasco Energy is contributing to a cleaner environment by recovering materials and energy from residuals.

and Plasco Energy is contributing to a cleaner environment by recovering materials and energy from residuals.
Knowing how important a beautiful and iconic facility is, Plasco Energy hired Douglas J. Cardinal

Knowing how important a beautiful and iconic facility is, Plasco Energy hired Douglas J. Cardinal to design the site architecture. His unique designs have earned him some of the most prestigious national and international awards. Some of his accomplishme nts include the Smithsonian Institute’s National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.S., and the St. Mary’s Church in Alberta, Canada. A Canadian Métis and Canadian legend, Douglas Cardinal provides an indigenous artistic interpretation to the facility, making it an architectural asset for its community.

provides an indigenous artistic interpretation to the facility, making it an architectural asset for its community.
As a core value, Plasco Energy believes in giving back to the community in which

As a core value, Plasco Energy believes in giving back to the community in which it operates. Our vision is to support projects which develop the local economy through job creation and training. A typical 400 TPD facility requires 54 skilled and administrative employees, the majority of which are locally engaged. Plasco Energy also believes in sharing its success. This means that Plasco undertakes revenue sharing arrangements with local government s/stakeholders to support educational, social and/or cultural opportunities that can inspire positive energy in young people leading to stronger self sufficient communities.

Plasco Energy’s build, own operate business model means that there are no capital costs payable by the community. Plasco Energy assumes all financial responsibility and risk with respect to construction, completion, commissioning and on going operations of the facility. The municipality’s obligations are limited to supplying a suitable site, a long term waste supply agreement and assistance with permitting. Concurrently, Plasco Energy will enter into a long term power sales contract, and assumes full responsibility to manage and market co products.

enter into a long ‐ term power sales contract, and assumes full responsibility to manage and
enter into a long ‐ term power sales contract, and assumes full responsibility to manage and

Description

PlascoEnergy is an Ottawa, Ontario based company that focuses on designing, building and operating waste conversion facilities. The company and it’s predecessor companies, RCl Plasma and Resorption Canada Limited have be en developing plasma technology for over 20 years. The company has raised $94 million since 2005 to complete the development and commercialization of its technology. The Government of Canada, through Sustainable Development Technology Canada, has invested $9.9 million in the company’s commercial sized demonstration plant in Ottawa.

PlascoEnergy’s patented process technology allows it to achieve the highest energy yield of any waste conversion technology known to exist or presently being developed. PlascoEnergy Group has invented, developed and patented a process using plasma arc technology for the conversion of waste material into synthesis gas, or “syngas”, which can be used to generate electricity. Combined with the latest in gas quality and emission control technology, PlascoEnergy technology provides the most environmentally beneficial and most cost efficient alternative to landfilling waste.

PlascoEnergy’s business plan is based on a Finance, Build, Own and Operate model. The company is confident in its technology and takes on all the risk for developing and operating its facilities as described herein.

confident in its technology and takes on all the risk for developing and operating its facilities
confident in its technology and takes on all the risk for developing and operating its facilities

Past Experience

The Plasco Conversion System has been perfected through many years of focused research in conjunction with and supported by the Canadian National Research Council (NRC) and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE). This research included stack sampling experiments, performed by an independent group, which proved that the PlascoEnergy Conversion Process could safely process almost any type of waste with an air emissions performance that is on par with or better than Best Available Control Technologies (BACTs).

Until late 2003, PlascoEnergy operated its pilot plant in Ottawa, Ontario at which point the facility was moved to Spain. Since then, PlascoEnergy has operated its pilot plant in Castellgali, Spain in conjunction with its Spanish joint venture partner, HERA Holding SL. HERA is the second largest waste manager in Spain and provides substantial waste management knowledge and environmental expertise.

Since 2004, the pilot plant has been used almost exclusively to refine the design and operational parameters for PlascoEnergy’s commercial scale demonstration facility in Ottawa, Canada. This development work has included refining simulation and flow models, controlling algorithms and operational practices, and optimizing the design of the process equipment. Construction of PlascoEnergy’s Ottawa commercial scale demonstration facility, located at the Trail Road Municipal Landfill, was completed in the summer of 2007. The facility has been operating since July 2007.

Trail Road Municipal Landfill, was completed in the summer of 2007. The facility has been operating
Trail Road Municipal Landfill, was completed in the summer of 2007. The facility has been operating
Trail Road Municipal Landfill, was completed in the summer of 2007. The facility has been operating
The PlascoEnergy Team: PlascoEnergy Executive team has extensive experience and a proven track record of

The PlascoEnergy Team:

PlascoEnergy Executive team has extensive experience and a proven track record of success. The following section introduces the team and provides more details.

Roderick M. (Rod) Bryden President and Chief Executive Officer

Along with his duties as president and CEO of Plasco, Mr. Bryden is chairman of SC Stormont Inc., which participates in the development of small to mid sized Canadian businesses. He is currently chairman of the Board of PharmaGap Inc. and holds positions on the Board of Directors of Clearford Industries Inc. Mr. Bryden co founded and ran such notable companies as Systemhouse Ltd. and World Heart Corporation. Mr. Bryden was also the principal owner of the Ottawa Senators NHL club, and the Palladium Corporation, which, in 1996, opened the Corel Centre, home of the Ottawa Senators.

Tim Saunders Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Mr. Saunders brings over 20 years of international finance management experience in large Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and publicly traded companies to the PlascoEnergy team. Mr. Saunders brings a wealth of knowledge and a track record of success in matters of financial leadership, including driving business insights and change, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), and Sox compliance. Most recently Mr. Saunders was based in Prague, where he was a finance executive with Vodafone Group and Oskar Mobil. He has also served in senior positions at Mitel Corporation and Zarlink Semiconductor.

