Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

STANDARD

Document Classification: Controlled Disclosure Title: General information and Reference: requirements for high-voltage Document Type: cable systems Revision: Published date: Total pages: Review date:
TESCOD APPROVED COMPILED BY APPROVED BY FUNCTIONAL RESP AUTHORISED BY

34-1177 DST 0 JULY 2008 40 JULY 2012

Signed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ R A KELLY Chief Engineer

Signed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ M T RAMASHI UG SC Chairman

Signed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ V SINGH for TESCOD

Signed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

M N BAILEY CMDT for MD (Dx)

Contents
Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................2 Introduction ..........................................................................................................................................6 Keywords .............................................................................................................................................6 Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................7 1 Scope................................................................................................................................................8 2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................8 3 Definitions and abbreviations .........................................................................................................11 4 Requirements .................................................................................................................................12 4.1 Statutory requirements.............................................................................................................12 4.2 Other statutory bodies..............................................................................................................13 4.3 Servitude and wayleave agreements.......................................................................................13 4.4 Environmental considerations..................................................................................................13 4.5 Performance and operability requirements..............................................................................13 4.6 Insulation co-ordination............................................................................................................15 4.7 Bonding and earthing philosophy.............................................................................................16 4.8 High-voltage cable systems .....................................................................................................17 4.9 Construction .............................................................................................................................28 4.10 Marking and labelling .............................................................................................................28 4.11 Documentation .......................................................................................................................29 4.12 Spares....................................................................................................................................31 5 Inspection and testing.....................................................................................................................32 6 Safety..............................................................................................................................................32 Annex A Example: Metallic sheath induced voltage calculation ....................................................35 Annex B Impact assessment ..........................................................................................................37

JFScholtz/Jul08 (Rev 0) to ensure traceability

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 2 of 40

Foreword
The Distribution Standard is a multi-part document whose total structure is defined in Part 0. This part of the Distribution Standard consists of the following sections under Part 22 having the general title Cables : Section 0 : 34-1175, General information and requirements for medium-voltage cable systems. Section 1 : 34-937, Insulation requirements for medium-voltage cable-connected equipment with air-filled enclosures. Section 2 : 34-1176, General information and requirements for low-voltage cable systems. Section 3 : 34-1177, General information and requirements for high-voltage cable systems. Section 4 : 34-212, Inspection and maintenance of high-voltage cables. Section 5 : 34-06, Medium-voltage services to large power users. Section 6 : 34-209, Medium-voltage cabling in substations. Any recommendations for corrections, additions or deletions to this standard should be sent to: The Plant Technologies Manager Industry Association Resource Centre (IARC) Private Bag X1074 GERMISTON 1400 Telephone (011) 871-2416 Fax (011) 871-2352 Email: vinod.singh@eskom.co.za The notices in Part 0 of the Distribution Standard are also applicable to this part.

Revision history
This revision cancels and replaces revision no 1 of specification no DISASACB0. Date APRIL/2008 Rev. 0 Clause 1 2 Compiled By: R A Kelly Document revised according to revision cycle and latest TESCOD document template. The requirements of revision no 1 of specification no DISASACB0 have been incorporated into this standard. Scope modified to include plug-in terminations into GIS / transformers Normative references updated. List of Eskom assembly and buyers guide drawings updated. Reference added: SCSPVABP7, Procedure for the environmental
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

Remarks

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 3 of 40

assessment of reticulation (MV) and sub-transmission (HV) projects Reference added: NRS 077 Specification for HV XLPE cable and accessories Reference added: NRS 088 Duct and direct buried underground fibre optic cable Definition for special bonding modified to include multiple end-point bonded systems. Various type is HV cable terminations defined. 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.7.1 4.7.2 Statutory bodies updated 4.2.2 Applications to the water, rail and local authorities shall be made in accordance with 34-820, 34-1812 and 34-822. 4.3.9 In the event that Eskoms rights (servitudes / wayleaves) may be encroached upon and / or services / assets placed at risk, the requirements of 34-827 shall be followed. Environmental procedures and acts updated. 4.5.3.5 The fibre optic cable shall be in accordance with NRS 088-1 and installed in accordance with NRS 088-2. Updated to include plug-in terminations into GIS / transformers Clause and D-DT-0893 revised to include multiple end point bonded systems. Sheath standing voltage reduced from 70 V to 65 V to align with international standards. Metallic sheath max temp for short circuit withstand calculations referenced to NRS 077 (i.e. for CSA reduced from 250 C to 160 C in accordance with NRS 077 due to the temp at which the plumb/wipe onto a CSA sheath begins to soften). 4.8.2.5 Where space limitations and/or the presence of other underground services within the road reserve prevent the positioning of the trench and joint bays between the road and the property boundary, consideration may need to be given to the positioning of the trench and joint bays under the road surface. 4.8.2 4.8.2.6 Where major interruptions to traffic flow in main roads cannot be avoided, open trench excavation may be restricted to shorter lengths (e.g. 100 m) by the local authorities. In such a case, cable ducts (see 4.8.4 below) shall be installed into which the cable can be pulled at a later stage. 4.8.2.7 Where severe space limitations exist, consideration may need to be given to the use of underground cable tunnels where multiple feeders / circuits can be installed within a relatively confined space. 4.8.3.2 Where the cable route is located parallel to and under the road surface, the edge of the trench and joint bays shall be at least 200 mm from the road kerbing. 4.8.3 4.8.3.6 For road or rail crossings, the depth of cable shall be increased in accordance with D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.7 Where the cable route is located parallel to and under the road
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

4.8.1.6

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 4 of 40

surface, the depth of the cable need not be increased and is therefore not treated as a road crossing. If the cable depth is increased, the cable shall be de-rating accordingly. 4.9.3.10 The transport, storage and the use of explosives shall comply with the provision of the Explosives Act No 26 of 1956 and the Explosives Regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act No 85 of 1993. A copy of blasting permits issued to workmen and permits issued to the contractor to cover the purchase, storage and transport of explosives shall be given to the project clerk of works. 4.8.3.14 Excavated trenches that are accessible to the public or that are adjacent to public roads or thoroughfares, or where the safety of persons may be endangered, shall be adequately and effectively protected by a barrier or fence of at least one metre in height and as close to the excavation as is practicable. Warning or danger tapes are not acceptable. Warning illumination or any other clearly visible boundary indicators shall be provided at night or when visibility is poor. 4.8.3.16 The trench bedding and blanket soil around the cable shall be in accordance with SANS 10198-8 requirements for bedding. A sieve having a mesh size of no larger than 12 mm may be used to sift the excavated soil. Alternatively, suitable bedding and blanket soil having the specified soil thermal resistivity may be imported. 4.8.3.17 The trench backfilling shall be in accordance with SANS 101988. 4.8.3.18 The bedding soil shall be installed and compacted prior to cable installation. Blanket soil shall be compacted using hand compaction tools. Backfill material shall be compacted in layers of maximum thickness 300 mm. The level of compaction (see D-DT-0892) shall be measured at appropriate intervals using an approved method. NOTE A dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) may be used to measure the level of compaction. 4.8.3.20 The backfill requirements and required level of compaction for road surface re-instatement shall be in accordance with the relevant road agency specification and shall take precedence over the requirements of D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.22 Where re-instatement of surfaces cannot be done immediately, a 50 mm compacted crown shall be added above the natural ground level (NGL) to allow for erosion. 4.8.4.3 All pipe ducts shall have a minimum surround of 75 mm of concrete to prevent collapsing or deformation after backfilling. The concrete strength shall be at least 15 MPA. If underground bulleting has been used to install the pipe ducts, the concrete surround is not required. NOTE Underground bulleting equipment is used to drill holes that correspond to the pipe diameter being installed. 4.8.4.6 Pipe ducts shall, where possible, project a minimum of 1 m beyond the kerb lines (or other services) so as to completely clear the surface of the carriageway. For dual carriageways and divided highways the pipe ducts shall continue in an unbroken line under the central divider. For railway crossings, the pipe ducts shall project a minimum of 3 m beyond the outermost rails.

4.8.4

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 5 of 40

4.8.4.9 Before commencing to draw a cable into a pipe duct, a cylindrical wire brush followed by a mop and a close-fitting mandrel shall be drawn through to clean out any dirt and ensure that the pipe duct has not collapsed. 4.8.4.11 Spare pipe ducts shall be installed for road, railway, river and other service crossings. The number of spare pipe ducts shall be determined by the Project Engineer. 4.8.5 New clauses added for cable tunnel requirements. 4.8.6.2 Cable laying and installation shall be in accordance with SANS 10198-2 and SANS 10198-8 and, unless otherwise specified, shall be by direct burial. NOTE The key objectives of correct cable installation are the following: 1) 2) 3) Cables are not over bent; Cables outer sheaths are not damaged of scratched; and Cable kinks or twists are prevented.

4.8.6

4.8.6.5 Prior to cable pulling, the cable shall be inspected for damage and both ends checked to verify that the cable ends were suitably sealed (see 4.8.11). Damaged or unsealed cable shall not be installed. 4.8.6.13 A fibre optic twin duct (see D-DT-8081) for distributed temperature sensing (DTS) shall be installed with the cable feeder irrespective of when the optical fibre and equipment will be installed. The fibre optic duct used for DTS shall be laid against the tre-foil group or against the centre phase of a flat configuration cable feeder (see DDT-0892). The duct shall be strapped to the cable using sisal string at 2 m intervals to prevent any movement during backfilling. 4.8.6.14 No duct couplings or joints shall be used between draw pits. 4.8.6.17 Cable outer sheaths damaged during installation shall immediately be repaired using a cable repair sleeve (see D-DT-8077). 4.8.7.9 Aluminium conductors shall be connected using torque shear connectors in accordance with SANS 61238-1. The joint shall have been type tested using the torque shear connector provided with the joint. Alternatively, they shall be metal-inert gas (MIG) welded or CAD welded. Ammeded to include reference to both self supporting and non selfsupporting terminations. Requirements for non self-supporting terminations added. Reference to D-DT-5031 and D-DT-0890 sheets 3 and 4 added. Requirements for GIS and oil-immersed terminations to IEC 62271-209 added. D-DT-8072 updated to include plug-in dry-type terminations. Additional link disconnecting boxes added for multiple end-point bonded systems. D-DT-8074 updated. 4.8.9.3 Structure mounted link disconnecting terminations) shall be of the manhole type. boxes (used at

4.8.7

4.8.8

4.8.9

4.8.9.8 When applicable, the position of the bare copper ECC within the trench shall be in accordance with D-DT-0892. For end-point and double end-point bonded systems, the ECC shall be transposed to ensure that it occupies equal lengths between phases 1 and 2 and
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
phases 2 and 3 over the route length.

