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List of Roman Emperors


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For a simplified list, see Concise list of Roman Emperors For more information, see History of the Roman Empire. The title of Roman Emperor, although in some ways a modern concept, effectively summarises the position held by those individuals who wielded power in the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire developed from the Roman Republic after its ascent to the dominant power in Europe, and is characterised by the concentration of power in one individual, rather than the "Senate and People of Rome". However, Augustus, universally accepted to have been the first emperor, was careful to maintain the facade of republican rule, and took no specific title to mark his rule (which began in 27 BC).[1] Instead, he simply concentrated the pre-existing powers of Roman magistrates upon his own person, taking the existing honorific of 'Princeps Senatus' (the first man of the senate).[1] This style of government, which lasted for nearly 300 years, is thus called the 'Principate'. The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title 'Imperator', which was granted by an army to a successful general; as such, during the initial phase of the Roman Empire, it still had to be earned by the 'Princeps'. The term 'emperor', though modern, is used when describing rulers of the Roman Empire, since it a) emphasises the strong links between the ruler and the army (on whose support the ruler's power depended), and b) does not discriminate between the style of rule in different phases of the Empire. In the late 3rd century AD, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of imperial rule, establishing the so-called 'Dominate' period of the Roman Empire. This was characterised by the explicit investment of authority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style 'Dominus Noster' ('Our Lord'). From Diocletian onwards, there were often multiple simultaneous emperors, dividing the rule of the vast territories between them. After 395 AD, and the death of Theodosius I, the Empire became more firmly split into Western and Eastern halves [2] They were not legally separate however, and the Emperor of the more stable Eastern Empire often imposed his authority over the Western half. The Western Empire was heavily troubled after 395 AD, and collapsed completely after 455 AD, the last Western Emperor abdicating in 476 AD; after which the Eastern Empire maintained claim to the territories in the west. The Eastern Empire would continue until 1453, and the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks.[3] The Eastern Emperors, generally known in modern times as the Byzantine Emperors, continued an unbroken succession of Roman Emperors. The listing of the early Byzantine Emperors in this article ends in the 6th century with Justin II, last of the Justinian dynasty. For further Eastern/Byzantine Emperors, see: List of Byzantine Emperors.
Augustus, first Roman Emperor

The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors (e.g. not usurpers, etc.). However, since the emperorship was rather vaguely defined legally, which persons were 'legitimate' is not easy to define; many of the 'legitimate' emperors accessed to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. The following criteria can be used to derive the list: Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point , must, in point of fact, be a 'legitimate emperor'(1). Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor (1), and who succeeded to rule in their own right , is a legitimate emperor (2). Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs; the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor (3), at least during the Principate. So for instance, Aurelian, though acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed between 274-275 AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of (the legitimate emperor) Valerian. Claudius Gothicus, though acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperors, all claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger or Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included. There are a few examples where individuals were made coemperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typically the child of an emperor); these are legitimate, but are listed together with the 'senior' emperor. The above formula holds until 395, when the Western and Eastern halves of the Empire split. After that, it continues to hold, with the caveat that a legitimate emperor had undisputed control over one half of the Empire. Towards the end of the Western Empire (after 455), the emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes actually no claimant. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after that point are included, even though Romulus Augustus, traditionally the "last Roman Emperor" was technically a usurper. For a more exhaustive list of all claimants, including usurpers, see Concise list of Roman Emperors
Contents [hide] 1 The Principate 1.1 Julio-Claudian dynasty 1.2 Year of the Four Emperors & Flavian Dynasty 1.3 Nervan-Antonian dynasty 1.4 Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty 1.5 Emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century 2 The Dominate 2.1 Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty 2.2 Valentinian dynasty 2.3 Theodosian dynasty 2.4 The last emperors of the Western Empire 3 The Emperors of the Eastern Empire

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List of Roman Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nederlands Norsk (bokml) Nouormand Picard Plattdtsch Polski Portugus Romn Sicilianu Simple English Slovenina Slovenina / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / Suomi Svenska Tagalog Trke 3.1 Leonid Dynasty 3.2 Justinian Dynasty 4 Timeline 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

The Principate
Main article: Principate

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Julio-Claudian dynasty
Main article: Julio-Claudian dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Augustus
CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS

September 23 63 BC, Nola, Italia

January 16 27 BC August 19, 14 AD

Became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate.

