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Balano, Arianne Mae S.

BSEDMT I-1D HUMA 1013 Introduction to the Humanities Assignment #2:


1.
Define:

Elements of Arts are the basic properties of a work of art that may be perceived through the senses. In a painting, for instance, the properties that may be perceived through our senses are texture, form, shape, color, line and value (tone). Other elements, for instance sound and time, may be perceived in other art forms such as music and video. The way the elements of an artwork relate to each other and are organized in the artwork are referred to as the principles of art. Lines can suggest speed, solidity and purposefulness. Lines are the basic building blocks of all art because they are the visual basics of all reality. In general terms, horizontal lines suggest passivity, while vertical lines suggest power and activity. Medium refers to the materials which are used by an artist. It is the means by which he communicates his ideas. Medium is very essential to art. Shape is an enclosed space defined by other elements of arts. Shapes may take on the appearance of two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects. Form is an element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume. Cubes, spheres, and cylinders are examples of various forms. Texture is the surface qualities of an object. They can be smooth, suggesting refined tastes, or rough, suggesting toughness. Color is a property of light. Delight in color is a universal human characteristic. Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Defined as primary colors (red, yellow, blue) which cannot be mixed in pigment from other hues, secondary colors (green, orange, violet) which are directly mixed from combinations of primary colors? Hue is the dimension of color that gives color its name. Color names such as red, green, violet and yellow indicate the color characteristic called hue. Value describes the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is needed to express Volume. Intensity it refers to the brightness or darkness of color. It gives color strength. Intensity differences may be described as full intensity, two-thirds intensity, two-thirds neutral and neutral. Perspective deals with the effect of distance upon the appearance of objects, by means of which the eye judges spatial relationships. It enables us to perceive distance and to see the position of objects in space. Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances or areas around, between and within things. It has two kinds: negative and positive. Volume refers to the amount of space occupied in three dimensions. It therefore refers to solidity or thickness. Symbol a thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract. 2. Discuss the Elements of Visual Arts Whenever we see an art object, we cannot fail to notice several things: shape or form, texture, space, and lines which the artist used in expressing his ideas. These are called the elements of the visual arts. All arts have certain elements of their own. LINE

Line is an important element at the disposal of every artist. Through the lines of a painting or sculpture, the artist can make us know what the work is about. He uses lines to represent figures and forms. Lines always have direction. They are always moving. Lines, as used in any work of art, may either be straight or curved. Man usually lies prone when asleep or when at rest and stands erect when in action. He stands stiff and straight when resistant or stern, and relaxes when in a playful mood and the lines of his body fall into easy curves. When one is in motion, he bends forward; when he encounters on opposing force, he braces against it. The greater the opposing force the sharper will be the angle of his body and the straighter will be the line. We have learned that certain emotional states always find expression through definite positions. We associate the emotions with the lines that define their accompanying positions. When given a work of art, we call upon unconscious with its accompanying emotional state. Straight lines are always associated with the ideas of steadiness and force, curved lines with flexibility, buoyancy, and grace. The straight line moves in one direction only. It may either be horizontal, vertical or diagonal. Horizontal Lines. These are lines of repose and serenity. They express ideas of calmness and quiescence. Horizontal lines are found in reclining persons, in landscapes, calm bodies of water and in the distant meeting of the earth and sky in what is commonly called the horizon. Vertical Lines. These are lines poised for action. They are poised, balanced, forceful, and dynamic. Vertical lines seen in a person standing straight, a tall tree. Statues of saints and heroes give an impression of dignity. Vertical lines also tend to express as well as arouse emotions of exaltation and inquietude and this is evident in monumental architecture. Diagonal Lines. It suggests action and movement. They give animation to any position in which they appear. Almost every object in action assumes a diagonal line. A running person makes a diagonal line with his body and legs. The degree of action is shown by the angle of the diagonal. Curved Lines. It suggests grace, movement, flexibility, joyousness and grace. They are never harsh or stern since they are formed by a gradual change in direction. They tend to impart these qualities to any work where they are used. The curved lines of the womans body and the bamboo stem where according to Philippine legend, man and woman sprang, as depicted in a mural by the late artist Carlos Francisco. COLOR Delight in color is a universal human characteristic. Color is a property of light. When light goes out, color goes with it. The white light of the sun contains all the colors of the spectrum; violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. These colors are so blended that they yield no sensation of color. When a beam of light passes through a prism, the different rays of color are separated so that we are able to see and identify them. When light strikes a surface, some of the color rays are absorbed while others are reflected. Other pass through, especially when the object is transparent. Most surfaces absorb all the color rays except those which yield a single color sensation and therefore appear to be of that color. Objects that appear to be black absorb practically all the color rays and reflect none, while objects that appear white reflect all the color rays equally. Gray is due to the partial reflection of the color rays. White, gray and black have no color quality. They are called the neutral colors. Color has three dimensions or attributes: hue, vale and intensity. Hue is the dimension of color that gives color its name. Color names such as red, green, violet and yellow indicate the color characteristic called hue. Blue, red and yellow are the primary hues. If these primary hues are mixed in equal parts, the secondary hues are produced. The secondary hues are orange, green and violet. Orange is produced by mixing red and yellow; green by mixing yellow and blue; and violet by mixing blue and red.

Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. It is a quality which depends on the amount of light and dark in color. Tints are vales above the normal and shades are values below the normal. Pink is a tint of red, maroon is a shade of red. Sky-blue is a tint; navy-blue is a shade. The value of hue can be changed. We raise it by adding more light to it so that it reflects more light and lower it by reducing the light it can reflect. The third and last dimension of color is intensity. It refers to the brightness or darkness of color. It gives color strength. Colors differ in intensity. Intensity differences may be described as full intensity, two-thirds intensity, two-thirds neutral and neutral. Color plays an important role in the work of an artist. Although painting is known as the art of color, color is also important in sculpture and architecture. Buildings are painted; bronze is selected for its rich brown color and marble for its whiteness.

TEXTURE Texture is the element that deals more directly with the sense of touch. It has to do with the characteristic of surfaces which can be rough or smooth, fine or coarse, shiny or dull, plain or irregular. Texture is best appreciated when an object is felt with the hands. Texture is found in all visual arts. A painting, a building or a piece of sculpture has textures which are felt and described in a variety of ways. Texture is due primarily to differences in medium. Texture can contribute to the total effect of the finished work of art. PERSPECTIVE Perspective deals with the effect of distance upon the appearance of objects, by means of which the eye judges spatial relationship. It enables us to perceive distance and to see the position of objects in space. There are two kinds of perspective: linear perspective and aerial perspective. SPACE In painting as in architecture, space is of great importance. The exterior of a building is seen as it appears in space while the interior is seen by one who is inside as enclosing space. Painting does not deal with space directly. It represents space only on a two-dimensional surface. Sculpture has very little to do with space relationship or perception of space. FORM Form applies to the overall design of a work of art. It describes the structure or shape of an object. All the visual arts are concerned with form. Sculpture and architecture deal with threedimensional forms although sculpture deals with exterior form alone because we do not get inside a statue but we always get inside a building. VOLUME The term volume refers to the amount of space occupied in three dimensions. It therefore refers to solidity or thickness. We perceive volume in two ways: by contour lines or outlines or shapes of objects and by surface lights and shadows. Because painting is two-dimensional, volume is an illusion because the surface of the canvas is flat. The painter can only suggest volume. To make his figures have the illusion of thickness, the painter decides arbitrarily from what direction he wants the light to fall. He then paints the lightest portions bright and those in shadows, dark.

3. Define the Different Kinds of Lines Horizontal Lines. These are lines of repose and serenity. They express ideas of calmness and quiescence. Horizontal lines are found in reclining persons, in landscapes, calm bodies of water and in the distant meeting of the earth and sky in what is commonly called the horizon. Vertical Lines. These are lines poised for action. They are poised, balanced, forceful, and dynamic. Vertical lines seen in a person standing straight, a tall tree. Statues of saints and heroes give an impression of dignity. Vertical lines also tend to express as well as arouse emotions of exaltation and inquietude and this is evident in monumental architecture. Diagonal Lines. It suggests action and movement. They give animation to any position in which they appear. Almost every object in action assumes a diagonal line. A running person makes a diagonal line with his body and legs. The degree of action is shown by the angle of the diagonal. Curved Lines. It suggests grace, movement, flexibility, joyousness and grace. They are never harsh or stern since they are formed by a gradual change in direction. They tend to impart these qualities to any work where they are used. The curved lines of the womans body and the bamboo stem where according to Philippine legend, man and woman sprang, as depicted in a mural by the late artist Carlos Francisco.