34-1177 DST 0 6 of 40

4.8.10 added for fibre optic cable PE duct and draw pits. 4.8.10 D-DT-0894 added for fibre optic cable draw pit details D-DT-8XXX added for fibre optic cable PE ducts 4.9 General construction shall be carried out in accordance with the new works production work instructions under Part 24 of the Distribution Standard. 4.10.2.3 Where a cable route marker is installed on a paved or concrete surface area (e.g. a formal side-walk), the top of the cable route marker shall be flush with the surface of the paving. In this way, the aluminium plate will remain visible and the cable route marker will not create and obstruction. Documentation requirements updated and reference made to D-DT0881 and D-DT-0882 for information. Requirements for the ordering and stocking of strategic and maintenance spares added.

4.10.2

4.11 4.12

Authorisation
This document has been seen and accepted by: Name M T Ramashi V Singh M N Bailey Designation Underground Distribution Systems Study Committee IARC Power Plant Technologies Manager for TESCOD IARC Manager

This standard shall apply throughout the Eskom Distribution Division.

Development team
The specification was originally compiled by Greg Whyte and has been revised by Rhett Kelly with assistance from Thinus du Plessis.

Introduction
This section of Part 22 of the Distribution Standard has been prepared to establish and promote uniform designs for high-voltage (HV) cable distribution systems. Design engineers should take cognizance of the constraints regarding system operation and system protection considerations and also of the design opportunities for effecting further cost savings. Designs should take into consideration proposed future developments and adjacent supply areas. Underground cabling is generally capital intensive, it is therefore important to evaluate the commercial viability of the project over its lifetime.

Keywords
underground cable; underground distribution system; accessories; joints; terminations; HV; high-voltage; standard; XLPE; XLPE-insulated; cross-linked polyethylene insulated;

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 7 of 40

Bibliography
Occupation Health and Safety Act (OHS Act) No 85 of 1993 Construction, Electrical Machinery and Explosives Regulations. Explosives Act No 26 of 1956 Safety at roadworks in urban and rural areas site manuals (issued by the Department of Transport) 34-304 (SCSASABK3), Distribution Standard Part 7: Substations Section 2: Generic substation design.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 8 of 40

1 Scope
This standard covers the general requirements for high-voltage (i.e. 44 kV, 66 kV, 88 kV and 132 kV) underground cable systems. A cable system would typically consist of the following: a) b) c) d) HV cable inter-connecting two substations or inter-connecting a substation to an HV overhead line; outdoor terminations or plug-in terminations into gas-insulated (i.e. SF6) switchgear / transformers (i.e. oil-immersed); cable joints; and ancillary equipment to achieve the required cable metallic sheath bonding and earthing arrangement.

2 Normative references
Parties using this standard shall apply the most recent edition of the documents listed below: IEC 62271:209, Cable connections for gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear for rated voltages of 72.5 kV and above fluid-filled and extruded insulation cables fluid-filled and dry-type cable terminations. 34-820 (SCSPVADG6), Distribution Standard Part 19: Statutory applications to water authorities. 34-822, (SCSPVADO3), Distribution Standard Part 19: Statutory applications to local authorities. 34-1812, (SCSPVADA4), Distribution Standard Part 19: Statutory applications to rail authorities. 34-827, (SCSPVQBA1), Distribution Standard Part 19: Procedure for the approval of work where Eskom's rights may be encroached upon and/or services/assets placed at risk. 34-926 (SCSPVABP7), Distribution Standard Part 21: Procedure for the environmental assessment of reticulation and sub-transmission projects. 34-1261 (SCSASAAM0), Distribution Standard Part 0: Structure, definitions abbreviations and exemptions 34-1289 (SCSSCAAV4), Distribution Standard Part 15: Specification for a distribution feeder current differential protection scheme. 34-1625, Distribution Standard Part 22: Specification for XLPE-insulated power cables and accessories for systems with nominal voltages of 44 kV to 132 kV. NRS 077: Edition 1, XLPE-insulated cables and accessories for systems with nominal voltages of 44 kV, 66 kV, 88 kV and 132 kV. NRS 088-1: Duct and direct buried underground fibre optic cable: Part 1 Product specification NRS 088-2: Duct and direct buried underground fibre optic cable: Part 2 Installation Guidelines SANS 1019, Standard voltages, currents and insulation levels for electricity supply. SANS 1186, Symbolic safety signs. SANS 10198-1, The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV Part 1 Definitions and statutory requirements.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 9 of 40

SANS 10198-4, The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV Part 4 Current ratings. SANS 10198-5, The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV Part 5 Determination of thermal and electrical resistivity of soil. SANS 10198-6, The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV Part 6 Transportation and storage. SANS 10198-8, The selection, handling and installation of electric power cables of rating not exceeding 33 kV Part 8 Cable laying and installation. SANS 60815, Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. SANS 60840, Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages above 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) up to 150 kV (Um = 170 kV) Test methods and requirements. SANS 61238-1, Compression and mechanical connectors for power cables with copper or aluminium conductors Part 1: Test methods and requirements. Eskom assembly drawings: D-DT-5030 sheet 1 of 3, HV cable termination - support structure foundation. D-DT-5030 sheet 2 of 3, HV cable termination - support structure details. D-DT-5030 sheet 3 of 3, HV cable termination - support cap details. D-DT-5031 sheet 1 of 3, HV cable end support (non self-supporting) steelwork assembly details. D-DT-5031 sheet 2 of 3, HV cable end support (non self-supporting) steelwork surge arrestor mounting plate. D-DT-5031 sheet 3 of 3, HV cable end support (non self-supporting) foundation details. D-DT-0881, HV cable cross-section drawings. D-DT-0882, HV cable electrical circuit diagrams. D-DT-0856, Standard power and control cable codes. D-DT-0890 sheet 1 of 4, HV XLPE cable termination with surge arrester conductor assembly. D-DT-0890 sheet 2 of 4, HV XLPE cable termination with surge arrester overhead line assembly. D-DT-0890 sheet 3 of 4, HV XLPE cable termination (non self-supporting) with surge arrester conductor assembly. D-DT-0890 sheet 4 of 4, HV XLPE cable termination (non self-supporting) with surge arrester overhead line assembly. D-DT-0891 sheet 1 of 4, HV XLPE single circuit direct buried joint bay layout. D-DT-0891 sheet 3 of 4, HV XLPE single circuit direct buried joint bay earthing detail. D-DT-0891 sheet 4 of 4, HV single circuit direct buried joint bay protective weather cover.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
D-DT-0892 sheet 1 of 3, HV power cable trench details (flat formation). D-DT-0892 sheet 2 of 3, HV power cable trench details (tre-foil formation). D-DT-0892 sheet 3 of 3, Installation of HV cables in proximity to other services.

34-1177 DST 0 10 of 40

D-DT-0893 sheet 1 of 5, HV cable bonding and earthing arrangement end-point bonded system. D-DT-0893 sheet 2 of 5, HV cable bonding and earthing arrangement double end-point bonded system. D-DT-0893 sheet 3 of 5, HV cable bonding and earthing arrangement multiple end-point bonded system. D-DT-0893 sheet 4 of 5, HV cable bonding and earthing arrangement cross-bonded system. D-DT-0893 sheet 5 of 5, HV cable outdoor termination bonding and earthing arrangement. D-DT-0894 sheet 1 of 4, Manhole details - HV cable link disconnecting box. D-DT-0894 sheet 2 of 4, Manhole details HV/MV fibre optic cable draw pit. D-DT-0894 sheet 3 of 4, Manhole details - HV cable link disconnecting box (pre-cast). D-DT-0894 sheet 4 of 4, Manhole details - HV/MV fibre optic cable draw pit (pre-cast). D-DT-0895, MV / HV cable under-river crossing details of channel type river crossing for use under small / shallow rivers. D-DT-0897, HV cable tunnel details. Eskom buyers guide drawings: D-DT-3091, Earth rod Cu 1500mmx16mm diameter threadless. D-DT-3093, Clamp, earth rod 16mm diameter PH/BRNZ. D-DT-3102, Lugs, cable. D-DT-3139, Bare Cu stranded conductor. D-DT-3202, Danger signs. D-DT-8012, Cable route marker, concrete. D-DT-8013, Cable warning tape. D-DT-8018, Pipe, PVC cable. D-DT-8020, Ferrules, cable. D-DT-8070, HV 1-core XLPE insulated cable D-DT-8071, HV 1-core XLPE cable joints D-DT-8072, HV 1-core XLPE cable terminations D-DT-8073, HV 1-core XLPE cable termination supports

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
D-DT-8074, HV cable link disconnecting boxes D-DT-8075, Bonding leads for HV cables D-DT-8076, Cable trench pre-cast concrete slabs D-DT-8080, Pre-cast manholes D-DT-8081, Fibre optic ducts

34-1177 DST 0 11 of 40

3 Definitions and abbreviations


3.1 Definitions
The definitions in 34-1261, NRS 077, NRS 000, SANS 10198-1 and the following shall apply to this standard:

3.1.1 bond pulling


Pulling a cable using a power winch and a steel rope of more than twice the cable length. The steel rope is coiled on a drum equipped with a braking device to maintain the bond in tension and located at the cable drum. The cable is then tied to the steel rope at intervals of approximately 2 m as it is drawn off the cable drum.