August 19, 14 AD Natural causes.

Tiberius
TIBERIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS

November 16 42 BC, Rome

September 18, 14 AD March 16, 37 AD

Son of Augustus's wife Livia by a previous marriage; adopted son of Augustus.

March 16, 37 AD Probably old age, possibly assassinated

Caligula
GAIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS

August 31, 12 AD, Antium, March 18, 37 AD Italia January 24, 41 AD

Son of Tiberius's nephew Germanicus.

January 24, 41 AD Assassinated in a conspiracy involving senators and Praetorian Guards.

Claudius
TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS

August 1, 10 BC, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis

January 25/26, 41 AD October 13, 54 AD

Nephew of Tiberius, brother of Germanicus and uncle of Caligula; proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard.

October 13, 54 AD Probably poisoned by his wife Agrippina the Younger, in favour of her son Nero.

Nero
NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS

December 15, 37 AD, Antium, Italia

October 13, 54 AD June 11, 68 AD

Grandson of Germanicus, step- and adopted son of Claudius.

June 11, 68 AD Committed suicide after being declared a public enemy by the Senate.

Year of the Four Emperors & Flavian Dynasty


Main articles: Year of the Four Emperors and Flavian Dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Galba
SERVIVS GALBA IMPERATOR CAESAR AVGVSTVS

December 24 3 BC, Near Terracina, Italia

June 8, 68 AD - January 15, 69 AD

Seized power after Nero's suicide, with support of the Spanish legions

January 15, 69 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard

Otho
MARCVS OTHO CAESAR AVGVSTVS

April 25, 32 AD, Ferentinum, Etruria, Italia

January 15, 69 AD - April 16, 69 AD

Appointed by Praetorian Guard

April 16, 69 AD Committed suicide after losing Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius

Vitellius
AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS

September 24, 15 AD, Rome

April 17, 69 AD - December Seized power with support of German Legions (in 20, 69 AD opposition to Galba/Otho)

December 20, 69 AD Murdered by Vespasian's troops

Vespasian
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS

November 17, 9 AD, Falacrine, Italia

July 1, 69 AD - June 24, 79 Seized power with the support of the eastern AD Legions (in opposition to Vitellius)

June 24, 79 AD Natural causes

Titus
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS

December 30, 39 AD, Rome

June 24, 79 AD September 13, 81 AD

Son of Vespasian

September 13, 81 AD Natural causes (Brain tumour)

Domitian
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS

October 24, 51 AD, Rome

September 14, 81 AD September 18, 96 AD

Son of Vespasian

September 18, 96 AD Assassinated by court officials

Nervan-Antonian dynasty
Main article: Nervan-Antonian dynasty Main article: Five Good Emperors Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Nerva
MARCVS COCCIEVS NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS,

November 8, 30 AD, Narni, Italia

September 18, 96 AD January 27, 98 AD

Appointed by the Senate

January 27, 98 AD Natural causes

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Trajan
CAESAR MARCVS VLPIVS NERVA TRAIANVS AVGVSTVS

September 18, 53 AD, Italica, January 28, 98 AD Hispania Baetica August 7, 117 AD

Adopted son and heir of Nerva

August 7, 117 AD Natural causes

Hadrian
CAESAR PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS

January 24, 76 AD, Italica, Hispania Baetica (or Rome)

August 11, 117 AD - July 10, 138 AD

Adopted son and heir of Trajan

July 10, 138 AD Natural causes

Antoninus Pius
CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS

September 19, 86 AD, Near Lanuvium, Italia

July 10, 138 AD - March 7, Adopted son and heir of Hadrian 161 AD

March 7, 161 AD Natural causes

Lucius Verus
CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS

December 15, 130 AD, Rome

March 7, 161 AD -? March 169 AD

Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Coemperor with Marcus Aurelius until death

