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Network Test Solutions

Introduction to CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO

RADCOM Ltd., August 2003

IP Notices: 2003 RADCOM Ltd. All rights reserved.


RADCOM is a trademark of RADCOM Ltd. in Israel and/or other countries. Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Windows NT are registered trademarks or of Microsoft Corporation in the US and/ or other countries. All other brand and product names referred to herein are either registered or unregistered trademarks or service marks belonging to their respective owners. This documentation contains proprietary information of RADCOM Ltd. and RADCOM Equipment Inc. Such information is hereby supplied solely for the purpose of informing explicitly and properly authorized persons of the documentation on the operation of RADCOM equipment. Without the express prior written permission of RADCOM Ltd. and RADCOM Equipment Inc., no part of the contents hereof may be used for any other purpose, disclosed to persons or firms outside the recipient company, or reproduced by any means. The text and drawings herein are for the purpose of illustration and reference only. The specifications on which they are based are subject to change without notice. Publication Date: August, 2003

Further Information
For further information contact: US Office: RADCOM Equipment Inc. 6 Forest Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA Tel: (201) 518-0033 or 1-800-RADCOM-4, Fax: (201) 556-9030 E-mail: info@radcomusa.com; Internet: http://www.radcom.com Israel Office: RADCOM Ltd. 24 Raoul Wallenberg St., Tel Aviv, 69719, Israel Tel: 972-3-6455055, Fax: 972-3-6474681 E-mail: info@radcom.com China Office: RADCOM Ltd. Handerson Center, Office 506, Tower 3, 18 Jianguomennei Avenue, Beijing 1000005, P.R. China Tel: +86-10-65187723, Fax: +86-10-65187721 E-mail: china@radcom.com United Kingdom Office: RADCOM UK 2440 The Quadrant Aztec West, Almondsbury Bristol, BS32 4AQ England Tel: +44-145-487-8827, Fax: +44-145-487-8788 E-mail: uk@radcom.com

able of Contents

Introduction CDMA2000 Network Structure


CDMA2000 1x and 1x-EV-DO Network Structure 2

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview


Technology Evaluation Path CDMA2000 Features General Information Data Rates Changes Needed in CDMA2000 Compared to CDMA (IS-95) New Entities in CDMA2000-1x Compared to CDMA (IS-95) PDSN AAA PCF (Packet Control Function) Other CDMA2000 entities (not new) compared to CDMA New Entities and Features for CDMA 1x-EV-DO Reference Points A, Ater, Aquinter, and Aquater Interfaces Description CDMA2000 1x Interfaces Description CDMA20001xEV-DO Physical Layer Interfaces MSC-BS Functional Planes HRPD (High Rate packet Data) IOS Architecture Model 3G Packet Data Calls Authentication Mobility Management CDMA2000 Call/Calls Flow Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (voice) Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - a Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - (b) Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - (c) AT Originates 1xEV-DO Session -Successful Authentication AT Originates 1x-EV-DO Session Unsuccessful Authentication AN-AN Dormant Handoff with Successful Session info Retrieval Data Delivery AT Terminated 3 3 4 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 11 11 12 13 13 15 15 17 17 20 20 21 22 23 24 28 31 34

RADCOMs CDMA2000 Solutions


Highlights CDMA2000 Network RADCOMs CDMA2000 1x Network Coverage RADCOMs CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO Network Coverage CDMA2000 Protocols Support 37 38 38 38 38

RADCOMs PrismLite

CDMA2000 Protocol Analysis Applications Physical Layer Capture Analysis Traffic Generation CDMA2000 Consultants CDMA2000 A10/A11 Consultant highlights CDMA2000 A10/A11 Consultant Screens CDMA2000 A12 Consultant Highlights CDMA2000 Internet Consultant CDMA2000 Internet Consultant Screens CDMA2000 Network Consultant Performer Infrastructure RADCOMs GEAR The GenFEP (Generic FEP) Dedicated ATM features Dedicated Ethernet & POS features Dedicated multi E1/T1/J1 features Time Stamp Synchronization Summary

39 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 44 45 46 48 48 48 49 49 50 50 50 50

Table of Contents

ntroduction
CDMA2000, also known as IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier or IS-2000, is the main route for CDMA operators to second-and-a-half (2.5G) and third generation (3G) cellular networks. 3GPP2, the standard-setting body behind CDMA2000, has created a set of standards that define the new air interface and Radio Access and Core Network changes that will enhance network capacity, improve speed and bandwidth to mobile terminals, and eventually allow endto-end IP services. CDMA2000 is a technology for the evolution of cdmaOne/IS-95 to 3rd generation services. CDMA2000 will provide enhanced services to CDMAOne subscribers, as well as forward and backward capabilities in terminals. CDMA2000 can be deployed in several phases. The first phase, CDMA2000 1x, supports an average of 144 kbps packet data in a mobile environment. The second release of 1x, called 1x-EV-DO will support data rates up to two Mbits/ sec on a dedicated data carrier. Finally, 1x-EV-DV (which probably will be rarely deployed) will support even higher peak rates, simultaneous voice and high-speed data, as well as improved Quality of Service mechanisms. A key component of CDMA2000 systems will be a new Packet Core Network (PCN) that allows the delivery of packet data services with more speed and security. The CDMA2000 PCN is one of the first steps in the evolution of CDMA2000 systems to All-IP and multi-media architecture. The purpose of this document is to provide a basic understanding of the complex CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO technologies. As well as presenting RADCOMs capabilities for supporting and testing CDMA2000 1x and 1x-EV-DO networks.

CDMA2000 Network Structure

CDMA2000 1x and 1x-EV-DO Network Structure

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Technology Evaluation Path


Operators are adopting different migration path by regions and countries for 3G deployment, considering an All-IP network as the final migration path. The diagram below illustrates the migration path from 2G to 2.5G though 3G of all cellular networks

CDMA2000 Features
CDMA2000 provides the following features: High data rates. Bandwidth on demand. Asymmetric data rates. Always connected (using the PCF that on the BSC).