Lynde Coit Executive Vice President Corporate Development

Mr. Coit brings unique experience in the wastetoenergy business. Mr. Coit was the Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Covanta Energy Corporation for more than

12 years during which time

Covanta grew to become the world’s leading

developer and operator of large scale wasteto energy facilities, operating

25 facilities that processed

more than 30,000 tons of MSW/day. Before joining

Covanta, Mr. Coit was a

partner in a major law firm

the

focused

development and project financing of independent power projects.

on

Christopher Gay Executive Vice President

Mr. Gay has been with the Company since 1991 first as a consultant from his own management firm, then on the board in 1995 and full time since 1996. Mr. Gay's technical background is in the telecommunications and space industry. He has held executive positions in Marketing, Business Development and Sales in large multinationals and successfully ran his own consulting business.

in Marketing, Business Development and Sales in large multinationals and successfully ran his own consulting business.
The PlascoEnergy Team Continued Andreas Tsangaris Chief Scientist Mr. Tsangaris is a Master of Mechanical

The PlascoEnergy Team Continued

Andreas Tsangaris Chief Scientist

Mr. Tsangaris is a Master of Mechanical Engineering and a Professional Engineer specialized in the field of energy conversion and power generation. He is the co inventor of Plasco Energy Group Inc.'s technology along with Mr. George Carter. He has led plasma research at Plasco Energy Group's facility since 1981. Mr. Tsangaris has led the research and development work that was instrumental in developing PlascoEnergy’s Intellectual Property base which was the foundation for Plasco’s Patent protection.

Ken Campbell Vice President Operations

Mr. Campbell has been associated with Plasco Energy Group Inc. since 1997, first as a project management consultant and then as head of operations. Mr. Campbell has held executive positions within the Programs and Engineering divisions of various Canadian high technology companies. Mr. Campbell's technical background includes experience with sonar, radar, avionics, space hardware, satellite ground stations and systems integration. He has extensive experience with international business, and has successfully managed product lines which include significant customization, involve remote site installations, and require ongoing customer support.

Marc Bacon Vice President Engineering

Mr. Bacon joined Plasco Energy as Vice President, Engineering. He most recently held the position of Executive Vice President of the Patella Group. Mr. Bacon also has seven years of experience with Fabgroups Technologies, where he was Corporate Director, R&D, Engineering and Business Development and spearheaded the successful development of the plasma assisted oxidation process for municipal sludge. Prior to that, Mr. Bacon held positions in engineering and operations management with Ingersoll Rand, and was President of his own privately held engineering firm.

was President of his own privately held engineering firm. Eric Norgren Director, Project Finance Mr. Norgren

Eric Norgren Director, Project Finance

Mr. Norgren recently joined Plasco Energy Group Inc., bringing with him over 20 years of domestic banking and international finance experience including limited recourse finance, complex structured finance, bonding and performance risk management with an emphasis on energy and infrastructure. Most recently, Mr. Norgren worked with Export Development Canada as Principal, Infrastructure and Environment, where he was responsible for leading high profile transactions including all aspects of due diligence and negotiations.

Technical Operations

Plasco Conversion System is a non incineration process that converts waste into clean syngas used to generate electricity and marketable coproducts. Almost any type of waste can be used as feedstock including MSW, biosolids, tires, plastic, green waste and other organic materials. The process releases no air emissions in the conversion of waste to synthetic fuel gas and includes environmental controls to minimize air emissions from power generation equipment and produces potable quality water. The process requires no cooling water.

The end result is >99% diversion of the waste processed.

PRODUCT QUANTITY PER Ton Net Energy (MWh) 1.25 MWh Construction Aggregate 340 lbs Agricultural Sulphur
PRODUCT
QUANTITY PER Ton
Net Energy (MWh)
1.25 MWh
Construction Aggregate
340 lbs
Agricultural Sulphur
4 lbs
Commercial Salt
10 ‐20 lbs
Potable Quality Water
72 gallons
Recyclable Metals
45‐65 lbs

Description of a typical facility The PlascoEnergy process converts each ton of municipal solid waste into marketable co products (sulphur, aggregate, salt and water) and clean synthetic fuel gas which is used to produce a net of 1.2 MWh of electricity. This process occurs in an oxygendeprived environment where process temperatures are carefully controlled. There are no furans or dioxins formed with the PlascoEnergy process. The resulti ng synthetic fuel gas, or “syngas”, is rich in energy and is used to operate internal combustion engines which generate electricity. The inert materials contained in the waste, such as metal, dirt and glass components, which cannot be converted into fuel, form a slag product. Once cooled, the slag is completely inert and stable and can be sold as aggregate for roads or construction materials. The Plasco Conversion System has exceptional efficiency and almost any type of waste is acceptable for a PlascoEnergy facility.

Municipal Solid Waste Delivery, Storage and Handling In a typical facility, MSW is trucked 5 days/week to the facility and dumped on the tip floor of the MSW storage building. Waste will not be delivered on weekends and holidays. Waste is stored in a fully enclosed steel building and the building doors are kept closed during normal operation. The MSW storage facilities will be designed for a maximum of 4 days of storage with a maximum pile height of 10 ft. However, waste storage is kept to a minimum.

for a maximum of 4 days of storage with a maximum pile height of 10 ft.
for a maximum of 4 days of storage with a maximum pile height of 10 ft.
Pre ‐ processing From the receiving area, the MSW is fed by a skid loader

Pre processing

From the receiving area, the MSW is fed by a skid loader to a feed hopper that is part of an enclosed feed system connected to the storage building. The feed system is comprised of a shredder, metal separator, and a conveyer with an air locking device which feeds into the converter. Prior to being sent to the shredding system, larger metal objects and materials with high reclamation value are removed from the waste stream and collected for recycling. These reclaimed products will be sent to the local municipal recycling facilities.