3.1.2 nose pulling


Pulling a cable using a power winch at the other end of the trench from the cable drum, with a steel rope, of at least the same length as the cable, paid out from the winch through the trench to connect to the end of the cable.

3.1.3 non self-supporting termination


A non-rigid cable termination requiring additional mechanical support (e.g. a heat-shrink or cold applied termination).

3.1.4 plug-in termination


A dry-type cable termination as defined in IEC 62271-209 whose separating insulating barrier (female part) can be pre-installed into the switchgear or transformer (the equipment) and whose elastomeric electrical stress control component (male part) can be plugged into the female part after being fitted to the cable end without the need for re-gassing or re-filling the equipment with oil on site.

3.1.5 rock
Rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids. This type of material can generally only be excavated after the use of blasting, boulder busting or chemical rock breaking. Pneumatic (compressor operated) or hydraulically operated rock drilling / breaking equipment may also be used.

3.1.6 self-supporting termination


A cable termination having an outer housing that is rigid and requiring no additional mechanical support.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
3.1.7 shale

34-1177 DST 0 12 of 40

Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clay minerals or muds. It is characterized by thin layers breaking with an irregular curving fracture, often splintery. Shale is the most common sedimentary rock. This type of material can be excavated by means of a pick and shovel or a mechanical excavator (back-actor).

3.1.8 soil
Soil is the naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter (humus) on the surface of the Earth. Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with voids. This type of material can be excavated by means of a pick and shovel or a mechanical excavator (back-actor).

3.1.9 special bonding


End-point, double end-point, multiple end-point or cross-bonding of the metallic sheaths of single-core cables in order to eliminate sheath circulating currents.

3.2 Abbreviations
The abbreviations in NRS 077, NRS 000 and the following shall apply to this standard:

3.2.1 DTS: 3.2.2 ECC:

distributed temperature sensing. earth continuity conductor.

3.2.3 HDPE: high density polyethylene. 3.2.4 ID: 3.2.5 NSS: 3.2.6 OD:
inner diameter. non self-supporting. outer diameter.

4 Requirements
4.1 Statutory requirements
4.1.1 The requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993, (OHS Act) and all
subsequent amendments and regulations shall be observed and adhered to except where exemption has been obtained from the Chief Factories Inspector. If any text or drawings in this standard are in conflict with the OHS Act and no exemption has been obtained, the OHS Act requirements shall take precedence over the standard.

4.1.2 The requirements of SANS 10198-1 shall be observed and adhered to except where exemption has
been obtained from the relevant authority.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page: 4.2 Other statutory bodies
4.2.1 Other statutory bodies from which permission may have to be obtained are:
a) b) c) d) e) f) National roads agency; Provincial and/or metropolitan roads agencies; Dept. of Water and Forestry; Dept. of Environmental Affairs and Tourism; local metropolitan / municipal town councils; and any other statutory body that may be considered a stakeholder.

34-1177 DST 0 13 of 40

4.2.2 Applications to the water, rail and local authorities shall be made in accordance with 34-820, 34-1812
and 34-822.

4.3 Servitude and wayleave agreements


4.3.1 HV cable feeders that traverse private property shall have registered servitudes. 4.3.2 The special requirements of municipal wayleaves shall be considered. 4.3.3 The regional Network Services Department - Land Development Section shall be consulted for
further details regarding registration of servitudes.

4.3.4 In the event that Eskoms rights (servitudes / wayleaves) may be encroached upon and / or services /
assets placed at risk, the requirements of 34-827 shall be followed.

4.4 Environmental considerations


4.4.1 The requirements of the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998) and
Eskoms environmental directives, policies and procedures shall be observed and adhered to except where exemption has been obtained from the relevant authority.

4.4.2 An environmental assessment shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of 34-926.

4.5 Performance and operability requirements


4.5.1 General
HV cable systems shall be planned and designed to ensure that the desired network performance is achievable. The use of unit protection schemes (for example current differential using optical fibre communications), distributed temperature measurement systems (providing real-time measurement of conductor temperature) and tele-control at substations are methods that may be employed to provide a practical system in support of the performance targets.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
4.5.2 Plant location

34-1177 DST 0 14 of 40

The location of plant for example cable routes, joint bays, outdoor terminations, link disconnecting boxes etc. shall be decided upon after considering the following factors: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) vehicular and pedestrian traffic; environmental impact; water run-off; pollution; accessibility for ease of installation, operating and maintenance; maximum cable drum length; proximity of other services; gradients along the cable route; and existing registered servitudes and wayleave agreements.

4.5.3 Protection requirements


4.5.3.1 Protection, local control and indication schemes for HV cable feeders shall be in accordance with 34-1289. 4.5.3.2 Primary protection of HV cable feeders shall be current differential protection utilising a fibre optic communication link between substations. 4.5.3.3 Back-up protection shall be directional overcurrent and earth fault. 4.5.3.4 HV cable feeders that terminate onto overhead lines shall be equipped with either primary distance feeder protection (for long feeders) or primary current differential protection utilising a fibre optic communication link between substations (for short feeders) and back-up directional overcurrent and earth fault protection. 4.5.3.5 The fibre optic cable shall be in accordance with NRS 088-1 and installed in accordance with NRS 088-2.

4.5.4 System configuration


The system configuration may vary depending upon the actual load requirements but shall generally be a combination of: a) b) c) d) single or multiple circuit HV cable feeders that are single-core, 500 mm2 or 1000 mm2 aluminium conductor and XLPE-insulated; and straight-through and/or sheath-interrupting cable joints; and porcelain or silicone outdoor terminations; or plug-in terminations into GIS or transformers; and

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
e)

34-1177 DST 0 15 of 40

a special bonding system (used to minimise/eliminate sheath circulating currents in single-core cables in order to maximise the power transfer capabilities of the feeder).

4.6 Insulation co-ordination


4.6.1 Insulation levels
4.6.1.1 The following insulation levels, in accordance with SANS 1019, shall apply to the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth insulation of the cable, joints and terminations: Table 1 Standard insulation levels
1 Highest voltage for equipment Um, r.m.s. kV 52 72,5 100 145 2 Nominal system voltage Un, r.m.s. kV 44 66 88 132 3 Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage, peak kV 250 350 450 650 4 Rated power-frequency short duration withstand voltage, r.m.s. kV 95 140 185 275

4.6.1.2 The insulation level of the HV cable sheath, bonding leads and other ancillary equipment associated with the special bonding system shall be in accordance with annex D of SANS 60840. 4.6.1.3 The maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV) of an SVL surge arrester (referred to as Uc) that protects the insulation of the special bonding system against transient over-voltages on the HV cable sheath, bonding leads and other ancillary equipment is determined by the calculated r.m.s. induced voltage, which arises from an external through-fault, for two periods of 1 s each, this being the assumed worst case duty imposed upon the arrester. The two conditions that shall be met when selecting the Uc for a surge arrester are: a) b) Uc shall be greater than the constant power frequency voltage across the arrester terminals; and T Uc shall be greater than the expected temporary over-voltage (TOV) which arises from an external through-fault, i.e.: T Uc UTOV (SYS) T is defined as UTOV (ARR) / Uc for the metal-oxide varistor blocks used in modern surge arresters and is represented as a function of TOV duration. A typical relationship between T and time in seconds is shown in figure 1. Condition b) determines the MCOV of the SVL surge arrester because an arrester that meets condition b) will automatically meet condition a). A further consideration when selecting the MCOV of the arrester is the philosophy applied during routine sheath integrity testing of the cable. If the arresters are not disconnected from the cable sheath when testing, then it is necessary to ensure that they are adequately rated to withstand the test voltage and duration. Routine sheath integrity testing requires the application of 5 kV d.c. for 60 s. SVL surge arresters are typically selected from the standard ratings given in table 2: Table 2 Standard SVL surge arrester characteristics
1 Rated voltage Ur (kV) 3 6 2 MCOV Uc (kV) 2,55 5,1

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 16 of 40

Figure 1 T versus t (curve a applies to an arrester without pre-load and curve b to a pre-load of E kJ/kV)
NOTES 1) E is typically 1,5 kJ/kV, 2,5 kJ/kV or 3,5 kJ/kV depending upon the arrester type. 2) Using curve b represents a worst case scenario.

4.6.2 Insulator design and specific creepage


4.6.2.1 The external insulation of outdoor terminations shall have a shed profile in accordance with SANS 60815. 4.6.2.2 The specific creepage of the external insulation of outdoor terminations shall be 20 mm/kV for inland applications and 31 mm/kV for coastal applications.

4.7 Bonding and earthing philosophy


4.7.1 The current rating of single-core cable feeders shall be optimized by minimizing/eliminating the
sheath-circulating currents that would flow if the sheaths were bonded at both ends of the route. This is achieved using one or a combination of the following special bonding systems: 1) end-point bonded (see D-DT-0893 sheet 1); or 2) double end-point bonded (see D-DT-0893 sheet 2); or 3) multiple end-point bonded (see D-DT-0893 sheet 3); or 4) cross-bonded (see D-DT-0893 sheet 4).
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 17 of 40

In addition to the minimizing/elimination of sheath circulating current losses, special bonding makes it possible to increase the spacing between cable cores and hence reduce their mutual heating.
NOTE Multiple end-point bonded systems may be required as an alternative to a cross-bonded system if there is a possibility of a future substation or HV overhead line being cut into the cable feeder.

4.7.2 The standing voltage calculated at rated current on the open-circuited sheaths of a special bonded
cable feeder shall not exceed 65 V 10%. In the event that it does, then shorter sections shall be introduced between sheath interrupting joints.

