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How to Conduct a Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA), Part One

November 9, 2008 By Ron Pereira 4 Comments

As promised a few posts ago, I’d like to explain exactly how to go about completing a measurement systems analysis (MSA). If the sound of this makes you want to yawn… well… stop it! It’s Monday and time to get focused (and some coffee). :-) Seriously, this one tool has greatly benefited me over the years and I know it will you too. The two pre-cursor articles to this one explained one such example of a variation storyand how a simple MSA helped save millions of dollars in 60 minutes. Now then, tonight I want to begin by explaining what a measurement system analysis is as well as two types of MSA that will serve you very well once you’ve mastered them. MSA Defined (Job Interview Proof) Right, so if you’re ever on a job interview and get asked to explain what an MSA is you would probably do well to rattle off something like this: A Measurement System Analysis, abbreviated MSA, is a specially designed experiment that seeks to identify the components of variation in the measurement. That would be the Wikipedia definition and I guess it sounds pretty nice… and chances are the guy interviewing won’t have a clue himself… so , yeah, this would be a great answer! MSA Defined (Ron’s Take)

The variation within the measurement system itself (M) In other words.But listen. many times there is so much variation with the actual measurement system we have no earthly clue how much variation is due to the actual process. 1. Up Next Now that we know what a MSA is as well as two popular types of analysis it’s time to learn how to conduct the actual studies… and that’s precisely what we’ll discuss in the very near future! If you have any experience. if you have a specific question on the topic please share that as well.  . So rather than getting all text book like allow me to offer my explanation of what a MSA is. we may try and try and try to improve the process only to find out the problem wasn’t even the process… it was the dang measurement system! And this is precisely why measurement systems analysis is so important.) an Attribute Gage studywill do the trick nicely. good/bad. You see. Even worse. When dealing with variable data (data we can measure like weight. anytime we measure something (e. good or bad. In a perfect world the variation due to M (measurement system) would be zero meaning all we need to do is attack and defeat the variation within the process (P) and then ride off victorious. We must identify how much of the total variation is due to the process and how much is due to the actual measurement system. Also. Types of MSA There are different types of MSA out there and the one you choose has a lot to do with the data you’re dealing with. etc. with measurement systems analysis please share in the comments section below. distance. the total variation we’re experiencing (T) can be explained by a formula that looks something like this: T = P + M.) aGage R&R study will serve you well.  When dealing with attribute data (pass/fail. The variation within the parts/process we’re studying (P) 2. This stands for Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility. Sadly. the weight of a part) we’re actually dealing with two types of variation. etc. I’m a simple man.g.

There are five parameters to investigate in an MSA: bias. 2003 [edit] When to use the tool   To determine whether the variation we observe is really from the customer responses to the survey To determine how much of the variation is due to the questionnaire used to collect the customer responses [edit] How to perform an MSE 1. cost of repair.Measurement System Analysis updated Jul 20. 29. linearity. (Questionnaire) 2. 2011 9:09 pm | 20. AIAG also states that the number of distinct categories the measurement systems divides a process into should be greater than or equal to 5. and other factors. A general rule for measurement system acceptability is: Under 10 percent error is acceptable. Aug. 10 percent to 30 percent error suggests that the system is acceptable depending on the importance of application. Develop questions to collect customer input.439 views Contents       [Hide TOC] 1 Introduction 2 When to use the tool 3 How to perform an MSE 4 Basic Parameters of Measurement System Analysis 5 Variable Measurement Systems: Repeatability. Over 30 percent error is considered unacceptable. you should also review graphical analysis over time to decide on the acceptability of a measurement system. In addition to percent error and the number of distinct categories. cost of measurement device. Reproducibility 6 Attribute Measurement Systems [edit] Introduction Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Also known as Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) As part of ISO9000:2000 and AIAG 2002 standards. Identify at least two objective candidates to respond to your questionnaire . Note: Adopted inpart from: P. the Measurement system analysis (MSA) is defined as an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes to overall process variability. and you should improve the measurement system.Vimala Rao. stability. repeatability and reproducibility.

scatter plots. The appropriate MSE tool depends on the data type. Analyze the MSE data using the appropriate MSE tool. . Determination of stability standards in a system requires data sampled to cover a wide range of possible variation factors and intensive piece meal statistical tests covering variations in human resources. Requirement for statistically analyzing a system would involve a process to determine the variations from the mean (central) location which is imperative to analyze the measurement accuracy taking into consideration factors of bias. “acceptable/unacceptable”) For attribute data that is ranked. space and location factors. (e. 3)Linearity refers to different statistical results from measurements when subjected to different metric spaces. ANOVA. we can use Intraclass Correlation MSE methods. Evaluate the measurement system.g.. we can use Control Chart MSE and/or ANOVA. we can use Kappa MSE methods.3. tools. ICC) 5. In case of indeterminate measurement process owing to constraints. rating of 1 to 5) For continuous data. normally the data average values are compared with the standard values. (Is it capable of verifying customer requirements?) 6. a non linearity in a system may result from equipment (or tools) not calibrated for various levels of operating range or poor design of system or any other system constraint. After at least three days. ANOVA techniques and other standard deviation measurement tools. (Control Chart Method. ask the same respondents to answer the questions again. In order to measure the process measurement bias. [edit] Basic Parameters of Measurement System Analysis Any measurement process for a system typically involves measurement precision as well as measurement accuracy of the system variables subject to the constraints of the system. For instance. Analyzing a system for stability typical involve the standard statistical processes such as SPC (Statistical Process Control).g. rating product features as “good/bad”. 4. Revise the questionnaire as needed. for determinate measurement a process called calibration is needed which is of higher level than measuring the data average. time. stability and linearity. Linearity in a system is determined using higher levels of calibrations in measurement standards which often guided by inferences drawn from various interaction factors influencing a system. (e. 2)Stability refers to processes which are normally free from special cause variations.    For attribute data that is non-ranked. Bias can lead to sampling of a data which on analysis appear to be different from the actual or anticipated data set. parts. These parameters of MSA (Measurement Systems Analysis) can be described as follows:1)Bias refers to a probability of presence of certain factors in a system which can influence deviation from the standards in the system. KAPPA. Do not tell them in step 2 that you will be asking for an additional response.

it may be impossible to determine whether or not an individual sample is within spec. or strength. it is common to separate the error into repeatability (error due to the instrument or measurement procedure) and reproducibility (error due to the appraiser). Related White Papers and Webcasts Return Path Email Marketing Measurement Imperative Return Path Email Marketing Measurement Imperative Future of Business Phone Systems . When quantifying measurement error. multiple appraisers measure samples with known characteristics. In the risk analysis method. Three procedures outlined by the AIAG to deal with such systems: the risk analysis method. concentration. Statistics are calculated based on how often the appraisers correctly characterize each sample and how frequently they agree with themselves and each other. [edit] Attribute Measurement Systems When the results of a measurement system are PASS or FAIL rather than a quantitative value. Reproducibility For measurement systems that result in quantitative measurements such as weight. If the error is large. the signal theory method. it is important to determine the magnitude of any error in the resulting measurements. designed experiments rely on the ability to separate real effects of making changes from the background noise and could be sabotaged by an inadequate measurement system.[edit] Variable Measurement Systems: Repeatability. special procedures are necessary. In addition. and the analytic method.