Once these high value products are removed, the MSW is sent to the feed hopper and fed to a hydraulic shredder which shreds it into 2” x 10” sized strips. Any large bulky items that do not have a reclamation value are broken down prior to being fed to the shredder. The shredded metal passes through the metal separation system where remaining metals are removed and sent to a metal storage system for recycling.

Consistent Carbon Feed

Consistent Carbon Feed (CCF) is a separate waste stream (such as tires) with a known, consistent energy content. The CCF is one control element used to control the quality of the Syngas. PlascoEnergy has developed a proprietary control system that ensures stability in spite of any variation in the feed. The data in the figure below shows the responsiveness of the CCF control system. There is little variability in the CO and H2 content of the syngas despite significant changes in feedstock composition. The results indicate that at the commercial plant, the gas control system will produce a reliable and consistent syngas.

Responsiveness of CCF Control System
Responsiveness of CCF Control System

Feeding System

Once the MSW has been shredded and metals have been removed, the MSW is fed into a conveyer and transported to the conversion unit. The shredded CCF is fed into a separate conveyer, which transports it into the MSW conveyer. The amount of CCF fed to the MSW stream is used to adjust the syngas richness. A nitrogen blanket is used in both conveyers to ensure safe operation and to prevent syngas from entering the feed system if the converter pressurizes. The mixed CCF and MSW is fed to the conversion unit.

The mixed CCF and MSW is fed to the conversion unit. Conversion Unit / Recuperator The

Conversion Unit / Recuperator

The combined MSW and CCF stream enters the primary chamber of the converter where the material is gasified by heat recovered from the gases exiting the refining chamber. Within the refining chamber, there are two plasma torches. The gasified product from the primary chamber contains carbon monoxide, hydrogen and tars together with unreacted carbon. This gas is refined into a cleaner, lighter syngas in the secondary chamber. Process air and plasma heat are combined with the syngas and the plasma heat is adjusted to maintain the desired process chamber conditions. All long chain hydrocarbons are destroyed in the process. As previously stated, the quality of the syngas is controlled by varying the amount of CCF combined with the MSW and by varying the amount of process air. From the secondary chamber, the resulting syngas is sent to a recuperator to heat process air and then to a heat recovery steam generation (HRSG) unit where heat is recovered for the generation of electricity. After the HRSG unit, the gas is sent through a Gas Quality Control Suite to clean the gas before it is combusted to generate electricity.

Processing Developments of Plasco Energy Conversion Unit

Converter at Trail Road Facility

Emission Control Systems /Gas Quality Control Suite

With the PlascoEnergy process, syngas is cleaned prior to generating electricity. After passing through the heat recovery unit, the syngas flows to the Gas Quality Control Suite (GQCS) where the gas is cooled and cleaned of particulates, metals and acid components. All of the process units that comprise the GQCS have been extensively used and proven in other industries that process gas. The following describes systems within the GQCS used to control emissions.

systems within the GQCS used to control emissions. Dry Injection System Activated carbon and/or feldspar are

Dry Injection System

Activated carbon and/or feldspar are injected directly into the syngas stream to adsorb heavy metals. Activated carbon has a highly macroporous structure, a characteristic that is conducive to the surface adsorption of large molecular species such as mercury, cadmium, and lead.

Bag House

The activated carbon/feldspar from the Dry Injection System and other particulate matter are removed in the bag house. The bag house is designed for 99.9% particulate matter removal efficiency. Heavy metals such as cadmium and lead will be in particulate form and will also be collected. The bag house is cleaned using pulsed nitrogen gas jets.

HCL Scrubber

The HCl scrubber is a packed column absorber where the gas stream is reacted with a re circulating alkaline solution. The tower also provides a pre quench, contact area and a heat exchanger to cool down the syngas to 35°C. The HCl scrubber will reduce the concentration of HCl in the syngas to less than 5 ppm before combustion and commercial salt is recovered from the liquid.

Carbon Bed Polishing Filter

A carbon bed is used for final polishing of the syngas and will remove over 99% of the residual mercury.

H 2 S Removal System Syngas from each train will feed into a Shell Thiopaq

H 2 S Removal System

Syngas from each train will feed into a Shell Thiopaq system, comprised of H 2 S scrubbing and biological sulphur recovery. The system is used to produce useful sulphur and minimize sulphur dioxide emissions. Syngas is sent from the carbon bed polishing filter to a contactor where H 2 S is removed by reaction with a recirculating alkaline solution. The resulting sulphide containing alkaline solution is sent to a bioreactor where the alkalinity is regenerated by reducing the sulphides to elemental sulphur via a bacterial process. This sulphur is then filtered out before being sent to a storage container. The wastewater containing residual sulphate, carbonate and biomass is discharged to the on site wastewater treatment system. The exiting H 2 S concentration of the syngas will be less than 14 ppm before combustion. From the Shell Thiopaq system syngas is fed to the storage tanks.

Shell Thiopaq system syngas is fed to the storage tanks. The Greenhouse Gas Technology Centre, a

The Greenhouse Gas Technology Centre, a partnership between the US EPA and the Southern Institute, independently verified the performance of the Shell Thiopaq technology and declared it to offer significant operational and environmental benefits.