4.7.3 When cross-bonding a cable feeder it is very difficult in practice to make the minor section lengths
identical and obtain complete cancellation of the induced sheath voltages. The resultant sheath voltage will result in a circulating current that, as a rule of thumb, should be less than 20 % of the phase current to minimize sheath circulating current losses. Annex A contains an example of the induced voltage and circulating current calculations for a cross-bonded cable feeder.
NOTE The 20 % rule of thumb limits de-rating caused by circulating current to < 5 %.

4.7.4 There shall always be an earth continuity conductor (ECC) that is rated to carry the prospective earth
fault current of the system for 1 s, between the two ends of the cable. The ECC shall be either the metallic sheath of the cable or a suitably rated bare copper conductor (see D-DT-3139) in the event that the sheath has been interrupted for end-point, double end-point or multiple end-point bonded cable feeders.
NOTE The ECC shall consist of a bare copper conductor with cross-sectional area of at least 185 mm2.

4.7.5 Where a cable is terminated onto an overhead line outside of a substation the earth electrode
installed at the outdoor terminations shall be designed to meet acceptable step and touch potential limits.

4.8 High-voltage cable systems


4.8.1 Cable selection
4.8.1.1 HV cable shall comply with the requirements of 34-1625 and shall be single-core with aluminium conductor, XLPE-insulated, metallic sheathed with a polyethylene outer sheath. HV cable shall be radially and longitudinally water-blocked. 4.8.1.2 The conductor size shall be either 500 mm2 or 1000 mm2 with an approximate rating as given in tables 3, 4, 5 and 6. Typical impedances for the cables are given in tables 7, 8, 9 and 10.
NOTE The most common sizes of HV cable installed in Eskom Distribution are 500 mm2 and 1000 mm2 and these were therefore chosen as the standard sizes for the purpose of this standard. Rationalization of conductor size is required to limit the stock holding of both cables and accessories.

Table 3 25 kV/44 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Maximum sustained current rating (A) Tre-foil Normal Air Ground 484 672 Emergency Air 790 1172 Ground 565 789 Air 771 1202 Flat (300 mm spacing) Normal Ground 556 805 Emergency Air 934 1462 Ground 647 941

500 1000

647 954

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 18 of 40

Table 4 38 kV/66 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Maximum sustained current rating (A) Tre-foil Normal Air Ground 484 671 Emergency Air 785 1164 Ground 565 788 Air 760 1183 Flat (300 mm spacing) Normal Ground 550 798 Emergency Air 918 1436 Ground 641 933

500 1000

645 949

Table 5 51 kV/88 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Maximum sustained current rating (A) Tre-foil Normal Air Ground 483 671 Emergency Air 779 1157 Ground 563 787 Air 749 1165 Flat (300 mm spacing) Normal Ground 545 790 Emergency Air 904 1413 Ground 635 924

500 1000

641 945

Table 6 76 kV/132 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Maximum sustained current rating (A) Tre-foil Normal Air Ground 481 670 Emergency Air 770 1147 Ground 562 787 Air 730 1136 Flat (300 mm spacing) Normal Ground 535 776 Emergency Air 879 1376 Ground 625 910

500 1000

635 937

Table 7 25.4 kV/44 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Sequence impedances (/km) Tre-foil Z1 Z0 0,1572 + j0,0533 0,1003 + j0,0562 Flat (300 mm spacing) Z1 0,0738 + j0,1965 0,0373 + j0,1880 Z0 0,1572 + j0,0533 0,1003 + j0,0562

500 1000

0,0744 + j0,1084 0,0388 + j0,1108

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 19 of 40

Table 8 38 kV/66 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Sequence impedances (/km) Tre-foil Z1 Z0 0,1510 + j0,0585 0,0939 + j0,0601 Flat (300 mm spacing) Z1 0,0738 + j0,1965 0,0373 + j0,1880 Z0 0,1510 + j0,0585 0,0939 + j0,0601

500 1000

0,0743 + j0,1132 0,0386 + j0,1144

Table 9 50.8 kV/88 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Sequence impedances (/km) Tre-foil Z1 Z0 0,1381 + j0,0635 0,0884 + j0,0637 Flat (300 mm spacing) Z1 0,0738 + j0,1965 0,0373 + j0,1880 Z0 0,1381 + j0,0635 0,0884 + j0,0637

500 1000

0,0742 + j0,1179 0,0385 + j0,1178

Table 10 76 kV/132 kV single-core aluminium conductor XLPE-insulated cables


Conductor size mm
2

Sequence impedances (/km) Tre-foil Z1 Z0 0,1252 + j0,0720 0,0818 + j0,0699 Flat (300 mm spacing) Z1 0,0738 + j0,1965 0,0373 + j0,1880 Z0 0,1252 + j0,0720 0,0818 + j0,0699

500 1000

0,0741 + j0,1259 0,0382 + j0,1235

NOTES 1) The sustained current-carrying capacities and impedances calculated in tables 3 to 10 are based upon the following standard installation conditions: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) maximum sustained normal conductor temperature for cables laid in ground or single way ducts = 70 C; maximum emergency conductor temperature for cables laid in ground or single way ducts = 90 C; soil temperature at depth of burial = 25 C; ambient air temperature = 30 C; thermal resistivity of soil = 1,2 Km/W; depth of laying to top surface of cable or single way duct in ground = 1 m (see D-DT-0892); load factor = 1; cables laid in flat formation are spaced at 0,3 m centres (see D-DT-0892 sheet 1); special bonding is applied to eliminate sheath circulating current losses.

2) A conductor temperature of 70 C is specified as it has been shown that sustained operation of XLPE-insulated cable with a conductor temperature of 90 C leads to drying out of the soil surrounding the cable and potential thermal runaway. When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 20 of 40

4.8.1.3 The assigned rating of each HV cable feeder shall be calculated for the actual installation conditions that are expected to exist on site. A calculation shall be provided showing all rating factors that have been taken into account. 4.8.1.4 The cable conductor cross-sectional area shall be chosen to suit the network load requirement as well as the prospective symmetrical fault level of the system. 4.8.1.5 Unless otherwise specified by the Project Engineer, cables shall be laid in flat formation in order to maximise the power transfer capability of the feeder. 4.8.1.6 The metallic sheath of the cable shall be capable of carrying the maximum prospective earth fault level of the system for 1 s without exceeding the temperature specified in NRS 077, assuming an initial sheath temperature of 70 C and using a adiabatic calculation.
NOTES 1) See SANS 10198-4 for an example of the adiabatic calculation method. 2) The maximum temperature for a corrugated aluminium sheath is limited to 160 C due to the temperature at which the solder used for plumbing (wiping) the metallic sheath begins to soften.

4.8.1.7 For the purposes of labelling of drawings and purchasing a method of cable coding has been implemented by Eskom (see D-DT-0856).

4.8.2 Route selection


4.8.2.1 The cable route shall be the most practical and economical route available and where possible cables shall be installed on the northern and western sides of the street. 4.8.2.2 The proposed route shall be walked to determine the precise cable route and the positions of joint bays and ancillary equipment. The joint bay positioning shall take into consideration the maximum cable drum length that can be supplied for the cable to be used. 4.8.2.3 Two independent parties shall measure the cable route (i.e. between joint bay centres and to termination centres). Provision shall be made for the following: a) b) at joint bays (see D-DT-0891) an additional 5 m of cable shall be provided for each cable end to account for jointing tolerances; at terminations an additional 10 m of cable shall be provided for each cable end to allow for the cable passing through the cable termination support structure (see D-DT-0890) and terminating tolerances; and at terminations an additional 5 m of cable shall be provided that shall be snaked within the trench approaching the terminations with a wavelength not less than 30D where D is the overall diameter of the cable and an amplitude of approximately 5% of the wavelength.

c)

4.8.2.4 Generally the majority of cable routes are along roadways and problems of traffic hold-ups caused by trench and joint bay excavations shall be a priority when considering a likely route. Side roads are generally preferable to main roads because of the reduced traffic and possibly fewer underground services. 4.8.2.5 Where space limitations and/or the presence of other underground services within the road reserve prevent the positioning of the trench and joint bays between the road and the adjacent property boundary, consideration may need to be given to the positioning of the trench and joint bays under the road surface. 4.8.2.6 Where major interruptions to traffic flow in main roads cannot be avoided, open trench excavation may be restricted to shorter lengths (e.g. 100 m) by the local authorities. In such a case, cable ducts (see 4.8.4 below) shall be installed into which the cable can be pulled at a later stage.
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 21 of 40

4.8.2.7 Where severe space limitations exist, consideration may need to be given to the use of underground cable tunnels where multiple feeders / circuits can be installed within a relatively confined space. 4.8.2.8 The excavation of trial holes shall be used to identify and to establish the positions of existing services on the cable route that may affect the depth of burial or spacing of the cables. 4.8.2.9 The thermal resistivity of the soil at the proposed cable depth shall be tested in accordance with SANS 10198-5. A minimum of one sample per km shall be tested unless agreed otherwise by the Project Engineer. 4.8.2.10 The existence of other cables or heat sources along the proposed route shall be ascertained not only from a practical point of view but also because of the possibility of mutual heating, causing de-rating of the cables. 4.8.2.11 Areas where the ground at or near the surface is of an unstable nature (i.e. it has been recently made-up and is poorly compacted or is soft and subject to swampy conditions) shall be avoided if possible. In the event that the cable route traverses such an area the precautions described in 4.8.6 shall be taken. 4.8.2.12 Gradients of 1 in 4 or greater shall be avoided if possible to prevent possible cable movement. In the event that the cable route traverses such an area the precautions described in 4.8.6 shall be taken. 4.8.2.13 Any bridge crossings shall be designed by a professional civil/structural engineer and shall include precautions to cater for the expansion and vibration of the bridge.