March 169 AD Natural causes (Plague)

Marcus Aurelius
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS

April 26, 121 AD, Rome

March 7, 161 AD - March 17, 180 AD

Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius; Coemperor with Lucius Verus until 169 AD

March 17, 180 AD Natural causes

Commodus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS

August 31, 161 AD, Lanuvium, Italia

177 AD - December 31, 192 AD

Natural son of Marcus Aurelius; joint emperor from 177 AD

December 31, 192 AD Assassinated in palace, strangled to death

Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty


Main articles: Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty family tree Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Pertinax
CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS

August 1, 126, Alba, Italia

January 1, 193 AD March 28, 193 AD

Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard

March 28, 193 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard

Didius Julianus
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133 or 137 AD, Milan,

March 28, 193 AD -

Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of

June 1, 193 AD

List of Roman Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS

Italia

June 1, 193 AD

emperor

Executed on orders of the Senate

Septimius Severus
CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS

April 11, 145 AD, Leptis April 9, 193 AD Magna, Africa February 4, 211 AD

Seized power with support of Pannonian legions a

February 4, 211 AD Natural causes

Caracalla
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS

April 4, 188 AD, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis

198 AD - April 8, 217 AD

April 8, 217 AD Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus from 198 Murdered by a soldier; probably as AD; with Severus and Geta from 209 AD until February 211 AD; part of a conspiracy involving co-emperor with Geta until December 211 AD Macrinus

Geta
CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTUS

March 7, 189 AD, Rome

209 AD - December 26, 211 AD

Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus and Caracalla from 209 AD until February 211 AD; co-emperor with Caracalla until December 211 AD

December 26, 211 AD Murdered on the orders of Caracalla

Macrinus
MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS FELIX

with Diadumenian
MARCVS OPELLIVS ANTONINVS DIADUMENIANUVS

c. 165 AD, Iol Caesarea, April 11, 217 AD Mauretania June 8, 218 AD

Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, probably conspired to have Caracalla murdered and proclaimed himself emperor after Caracalla's death; appointed his son Diadumenian junior emperor in May 217

June 8, 218 AD Both executed in favour of Elagabalus

Elagabalus
MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS

c. 203 AD, Emesa, Syria

June 8, 218 AD March 11, 222 AD

Grandson of Septimius Severus's sister-in-law, alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla; proclaimed emperor by Syrian legions

March 11, 222 AD Murdered by Praetorian Guard

Alexander Severus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER AVGVSTVS

October 1, 208 AD, Arca March 13, 222 AD Caesarea, Iudaea March 18, 235 AD

Grandson of Septimius Severus's sister-in-law, cousin and adoptive heir of Elagabalus

March 18, 235 AD Murdered by the army

Notes

a The other claimants for the throne in the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, supported by the Syrian and British legions respectively. Although not completely defeated until 197 AD, they were not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore not technically reigning emperors.

Emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century


Main article: Crisis of the Third Century Main article: Roman Emperor (Crisis of the Third Century) Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Maximinus Thrax
CAESAR GAIVS JVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS

c.173 AD, Thrace or Moesia

March 20, 235 AD - April Proclaimed emperor by German legions after the murder of 238 AD Alexander Severus

April 238 AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard

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Gordian I
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 159 AD, Phrygia?

Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt April 238 AD March 22, 238 AD - April against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in Committed suicide upon hearing 12, 238 AD opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively of the death of Gordian II. legitimised by the accession of Gordian III

Gordian II
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 192 AD,?

Proclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition to March 22, 238 AD - April Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised 12, 238 AD by the accession of Gordian III

April 238 AD Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army

Pupienus Maximus
CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS

c. 178 AD,?

April 22, 238 AD - July 29, 238 AD

Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus and Gordian III

July 29, 238 AD Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard

Balbinus
CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS

April 22, 238 AD - July 29, 238 AD

Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus by the Senate after death July 29, 238 AD of Gordian I & II, in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor Assassinated by Praetorian with Pupienus and Gordian III Guard

Gordian III
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS

January 20, 225 AD, Rome

April 22, 238 AD February 11, 244 AD

Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I & II, then by the Senate; joint-emperor with Pupienus and Balbinus until July 238 AD.