Slag Handling

The solid residue from the primary chamber is sent to a separate high temperature slag chamber equipped with a plasma torch where it is melted. Plasma heat is used to stabilize the solids by driving off any remaining volatile components. Any volatilized gas is passed through several cleaning steps before being combined with the main syngas stream, From the slag chamber, the liquid slag pours into a water bath where rapid cooling creates small slag pellets. This vitrified residue is an inert, non hazardous byproduct. Leachability tests have been conducted on slag emerging from the process and have confirmed that the slag does not leach and is not toxic. The slag product is less toxic than a soda bottle and is valuable as construction aggregate for roads, cement, or other building materials.

Slag GQCS

Volatilized gas exiting the slag chamber is cooled before flowing through an independent slag bag house for particulate matter removal. From the bag house, the gas is further cooled and flows to a slag carbon bed for removal of metal particles. After passing through the carbon bed, the gas stream is combined with the main syngas flow upstream of the main bag house.

Leachability testing results show the slag is completely stable

 

Present Ontario

Leachate Toxicity Test MSW Sample

Parameter

Units

M.D.L.

Reference Method

Regulation

Arsenic

mg/l

0.03

SM 3120

2.5

< detectable limit

Barium

mg/l

0.001

SM 3120

100

0.06

Boron

mg/l

0.005

SM 3120

500

0.018

Cadmium

mg/l

0.005

SM 3120

0.5

< detectable limit

Chromium

mg/l

0.002

SM 3120

5

0.005

Lead

mg/l

0.02

SM 3120

5

< detectable limit

Mercury

mg/l

0.00006

SM 3120

0.1

< detectable limit

Selenium

mg/l

0.001

SM 3120

1

< detectable limit

Silver

mg/l

0.005

SM 3120

5

< detectable limit

Uranium

mg/l

0.0001

EPA 200.8

NA

< detectable limit

Power Generation Syngas from the storage tank flows to twelve, 2 MW General Electric (GE) Jenbacher Gas Engine Generators. GE Energy’s Austrianbased gas engine business is world renowned and has been recognized for over 45 years as a global leader in developing and producing reciprocating gas engines. Jenbacher engines are characterized by durability, especially high efficiencies, low emissions and high reliability. Urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) systems are installed on all engine exhaust systems to reduce NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to well below required targets for NOx and CO. Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) are also employed to capture waste heat energy and convert it to electrical energy using 300 psi steam. Steam will be produced from 12 engines HRSGs, and 4 process waste heat boilers. The resulting steam is fed to 1 steam turbine that generates approximately 3.4 MW of electricity.

GE Jenbacher engines at Trail Road Facility
GE Jenbacher engines at Trail Road Facility

Waste Waster Treatment Wastewater is collected from the HCl scrubber blowdown, and from the H 2 S sterilizer blowdown through a common header and is sent to a w astewater storage tank. From the storage tank, the wastewater is pumped to a treatment system which uses reverse osmosis (RO) to create high quality water. Before being fed to the RO, the wastewater flows through two stages of filtration to remove particulates, organic chemicals and other impurities which may adversely affect the RO membrane. Treated water from the RO unit is of potable water quality. This water will be used for makeup to the steam turbine boilers and/or for landscape irrigation. The plant is expected to produce roughly 30,000 gallons of potable quality water per day.

Concentrate from the RO unit (approximately 25% of wastewater) will be fed into a brine concentrator and then into a crystallizer in order to concentrate solids and produce steam condensate consistent with the quality of the RO permeate stream. Steam produced by the heat recovery boilers will be used to heat the concentrator and crystallizer.

Commercial salt is produced from the crystallizer.

Commercial salt is produced from the crystallizer. Solids Handling Four types of solids are produced from

Solids Handling Four types of solids are produced from the facility: vitrified aggregate slag, agricultural sulphur, crystallized salt and the carbon filter filled with heavy metals. The vitrified slag, agricultural sulphur and crystallized salt all have commercial value. The only solid waste requiring disposal is the carbon filter filled with heavy metals, which is 1/1000 of the total MSW that would otherwise have been landfilled.

Aggregate Slag The aggregate slag is in the form of nonleachable, small round pebbles. This slag will be collected and sold to aggregate producers.

Agricultural Sulphur The sulphur generated from the bioreactor is pasteurized to kill any live organisms. The final product is elemental hydrophilic sulfur with some sulfate, carbonate, bicarbonate, and dead biomass. The sulfur is approved for use as agricultural fertilizer.

Crystallized Salt The salt formed from the crystallizer is of commercial value.

Residual Waste The residual waste from the slag bag house contains particulate matter and heavy metals. These heavy metals are not created by the PlascoEnergy process, but are due to improper disposal of hazardous waste by the public. This material accumulates in a container connected to the slag bag house. The residual waste byproduct represents a >99% diversion from landfill and is the only waste which requires disposal. The residual product will be removed and disposed of at PlascoEnergy’s cost using an approved hazardous waste contractor.

Odor Control

Several measures to control odor are implemented in the PlascoEnergy process. The MSW stored on site is completely enclosed by a building. Fast acting doors are kept closed during normal operation to minimize odour release. Inventory of waste is kept to a minimum.

Several measures to control odor are implemented in the PlascoEnergy process. The MSW stored on site is completely enclosed by a building. Fast acting doors are kept closed during normal operation to minimize odour release. Inventory of waste is kept to a minimum.