Introduction to CDMA2000

General Information
1. CDMA2000 1x uses the same 1.25 Mhz of CDMA IS-95. A lot of service providers may implement the CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO on a different 1.25Mhz, because the high data rate may damage the quality of the voice. 2. Because CDMA2000 is backward compatible to IS-95 and uses the same 1.25 Mhz in the 1x, operators can migrate from CDMA to CDMA2000 in stages. Operators can decide to implement CDMA2000 initially only in certain cities and then later deploy in other cities. 3. CDMA2000: Increases the spectral efficiency of the air interface by: a. Improved (faster) power control compared to CDMA in the forward link. It extends the capacity of the air by 50%. In CDMA (IS-95), the MS informs the BTS if frames received are Good/Error. In CDMA2000, the MS sends power control commands 16 times faster than IS-95 in order to power down/up the forward link. The mechanism to power up and power down, results in power saving and in increased capacity. As a result of the power control, CDMA2000 delivers 50% more capacity than the IS-95. b. Transmit diversity: each antenna can transmit/receive to up to 6 different directions. The MS chooses the strongest frequency. c. Smart antennas: these are antennas that are capable of directing the antenna frequencys radiation to the required direction. For example, to direct the antennas to a crowd center in order to support better cover and better power centralization.

d. QPSK modulation scheme: this is the modulation method in which the CDMA technology changes the radio wave into bits. The QPSK method actually changes the sinus of the electromagnetic wave into bits. e. Improved digital coding techniques. f. The 1x/1x-EV-DO/1x-EV-DV can utilize different vocoders and more Walsh codes (up to 128) comparing to the 64 of CDMA, allowing for higher data rates and more voice conversions compared to CDMA. The 3x enables 256 Walsh codes. The Walsh code is the mathematical algorithm that differentiate between calls in the CDMA network. Each signal is encoded with a Walsh code to differentiate between different users. In CDMA2000 in each sector there can be 3*128 Walsh codes per carrier. In CDMAOne there can be up to 64 Walsh codes

g. In CDMA2000 a new air channel, the SCH (supplemental channel) is introduced. Up to 2 SCH for each MS (307.2kbps*2). 4. In a CDMA2000 session there can be few connections (a radio connection is required only when needed to transfer data to or from the

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Introduction to CDMA2000

network). When users only want to browse, they may have a session open (the connected-application session is always active). 5. For the duration of the connection, CDMA2000 gives the user a dedicated law data rate channel (FCH), Fundamental channel - 9.6 or 14.4 the same as for voice), and according to the user profile and traffic needs, the user may be given 0,1 or 2 SCH channels. The SCH (Supplemental channel) can vary both in the duration of the assignment and in the data rate from 9.6 up to 307.2 kbps for each channel. On the SCH, only data (not voice or signaling) is transferred. Signaling is transferred on the law data rate dedicated channel. 6. The BSC is responsible for negotiating (the duration and the data rate of SCH) and signaling with the MS. The BSC is also responsible for the efficiency allocation and de allocation of the SCH to the different users. In addition, the BSC is responsible for detecting the rate and duration that needs to be sent to the MS. The MS needs to request the SCH needed to transfer data in the reverse link. In all cases the BSC is responsible for the resources allocation. 7. In general, the SCH is large on the forward link (download) and small on the reverse link. 8. The SCH duration is from 20 milliseconds up to 5.12 seconds for a single data burst. The standards allow allocating and de allocating of infinite duration of SCH. 9. Responsibilities of the BTS: a. Assigning the Fundamental channel (FCHs) - the number of physical resources available. b. The FCH forward power (the power already allocated and available). c. The Walsh codes required and those available. d. SDU function: The SDU function (Selection/Distribution Unit function) includes the following functions: Traffic Handler: This function exchanges traffic bits with the associated vocoder or CDMA RLP function, and is directly connected to the A5 interface. Signaling Layer 2: This function performs the layer 2 functionality of the air interface signaling protocol and is responsible for the reliable delivery of layer 3 signaling messages between the base station and the mobile station. Multiplex Sublayer: This function multiplexes and demultiplexes user traffic and signaling traffic for the air interface. Power Control: This function administrates the forward and reverse link power control in a CDMA system. This function and the channel

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Introduction to CDMA2000

element provide the power control function for the CDMA operation. As part of this function, it generates or utilizes relevant power control information that is exchanged over the air interface or with the channel element. Frame Selection/Distribution: This function is responsible for selecting the best incoming air interface reverse link frame from the channel elements involved in the soft handoff. It also distributes forward air interface frames to all channel elements involved in a call. Backhaul Frame Handler: This function demultiplexes the control information and the air interface reverse frame from the frame received over the backhaul network. It also multiplexes the control information and the air interface frames in the forward direction. Control: This function provides control functions. 10. In CDMA2000, there is no need to replace the CDMA MS in order to function in the network; but in order to receive the services of the CDMA2000 the MS should be replaced. 11. CDMA2000 support (GSM-MAP), which can lead to harmonization and dual system deployment with GSM in addition to WCDMA as well. 12. WCDMA and CDMA2000 have the same characteristics (roaming support, same data rates, wide band, etc). The main difference between the WCDMA and CDMA2000 is that the WCDMA uses only one wide band, while CDMA2000, apart from the wide band uses several narrow bands (low data rate channels). 13. The backhaul from the BTSs to the BSC and from the BSC to the MSC could be via either microwave links or fixed facilities. 14. In CDMA2000 the billing is according to the data that is transferred. 15. There is 1.25 Mhz for the forward link and 1.25 for the reverse link. 16. When Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is used to provide signaling transport, the ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) protocol is employed. When ATM is used to provide user traffic (voice/data) transport, the AAL2 protocol is used. Each BS has two or more ATM virtual circuits that connect it to other BSs (regardless of whether switched or permanent virtual circuits are used). These virtual circuits are comprised of one or more virtual circuits using the AAL5 protocol for signaling, and one or more virtual circuits using AAL2 for the user traffic connections. Use of the AAL5 Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)/Switched Virtual Connection (SVC) as the link layer of IP protocol stack shall follow.

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Introduction to CDMA2000

Data Rates
Technology Max data rate Actual data rate Spectrum Services

IS-95 A/B

115.2 Kbps

10-40 Kbps

1.25 Mhz

Voice and circuit switched data services Voice, circuit data and packet data Packet data services Voice, circuit and packet services

1xRTT

614.4 Kbps

80-100 Kbps

1.25 Mhz

1x-EV-DO 3xRTT

2.48 Mbps 2 Mbps

600K-1Mbps

1.25 Mhz 3.75 Mhz

The EV-DO and W-CDMA (UMTS) support: 2 Mbps for fixed environment, 384 for pedestrian and 144 kbps for vehicular.