February 11, 244 AD Unknown; possibly murdered on orders of Philip the Arab

Philip the Arab


CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILLIPVS AVGVSTVS

c. 204 AD, Shahba, Syria

February 244 AD September/ October 249 Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death AD

September/ October 249 AD Killed in battle against Decius, near Verona

Decius
CAESAR GAIVS MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAIANVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 201 AD, Budalia, Lower Pannonia

with Herennius Etruscus

June 251 AD Governor under Philip the Arab; proclaimed emperor by Danubian September/ October 249 Both killed in the Battle of legions and defeated Philip in battle; made his son Herennius AD - June 251 AD Abrittus fighting against the Etruscus co-emperor in early 251 AD Goths

Hostilian
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CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS

Rome

June 251 AD - late 251 AD

Son of Decius, accepted as heir by the Senate

September/October 251 AD Natural causes (Plague)

Trebonianus Gallus
CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS

206 AD, Italia

June 251 AD - August 253 AD

with Volusianus

Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian August 253 AD legions after Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made Assassinated by their own his son Volusianus co-emperor in late 251 AD. troops, in favour of Aemilianus

Aemilianus
CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 207 AD Africa

Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian August 253 AD - October legions after defeating the Goths; accepted as emperor after 253 AD death of Gallus

September/October 253 AD Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian

Valerian
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 200 AD

October 253 AD - 260 AD

Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilianus

After 260 AD Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity

Gallienus
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS

October 253 AD September 268 AD

Son of Valerian, made co-emperor in 253 AD

September 268 AD Murdered in unclear circumstances

Claudius Gothicus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS

May 10, 213 AD/214 AD, Sirmium

September 268 AD January 270 AD

Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death

January 270 AD Natural causes (Plague)

Quintillus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS

? , Sirmium

January 270 AD - 270 AD

Brother of Claudius Gothicus, seized power after his death

270 AD Unclear; possibly suicide or murder

Aurelian
CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS

September 9, 214 September(?) 270 AD AD/215 AD , Sirmium September 275 AD

Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius Gothicus's death, in opposition to Quintillus

September 275 AD Assassinated by Praetorian Guard

Tacitus
CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS

?, Interamna

September 25, 275 AD - Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short June 276 AD interregnum

June 276 AD Natural causes (possibly assassinated)

Florianus
CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS

June 276 AD September? 276 AD

September? 276 AD Possibly half-brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to Assassinated by his own troops, replace him in favour of Probus

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Probus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS

232 AD, Sirmium

September? 276 AD Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by September/ October 282 Danubian legions in opposition to Florianus AD

September/ October 282 AD Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus

Carus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS

c. 230 AD, Narbo

September/ October 282 Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after AD - late July/ early Probus was murdered August 283 AD

Late July/early August 283 AD Natural causes? (Possibly killed by lightning)

Numerian
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS

Late July/early August 283 AD - 284 AD?

Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus

284 AD Unclear; possibly assassinated

Carinus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS

Late July/early August 283 AD - 285 AD

Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Numerian

285 AD Died in battle against Diocletian?

The Dominate
Main article: Dominate

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Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty


Main article: Tetrarchy Main article: Constantinian dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Diocletian
CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. December 22, 244 November 20, 284 Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition AD, Salona AD - May 1, 305 AD to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 AD

3 December 311 AD Abdicated; died of natural causes in Aspalatos

Maximian
CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 250 AD, near Sirmium, Pannonia

April 1, 286 AD May 1, 305 AD

Adopted as senior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286 AD

310 AD Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius; captured by Constantine I and committed suicide at his behest

Constantius I Chlorus
CAESAR GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS

March 31 c. 250 AD, May 1, 305 AD - July Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Maximian in 293 AD Dardania, Moesia 25, 306 AD

