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Magnetostatics

The source of steady magnetic field may be a permanent magnet, a direct current or an electric field changing with time. In this chapter we shall mainly consider the magnetic field produced by a direct current. The magnetic field produced due to time varying electric field will be discussed later. Historically, the link between the electric and magnetic field was established Oersted in 18 !. "mpere and others e#tended the investigation of magnetic effect of electricity . There are two ma$or laws governing the magnetostatic fields are%

&iot'(avart )aw

"mpere*s )aw

+sually, the magnetic field intensity is represented by the vector . It is customary to represent the direction of the magnetic field intensity ,or current- by a small circle with a dot or cross sign depending on whether the field ,or current- is out of or into the page as shown in .ig. /.1.

,or l - out of the page

,or l - into the page

Fig. 4.1: Representation of magnetic field (or current)

Biot- Savart La This law relates the magnetic field intensity dH produced at a point due to a differential current element as shown in .ig. /. .

Fig. 4.!: Magnetic field intensit" due to a current element The magnetic field intensity at 0 can be written as,

............................,/.1a-

..............................................,/.1b-

where

is the distance of the current element from the point 0.

(imilar to different charge distributions, we can have different current distribution such as line current, surface current and volume current. These different types of current densities are shown in .ig. /.1.

)ine 2urrent

(urface 2urrent

3olume 2urrent

Fig. 4.#: $ifferent t"pes of current distri%utions &y denoting the surface current density as 4 ,in amp5m- and volume current density as 6 ,in amp5m - we can write% ......................................,/. , It may be noted that -

7mploying &iot'(avart )aw, we can now e#press the magnetic field intensity H. In terms of these current distributions.

............................. for line current............................,/.1a-

........................ for surface current ....................,/.1b-

....................... for volume current......................,/.1cTo illustrate the application of &iot ' (avart*s )aw, we consider the following e#ample. &'ample 4.1: 8e consider a finite length of a conductor carrying a current placed along 9' a#is as shown in the .ig /./. 8e determine the magnetic field at point 0 due to this current carrying conductor.

Fig. 4.4: Field at a point ( due to a finite lengt) current carr"ing conductor

8ith reference to .ig. /./, we find that .................................................. .....,/./"pplying &iot ' (avart*s law for the current element we can write,

........................................................,/.:(ubstituting we can write,

.........................,/.;8e find that, for an infinitely long conductor carrying a current I , Therefore, and

.........................................................................................,/.<*mpere+s ,ircuital La :

"mpere*s circuital law states that the line integral of the magnetic field ,circulation of H around a closed path is the net current enclosed by this path. =athematically, ......................................,/.8The total current I enc can be written as,

......................................,/.>&y applying (toke*s theorem, we can write

......................................,/.1!which is the "mpere*s law in the point form.

*pplications of *mpere+s la : 8e illustrate the application of "mpere*s )aw with some e#amples. &'ample 4.!: 8e compute magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin current carrying conductor as shown in .ig. /.:. +sing "mpere*s )aw, we consider the close path to be a circle of radius as shown in the .ig. /.:. If we consider a small current element containing both ,i.e., and . , is perpendicular to the plane that will be present is

. Therefore only component of

&y applying "mpere*s law we can write,

...................................... ,/.11-

Therefore,

which is same as e?uation ,/.<-

Fig. 4.-: Magnetic field due to an infinite t)in current carr"ing conductor &'ample 4.#: 8e consider the cross section of an infinitely long coa#ial conductor, the inner conductor carrying a current I and outer conductor carrying current ' I as shown in figure /.;. 8e compute the magnetic field as a function of as follows% In the region

......................................,/.1 -

............................,/.11In the region

......................................,/.1/-

Fig. 4..: ,oa'ial conductor carr"ing e/ual and opposite currents In the region

......................................,/.1:-

........................................,/.1;In the region ......................................,/.1<-

Magnetic Flu' $ensit": In simple matter, the magnetic flu# density where related to the magnetic field intensity as

called the permeability. In particular when we consider the free space

where H5m is the permeability of the free space. =agnetic flu# density is measured in terms of 8b5m . The magnetic flu# density through a surface is given by%

8b

......................................,/.18-

In the case of electrostatic field, we have seen that if the surface is a closed surface, the net flu# passing through the surface is e?ual to the charge enclosed by the surface. In case of magnetic field isolated magnetic charge ,i. e. pole- does not e#ist. =agnetic poles always occur in pair ,as @'(-. .or e#ample, if we desire to have an isolated magnetic pole by dividing the magnetic bar successively into two, we end up with pieces each having north ,@and south ,(- pole as shown in .ig. /.< ,a-. This process could be continued until the magnets are of atomic dimensionsA still we will have @'( pair occurring together. This means that the magnetic poles cannot be isolated.