4.8.3 Trenches
4.8.3.1 Where the surface to be excavated will require a permanent re-instatement by a local authority or contractor the surface cut shall be made with an edged tool and shall be cut as cleanly and evenly as possible. 4.8.3.2 Where the cable route is located parallel to and under the road surface, the edge of the trench and joint bays shall be at least 200 mm from the road kerbing. 4.8.3.3 HV cable trench details shall be in accordance with D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.4 All trenches shall be shored with close timber to full depth with a projection of 200 mm above ground level. The shoring shall be suitable for the trench dimensions and the ground conditions and shall only be removed once the cable-surrounding blanket soil has been installed. 4.8.3.5 The Project Engineer shall approve any variations from the depth specified in D-DT-0892. Where the presence of existing services makes it necessary to increase the depth of the trench, the trench shall be returned to nominal depth as soon as is practical. Where the presence of a number of services makes it necessary for deep trenching for a prolonged distance, measures shall be taken to ensure the required cable rating is maintained by back filling with soil having low thermal resistivity (that has been tested in accordance with SANS 10198-5) or by increasing the spacing between circuits. 4.8.3.6 For road or rail crossings, the depth of cable shall be increased in accordance with D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.7 Where the cable route is located parallel to and under the road surface, the depth of the cable need not be increased and is therefore not treated as a road crossing. If the cable depth is increased, the cable shall be de-rating accordingly. 4.8.3.8 Where a change in trench level is necessary, the bottom of the trench shall rise or fall gradually and smoothly.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 22 of 40

4.8.3.9 A professional civil/structural engineer shall design the shoring for excavations that exceed 1,5 m in depth. The design shall take into account the specific ground conditions and details of the trench supports shall be provided. 4.8.3.10 Trenches shall be kept as straight as possible and the radius of bends shall be tight, however never less than the minimum bending radius of the cable given in table 12. Table 12 Installation minimum bending radii for HV cables
1 2 3 4

Installation minimum bending radii Cables placed into position adjacent to joints or termination Without former 20D
NOTES 1) D refers to the overall diameter of the cable; and 2) a former is a pre-fabricated mould against which the cable can be strapped to control its bending radius.

Laid direct or in air 30D

Laid in ducts 35D

With former 15D

4.8.3.11 The material excavated from the trench shall be placed adjacent to the trench leaving a walk-way of at least 600 mm on both sides of the trench. This shall be done in such a manner as to prevent interference or damage to adjacent hedges, trees, drains or other property along the cable route. Where site conditions make this impossible, the excavated materials may, with the approval of the Project Engineer, be removed from the site and returned for re-filling the trench on completion of laying. All surplus material, from whatever source, shall be disposed of by the Contractor. 4.8.3.12 The transport, storage and the use of explosives shall comply with the provision of the Explosives Act No 26 of 1956 and the Explosives Regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act No 85 of 1993. A copy of blasting permits issued to workmen and permits issued to the contractor to cover the purchase, storage and transport of explosives shall be given to the project clerk of works. 4.8.3.13 If steel plates are to be used to allow vehicular access across a trench then they shall be in accordance with a design done by a professional civil/structural engineer. The plates shall be either installed flush with the road and supported on 'I' beams or, if used as a plate across a trench, then the plate shall be pinned to the road surface with suitable spikes to prevent it moving. The plate shall provide a skidproof surface for motor vehicles. 4.8.3.14 Excavated trenches that are accessible to the public or that are adjacent to public roads or thoroughfares, or where the safety of persons may be endangered, shall be adequately and effectively protected by a barrier or fence of at least one metre in height and as close to the excavation as is practicable. Warning or danger tapes are not acceptable. Warning illumination or any other clearly visible boundary indicators shall be provided at night or when visibility is poor. 4.8.3.15 Before installing bedding soil the trench bottom shall be level, free of loose stones and lightly compacted. 4.8.3.16 The trench bedding and blanket soil around the cable shall be in accordance with SANS 10198-8 requirements for bedding. A sieve having a mesh size of no larger than 12 mm may be used to sift the excavated soil. Alternatively, suitable bedding and blanket soil having the specified soil thermal resistivity shall be imported. The thermal resistivity of imported soil shall be tested in accordance with SANS 10198-5. 4.8.3.17 The trench backfilling shall be in accordance with SANS 10198-8.
NOTE SANS 10198-5 contains descriptions of the various types of soils and their respective suitability for cable surround soil (bedding and blanket soil) and backfill material.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 23 of 40

4.8.3.18 The bedding soil shall be installed and compacted prior to cable installation. Blanket soil shall be compacted using hand compaction tools. Backfill material shall be compacted in layers of maximum thickness 300 mm. The level of compaction (see D-DT-0892) shall be measured at appropriate intervals using an approved method.
NOTE A dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) may be used to measure the level of compaction.

4.8.3.19 Concrete slabs (see D-DT-8076) and warning tape (see D-DT-8013) shall be installed above the cable in accordance with D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.20 The backfill requirements and required level of compaction for road surface re-instatement shall be in accordance with the relevant road agency specification and shall take precedence over the requirements of D-DT-0892. 4.8.3.21 All pavements, roads and driveway crossings shall be re-instated to their original state. 4.8.3.22 Where re-instatement of surfaces cannot be done immediately, a 50 mm compacted crown shall be added above the natural ground level (NGL) to allow for erosion.

4.8.4 Cable pipe ducts


4.8.4.1 Cable crossing roads or railways shall be installed in PVC/PE pipes (see D-DT-8018). The axial spacing of the pipe ducts shall be at least equal to the cable spacing on the direct-buried sections.
NOTE Non-ferrous pipes must be used to avoid the effects of magnetic induction.

4.8.4.2 The internal diameter of the pipe shall be as follows: a) b) c) For unfilled pipes, a minimum of 30 mm greater than the nominal outside diameter of the cable; for filled pipes, the internal diameter of the pipe shall be a minimum of 50 mm greater than the nominal outside diameter of the cable for duct runs up to 25 m long; for longer pipe runs, the internal diameter of the pipe shall be a minimum of l00 mm greater than the nominal outside diameter of the cable.

NOTE The diameter of the cable pulling eye plumb must be taken into account when selecting the diameter of the pipe to be used.

4.8.4.3 All pipe ducts shall have a minimum surround of 75 mm of concrete to prevent collapsing or deformation after backfilling. The concrete strength shall be at least 15 MPA. If underground bulleting has been used to install the pipe ducts, the concrete surround is not required.
NOTE Underground bulleting equipment is used to drill holes that correspond to the pipe diameter being installed.

4.8.4.4 The points of cable entry or exit of pipe ducts are susceptible to ground subsidence and therefore where cables enter or exit pipes they shall be supported on rot-proof bags containing a weak sand-cement mix (30:1) for a distance of approximately 0,5 m into the trench. 4.8.4.5 Generally 110 mm (see D-DT-8018) diameter pipes are suitable for fibre optic cable ducts, ECCs or pulling bonds. 4.8.4.6 Pipe ducts shall, where possible, project a minimum of 1 m beyond the kerb lines (or other services) so as to completely clear the surface of the carriageway. For dual carriageways and divided highways the pipe ducts shall continue in an unbroken line under the central divider. For railway crossings, the pipe ducts shall project a minimum of 3 m beyond the outermost rails.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 24 of 40

4.8.4.7 PVC/PE pipes may be bent in accordance with the manufacturers instructions however the radii shall not be less than the cable minimum bending radii given in table 12. 4.8.4.8 All pipe ducts shall be sealed until the cable is installed. 4.8.4.9 Before commencing to draw a cable into a pipe duct, a cylindrical wire brush followed by a mop and a close-fitting mandrel shall be drawn through to clean out any dirt and ensure that the pipe duct has not collapsed. 4.8.4.10 Pipe ducts over 3 m in length shall be filled with a bentonite and water mix (10:1) that is combined with a sand and cement mix (20:8) in the ratio of 100:1. The mix shall be kept in position by sealing the end of the pipe duct where the cable enters and exits. Pipe ducts under 3 m in length shall be filled with backfill material. 4.8.4.11 Spare pipe ducts shall be installed for road, railway, river and other service crossings. The number of spare pipe ducts shall be determined by the Project Engineer. 4.8.4.12 Spare pipe ducts shall always be sealed at the ends to prevent ingress of water, vermin and backfill material. 4.8.4.13 Cable crossing small/shallow rivers shall in accordance with D-DT-0895.

4.8.5 Cable tunnels


4.8.5.1 When direct burial installation in cable trenches is not possible, cable shall be installed in cable tunnels in accordance with D-DT-0897.

4.8.6 Cable installation


4.8.6.1 Contractors installing HV cable shall be accredited with an ISO 9001 listing. The contractor shall be in possession of all parts of SANS 10198 and shall work according to that code of practice and this standard. Where a situation arises that is not covered by SANS 10198 or this standard the contractor shall consult the Project Engineer. 4.8.6.2 Cable laying and installation shall be in accordance with SANS 10198-2 and SANS 10198-8 and, unless otherwise specified, shall be by direct burial in accordance with D-DT-0892.
NOTE The key objectives of correct cable installation are the following: 1) 2) 3) Cables are not over bent; Cables outer sheaths are not damaged of scratched; and Cable kinks or twists are prevented.