306 AD Natural causes

Galerius
CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 260 AD, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior

May 1, 305 AD - May 311 AD Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Diocletian in 293 AD 311 AD Natural causes

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Severus
FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS

Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Constantius Chlorus Summer 306 AD in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus in 306; opposed by Maxentius and March/ April 307 AD Constantine I

September 16, 307 AD Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)

Constantine I
CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS VALERIVS AVGVSTVS

February 27 c. 272 25 July 306 AD AD, Naissus, Moesia May 22, 337 AD Superior

Son of Constantius Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306 AD; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 AD by Maximian after death of Severus; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 AD

May 22, 337 AD Natural causes

Maxentius
MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 278 AD,?

Son of Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius Chlorus, October 28, 312 AD 28 October 306 AD in opposition to Severus and Constantine I; made Caesar (west) by Died at the Battle of the Milvian October 28, 312 AD Maximian in 307 AD after the death of Severus Bridge, against Constantine I

Maximinus Daia
CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS

November 20 c. 270 AD, Dacia Aureliana

May 1, 311 AD July/August 313 AD

Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305 AD; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius) in 311 AD

July/August 313 AD Defeated in civil war against Licinius; probably committed suicide thereafter

Licinius
CAESAR GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS

with Valerius Valens Martinianus

c. 250 AD, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior

November 11, 308 AD - September 18, 324 AD

Appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308 BC, in opposition to Maxentius; became Augustus in the east in 311 AD after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus); defeated Maximinus in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313 BC; appointed Valerius Valens in 317 AD, and Martinianus in 324 AD as western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, both nominally ruled for a few months before being executed

325 AD Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 AD and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year

Constantine II
CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS

316 AD, Arles

May 22, 337 AD 340 AD

Son of Constantine I; appointed Caesar in 317 AD, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantius II and Constans

340 AD Died in battle against Constans

Constantius II
CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS

August 7, 317 AD, Sirmium, Pannonia

May 22, 337 AD Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers November 3, 361 AD Constantine II and Constans; sole emperor from 350 AD

361 AD Natural causes

Constans
CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS

320 AD,?

May 22, 337 AD 350 AD

Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II

350 AD Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius

Julian
CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS

331 AD/332 AD, Constantinople, Thracia

February 360 AD June 26, 363 AD

Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355 AD; proclaimed June 26, 363 AD Augustus by his troops in 360; sole emperor after the death of Mortally wounded in battle Constantius

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Jovian
CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS

331 AD, Singidunum, June 26, 363 AD General of Julian's army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's Moesia February 17, 364 AD death

February 17, 364 AD Natural causes (suffocated on fumes)

Valentinian dynasty
Main article: Valentinian dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

[edit]

Valentinian I
DOMINVS NOBILISSIMVS FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS

321 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia

February 26, 364 AD November 17, 375 AD

Elected to replace Jovian by the army

November 17, 375 AD Natural causes

Valens
DOMINVS NOBILISSIMVS FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS

328 AD, Cibalae, Pannonia

March 28, 364 AD August 9, 378 AD

Brother of Valentinian I, appointed co-augustus (for the east) by him

August 9, 378 AD Killed in Battle of Adrianople against the Goths

Gratian
DOMINVS NOBILISSIMVS FLAVIVS GRATIANVS AVGVSTVS

April 18/May 23, 359 AD, August 4, 367 AD Sirmium, Pannonia August 25, 383 AD

Son of Valentinian I, appointed 'junior' Augustus by him in 367, became 'senior' augustus (for the west) after Valentinian's death.