Fig. 4.0: (a) Su%division of a magnet (%) Magnetic field1 flu' lines of a straig)t current carr"ing conductor

(imilarly if we consider the field5flu# lines of a current carrying conductor as shown in .ig. /.< ,b-, we find that these lines are closed lines, that is, if we consider a closed surface, the number of flu# lines that would leave the surface would be same as the number of flu# lines that would enter the surface. .rom our discussions above, it is evident that for magnetic field,

......................................,/.1>which is the Bauss*s law for the magnetic field. &y applying divergence theorem, we can write%

Hence,

......................................,/. !-

which is the Bauss*s law for the magnetic field in point form. Magnetic Scalar and 2ector (otentials: In studying electric field problems, we introduced the concept of electric potential that simplified the computation of electric fields for certain types of problems. In the same manner let us relate the magnetic field intensity to a scalar magnetic potential and write% ...................................,/. 1.rom "mpere*s law , we know that

......................................,/. Therefore, &ut using vector identity,

............................,/. 1we find that is valid only where .

Thus the scalar magnetic potential is defined only in the region where in general is not a single valued function of position.

. =oreover, Vm

This point can be illustrated as follows. )et us consider the cross section of a coa#ial line as shown in fig /.8. In the region , and

Fig. 4.3: ,ross Section of a ,oa'ial Line If Vm is the magnetic potential then,

If we set Vm C ! at

then cC! and

8e observe that as we make a complete lap around the current carrying conductor , we reach again but Vm this time becomes

8e observe that value of Vm keeps changing as we complete additional laps to pass through the same point. 8e introduced Vm analogous to electostatic potential V. &ut for static electric fields, but and even if , whereas for steady magnetic field along the path of integration. wherever

8e now introduce the vector magnetic potential which can be used in regions where current density may be 9ero or non9ero and the same can be easily e#tended to time varying cases. The use of vector magnetic potential provides elegant ways of solving 7= field problems.

(ince write

and we have the vector identity that for any vector .

, we can

Here, the vector field can find

is called the vector magnetic potential. Its (I unit is 8b5m. Thus if can be found from and related its curl to through a curl operation. . " vector function is is made as follows.

of a given current distribution,

8e have introduced the vector function

defined fully in terms of its curl as well as divergence. The choice of

...........................................,/. /&y using vector identity, .................................................,/. :.........................................,/. ;Breat deal of simplification can be achieved if we choose .

0utting , we get which is vector poisson e?uation. In 2artesian coordinates, the above e?uation can be written in terms of the components as ......................................,/. <a......................................,/. <b......................................,/. <cThe form of all the above e?uation is same as that of

..........................................,/. 8for which the solution is

..................,/. >-

In case of time varying fields we shall see that , which is known as )orent9 condition, V being the electric potential. Here we are dealing with static magnetic field, so . &y comparison, we can write the solution for "x as

...................................,/.1!2omputing similar solutions for other two components of the vector potential, the vector potential can be written as

.......................................,/.11This e?uation enables us to find the vector potential at a given point because of a volume current density . (imilarly for line or surface current density we can write

...................................................,/.1 -

respectively. ..............................,/.11The magnetic flu# through a given area ( is given by

.............................................,/.1/(ubstituting

.........................................,/.1:3ector potential thus have the physical significance that its integral around any closed path is e?ual to the magnetic flu# passing through that path.

Boundar" ,ondition for Magnetic Fields: (imilar to the boundary conditions in the electro static fields, here we will consider the behavior of and at the interface of two different media. In particular, we determine how the tangential and normal components of magnetic fields behave at the boundary of two regions having different permeabilities.

The figure /.> shows the interface between two media having permeabities being the normal vector from medium to medium 1.

and

Figure 4.4: 5nterface %et een t o magnetic media To determine the condition for the normal component of the flu# density vector , we consider a small pill bo# 0 with vanishingly small thickness h and having an elementary area for the faces. Over the pill bo#, we can write ....................................................,/.1;(ince h ''D !, we can neglect the flu# through the sidewall of the pill bo#.

...........................,/.1<-

and

..................,/.18-

where and ..........................,/.1>-

(ince

is small, we can write

or,

...................................,/./!-

That is, the normal component of the magnetic flu# density vector is continuous across the interface. In vector form, ...........................,/./1To determine the condition for the tangential component for the magnetic field, we consider a closed path 2 as shown in figure /.8. &y applying "mpere*s law we can write ....................................,/./ (ince h ''D!,

...................................,/./1-

8e have shown in figure /.8, a set of three unit vectors

and

such that they satisfy is the vector

,E.H. rule-. Here is tangential to the interface and perpendicular to the surface enclosed by 2 at the interface The above e?uation can be written as

or,

...................................,/.//-

i.e., tangential component of magnetic field component is discontinuous across the interface where a free surface current e#ists. If Js C !, the tangential magnetic field is also continuous. If one of the medium is a perfect conductor Js e#ists on the surface of the perfect conductor. In vector form we can write,

...................................,/./:Therefore,

...................................,/./;-

"((IB@=7@T 0EO&)7=( 1. "n infinitely long conductor carries a current I A is bent into an L shape and placed as shown in .ig. 0./.<. Fetermine the magnetic field intensity at a point P ,!,!, a-.

Figure (.4.0 . 2onsider a long filamentary carrying a current IA in the G Z direction. 2alculate the magnetic field intensity at point O ,' a , a ,!-. "lso determine the flu# through this region described by and . 1. " very long air cored solenoid is to produce an inductance !.1H5m. If the member of turns per unit length is 1!!!5m. Fetermine the diameter of this turns of the solenoid. /. Fetermine the force per unit length between two infinitely long conductor each carrying current IA and the conductor are separated by a distance H d *.