4.8.6.3 The HV cable depth and positioning within the trench shall be in accordance with D-DT-0892. 4.8.6.4 Prior to cable pulling, pipe ducts shall be fitted with bellmouths at both ends to prevent damage to the cable and a suitable lubricant shall be applied to the inside of the pipe. 4.8.6.5 Prior to cable pulling, the cable shall be inspected for damage and both ends checked to verify that the cable ends were suitably sealed (see 4.8.11). Damaged or unsealed cable shall not be installed. 4.8.6.6 When nose pulling the cable, the pulling tension shall not exceed 30 N / mm2 of the conductor cross-sectional area. The load calculated for a particular pull shall not exceed 30 kN and shall not result in a side wall loading of the cable of more than 5 kN/m radius. For example if pulling tension is limited to 10 kN then the sharpest bend shall not be tighter than 2 m radius.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 25 of 40

4.8.6.7 The winch used shall be fitted with a reliable and accurate dynamometer whether the cable is nose pulled or bond pulled and it shall be monitored throughout the pull. A swivel (fitted with a bearing to reduce friction) shall be used between the steel pulling rope and the cable pulling eye. 4.8.6.8 For outdoor terminations the cable termination support structure plinth and steelwork (see D-DT5030 or D-DT-5031) shall be in place before the cable is pulled. Closed rollers, skid plates or a former shall be mounted on the steelwork such that they are removable after pulling-in without disturbing the cable. If a former is used it shall extend beneath the plinth and below ground level to ensure that the full bend is controlled as the cable rises. 4.8.6.9 Cable rollers shall be carefully positioned in the trench in the line that the cable is to follow. The rollers shall be spaced so that there is no appreciable cable sag between rollers. A spacing of 2 m is normally suitable but this distance shall be reduced if appreciable sagging is seen to occur. Where appropriate, skid plates or corner rollers shall be used. 4.8.6.10 Where cables are laid in trefoil they shall be tied together with sisal string at 2 m intervals to prevent any movement during backfilling. 4.8.6.11 Where cables are installed at gradients of 1 in 4 or greater the following precautions shall be taken: a) b) if the incline is less than 20 m in length no precautions are required; if the incline is less than 20 m but includes a joint, or is in excess of 20 m, then the bedding and blanket soil around the cable shall be replaced with a weak sand-cement mix (30:1) over the full trench width and for 30 m at the top of the gradient. If the incline includes a joint then a weak soilcement mix shall be installed at either side of the joint for 30 m.

4.8.6.12 When cables are installed in areas where the ground at or near the surface is unstable the following precautions shall be taken to avoid instability and prevent tensile or compressive loads occurring along the cable length endangering the cable sheaths and plumbs adjacent to the joints: a) if the unstable section is less than 10 m long the bottom of the trench shall be lined with rot-proof bags filled with a weak sand-cement mix (30:1). The number of bags used will depend upon the ground softness but as a rule sufficient bags shall be used to support a weight of 100 kg; installing the cables on a concrete raft that may have to be supported by piles driven down to stable ground. The raft shall be designed by a professional civil/structural engineer; and within the trench snaking the cable with a wavelength not less than 30 D where D is the overall diameter of the cable and amplitude of approximately 5% of the wavelength.

b) c)

4.8.6.13 A fibre optic twin duct (see D-DT-8081) for distributed temperature sensing (DTS) shall be installed with the cable feeder irrespective of when the optical fibre and equipment will be installed. The fibre optic duct used for DTS shall be laid against the tre-foil group or against the centre phase of a flat configuration cable feeder (see D-DT-0892). The duct shall be strapped to the cable using sisal string at 2 m intervals to prevent any movement during backfilling. 4.8.6.14 No duct couplings or joints shall be used between draw pits. 4.8.6.15 The design of flexible or rigid cable systems in shafts and tunnels shall be according to the cable manufacturers specification. 4.8.6.16 Laid cable that is not immediately jointed or terminated shall be sealed by means of a plumbed metal cap. At the joint bay, the ends of the cables shall be raised and tied as high as possible above the joint bay floor without exceeding the minimum bending radius given in table 12. 4.8.6.17 Cable outer sheaths damaged during installation shall immediately be repaired using a cable repair sleeve (see D-DT-8077).
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
4.8.7 Joint bays and jointing

34-1177 DST 0 26 of 40

4.8.7.1 When work is to be carried out on cable feeders adjacent to other live circuits including overhead lines and on cable feeders with special bonded metallic sheaths, special precautions shall be taken to avoid danger from induced voltages. 4.8.7.2 Where the cables leave the joint bay they shall be supported on rot-proof bags containing a weak sand-cement mix (30:1) for a distance of 1,5 m into the trench. 4.8.7.3 The trenches on either side of the joint bay shall be properly backfilled prior to jointing for a distance of at least 10 m in both directions. 4.8.7.4 The joint bay design shall be in accordance with D-DT-0891 sheet 1 and the cement floor shall be coated with a bonding agent to prevent cement dust in the jointing area. 4.8.7.5 The joint bay shall at all times be covered with a clean waterproof tent in accordance with D-DT0891 sheet 4. 4.8.7.6 Prior to jointing it shall be ensured that adequate measures have been taken to stop the ingress of water into the joint bay and that an adequate seal has been placed around the joint bay tent to prevent rain or run-off water entering the joint bay. A submersible pump shall be available at all times to pump away any water or seepage that may enter the joint bay. 4.8.7.7 The joint bay shall be adequately illuminated throughout the jointing operation and, shall be maintained free from dust, dirt and water. 4.8.7.8 Cable joints shall be in accordance with the requirements of 34-1625 and shall be installed according to the manufacturers installation instructions. 4.8.7.9 Aluminium conductors shall be connected using torque shear connectors in accordance with SANS 61238-1. The joint shall have been type tested using the torque shear connector provided with the joint. Alternatively, they shall be metal-inert gas (MIG) welded or CAD welded. 4.8.7.10 The bonding and earthing arrangements of sheath interrupting joints shall be in accordance with D-DT-0893 as is applicable to the type of special bonding used. 4.8.7.11 An earth electrode shall be installed at the joint bay by means of earth rods (see D-DT-3091), driven in each corner of the joint bay. The earth rods shall be fitted with clamps (see D-DT-3093) and shall be: a) b) connected together with 16 mm2 copper conductor (see D-DT-3139); and connected with 16 mm2 copper conductor to the kiosk/casing of the link disconnecting box/es associated with the joints (see D-DT-0891 sheet 3).

4.8.7.12 Where kiosk type link disconnecting box are used, a 16 mm2 copper, equipotential earth electrode shall be installed 0,5 m from the kiosk and at a depth of 0,5 m. The electrode shall encircle the entire kiosk and shall be internally connected to the kiosk (see D-DT-0891 sheet 3). 4.8.7.13 Joint bays shall be backfilled by placing rot-proof bags containing a weak sand-cement mix (30:1) under the cables and joints. Blanket soil shall be compacted using hand compaction tools. Backfill material shall be compacted in layers of maximum thickness 300 mm.

4.8.8 Termination support structures and terminations


4.8.8.1 Cable terminations shall be in accordance with the requirements of 34-1625 and shall be installed according to the manufacturers installation instructions.
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 27 of 40

NOTE HV cable terminations are, in general, self supporting. Non self-supporting terminations are presently only available for the lower voltage levels (i.e. 44 kV).

4.8.8.2 The general arrangement of an outdoor self-supporting termination shall be in accordance with DDT-0890 sheet 1 or 2. 4.8.8.3 The plinth for the self-supporting cable termination support structure shall be in accordance with DDT-5030 sheet 1. 4.8.8.4 The self-supporting cable termination support structure and cap (see D-DT-8073) details shall be in accordance with D-DT-5030 sheet 2 and 3. 4.8.8.5 The general arrangement of an outdoor non-self-supporting termination shall be in accordance with D-DT-0890 sheet 3 or 4. 4.8.8.6 The plinth for the non self-supporting cable termination support structure shall be in accordance with D-DT-5031 sheet 3. 4.8.8.7 The non self-supporting cable termination support structure and surge arrester mounting plate (see D-DT-8073) details shall be in accordance with D-DT-5031 sheet 1 and 2. 4.8.8.8 The bonding and earthing arrangements at the terminations shall be in accordance with D-DT-0893. 4.8.8.9 Cable terminations into gas-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear (GIS) and transformers (oilimmersed) shall be in accordance with IEC 62271-209 and shall be of the plug-in type.

4.8.9 Ancillary equipment


4.8.9.1 Link disconnecting boxes (see D-DT-8074) and bonding leads (see D-DT-8075) shall be in accordance with 34-1625. 4.8.9.2 Link disconnecting boxes shall be the self-supporting (i.e. not requiring a plinth) kiosk type and shall only be fitted into manholes where vandalism prohibits the use of the former type and with the approval of the Project Engineer. 4.8.9.3 Structure mounted three-way link disconnecting boxes required for cable termination support structures shall be of the manhole type. 4.8.9.4 The design of the manhole (if required) for the link disconnecting box shall be in accordance with DDT-0894. 4.8.9.5 In order to reduce the probability of mechanical damage and to minimize the electrical impedance of the bonding leads when subjected to surge voltages, the bonding lead lengths shall be kept as short as practically possible. Bonding-lead lengths that exceed 10 m shall be subject to approval by the Project Engineer. 4.8.9.6 The position of the link disconnecting boxes shall take into consideration that visits to the kiosks/manholes will be necessary for routine maintenance. 4.8.9.7 The link disconnecting boxes shall be positioned at least 1 m from the perimeter of the joint bay. 4.8.9.8 When applicable, the position of the bare copper ECC within the trench shall be in accordance with D-DT-0892. For end-point and double end-point bonded systems, the ECC shall be transposed to ensure that it occupies equal lengths between phases 1 and 2 and phases 2 and 3 over the route length.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
4.8.10 Fibre-optic cable duct and draw pits

34-1177 DST 0 28 of 40

4.8.10.1 A 32/26 mm OD/ID HDPE duct (see D-DT-8081) shall be installed for the fibre optic cable (protection). 4.8.10.2 The position of the HDPE fibre optic cable duct (protection) within the trench shall be in accordance with D-DT-0892. The HDPE fibre optic cable duct (protection) shall be installed on the side of the trench closest to the property boundary. 4.8.10.3 Draw pits in accordance with D-DT-0894 (see D-DT-8080) shall be installed at positions along the cable route determined by the Project Engineer.
NOTE Refer to NRS 088-2 for guidelines on underground fibre optic cable installations.