August 25, 383 AD Murdered by rebellious army faction

Valentinian II
DOMINVS NOBILISSIMVS FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS INVICTVS AVGVSTVS

371 AD, Milan, Italia

November 17, 375 AD May 15, 392 AD

Son of Valentinian I, proclaimed emperor by Pannonian May 15, 392 AD army after Valentinian's death; accepted as co-Augustus for Unclear; possibly murdered or the west by Gratian committed suicide

Theodosian dynasty
Main article: Theodosian dynasty Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

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Theodosius I
FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS

January 11, 347 AD, Cauca, Hispania

January 1, 379 AD January 17, 395 AD

Appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of January 17, 395 AD Valens; became sole 'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian Natural causes II

Arcadius
FLAVIVS ARCADIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 377 AD, Hispania

January 383 AD - May 1, 408 AD

EAST

Son of Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Theodosius in 383 (after the death of Gratian); became 'senior' Augustus for the east after his father's death

May 1, 408 AD Natural causes

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Honorius
FLAVIVS HONORIVS AVGVSTVS

September 9, 384 AD,?

January 23, 393 AD August 15, 423 AD

WEST

Son of Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the west by Theodosius in 393 (after the death of Valentinian II); became 'senior' Augustus for the west after his father's death

August 15, 423 AD Natural causes

Theodosius II
FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS

April 10, 401 AD, Constantinople?

May 1, 408 AD - July 28, 450 AD

Son of Arcadius, succeeded to the throne after his father's death

July 28, 450 AD Natural causes

EAST

Constantius III
FLAVIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS

?, Naissus, Moesia Superior

February 8, 421 AD September 2, 421 AD

Married to Theodosius I's daughter Galla Placidia, elevated to co- September 2, 421 AD Augustus for the west by Honorius Natural causes June or July 425 AD Defeated in battle by Theodosius II and Valentinian III, captured and executed March 16, 455 AD Assassinated, possibly at the behest of Petronius Maximus

WEST Joannes ? WEST Valentinian III


FLAVIVS PLACIDIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS

August 27, 423 AD May 425 AD

A senior civil servant under Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; initially undisputed

July 2, 419 AD, Ravenna, Italia

October 23, 424 AD March 16, 455 AD

WEST Marcian
FLAVIVS MARCIANIVS AVGVSTVS

Son of Constantius III, appointed Caesar for the west by Theodosius II after the death of Honorius, in opposition to the Joannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Joannes

396, Thrace or Illyria

Summer 450 AD January 457 AD

Nominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II

January 457 AD Natural causes

EAST

The last emperors of the Western Empire


Main article: Western Roman Empire Portrait Name Petronius Maximus
FLAVIVS ANICIVS PETRONIVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS

[edit]

Born c. 396 AD,?

Reigned

Succession

Died May 31, 455 AD Murdered, probably stoned to death by the Roman mob after 17 October 456 AD Deposed by his Magister militum , Ricimer; became bishop of Placentia; murdered at some point afterwards August 7, 461 AD Deposed by his troops (probably at the behest of Ricimer); died shortly afterwards in unclear circumstances

March 17, 455 AD - May 31, Proclaimed himself emperor with the support of 455 AD the army, after the death of Valentinian III Magister militum under Petronius Maximus, July 9, 455 AD - October 17, proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king 456 AD Theoderic II after Petronius's death

Avitus
EPARCHIVS AVITVS AVGVSTVS

c. 385 AD,?

Majorian
IVLIVS VALERIVS MAIORIANVS AVGVSTVS

November 420 AD,?

April 457 AD - August 2, 461 Appointed emperor by Ricimer AD

Libius Severus
LIBIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS

?, Lucania, Italia

November 461 AD - August 465 AD

Appointed emperor by Ricimer

August 465 AD Probably assassinated by Ricimer

Anthemius
PROCOPIVS ANTHEMIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 420 AD

April 12, 467 AD - July 11, 472 AD

Appointed emperor by Ricimer, with the backing of the eastern emperor Leo I

July 11, 472 AD Executed by Ricimer

Olybrius
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July 11, 472 AD] - November Son-in-law of Valentinian III; appointed emperor

November 2, 472 AD

List of Roman Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

FLAVIVS ANICIVS OLYBRIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 420 AD

2, 472 AD

by Ricimer

Natural causes

Glycerius

March 473 AD - June 474 AD June 474 AD - August 28, 475 AD (in Italy); - Spring 480 AD (in Gaul and Dalmatia) October 31, 475 AD September 4, 476 AD (in Italy)

Appointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor)

after 480 AD Deposed by Julius Nepos, became Bishop of Salona, time and manner of death unknown 480 AD Deposed in Italy by Flavius Orestes, ruled in exile until assassination in 480 after 480 AD Deposed by Odoacer, who then ruled in the name of Julius Nepos until the latter's death, which formally ended the western empire; most likely lived out his life on a private villa in obscurity [edit]

Julius Nepos

c. 430 AD,?