Changes Needed in CDMA2000 Compared to CDMA (IS-95)


1. The MSC-VLR and HLR (All the circuit switched Core networks) need to software upgrades in order to support the authentication and authorization of the packet data network. Note, that it is still the CS-CN (Circuit Switched Core Network), which authenticates and authorizes the wireless access of the user during packet session initiation. The MSC-VLR/HLR are updated with the Packet data user profile information. The information is then downloaded from the HLR to the VLR of the associated network switch during the successful registration process. 2. HW upgrade in the BTS A new digital processing HW CDMA200 Chipset which is a Multimode Channel Element card + SW upgrade. 3. New MS with new digital processing (CDMA2000 Chipset) that supports radio channels to carry voice, Circuit switched data along with the packet data services that requires low and high data rates. 4. SW update in the BSC in order to support IP routing. 5. Apart from routing the Time division multiplexing (TDM) traffic to the circuit switched platform, the BSC routes the packet to and from the PDSN. 6. A new Core network for CDMA2000 PS-CN.

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Introduction to CDMA2000

New Entities in CDMA2000-1x Compared to CDMA (IS-95)


PDSN
1. Establishes, maintains and terminates Point-to-Point protocol (PPP) session with the MS. 2. Establishes, maintains and terminates the logical link to the Radio network across the radio-packet (R-P) interface. 3. Initiates Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) for the MS to the packet data network (Internet) via the AAA Server. 4. Receives service parameters for the MS from the AAA. 5. Routes packet data between the RAN and the Internet (like NAS in the Internet). 6. Collects usage data that is related to the AAA Server. 7. Supports both Simple and Mobile IP. 8. For Mobile IP the FA (foreign agent) should be implemented on the PDSN (also a HA (home agent) is needed). 9. One BSC can interconnect to a few PDSNs for load balancing.

AAA
The AAA server, also called the RADIUS server, authenticates only the user Internet access and not a user wireless access (same entity used in the Internet). RADIUS Remote Access Dial-In User Service, communicates with the PDSN via IP. Authentication associated with PPP and Mobile IP connection.

PCF (Packet Control Function)


An entity in the radio access network that manages the relay of packets between the BS and the PDSN. The PCF is generally part of the BSC. In order to provide the feel of always connected, if there are packets from the Internet to a certain MS that currently doesnt have radio resources allocated, the packet is held on the PCF until the user is allocated a channel. The PDSN does not hold the packets but the PCF. The PCF may be HW and/or SW. 10. The CDMA2000 may introduce firewalls to protect the network and application servers to support packet services. 11. The PDSNs, AAA and the connection to the RAN (BSCs) are via a private IP network for security and for providing different QoS levels. 12. Mobile IP (not an entity)- supports moving between two different PDSNs without needing to reconnect. It is the PDSNs responsibility to either update the IP of the user when they move to another PDSN area (it is

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

Introduction to CDMA2000

implying the packet sessions need to turn down and restart), or to implement the Mobile IP mechanism for a transparent move. In the Mobile IP mechanism the FA and HA are required. Simple IP (not an entity) does not support mobility between different PDSNs. The PDSN is the owner of the User IP (DHCP). If in the middle of a page loading the MS moves between two different PDSNs, the MS will have to reconnect. 13. Normal Vendor/Organization Specific Extension (NVSE) - (not an entity): This element may be present in the A11-Registration Request or A11Registration Reply messages to convey information between the PCF and the PDSN. Any new Application types or Application Sub-Types supported after IOS v4.0 will be added to this element. This element uses the A11-Registration Request message to convey the Previous and Current Access Network Identifiers (PANID, CANID) and fast handoff information to the PDSN. If the PCF initiates the setup of the A10 connection due to dormant handoff, the PCF includes a Mobility Event Indicator and the Current and Previous Network Identifiers (CANID and PANID) in the A11-Registration Request message. In the case of Dormant Handoff, the PCF initiates the setup of an A10 connection and include a Mobility Event Indicator as a CVSE and the PANID and CANID as an NVSE in the A11- Registration message.

Other CDMA2000 entities (not new) compared to CDMA


14. HA - One of the tasks of the HA is to track the location of the Mobile IP subscriber as it moves from one packet zone to another. In tracking the Mobile, the HA ensures that the packets are forwarded to the mobile itself. An HA is a router on the Mobile nodes home network. It uses a tunneling mechanism to forward Internet traffic so that the devices IP address does not have to be changed each time it connects from a different location. The HA works in conjunction with the FA, which is the router on the visited network. The HA identifies the IPv4 address of the PDSN that terminates the A10 connection. 15. FA works in conjunction with the HA in order to perform internet traffic forwarding to a device connecting to the Internet from any location other than its home network. The HA tunnels datagram packets intended for the mobile node to either the IP address for the FA, or to an IP address acquired through DHCP. The FA de-tunnels the packets and delivers them to the mobile node. In general, Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) minimizes the use of FA.

New Entities and Features for CDMA 1x-EV-DO


Access Network - The network equipment providing data connectivity between a packet switched data network (typically the Internet) and the

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access terminals. An access network is equivalent to a base station in CDMA2000 systems. Access Terminal - A device providing data connectivity to a user. An access terminal may be connected to a computing device such as a laptop or it may be a self-contained data device such as a personal digital assistant. An access terminal is equivalent to a mobile station in CDMA2000 systems. AN AAA - An entity that performs terminal authentication and authorization functions for the Access Network. Connection - A connection is a particular state of the air-link in which the access terminal is assigned a Forward Traffic Channel, a Reverse Traffic Channel and associated Medium Access Control (MAC) Channels. During a single HRPD session the access terminal and the access network can open and can close a connection multiple times. Hybrid MS/AT - A device capable of operating on both CDMA2000 and HRPD access networks. Service Stream - The HRPD stream used when exchanging data between the access terminal and the PDSN. HRPD session - An HRPD (High Rate Packet Data (1xEV-DO)) session refers to a shared state between the access terminal and the Access network. This shared state stores the protocols and protocol configurations that were negotiated and are used for communications between the access terminal and the access network. Other than to open a session, an access terminal cannot communicate with an access network without having an open session. Note, that it is possible that the A10/A11 connection is not established even though the HRPD session is established. PCF - The PCF enhancement for EV-DO logically contains the SC/MM function and is capable of HRPD specific operation. The original PCF function and procedure may also be optimized or enhanced using information obtained from these additional functions. Packet Data Session - An instance of the use of packet data service by a mobile user. A packet data session begins when the user invokes a packet data service. A packet data session ends when the user or the network terminates the packet data service. During a particular packet data session, the user may change locations but the same IP address is maintained. SC/MM function: SC/MM (Session Control and Mobility Management) is logically located in the PCF and includes the following functions: Storage of HRPD session related information: This function keeps HRPD session related information (e.g., Keep Alive timer, MNID, mapping between MNID and UATI, etc.) for dormant ATs.