4.8.10.4 In high-risk areas, draw pits may be installed at least 100 mm below the normal ground level. In this case, the ground shall be re-instated on top of the draw pit cover.
NOTE The use of GPS co-ordinates (see 4.11) is essential in order to locate draw pits for future access.

4.8.10.5 No HDPE duct couplings or joints shall be used between draw pits.

4.8.11 Cable transportation and storage


4.8.11.1 Cable shall be transported and stored in accordance with the minimum requirements of SANS 10198-6 and the manufacturers recommendations. 4.8.11.2 Cable ends on cable drums shall be sealed by means of a plumbed metal cap (or equivalent approved by the Project Engineer) at the inner end and a pulling eye at the outer end.

4.9 Construction
General construction shall be carried out in accordance with the new works production work instructions under Part 24 of the Distribution Standard.

4.10 Marking and labelling


4.10.1 General
It is a requirement of the OHS Act that all controlling apparatus is permanently marked or labelled so as to identify the system or part of the system on the electrical machinery which it controls, and where such control apparatus is accessible from the front and back, these markings shall be on both the front and the back.

4.10.2 Labelling of plant


4.10.2.1 Labelling of terminations within a substation or at an overhead line shall be in accordance with regional requirements. 4.10.2.2 Cable route markers (see D-DT-8012) shall be installed directly above the cable with the base of the marker 250 mm below natural ground level. The markers shall be positioned as follows: a) b) at each bend; at each joint;
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
c) d) at both sides of each road, railway or river crossing; and along straight sections at intervals of not greater than 150 m.

34-1177 DST 0 29 of 40

4.10.2.3 Where a cable route marker is installed on a paved or concrete surface area (e.g. a formal sidewalk), the top of the cable route marker shall be flush with the surface of the paving. In this way, the aluminium plate will remain visible and the cable route marker will not create and obstruction. 4.10.2.4 The following shall be punched or scribed onto the aluminium plate of the cable route marker: a) b) c) an arrow indicating the cable route; the cable descriptor (in accordance with 4.10.2.6 referenced to the source substation name and feeder name) with a font size of 7 mm; and if applicable, a J or IJ to indicate the position of a straight or sheath interrupting joint.

4.10.2.5 All link disconnecting box kiosk doors and lids (if applicable) shall be externally labelled with an electrical symbolic warning sign in accordance with SANS 1186 (see D-DT-3202, sheet 3) that is permanently attached. If pop-rivets are used to attach the signs to the doors, only aircraft or blind rivets shall be used. 4.10.2.6 All link disconnecting box kiosk doors and lids (if applicable) shall be externally labelled with an electrical address (i.e. white lettering with a minimum height of 25 mm) that is stencilled on and made up as follows: a) b) c) d) the abbreviated source substation name e.g. Craighall = CH; the abbreviated feeder name e.g. Benmore = BM; the function of the equipment, for example, LINK BOX; and a sequential number starting with one (1) at the link box closest to the normal source substation.

A typical label is shown in figure 2.

CH/BM LINK BOX 1

Figure 2 Typical electrical address label for link disconnecting box 4.10.2.7 All bonding leads shall be phase-identified using red, yellow or blue heat-shrinkable sleeves fitted to the leads at the joint and within the link disconnecting box kiosk or manhole. 4.10.2.8 All bonding leads shall be substation-(normal source) and feeder-(load) identified using a durable labelling system fitted to the leads at the joint and within the link disconnecting box kiosk or manhole. For example, a concentric bonding lead that has the inner and outer conductors connected to the Craighall and Benmore sides respectively of a sheath interrupting joint shall be labelled I = CH O = BM.

4.11 Documentation
4.11.1 The following documentation shall be provided:
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
a)

34-1177 DST 0 30 of 40

at the time of tender, a formal design report together with all design drawings showing: 1. all assumptions and calculations for the cable feeder; 2. HV single core cable circuit (type and size) - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing reference and SAP number; 3. proposed feeder major and minor sections with proposed route lengths; 4. if applicable, proposed cable transposition positions; 5. proposed earthing and bonding arrangement; 6. all calculated standing voltages and circulating currents assuming rated current flowing in the cable feeder; 7. straight and sheath interrupting joints proposed; 8. terminations proposed; 9. all link disconnecting boxes proposed; 10. types and size of bonding leads proposed; 11. if required, the bare copper ECC proposed together with transposition positions (if applicable); 12. if applicable, the SVL make, type and ratings (Uc, UTOV) proposed; 13. the proposed cable installation conditions (formation, depth, spacing, soil thermal resistivity if different to that specified in D-DT-0892); 14. the calculated normal and emergency feeder ratings as described in 4.8.1; 15. a drawing showing the cable cross-section and dimensions; 16. drawings of all bonding lead cross-sections; and 17. assembly drawings of all joints, terminations and link disconnecting boxes;

b)

as-built cadastral drawings that show the positions of the cable, transposition positions (if applicable), joints, terminations, link disconnecting boxes and fibre optic cable draw pits, relative to recognized boundaries and with Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) co-ordinates; An as-built electrical circuit diagram that shows the following information shall be provided: 1. HV single core cable circuit (type and size) - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing reference and SAP number; 2. feeder major and minor sections with route lengths; 3. if applicable, cable transposition positions - together with GPS co-ordinates; 4. fibre optic cable draw pits together with GPS co-ordinates; 5. earthing and bonding arrangement;

c)

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 31 of 40

6. all calculated standing voltages and circulating currents assuming rated current flowing in the cable feeder; 7. straight and sheath interrupting joints - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing references, SAP numbers and GPS co-ordinates (centre phase only); 8. terminations - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing references, SAP numbers and GPS co-ordinates (centre phase only); 9. all link disconnecting boxes - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing references, SAP numbers and GPS co-ordinates; 10. bonding leads - together with Eskom buyers guide drawing references and SAP numbers; 11. if required, the bare copper ECC and transposition positions (if applicable) together with Eskom buyers guide drawing references, SAP numbers. 12. if applicable, the SVL make, type and ratings (Uc, UTOV); 13. the cable installation conditions (formation, depth, spacing, soil thermal resistivity if different to that specified in D-DT-0892); 14. the normal and emergency feeder ratings as described in 4.8.1;
NOTES 1) Examples of HV cable cross-section drawings showing the relevant dimensions are shown in D-DT-0881. 2) Examples of electrical circuit diagrams showing the required information to be provided are shown in D-DT-0882.

d) e) f) g)

a network operating diagram that clearly indicates all link disconnecting boxes, as well as the type and size of the cable, shall be produced; installation instructions for all joints and terminations; drawings of all bonding lead cross-sections; and assembly drawings of all link disconnecting boxes.

4.11.2 Copies of all drawings and diagrams shall be handed the regional Engineering office, the regional TSG Cable Section and IARC (Power Plant).

4.12 Spares
4.12.1 The following strategic spares shall be ordered and stored for use by the Eskom Distribution Division:
a) b) c) d) a drum of at least 100 m of cable (see D-DT-8070); at least 6 sheath-interrupting joints (see D-DT-8071); at least 3 outdoor terminations (see D-DT-8072); and if applicable, at least 3 plug-in terminations of the same make and type.

NOTE High voltage cables and accessories are classified as strategic spares in the Eskom Distribution Division.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:
design: a) b) c) at least 1 of each type of link disconnecting box installed (see D-DT-8074); at least 100 m of each type of bonding lead installed (see D-DT-8075); and if applicable, at least 100 m of bare copper ECC (see D-DT-3139).

34-1177 DST 0 32 of 40

4.12.2 The following regional maintenance spares shall be ordered and stored depending on the feeder

5 Inspection and testing


5.1 General
To ensure the safe and reliable operation of a cable system, visual inspections shall be made and electrical tests performed before energizing. The results of the inspections and tests shall be recorded.

5.2 Visual inspections


A visual inspection checklist shall be compiled from the requirements of this standard and shall be used by the Clerk of Works (COW) for routine inspections made during construction. A checklist of the items to be inspected is provided on the Distribution Technology (IARC) website. The list is in the form of questions and the answer to these questions shall be in the affirmative before the system may be energised.

5.3 Electrical tests


The following tests shall be conducted and the results recorded in order to demonstrate the integrity of the cable feeder and its accessories: a) b) c) d) e) positive and zero-sequence tests; 10 kV d.c. sheath integrity test; standing voltage and sheath circulating current measurement; link resistance test on all connections high-voltage test in accordance with SANS 60840.

NOTE: In most cases the high-voltage test cannot be performed due to the unavailability of suitable test equipment. As an alternative the cable may be energized and left off-load for at least 24 h as a proving test.

6 Safety
6.1 Road safety precautions
6.1.1 When working within road reserves, the road safety precautions and requirements of the local road
agency / authority shall be complied with at all times.

6.1.2 Where applicable, the guidelines as set out in the site manuals entitled Safety at roadworks in urban
areas and Safety at roadworks in rural areas issued by the Department of Transport.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page: 6.2 Safety of foundations, buildings and structures

34-1177 DST 0 33 of 40

6.2.1 Care shall be taken to ensure that excavations do not endanger the foundations of adjacent
buildings. All the necessary precautions shall be taken so as to prevent subsidence of soil which could result in damage to foundations.

6.2.2 Where excavations may unavoidably endanger the stability of fences or other structures, such
structures shall be removed and replaced to the satisfaction of the owner(s).

6.3 Safety of other services


6.3.1 Where excavations may unavoidably endanger the stability of above ground services, such services
shall be adequately and suitably supported and / or stayed.

6.3.2 Where excavations expose any underground services, such services will be adequately and suitably
supported to avoid their subsidence and suitable protected against damage.

6.4 Barricading and lighting


In terms of the Construction Regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993, every excavation which is accessible to the public or which is adjacent to public roads or thoroughfares, or whereby the safety of persons may be endangered, shall be : a) b) adequately protected by a barrier or fence of at least one metre in height and as close to the excavation as is practicable; and provided with warning illuminants or any other clearly visible boundary indicators at night or when visibility is poor.