Redundancy Features / Downtime and Maintenance Requirements The philosophy that has been developed for the facility balances the need for reliability and operational flexibility with the desire to minimize footprint. The overall 440 tpd facility is based on four parallel processing strings. For the gas engine generators, all 12 units will be normally operating. If one of the gas engines requires maintenance, capacity will temporarily be reduced accordingly until the maintenance operation is complete. Each string can be turned down to 50% of its designed capacity, enabling a maximum turn down ratio of 8:1 on the overall facility.

Redundancy Features

Category

Major Rotating Equipment, >100 hP 2x60%

All Other Rotating Equipment

Sparing Philosophy

2x100% or 3x50%

Major Rotating Equipment, >100 hP 2x60% All Other Rotating Equipment Sparing Philosophy 2x100% or 3x50%

Raw Water System

Water for the firesystem and building usage will be supplied from a well.

Instrument / Compressed Air System

The instrument air is comprised of 4x100% compressors and includes dryers and a receiver capable of one hour of air storage. A plant utility air system with air hose connections will be provided. Hose connections will be located near areas requiring air driven tools. Instrument air system will take priority in case of air supply shortage using an automatic regulator to cut off tool air in such an event.

Process Cooling

To minimize water consumption and discharge, the process cooling requirements will be met using a dry cooling system. Process cooling is required for the plasma torches and associated power supply, the HCL scrubber system, the blower discharge and several other small loads. This system includes a finned tube air cooler, circulating pumps and an elevated head tank. The cooling medium would be inhibited de mineralized water.

Environmental Emissions from PlascoEnergy Conversion process

Item

Current Limit 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart AAAA

Expected Performance

Units

HCl

25 (or 95% reduction) 500 (Class II Units) 30 (or 80% reduction) 50 200 (Varies by process)

1

ppmv

Nitrogen Oxides

7

ppmv

SO2

4

ppmv

Carbon monoxide Particulate matter Mercury Cadmium Lead Dioxins and furans

30

ppmv

24

2.5

mg/m 3

80 (or 85% reduction)

0.5

µg/rm

3

20

1

µg/rm

3

200

12

µg/rm

3

13000

0

µg/rm

3

Flare System The enclosed flare system employs low NOX combustion technology. In the event of engine generator shut down or start up and during the initial commissioning of the facility, the process requires a means to burn excess syngas until the gas composition has stabilized and the generators are online. This is accomplished through the use of an enclosed flare system.

stabilized and the generators are online. This is accomplished through the use of an enclosed flare

Electrical Systems

Utility Interconnect

The facility will be interconnected to the local utility power grid through a 27.6kV switchyard. The proposed scope includes up to the main incoming disconnect switch. A single 27.6 kV, 3phase overhead transmission line to the site limit is included. Basic utility class electrical protection and metering will be provided. Metering of gross power production and total power buy back will be used as approved by the local power authority.

Generators

The 12 engine generators and the steam turbine generator all operate at 4160 V. Each generator will have its own dedicated breaker used for synchronizing.

Auxiliary Power

Power used by the process and plant auxiliaries will be fed back from 2 switchyard back feed breakers at 4160 V into 2 unit substations, each containing a 4160/480V service transformer and 480V main feeder breakers. Power for plasma torch power supplies will be fed at 4160V and will be taken off the bus on the primary side of each service transformer.

Start up Power

The facility will not be “black start” capable. Power fed back from the grid through the plant infrastructure will be used to start up the facility.

Emergency power

In a total loss of auxiliary power, emergency power to the control system will be provided by a 120V UPS complete with stationary batteries with 2 hours of life. An emergency diesel generator (approximately 200 kW) with transfer switch and emergency distribution bus will be provided to service critical HVAC, Fire Water and other critical loads during a total power outage.

bus will be provided to service critical HVAC, Fire Water and other critical loads during a
Control Systems The facility will be controlled using a combination of a plant distributed control

Control Systems The facility will be controlled using a combination of a plant distributed control system, and vendor provided local control systems. The DCS system will be Foxboro IA or equivalent. A central control room will be used to coordinate the operation of the facility. The control room will have screens for DCS, the engine generator and steam turbine generator control systems, plasma torch control system and continuous emission monitoring. The continuous emissions monitoring system enables realtime monitoring of NOx and SOx, and other contaminants.

The continuous emissions monitoring system enables real ‐ time monitoring of NOx and SOx, and other
The continuous emissions monitoring system enables real ‐ time monitoring of NOx and SOx, and other

Environmental Permitting and Compliance

PlascoEnergy understands that the permitting pathways for a conversion technology facility in Argentina remain, to a degree, uncharted territory. In Canada, PlascoEnergy successfully overcame similar challenges through a cooperative, non confrontational approach with permitting authorities and reliance on capable and experienced environmental consultants. In fact, PlascoEnergy achieved 85% public approval for its Ottawa facility. Interest in expanding the use of the technology has been high; with over 95% of the public indicating that their municipal government should support and expand the use of the technology.

PlascoEnergy will assemble a local team of environmental permitting experts to identify all needed permits and specify how PlascoEnergy will meet or surpass all regulations. Guided by a local public affairs firm, PlascoEnergy will host outreach events prior to construction of any facility in the community. The outreach efforts prior to construction completion will include:

public meetings presentations to community groups an informative website with opportunities for public questions and answers public commitments to exceed environmental standards employment of the best monitoring equipment possible and reporting of results publicly.