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Assignment of UATI (Unicast AT identifier): This function assigns a new UATI to an AT. Terminal Authentication: This function performs the terminal authentication procedure. This function judges whether an AT (access terminal) should be authenticated or not when the AT is accessing the HRPD RAN. The SC/MM performs PPP procedures for terminal authentication. Mobility Management: This function manages the location of an AT. The location information of the AT is obtained via distance-based registration. This function may perform a paging procedure based on the information. Terminal Authentication: A procedure in which the AT is authenticated by the AN-AAA.

Reference Points A, Ater, Aquinter, and Aquater


The Network Reference Model contains the following reference points A, Ater, Aquinter, and Aquater. The A reference point is implemented by A1, A2, A5. The Ater reference point is implemented by A3 and A7. The Aquinter reference point is implemented by A8 and A9. The Aquater reference point is implemented by A10 and A11.

Interfaces Description CDMA2000 1x


A1 The A1 interface carries signaling information between the Call Control (CC) and Mobility Management (MM) functions of the MSC and the call control component of the BS (BSC). A2 The A2 interface carries 64/56 kbps PCM information or 64 kbps Unrestricted Digital Information (UDI, for ISDN) between the Switch component of the MSC and the Selection/Distribution Unit (SDU) function of the BS. A3 The A3 interface carries coded user information (voice/data) and signaling information between the source BS SDU function and the channel element component (BTS) of the target BS. This is a logical description of the endpoints of the A3 interface. The A3 interface is composed of two parts: signaling and user traffic. The signaling information is carried across a separate logical channel from the user traffic channel, and controls the allocation and use of channels for transporting user traffic.

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A5 The A5 interface carries a full duplex stream of bytes between the MSC and the SDU function of the BSC. A7 The A7 interface carries signaling information between a source BS and a target BS. A8 The A8 interface carries user traffic between the BS and the PCF. A9 The A9 interface carries signaling information between the BS and the PCF. A10 The A10 interface carries user traffic between the PCF and the PDSN. A11 The A11 interface carries signaling information between the PCF and the PDSN.

Interfaces Description CDMA20001xEV-DO


A8 The A8 interface carries user traffic between the Access Network (AN) and the Packet Control Function (PCF). A9 The A9 interface carries signaling information between the AN and the PCF. A10 The A10 interface carries user traffic between the PCF and the PDSN. A11 The A11 interface carries signaling information between the PCF and the PDSN. A12 The A12 interface carries signaling information related to terminal authentication between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting entity for 1x-EV-DO). A13 The A13 interface carries signaling information between the SC/MM function in the source PCF and the SC/MM function in the target PCF. A14 The A14 interface carries signaling information between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN. A15 The A15 interface carries signaling information between ANs when interAN paging is used. Ax The Ax interface carries user traffic between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN.

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Physical Layer Interfaces


The A1, A2, A3, A5 and A7 interfaces are based on the use of: 1. T1 digital transmission system interfaces. Each 1.544 Mbps interface provides 24*56 Kbps or 24*64 kbps channels, which can be used for traffic or signaling as the operator requires. 2. E1 digital transmission interfaces consisting of 30*64 kbps user channels can also be used for traffic or signaling, as the operator requires, and as applicable to the network. As a BS/MSC agreed option, dedicated DS0 signaling link[s] may be used instead of the T1/E1 interface. 3. T3 digital transmission interfaces supporting transmission rates of 43.232 Mbps. 4. OC3 digital transmission interfaces supporting transmission rates of 155.52 Mbps. The A8 to A15 interfaces are based on the use of the Internet Protocol, which can operate across various physical layer media.

MSC-BS Functional Planes


The functions provided by the network elements on either side of the MSC-BS interface define the functions that the MSC-BS interface supports. The figure below depicts a model of the MSC-BS Interface functional planes. The four functional planes embody all of the functions that the MSC-BS Interface supports.

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The transmission facilities management plane is the basis for the MSC-BS interface telecommunications services. It manages the transmission means for the communication needs of the subscribers as well as the required information transfer between the BS and MSC. The radio resource management plane manages stable links between the MSs and the MSC and supports the movement of subscribers during calls (i.e., handoff control). The mobility management plane manages subscriber location data. The callprocessing plane manages call control and telecommunications services for the subscribers.

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HRPD (HIGH RATE PACKET DATA) IOS ARCHITECTURE MODEL

3G Packet Data Calls


Packet data calls allow users to exchange data between the MS and an IP data network. For all calls supporting packet data services, a Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) exists that interfaces between the transmission of the data in the fixed network and the transmission of the data over the air interface. The PDSN interfaces to the BS through a Packet Control Function (PCF), which may or may not be co-located with the BS. There are three packet data service states: Active/Connected, Dormant, and Null/Inactive.

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In the Active/Connected State, a physical traffic channel exists between the MS and the BS, and either side may send data. In the Dormant State, no physical traffic channel exists between the MS and the BS, but the PPP link between the MS and the PDSN is maintained. In the Null/Inactive State, there is no traffic channel between the MS and the BS and no PPP link between the MS and the PDSN.