6.5 Accommodation of traffic and access to properties


6.5.1 In addition to complying with the relevant requirements as applicable, where the work affects the
operation or safety of public traffic, the following shall be applicable: a) b) by-pass(es), as may be required to deviate traffic from portions of the road that are to be affected by the construction, shall be constructed and put in order; and access ways, as may be required by persons requiring access to properties that fall within or adjoining the area where construction work is taking place, shall be provided. If, for any reason, such access has to be closed for certain periods during the construction period, the persons affected shall be given reasonable notice in writing of each construction period.

6.5.2 Official communication shall be issued by the relevant Communications Office to advise the affected
public of all details regarding any traffic deviations and/or access restrictions that may be put in place during the construction period.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page: 6.6 Working on and in the vicinity of live cables

34-1177 DST 0 34 of 40

When working in close proximity to other live cables, it is recommended that the other cables be temporarily covered using a cable flash blanket. This will greatly reduce the risk of an injury in the event of a flash due to a cable fault on one of the nearby cables.
NOTE The requirements for a cable flash blanket are currently being investigated.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 35 of 40

Annex A
(informative)

Example: Metallic sheath induced voltage calculation


INDUCED VOLTAGE : EXAMPLE OF CROSS BONDED CABLE ( f I a s dm m D L1t L2t L3t M Eo E1t E2t 50 2. . f 400 0.5
1 3 2 .a

ONE MAJOR SECTION)

Frequency (Hz) o Current (Amps) Spacing between cables (m) Mean geometric distance between cables (m) Outer diameter of sheath (mm) Thickness of sheath (mm) m ) . 10
3

4. . 10

82 4 ( dm 290 300 310 o . 2. s ln D 2. I. . M Eo . L1t cos 2. 3 cos 2. 3 E2t

Mean diameter of the sheath (mm)

Length of first minor section Length of second minor section Length of third minor section M = 5.564 10 Eo = 0.07 E1t = 20.277 i . sin 2. 3 i . sin 2. 3 . Eo . L2t E2t = 10.488 + 18.166i
7

H/m V/m

(Mutual inductance per cable per metre) (Voltage induced per metre)

E3t

. Eo . L3t

Eres

E1t

E3t

Eres = 1.049 Eres = 1.211 L n L1t 0 .. L 10 L2t

0.606i (Magnitude of resultant voltage) L3t

xn

n . 10

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 36 of 40

E1x n

E1t.

xn L1t

(Voltage at any point along first minor section) xn L1t L2t xn ( L1t L2t) L3t

E2x n

E1t E2t.

(Voltage at any point along second minor section)

E3x n Ex n

E1t E2t E3t.

(Voltage at any point along third minor section)

if xn L1t, E1x , if xn ( L1t L2t) , E2x , E3x n n n

SHEATH VOLTAGE PROFILE VERSUS CABLE LENGTH

30

20 Ex n 10

0 0 500 x n 1000

Xm

.M
4

Xm = 1.748 10 Area . 4 Area = 9.802 10 Rm55 dm


2

Ohms/m
2 6 ( dm 2. m) . 10

(A.C. reactance per metre)

m2 Ohms/m

(Sheath cross-sectional area) (Resistance of the Al sheath - assumed to be at 55 degrees C)

. 8. L 228 55 2.826410 . Area 228 20

Rm55= 0.03 Im Eres Rm55


2

Xm

Im = 40.894

Amps

(Sheath circulating current)

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 37 of 40

Annex B
(Formative)

Impact assessment
Impact assessment form to be completed for all documents.

1 Guidelines
o All comments must be completed. o Motivate why items are N/A (not applicable) o Indicate actions to be taken, persons or organisations responsible for actions and deadline for action. o Change control committees to discuss the impact assessment, and if necessary give feedback to the compiler of any omissions or errors.

2 Critical points
2.1 Importance of this document. E.g. is implementation required due to safety deficiencies,
statutory requirements, technology changes, document revisions, improved service quality, improved service performance, optimised costs.

Implementation of the document is required due to additional technologies and information provided.

2.2 If the document to be released impacts on statutory or legal compliance - this need to be very
clearly stated and so highlighted.

New process in place for environmental assessments based on the national environmental management act and the environmental conservation act (see SCSPVABV7). No other impact on statutory requirements.

2.3 Impact on stock holding and depletion of existing stock prior to switch over.
HV Cable and accessories are now categorised as strategic spares. Refer to new clause 4.12.

2.4 When will new stock be available?


Whenever purchased and ordered.

2.5 Has the interchangeability of the product or item been verified - i.e. when it fails is a straight
swop possible with a competitor's product?

N/A. The specification for cable and accessories has not changed and thus will not affect interchangeability:

2.6 Identify and provide details of other critical (items required for the successful implementation
of this document) points to be considered in the implementation of this document.

Regional quality checklists to be updated. Additional Poweroffice packages to be flagged for plug-in terminations, new link boxes, PE ducts, fibre optic cable draw pits and cable tunnels (see D-DT-8072, DDT-8074, D-DT-8080, D-DT-8081, D-DT-0894 and D-DT-0897).

2.7 Provide details of any comments made by the Regions regarding the implementation of this
document.

N/A during commenting phase.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 38 of 40

Annex B
(continued)

3 Implementation timeframe
3.1 Time period for implementation of requirements.
As this standard affects only major engineering projects, the implementation of the requirements shall be from the date of publishing.

3.2 Deadline for changeover to new item and personnel to be informed of DX wide change-over.
N/A no changeover involved.

4 Buyers Guide and Power Office


4.1 Does the Buyers Guide or Buyers List need updating?
Yes. See D-DT-8072, D-DT-8074, D-DT-8081 (PE ducts), D-DT-8080 (draw pits).

4.2 What Buyers Guides or items have been created?


New 6-way link boxes in D-DT-8074. New plug-in terminations in D-DT-8072. New PE ducts in D-DT-8081. New draw pits in D-DT-8080.

4.3 List all assembly drawing changes that have been revised in conjunction with this document.
D-DT-5031, D-DT-0890, D-DT-0892, D-DT-0893, D-DT-0894, D-DT-0897. D-DT-0881, D-DT-0882.

4.4 If the implementation of this document requires assessment by CAP, provide details under 5 4.5 Which Power Office packages have been created, modified or removed?
HV plug-in terminations D-DT-8072 (new), Link boxes D-DT-805 (new), PE ducts D-DT-8XXX (new), Draw pits D-DT-0894 (new), cable tunnels D-DT-0897 (new).

5 CAP / LAP Pre-Qualification Process related impacts


5.1 Is an ad-hoc re-evaluation of all currently accepted suppliers required as a result of
implementation of this document?

N/A as this is a standard.

5.2 If NO, provide motivation for issuing this specification before Acceptance Cycle Expiry date.
N/A as this is a standard.

5.3 Are ALL suppliers (currently accepted per LAP), aware of the nature of changes contained in
this document?

Yes only CBI Electric African Cables is on the LAP at present.

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 39 of 40

Annex B
(continued)

5.4 Is implementation of the provisions of this document required during the current supplier
qualification period?

N/A. There is there is no longer a qualification period suspension of LAP processes.

5.5 If Yes to 5.4, what date has been set for all currently accepted suppliers to comply fully?
N/A.

5.6 If Yes to 5.4, have all currently accepted suppliers been sent a prior formal notification
informing them of Eskoms expectations, including the implementation date deadline?

N/A.

5.7 Can the changes made, potentially impact upon the purchase price of the material/equipment?
No.

5.8 Material group(s) affected by specification: (Refer to Pre-Qualification invitation schedule for
list of material groups)

HV power cable, HV cable accessories, HV cable ancillary equipment.

6 Training or communication
6.1 State the level of training or communication required to implement this document. (E.g. none,
communiqus, awareness training, practical / on job, module, etc.)

Awareness training.

6.2 State designations of personnel that will require training.


Training to planners, project engineers, investigators, specialists, TSG TSpOs and PTOs, contractors.

6.3 Is the training material available? Identify person responsible for the development of training
material.

Supplier training modules on HV cables. IARC to develop training modules for HV cable systems as per MV and LV system modules. Rhett Kelly.

6.4 If applicable, provide details of training that will take place. (E.G. sponsor, costs, trainer,
schedule of training, course material availability, training in erection / use of new equipment, maintenance training, etc).

T&Q to arrange standard training for regions as and when required. Regions to sponsor venues and facilities, IARC / T&Q to provide trainers (1 day course). Material still to be developed by IARC / T&Q. TSG Jointer training for plug-in terminations to be provided by HV cable accessory suppliers to be arranged by regions if and when they are installed.

6.5 Was Training & Development Section consulted w.r.t training requirements?
No. Requirements of this document is not within their scope.
When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.

DOCUMENT CLASSIFICATION: CONTROLLED DISCLOSURE

General information and requirements for high- Reference: voltage cable systems Type: Revision: Page:

34-1177 DST 0 40 of 40

Annex B
(continued)

7 Special tools, equipment, software


7.1 What special tools, equipment, software, etc will need to be purchased by the Region to
effectively implement?

Strategic spares if not already done. See 4.12 (Spares).

7.2 Are there stock numbers available for the new equipment?
Yes see relevant buyers guides listed above.

7.3 What will be the costs of these special tools, equipment, software?

8 Finances
8.1 What total costs would the Regions be required to incur in implementing this document?
Identify all cost activities associated with implementation, e.g. labour, training, tooling, stock, obsolescence

Comment: Most regions have already purchased strategic spares for HV XLPE cable feeders where applicable. The only costs associated with the implementation of this standard are those associated with the training venues and facilities. Impact assessment completed by: Name: Rhett Alexander Kelly Designation: Chief Engineer

When downloaded from the EDS database, this document is uncontrolled and the responsibility rests with the user to ensure it is in line with the authorised version on the database.