The outreach efforts after start up will include regular public meetings, a public advisory committee with the mandate to independently report on environmental performance to the public and City Council, daily postings of emissions and performance data to the website and encouragement of facility tours. PlascoEnergy is confident that such efforts, tailored appropriately, will result in strong public support. Over its 20 years of R&D experience PlascoEnergy has always been in compliance with Ontario Ministry of Environment Regulations. PlascoEnergy successfully attained permits in the Province of Ontario for a commercial scale facility. Ontario has strict environmental regulations, but PlascoEnergy was able to work cooperatively with regulators to address all concerns. Over a period of several months, PlascoEnergy collaborated with municipal and provincial officials to outline a detailed set of expectations and alter several regulations to accommodate conversion technology facilities. Throughout this time, PlascoEnergy actively engaged potentially affected communities to educate stakeholders about the project’s virtues. Community meetings were regularly held and a website and hotline were established to field inquiries from the public and provide adequate responses. In Argentina, PlascoEnergy will partner with an environmental consulting firm with experience in conversion technology projects. The firms will supply permitting assistance and counsel on regulatory compliance, and continue to work with PlascoEnergy throughout the project’s life.

Meeting Environmental Compliance Requirements PlascoEnergy is committed to providing environmental technology that not only meets compliance requirements, but, where possible, exceeds requireme nts to minimize adverse social and environmental impacts. Environmental excellence is achieved through a combination of technology selection, procedures for third party monitoring and carefully controlled operating conditions. The table below shows how PlascoEnergy ensures environmental compliance for various environmental parameters.

PARAMETER

STRATEGY

CATEGORY

AIR

HCl

HCL scrubber with guarantees 5 ppm HCL outlet concentration

Technology Selection/ CEM Vendor Guarantee Technology Selection Vendor Guarantee Technology Selection Vendor Guarantee Continuous Monitoring Technology Selection

Nitrogen Oxides

SCRs installed on stack of gas engines. Continuous emissions monitoring system.

SO2

H2 S scrubber with guaranteed outlet concentration. Continuous emission monitoring system for SO2

Organic Matter

System is completely closed to prevent any organic matter emissions due to leaks. IC

Engines of syngas ensures any organic gases are combusted. Regular monitoring for organic Vendor Guarantee

Particulate matter

matter. Filters remove particulate matter from syngas prior to combustion. Regular monitoring for particulate matter. Carbon filters for mercury absorption removes mercury from syngas prior to combustion. Regular monitoring for mercury air emissions.

Continuous Monitoring Technology Selection Third Party Monitoring Technology Selection/ Vendor Guarantee/ Third Party Monitoring Technology Selection/ Vendor Guarantee/ Third Party Monitoring Technology Selection/ Vendor Guarantee/ Third Party Monitoring Operating conditions/ Third Party Monitoring

Mercury

Cadmium

Carbon filters for cadmium absorption removes cadmium from syngas prior to combustion. Regular monitoring for cadmium air emissions

Lead

Carbon filters for lead absorption removes lead from syngas prior to combustion, Regular monitoring for lead in air emissions.

Dioxins and furans

Waste is converted to simple molecules in converter prior to combustion. Conversion chamber operates in oxygen controlled environment to prevent formation of dioxins and furans. Regular monitoring for dioxins and furans.

WATER

TSS

Particulate filter removes any suspended solids Carbon filter removes organic matter from wastewater Reverse osmosis, Brine concentrator / crystallizer

Technology selection Technology selection Vendor Guarantee

Organic Matter

Ions

GHG Compliance Processing waste through the Plasco Conversion System mitigates global warming. Based on the characteristics of the waste provided and the fact that the waste, without any CCF produces 1.1 MWh of net power per ton, the CO2 emission rate from facility will be approximately 800 lbs of CO2 / MWh. The Plasco Conversion System generates additional greenhouse gas credits. By diverting waste from landfill, it prevents landfill gas emissions that would have otherwise occurred. In a landfill, the biodegradable fraction results in the generation of landfill gas which typically contains equal fractions of carbon dioxide and methane. In a covered landfill, typically 10% of the methane will be oxidized by the landfill cover. Given that the global warming potential of methane is 23 times that of carbon dioxide, the avoided methane emissions are significant. Power produced from a PlascoEnergy facility displaces power from more greenhouse gas intense sources like coal, which also reduces CO2 emissions. This is as shown in the table below.

CO2 emissions. This is as shown in the table below. PlascoEnergy's Superior Greenhouse Gas Performance

PlascoEnergy's Superior Greenhouse Gas Performance

 

Plasco Conversion

Incineration

MFR + Anaerobic Digestion

Avoided Methane, CO2e (23x GWP) Non biogenic CO2 Displaced Coal Power Total Avoided GHG Emissions

1.7

1.7

1.7

0.4

0.4

0

1.3

0.7

0.3

2.6 tons

2.0 tons

2.0 tons

Best Management Practice Plan for Wastewater and Runoff

The Best Management Practice Plan (BMPP) for wastewater and runoff for the proposed facility will be tailored to the particular locations and conditions for the plant. The BMPP is comprehensive and includes facility and design plans, containment and control measures, wastewater management procedures, operational practices and employee training. Elements currently in place for the Trail Road facility are described below. All of these elements are expected to be in place for the proposed facility, with additional enhancements included where required by provincial regulatory or environmental policies.

Facility Plans and Description

The MSW storage building has sloping floors with surrounding curbs to collect washings. Water is collected from the slag quench tank, frontend seal pot drain, flare stack seal pot drain, carbon bed drain, syngas storage tank, the utility building sump, and other hub drains throughout the plant. This water drains into the plant waste water sump.

Design Plans

Wastewater from the wastewater storage tank is treated to potable quality standards prior to discharge. The wastewater undergoes oil water separation, filtration for particulate and organics removal, and reverse osmosis. The water product emerging from the reverse osmosis process is of potable water quality and is used for boiler makeup water and for landscape irrigation. Concentrated reject brine from the RO system is sent to a brine concentrator, a crystallizer, and filter press where commercial grade salt is recovered.