Figure 3-1: Packet data service transitions

The mobile may cross Packet Zone boundaries while in the Dormant State. This is referred to as Dormant Handoff. The Dormant handoff procedures allow the A10 connections between the PCF and PDSN to be moved (or established) for the mobile when it enters a new packet zone. The mobile may re-enter Active state (e.g., if the user has data to send) at any time. This transition is referred to as Re-Activation from Dormant, and is not related to Dormant Handoff (i.e., Re-Activation from Dormant is not related to a mobility event). Packet data is typically transmitted over the air on dedicated traffic channels. Mechanisms also exist for transmitting data over the common channels. Short Data Burst (SDB) is a part of the 3G Packet Data feature that enables small amounts of data to be transmitted over the common channels. Common Channel Packet Data is a mode of 3G Packet Data where all data is transmitted using Short Data Bursts. A1 and A8 connections are maintained during the Active / Connected State and released during transition to Dormant or Null/Inactive State. The A10 connection is maintained during the Active/Connected and the Dormant State.

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Authentication
1. The first part is the MSC-VLR with the help of the HLR to authenticate the user (handshaking, etc). 2. The MS and the RAN as part of coding of the information in the air encrypt the data (voice and data). 3. Above those two steps, in order to authenticate the user to the Private IP network and to the Internet, the PDSN with the help of the AAA server authenticates and authorizes the user through password verification and handshaking. 4. Above those 3 steps it is possible in the data core network (none wireless) after the PDSN (AAA) authentication to implement IPSec. It is optional to implement the IPSec on the PDSN. 5. Once connected to the application required, there may be also the applications own security mechanisms (such as banking, etc.).

Mobility Management
The responsibility for keeping the MS connected while moving on the network (between different MSCs, etc.) is divided into two different cases: While in active session, the RAN is responsible for the Handoff (in general for the Low data rate channel we will always have SHO (Soft hand off), and as much as the data increases in the SCH the SHO for SCH will decrease (the SHO for SCH is limited). While the mobile moves between BTSs but not in a session, and than between BSCs and MSCs and PDSNs (while idle) it is the mobiles responsibility to update the network that it has moved by registering to a new MSC or PDSN. It is important that the MS updates the system in the CS in order for the system to be able to route the circuit voice calls to the mobile. In idle mode the MS runs the mobility management procedure, and in active the MS assists the RAN. The A8/A9 interfaces supports mobility between BSCs under the same PCF. The A10/A11 interfaces supports mobility between PCFs under the same PDSN. Mobile IP supports mobility between PDSN/FA under the same Home Agent. Hard handoff and soft handoff procedures realize the mobility between BTSs.

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Introduction to CDMA2000

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Packet Data Micro-Mobility and Macro-Mobility Concepts - CDMA2000 1x

The figure below provides a conceptual view of levels of packet data mobility.

Figure 3-2: Levels of packet data mobility

The A8/A9 interfaces support mobility between BSCs under the same PCFs. The A10/A11 interfaces support mobility between PCFs under the same PDSN. Mobile IP supports mobility between PDSN/FA under the same Home Agent. Hard handoff and soft handoff procedures realize the mobility between BTSs.

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HRPD Micro-Mobility and Macro-Mobility Concepts - CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO

The figure below provides a conceptual view of levels of HRPD packet data mobility.

Figure 3-3: HRPD Packet data mobility

The A8/A9/A14 interfaces support mobility between ANs under the same PCF. The A10/A11/A13 interfaces support mobility between PCFs under the same PDSN. Mobile IP supports mobility between PDSNs under the same Home Agent.

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CDMA2000 Call/Calls Flow


Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (voice)

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Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - a

The mobile station initiates the session by sending an origination message that includes an indication that this is a packet data session. The RAN informs the MSC, and the MSC performs an authentication procedure similar to the circuit switched authentication process. Finally, the BSC and BTS allocate radio resources and establish a low data rate dedicated channel. In contrast to the radio channel used for voice calls, this low rate data channel uses the Radio Link Protocol (RLP) to provide better error performance. The next step is to allocate resources in the new packet switched core network domain.

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Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - (b)

The next step in establishing the packet data session is to allocate resources on the Radio Packet (R-P) interface. Once resources have been established, the mobile communicates with the PDSN over the allocated channels in order to set up a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection. During this process, the packet switched core network, specifically the PDSN, assigns an Internet Protocol (IP) address to the mobile station.

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Call scenarios CDMA2000 1x (data) - (c)

Before completing the PPP connection, there is another level of authentication. Authentication has already been performed from a wireless access perspective, now it will be performed based on the Internet service. The PDSN talks to the AAA server using the Remote Access Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) protocol to authenticate the user. Authorization to access the requested service is based on the subscriber profile stored in the AAA. If authorization is successful, the mobile is granted access to the IP network. In our example, the mobile is accessing a web server.

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AT Originates 1xEV-DO Session -Successful Authentication

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A B C D

The AT sends a UATI-Request message to request that a Unicast Access Terminal Identifier (UATI) be assigned to it by the AN. The AN sends a UATI-Assignment message to assign a UATI to the AT. The AT sends a UATI-Complete message to notify the AN that it has received the UATI-Assignment message. If no session exists between the AT and AN, a session is established where protocols and protocol configurations are negotiated, stored and used for communications between the AT and the AN.

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The AT indicates that it is ready to exchange data on the access stream (e.g., the flow control protocol for the default packet application bound to the AN is in the open state). The AT and the AN initiate Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and Link Control Protocol (LCP) negotiations for access authentication. The AN generates a random challenge and sends it to the AT in a Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Challenge packet. When the AN receives the CHAP response packet from the AT, it sends a RADIUS Access-Request message packet on the A12 interface to the AN Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) entity (which acts as a RADIUS server). The AN-AAA looks up a password based on the User-name attribute in the A12 Access-Request and if the authentication passes, the AN AAA sends an Access-Accept packet on the A12 interface. The A12 Access-Accept contains a RADIUS attribute with Type set to 20 (Callback-Id). The AN returns an indication of CHAP authentication success, to the AT. The AT indicates that it is ready to exchange data on the packet data stream. (e.g., the flow control protocol for the default packet application bound to the packet data network is in the open state). The AN sends an A9-Setup-A8 message to the Packet Control Function (PCF) and starts timer TA8-setup, to establish the A8Connection. The A9-Setup-A8 message is not sent before the AT indicates that it is ready to exchange data on the access stream, as identified in step 5. The PCF recognizes that no A10 connection associated with the AT is available and selects a PDSN. The PCF sends an A11Registration Request message to the PDSN, which includes the Mobility Event Indicator (MEI) within the Vendor/Organization Specific Extension. The PCF starts timer Tregreq. The A11-Registration Request is validated and the PDSN accepts the connection by returning an A11-Registration Reply with an accept indication and Lifetime set to the configured Trp. Both the PDSN and the PCF create a binding record for the A10 connection. The PCF stops timer Tregreq. When the AN receives the A9-Connect-A8 message it stops timer TA8-setup.