Nephew-in-law of the eastern emperor Leo I, appointed emperor in opposition to Glycerius

Romulus Augustulus

Appointed by his father, Flavius Orestes

The Emperors of the Eastern Empire


Main articles: Eastern Roman Empire and List of Byzantine Emperors

Leonid Dynasty
Main article: House of Leo Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

[edit]

Leo I
FLAVIVS VALERIVS LEO AVGVSTVS

401 AD,?

February 7, 457 AD January 18, 474 AD

Proclaimed emperor by the Magister militum Aspar after Marcian's death

January 18, 474 AD Natural causes

Leo II
FLAVIVS LEO IVNIOR AVGVSTVS

467 AD, Constantinople?

January 18, 474 AD November 17, 474 AD

Grandson of Leo I by his daughter Ariadne (empress)

November 17, 474 AD Unclear, possibly assassinated

Zeno
FLAVIVS ZENO PERPETVVS AVGVSTVS

425 AD, Isauria

February 9, 474 AD January 9, 475 AD & August 476 AD - April 9, 491 AD

Father of Leo II

April 9, 491 AD Natural causes August 476 AD Defeated, captured and executed by Zeno July 9, 518 Natural causes

Basiliscus
FLAVIVS BASILISCVS AVGVSTVS

January 9, 475 AD - August Brother-in-law of Leo I, seized power during a plot against 476 AD Zeno by Verina (Leo I's widow and Basiliscus's sister) April 9, 491 AD - July 9, 518 Selected by Ariadne as successor to Zeno (as both emperor AD and husband)

Anastasius I
FLAVIVS ANASTASIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 430 AD, Dyrrachium

Justinian Dynasty
Main article: Justinian Dynasty Portrait Justin I
FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS

[edit]

Name

Born c. 450 AD, Naissus

Reigned July 9, 518 AD - August 1, 527 AD

Succession Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius August 1, 527 AD I); elected as emperor with support of army Natural causes

Died

Justinian I
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FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 482 AD, Tauresium, August 1, 527 AD - 13/14 Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I Dardania November 565 AD

13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes

Justin II
FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS

c. 520 AD,?

13/14 November 565 AD Nephew of Justinian I - 578 AD

578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578

Continue to List of Byzantine Emperors

Timeline
Timeline indicating the chronological life-spans of the Roman Emperors

[edit]

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See also
List of Roman dictators (501 - 44 BC) List of Roman usurpers Roman Emperors family tree Roman usurper
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[edit]

List of Roman Emperors - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Second Triumvirate (43 - 33 BC)

References
Chris Scarre,Brandon Shaw, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors , Thames & Hudson, 1995, Reprinted 2001, ISBN 0-500-05077-5 Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics, Michael Grant Publications Ltd, 1971, Reprinted 1985, ISBN 0-14-044060-7 Martha Ross, Rulers and Governments of the World, Vol.1 Earliest Times to 1491, Bowker, 1978, ISBN 0-85935-021-5 Clive Carpenter, The Guinness Book of Kings Rulers & Statesmen , Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1978, ISBN 0-900424-46-X R.F.Tapsell, Monarchs Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of The World, Thames & Hudson, 1981, Reprinted 1987, ISBN 0-500-27337-5
1. ^ a b Rubicon. Holland, T. Abacus, 978-0349115634 2. ^ Chester G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 1974. pp. 670-678. 3. ^ Asimov, p. 198.

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External links
Biographies of Roman Emperors Portraits and fact files The Roman Law Library by Yves Lassard and Alexandr Koptev. Timeline of Roman Emperors and Empresses
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List of the Roman Emperors 27 BC - 395 AD

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