Storm water will be collected at a common point and discharged in accordance with the facility’s environmental permits. Generally speaking the facility storm water system will be designed to limit storm water flows to pre existing conditions, and limit Total Suspended Solids (TSS) to limits required by local authorities.

Containment/Control Measures

The municipal solid waste is held in a fully enclosed storage building. This prevents contaminated runoff due to precipitation. All chemicals used such as NaOH are stored in tanks with 100% containment. Any spills are immediately addressed according to PlascoEnergy standard operating procedures. For the H 2 S and sulphur recovery system, the pump skid is sealed to contain leaks that may occur through pump seals and fittings. Any such spills will be easily disposed of appropriately. To prevent the release of spilled material from the site, the site storm water collection system is equipped with a sluice gate.

Wastewater Management Procedures

Wastewater management procedures include maintenance of a record of generated wastewaters and their characteristics. All wastewaters generated in the plant are sent to the wastewater treatment plant and potable quality water is recovered.

All wastewaters generated in the plant are sent to the wastewater treatment plant and potable quality

Operational Practices

Operational practices are employed to minimize wastewaters generated and to handle them effectively. All process units are frequently inspected to ensure there are no leaks and to ensure that any leaks that do arise are properly handled. As per PlascoEnergy’s Routine Plant Inspection Standard Operating Procedure, the shift operator is required to perform routine inspections every three hours. The shift operator is particularly attentive for leaks, and any deficiencies are required to be reported to the control room operator. All observations must be recorded. The tipping floor must be kept clean with no run off.

Employee Training

Employees are required to have undergone certified safety training and operators are required to be familiar with the relevant Standard Operating Procedures. Elements of employee training include proper operation of process units, identification of potential leak sites, understanding wastewater characteristics, appropriate preventative procedures and measures for cleanup.

Containment/Control Measures

Facility Plans and

Description

Design

Plans

Measures Facility Plans and Description Design Plans Best Management Practice Plan Operational Practices
Measures Facility Plans and Description Design Plans Best Management Practice Plan Operational Practices

Best Management Practice Plan

Operational

Practices

Wastewater Management Procedure

Design Plans Best Management Practice Plan Operational Practices Wastewater Management Procedure Employee Training

Employee

Training

Nuisance Issues and Abatement Strategies

The minimization of dust, odour, litter, noise and traffic is achieved through inventory controls, proper enclosures, good maintenance, and prompt corrective actions when required.

Odour Typically, the plant will hold a maximum 3 days inventory of waste. The exception is when storage is required for weekends and holidays. Methods for odour control have been previously discussed.

Litter Litter is minimized by ensuring adequate availability of waste containers on the property and by following good waste containment practices. On windy days, the times that the building doors are open will be minimized. In fact, fast acting doors will open only as trucks are entering or leaving the facility. A litter crew at the end of each day is responsible for removing litter and a street sweeper is responsible for the site and for the frontage road.

Dust There is some possibility of dust from tires of vehicles entering and exiting the facility. With speed control measures, proper surface coverage and controlled routing of traffic, this vehicular dust will be minimized. Additionally, roads supporting routine traffic will be paved.

Within the process, controls exist to prevent dust generation and release. The MSW shredder is entirely enclosed and no dust will be released during operations. Syngas carry over of dust is prevented through the process filtration methods. During the construction phase, dust will be generated, but this will be managed through appropriate construction practices.

Traffic A detailed traffic study will be completed prior to receiving waste. Any undesirable impacts will be mitigated with the appropriate measures. MSW trucks typically enter/leave the facility from Monday to Friday during the daytime. No MSW will be received on Sundays or during statutory holidays.

Noise Methods to minimize noise include good operational practices, use of enclosures around the facility, and process design features. All major noise emitters will have enclosures. Rotating equipment such as the process air blowers and the syngas blowers are equipped with inlet and outlet silencers. The facility will be designed to meet all local noise regulations and at a minimum, will meet Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) guidelines for occupational noise exposure. As a baseline, the facility’s noise emissions will be limited to 45 dBa at the site boundary, and a maximum of 85 dBa at 3.3 ft (1 m) from any emitter. A comprehensive noise study will be completed for the proposed facility and testing for noise exposure will also be done. Noise abatement will be provided where required to meet the limits stated above or to meet local regulations.

be done. Noise abatement will be provided where required to meet the limits stated above or

Operation and Maintenance plan

PlascoEnergy has developed detailed standard operating procedures (SOP) as well as rigorous maintenance procedures to provide for the safe and efficient operation of the various process units.

and efficient operation of the various process units. Operations PlascoEnergy SOPs cover main processes,

Operations PlascoEnergy SOPs cover main processes, auxiliary processes, and health and safety. The SOPs cover the roles and responsibilities of various plant operators, provisions for safety, and procedures for startup and trouble shooting.

Normal Operations The proposed facility will be designed with a high level of automation. Most of the activities will be able to be performed from the central control room.

Through PlascoEnergy’s detailed and comprehensive SOPs, day-to-day operations are managed efficiently and effectively.

The SOPs relevant to normal operations specify day to day safety requirements, activities to be performed by operators, and operating parameters and setpoints. For example, the SOP for the Material Handling Building indicates the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be worn by operators and pedestrians. It also specifies the training requirements and the safety distance that vehicles must maintain from pedestrians. The SOP defines the maximum reserve of MSW to be stored and the time frame in which the MSW must be used. Procedures are established for receipt of MSW, documentation of information, inspection, and cleaning.