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PPP connection establishment procedure and optional Mobile IP Registration on the PPP connection are performed between the AT and the PDSN. At this point the connection is established and packet data can flow between the AT and the PDSN.

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AT Originates 1x-EV-DO Session Unsuccessful Authentication

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. A B C D The AT sends a UATI-Request message to request that a UATI be assigned to it by the AN.

The AN sends a UATI-Assignment message to assign a UATI to the


AT.

The AT sends a UATI-Complete message to notify the AN that it has


received the UATI-Assignment message. If no session exists between the AT and AN, a session is established where protocols and protocol configurations are negotiated, stored and used for communications between the AT and the AN. The AT indicates that it is ready to exchange data on the access stream (e.g., the flow control protocol for the default packet application bound to the AN is in the open state). The AT and the AN initiate PPP and LCP negotiations for access authentication.

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The AN generates a random challenge and sends it to the AT in a CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Challenge packet. When the AN receives the CHAP response packet from the AT, it sends a RADIUS Access-Request message packet on the A12 interface to the AN AAA (which acts as a RADIUS server). The AN-AAA looks up a password, based on the User-name attribute in the A12 Access-Request and if the authentication fails, the AN AAA sends an Access-Reject packet on the A12 interface. Note: For ANs that perform access authentication, the network requires that no use of a dedicated resource, such as access to a PDSN, be allowed if authentication fails. The AN returns an indication of CHAP authentication failure, to the AT. The AN sends a SessionClose message to the AT, to close the session. The AT responds with a SessionClose message.

J K L

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AN-AN Dormant Handoff with Successful Session info Retrieval

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A B

The target AN receives a UATI-Request from the AT. The target AN sends an A13-Session Information Request message to the source AN to request the session information for the AT. The A13Session Information Request message includes the received UATI, the Security Layer Packet and Sector ID. The target AN starts timer TA13req. The source AN validates the A13-Session Information Request and sends the requested session information of the AT to the target AN in an A13-Session Information Response message.

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The AN sends a UATI-Assignment to the AT. The AT confirms the receipt of the UATI with a UATI-Complete. The UATI-Assignment may contain a new UATI or use the UATI received in the UATIRequest message. This step can occur anytime after receipt of the UATI-Request message. The Location Update procedures may be used to retrieve the PANID information for sending to the PCF / PDSN. The target AN sends an A13-Session Information Confirm to the source AN to indicate that the target AN has received the session information. The target AN stops timer TA13req. Upon receipt of the A13 Session Information Confirm message the source AN deletes the AT session information in question. The target AN sends an A9-Setup-A8 message, with Data Ready Indicator set to 0, to the target PCF and starts timer TA8-setup. The target PCF selects the PDSN to connect to using the PDSN address provided in the A13-Session Information Response message or using the PDSN selection algorithm, and sends an A11-Registration Request message to the PDSN. The A11-Registration Request message includes the Mobility Event Indicator (MEI) within the Vendor/Organization Specific Extension. The target PCF starts timer Tregreq. Inter-PCF Dormant Handoff - Mobile Continues to be served by the Serving PDSN. The A11-Registration Request is validated and the PDSN accepts the connection by returning an A11-Registration Reply with an accept indication and the Lifetime set to the configured Trp value. If the PDSN has data to send, it includes the Data Available Indicator within the Vendor/Organization Specific Extension. The A10 connection binding information at the PDSN is updated to point to the target PCF. The target PCF stops timer Tregreq. The PDSN initiates closure of the A10 connection with the source PCF by sending an A11-Registration Update message. The PDSN starts timer Tregupd. The source PCF responds with an A11-Registration Acknowledge message. The PDSN stops timer Tregupd. The source PCF sends an A11-Registration Request message with Lifetime set to zero, to the PDSN. The source AN/PCF starts timer Tregreq. The PDSN sends an A11-Registration Reply message to the source PCF. The source PCF closes the A10 connection for the AT and stops timer Tregreq. The target PCF responds to the target AN with an A9-Release-A8complete message. The AN stops timer TA8-setup.

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Data Delivery AT Terminated

A B C D

The PCF determines that packet data is available for delivery to the
AT.

The PCF sends an A9-BS Service Request message to the AN in order


to request packet service, and starts timer Tbsreq9. The AN responds with an A9-BS Service Response. The PCF stops timer Tbsreq9 upon receipt of the A9-BS Service Response message. The AN sends a Page Message to the AT, on the control channel.

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If the AT has data to send, the AT initiates connection establishment procedures with the AN. The AN assigns a Forward Traffic Channel, Reverse Power Control Channel and Reverse Traffic Channel. After the traffic channel is established, the AN sends an A9-Setup-A8 to the PCF and starts timer TA8-setup, to establish the A8Connection. When the AN receives the A9-Connect-A8 message it stops timer TA8setup. At this point, the connection is established and packet data can flow between the AT and the PDSN.

G H

CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Overview

ADCOMs CDMA2000 Solutions


CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO are complex networks. Many service providers around the world are now adopting CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO networks as a migration path from CDMA. A sophisticated testing tool is required to troubleshoot and maintain such networks. The combination of the Performer's hardware capabilities, complete IOS 3.x to 4.x protocol support for A1, A3, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A14 and A15 including mms services (H324M) and the set of Consultants provides an attractive solution for CDMA2000 1x (2.5G) and CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO vendor R&D, QA and integration labs, as well as for CDMA2000 operators during network setup, integration and operation, thus providing a testing and analysis tool for all aspects of these complex networks. RADCOMs CDMA2000 Consultants include the A10/A11 Consultant, which analyzes the connection of the Packet Core Network to the Circuit CDMA2000 network for data tunnel/session, launched by mobile users; the A12 Consultant, which analyzes the signaling information between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN AAA; the PI (Internet) Consultant, which analyzes the connection of the PDSN to the Internet and the Network Consultant, which tracks the session as it moves between the different interfaces of the PCN - A10/A11, A12, PI (Internet). Based on the field-proven Performer platform, the Cellular Performer Analyzer integrates RADCOM's proprietary GEAR (generic analyzer processor chip) which provides hardware-based full line rate analysis capabilities at up to 2.5 Gbps. The Cellular Performer Analyzer can analyze and troubleshoot CDMA2000 Network conditions at all seven telecommunication layers, from basic physical and link layer tests to complex tracing of NAS layer voice and IP session signaling and Data/voice QoS validation. This makes it the ideal tool for debugging, troubleshooting, maintaining and monitoring performance of CDMA2000 networks. Targeted at the convergence of datacom and telecom, RADCOM's Cellular Performer provides a complete solution to test the CDMA2000 interworking of BTS, BSC/PCF, and PDSN. Additionally, RADCOM constantly updates its protocol support to provide customers with up-to-date tools in the everchanging 3G Standard environment.