Operation Under Upset Conditions PlascoEnergy’s SOPs also contain procedures for operations under upset conditions. These procedures specify actions that must occur. For example, the SOP for the Material Handling Building indicates that in the case of a long term plant outage, the MSW must be removed from the site within 48 hours. SOPs for specific systems such as the HCl scrubber also contain procedures for blowdown.

Startup / Shutdown The PlascoEnergy procedures for startup and shut down are meticulous. Valve positioning and required set points are defined for pre requisite systems including utilities, the syngas blower, the air blower, the syngas storage tank, HCl recirculation, the baghouse, the H 2 S removal system and the converter. The SOP specifies preheat requirements and detailed procedures for converter startup. The shut down SOP also contains the same level of details for each process system. The start up and shut down SOPs are informed by PlascoEnergy’s experience with the Trail Road Facility and is particularly attentive to safety and environmental requirements. SOPs such as H2S Removal System Start up and MSW Feed System Startup also exist for the start up and shutdown of specific processing units.

‐ up and MSW Feed System Start ‐ up also exist for the start ‐ up

Periodic Repair and Replacements Within the SOPs are procedures for isolation of various units, blowdown and for replacement of equipment components. For example, the SOP for Baghouse Operation defines the control system that detects and alarms for a broken bag. The SOP defines the procedure for the shut down, replacement and inspection of the bags.

alarms for a broken bag. The SOP defines the procedure for the shut ‐ down, replacement

Maintenance PlascoEnergy’s maintenance procedures cover roles and responsibilities of maintenance personnel, safety requirements, environmental considerations, maintenance schedules, maintenance procedures and documentation requirements for maintenance activities. The table below is a selective list of maintenance procedures.

Process

Auxiliaries / Other

Jenbacher Engine Main bag House Mtnc. Maintenance Framework Plastic Shredder Process Air System Slag Chamber Sulphur Filter Press

Bobcat Maintenance Chiller Compressor Instrument Air System Lubrication System Raw Water System Scissor Lift Toyota Forklift Vendor Lubricants Supply Waste Oil and Lubrication Disposal

Maintenance Activities All maintenance duties will be tracked through a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS). Work requests will be input by all staff. The maintenance department will upgrade all requests into a work order to be prioritized. Materials ordered, jobs planned, and scheduled information will then be given to Operations. The CMMS software used for maintenance has been employed by over 25,000 companies in North America and is a complete asset management system with a proven track record. With the CMMS, PlascoEnergy targets less than 5% reactive maintenance and over 95% equipment availability.

Routine Maintenance:

Day to day routine maintenance will be carried out by all personnel. General lubrication will also be a part of routine maintenance.

Predictive Maintenance:

All predictive maintenance will consider when systems are operating and will be carried out accordingly. All data will be input and managed in the CMMS.

Preventative Maintenance:

All preventative maintenance will be scheduled on a meter reading or a scheduled set point and generated by the CMMS. The CMMS will take into consideration the historical or manufacturer’s suggested frequency for maintenance.

Reactive Maintenance All reactive maintenance will be input in the CMMS system. A work order will be created and given priority based on production requirements.

Staffing Contractors are used on an as ‐ needed basis for all jobs that cannot
Staffing Contractors are used on an as ‐ needed basis for all jobs that cannot
Staffing Contractors are used on an as ‐ needed basis for all jobs that cannot

Staffing Contractors are used on an as needed basis for all jobs that cannot be handled within time constraints or for jobs that required specialized capabilities beyond those of the maintenance staff. Contractors will also be utilized for new

installations or for procedures under the direction of the engineering department. The figure below shows the organizational structure for maintenance personnel.

direction of the engineering department. The figure below shows the organizational structure for maintenance personnel.

“We’re very excited about this new, cutting edge technology. I’m especially pleased to be working closely with the province and Plasco on positive solutions to our waste issues. This is a better alternative to landfills and is the kind of vision that will make a practical difference for our residents.”

Mayor Bob Chiarelli, News Release, MOE, Ontario, June 9, 2006

that will make a practical difference for our residents.” Mayor Bob Chiarelli, News Release, MOE, Ontario,
that will make a practical difference for our residents.” Mayor Bob Chiarelli, News Release, MOE, Ontario,

Project Economics and Financing Plan

Project Economics and Financing Plan PlascoEnergy proposes to initially build, own and operate its 400 TPD

PlascoEnergy proposes to initially build, own and operate its 400 TPD Conversion Facility in Argentina. This proposal eliminates construction risk for the local government or waste authority and will provide long term cost stability. PlascoEnergy will provide all capital, and assume all project, operational and environmental risk. Our solution maximizes the value of the post recycled MSW while providing the greatest protection to the environment (land, water and air) from the effects of solid waste. The highly efficient conversion process generates sufficient power revenue per ton of waste that tipping fees are competitive to any alternative solution when the environmental benefits are properly considered. PlascoEnergy will provide the required capital for the project. To do so, we require a 20 year agreement for the delivery of waste. The tipping fee in the 20 year agreement will be set with a modest adjustment for inflation. There will also be an opportunity for revenue sharing above a certain annual revenue target, which could be used to reduce the tipping fee. PlascoEnergy has demonstrated that it has the confidence of the investment community, and that it has access to attract the capital required to build projects. The company has raised $94 million in equity since August 2005. Recent investor First Reserve Corporation has allocated $115 million in 2008 to fund commercialization and construction of projects. In early 2008, CalPERS and CalSTRS became investors in PlascoEnergy. Investors with combined funds under management of more than $20 billion believe in PlascoEnergy.