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Highlights
Protocol analysis for all major CDMA2000 interfaces including A1, A3, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A14, and A15. A10/A11 online/offline sessions tracing A10/A11 online/offline sessions abnormal tracing A10 Connection Setup SDB (Short Data Burst information) Air link Record SDB (Short Data Burst information) Air link Record A10 Packet Accounting Procedures Supports Asynchronous PPP, Mobile IP and RADIUS. Monitors user-plane signaling and traffic such as PPP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, WAP, etc. GRE Traffic analysis Session flow, session analysis and error detection of the following Internet protocols (PDSN to Internet connection): HTTP, FTP, POP-3, SMTP, Telnet, TCP/IP, PPP, PAP, CCP, IPCP, CHAP, L2TP, LCP, WAP, WTP, WSP. Provides online and offline A12 network error tracing Automatically discovers, displays and monitors thousands of active and closed PCF to AN AAA sessions. Analyzes signaling information related to terminal authentication between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting entity for 1x-EV-DO). Analyzes the AN-level authentication of the MS/AT device by authenticating the results of a CHAP challenge/response operation invoked by the AN. Analyzes RADIUS protocol procedures as it flows between the AN and the different RADIUS servers, e.g., RADIUS Home, RADIUS Visited and RADIUS Broker. Analyzes the transition of MN ID, also used on the A8/A9 and A10/A11 interfaces. The MN ID identifier permits handoffs of PDSN packet data sessions between ANs and between 1xEV-DO and IS-2000 systems. Automatically discovers, displays and monitors thousands of active and closed CDMA2000 A10/A11, A12 and PI (Internet) sessions. Full PCN (Packet Core Network) call tracing from a single point including A10/A11, A12 and Internet (PI) using the Network Consultant.

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CDMA2000 Network
RADCOMs CDMA2000 1x Network Coverage

RADCOMs CDMA2000 1x-EV-DO Network Coverage

CDMA2000 Protocols Support


RADCOM provides support for the following CDMA2000 protocols: A1: A1 Signaling, SCCP, MTP3, MTP2, MTP1 A3: A3 Signaling, TCP, IP, AAL5, ATM A7: A7 Signaling, TCP, IP, AAL5, ATM A8: GRE, IP, PPP A9: A9 signaling, TCP, UDP, IP A10: GRE, IP, PPP A11: A11 signaling, UDP, IP , PPP, Mobile IP

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A12: RADIUS, UDP, IP, PPP A13: A13 Signaling, TCP/UDP, IP A14: A14 Signaling, TCP/UDP, IP A15: A15 Signaling, TCP/UDP, IP Other Protocols: PPP in HDLC-like Framing, IPCP, Diameter, IKE

CDMA2000 Protocol Analysis Applications


The Performer analyzer provides a number of applications that can be used to view various sections of a CDMA2000 network. These include the Physical Layer application, the Capture application, the Analysis application and the Traffic Generation.

Physical Layer
The Physical layer application offers a display of all significant counters per technology. The user can define event thresholds and later view them in a log screen in addition there is a status LED for each counter.

Capture
The Capture application provides full line rate capture (up to 2.5 Gbps). The data is captured to a 256 Mbyte hardware buffer or to the Performer Servers hard disk. Both online and offline filters and analyses are available.

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Furthermore, the Capture application offers support of more then 550 protocols including full CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO protocol analysis.

Analysis
The Analysis application provides full line rate analysis (up to 2.5 Gbps) in addition to full line rate analysis filters. It also provides an extensive set of analyses per technology as well as flexible alarms

Traffic Generation
The Traffic Generator uses RADCOMs protocol decode database & engine to build and simulate CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO protocols. It simulates precaptured CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO protocols.

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CDMA2000 Consultants
RADCOM manufactures the CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO Consultant which can be connected to a network such as that below.

CDMA2000 A10/A11 Consultant highlights


RADCOMs A10/A11 Consultant offers the following highlights A10/A11 online/offline sessions tracing A10/A11 online/offline network error tracing A10/A11 online/offline sessions abnormal tracing A10/A11 procedures time and behavior (Attached/Detached, etc.) A10/A11 Sessions statistics Full Protocols analysis and conformance A10 Connection Setup Air link Record SDB (Short Data Burst information) Air link Record

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A10 Packet Accounting Procedures PPP Session analysis GRE Traffic analysis; Uplink/downlink Identifier analysis; IMSI, Host IP, PCF Session ID, Etc. Entities analysis; PCF, PDSN, HA, FA

CDMA2000 A10/A11 Consultant Screens


The CDMA2000 A10/A11 Consultant screens below demonstrate how the user can trace the progress of a message through the network entities.

Figure 1-1: A11 Signaling details

The user can analyze the registration and validate the network functionality opening the 1x and 1x-Ev-DO data channel between the PCF and PDSN. In addition, the GRE details can be displayed.

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Figure 1-2: GRE Details

Figure 1-3: Session Details

The Performance and Signaling behavior of MIP and PPP can be analyzed.

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Figure 1-4: Upper Protocol Flow details

CDMA2000 A12 Consultant Highlights


Provides online and offline A12 network error tracing. Automatically discovers, displays and monitors thousands of active and closed PCF to AN AAA sessions. Analyzes signaling information related to terminal authentication between the SC/MM function in the PCF and the AN AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting entity for 1x-EV-DO). Analyzes the AN-level authentication of the MS/AT device by authenticating the results of a CHAP challenge/response operation invoked by the AN. Analyzes RADIUS protocol procedures as it flows between the AN and the different RADIUS servers, e.g., RADIUS Home, RADIUS Visited and RADIUS Broker. Analyzes the transition of MN ID, also used on the A8/A9 and A10/A11 interfaces. The MN ID identifier permits handoffs of PDSN packet data sessions between ANs and between 1xEV-DO and IS-2000 systems.

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CDMA2000 Internet Consultant


In addition, the CDMA2000 network can be examined using the CDMA2000 Internet Consultant. The Internet Consultant features the following highlights: Session level overview of PDSN to Internet connection TCP, HTTP and WAP transactions statistics Full Protocols analysis and conformance of all Internet protocols Session flow, session analysis and error detection of the following Internet protocols: HTTP FTP POP-3 SMTP Telnet TCP/IP PPP; PAP, CCP, IPCP, CHAP, L2TP, LCP WAP; WTP, WSP

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CDMA2000 Internet Consultant Screens


The CDMA2000 Consultant allows the user to follow a CDMA2000 message through all its stages on all network layers, and view both signaling and data messages.

Figure 1-5: General Connection Statistics

The user can analyze the important application layer protocols such as HTTP, WAP etc and view and analyze session details.

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Figure 1-6: Session Details

Figure 1-7: Signaling Flow

In addition, they can analyze and troubleshoot the Internet Session flow.

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CDMA2000 Network Consultant


The CDMA2000 Network Consultant provides full PCN session level analysis from a single point -A10/A11, A12, Internet (PI) and allows the user to analyze the user experience when accessing the 1x/1x-EV-DO data services. In addition it provides online PCN error tracing as well as full PCN calls/sessions abnormal. The Networks Consultant enables correlation of information from multi links on a specific interface. Running both in online and offline modes and allowing full PCN call tracing from a single point, it completes RADCOMs range of Consultants for troubleshooting and maintaining CDMA2000 1x/1x-EV-DO systems.

Figure 1-8: CDMA2000 Network Consultant connected to a network

Performer Infrastructure
The CDMA2000 and the Internet Consultant run on the Cellular Performer. The cutting-edge infrastructure of the Cellular Performer provides users with the following features: Full line rate Multi technology Multi port Large set of protocols decode Synchronized solution GEAR, analyzer on chip Independent filters engines supporting up to 2.5 Gbps

RADCOMs GEAR
The GEAR is RADCOMs proprietary, full-custom ASIC chip. It supports 2.5 Gbps (STM16; OC-48) and has 3 Independent filters engines, one for use with

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the Capture application, one for the Analysis application and a third for use with various online applications. The Capture buffer on the GEAR itself is up to 1 Gigabyte. The GEAR supports an extensive set of analyses per technology. In addition, as a result of utilizing a chip it provides high performance online applications including CDMA2000, UMTS & GPRS Consultants, MediaPro, UDDs, and many others.

The GenFEP (Generic FEP)


RADCOMs GenFEP is a new all-in-one concept. The GenFEP offers the user one FEP for all technologies, while utilizing a different LIM (Line Interface Module) for technology. It provides a 256 Mbyte Capture buffer and has a huge set of sophisticated and high speed hardware resources which include the GEAR, Programmable logic, Memory devices and FIFOs.

Dedicated ATM features


The Performer supports ATM interfaces. It supports ATM STM1/4/16 (OC3/ 12/48) and provides AAL5/2/1 auto detection of 64,000 different VPI/VCIs and online AAL5/2 (data & voice) re-assembly of 8,000 VPI/VCIs. In addition, it supports the ATM over E1/T1 interface, providing AAL5/2/1 Auto detection of 64,000 different VPI/VCIs and online AAL5/2 (data & voice) re-assembly of 8,000 VPI/VCIs.

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Dedicated Ethernet & POS features


The Performer also provides dedicated Ethernet and Packet over SONET/SDH features. It provides a FastLAN LIM and a Gigabit Ethernet LIM. The Gigabit Ethernet LIM features plug-able transceivers. The Packet over SONET LIM supports STM1/4/16 (OC3/12/48).

Dedicated multi E1/T1/J1 features


The Performer provides the following dedicated multi E1/T1/J1 features: six full duplex ports (12 half duplex ports), use of 256 channels simultaneously and supports HDLC, Transparent, Abis and Unframed (Unchannelized) channels. In addition, the Performer provides GPRS Deciphering. The GPRS deciphering is online at full line rate; hardware based and can deal with 128,000 calls simultaneously. The performers future hardware plans include support of ATM over IMA

Time Stamp Synchronization


A unique feature of the Performer is the Time Stamp Synchronization. Using the SynCard all FEPs within the same Performer are synchronized. In-lab synchronization is performed through a sync cable, while Global synchronization is done through a built-in GPS. The configuration is wizardbased and very simple. The resolution of the time stamp synchronization is 20 Nano-sec for in-lab synchronization and 150 Nano-sec for global synchronization. The diagram below shows a setup of four Performers linked using the special Sync cables.

Summary
RADCOMs Performer with its collection of unique features and multiple interface support can now offer support for decoding and analyzing all layers of the new CDMA2000 based networks. Use of the various Performer components facilitates the work of network engineers in managing the complex CDMA2000 networks.

RADCOMs CDMA2000 Solutions

US Office: RADCOM Equipment Inc. 6 Forest Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA Tel: (201) 518-0033 or 1-800-RADCOM-4, Fax: (201) 556-9030 E-mail: info@radcomusa.com Israel Office: RADCOM Ltd. 24 Raoul Wallenberg St., Tel Aviv, 69719, Israel Tel: 972-3-6455055, Fax: 972-3-6474681 E-mail: info@radcom.com China Office: RADCOM Ltd. Handerson Center, Office 506, Tower 3, 18 Jianguomennei Avenue, Beijing 1000005, P.R. China Tel: +86-10-65187723, Fax: +86-10-65187721 E-mail: china@radcom.com United Kingdom Office: RADCOM UK 2440 The Quadrant Aztec West, Almondsbury Bristol, BS32 4AQ England Tel: +44-145-487-8827, Fax: +44-145-487-8788 E-mail: uk@radcom.com Web Site: http://www.radcom.com RADCOM, 2003