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I NTRODUCTION TO AI ICS 381: P RINCIPLES OF A RTIFICIAL I NTELLIGENCE Dr. El-Sayed

INTRODUCTION TO AI

ICS 381: PRINCIPLES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Dr. El-Sayed M. El-Alfy

Associate Professor & ISRG Coordinator

Information and Computer Science Dept. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia alfy@kfupm.edu.sa

Resources

Textbook:

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3/E. By Stuart Russell &

Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall, 2010. http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/

Norvig, Prentice Hall, 2010. http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/ Other recommended books: • Artificial Intelligence:

Other recommended books:

Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, 6/E. By George F. Luger, Addison - Wesley Publisher, 2009. http://wps.aw.com/aw_luger_ai_6/

Artificial Intelligence: A Guide to Intelligent Systems, 2/E. By Michael Negnevitsky, Addison-Wesley Publisher, 2005.

AI Algorithms, Data Structures and Idioms in Prolog, Lisp and Java. By G.F. Luger & W.A. Stubblefield, Pearson Education, 2009.

Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence, 4/E. Ivan Bratko, Addison-Wesley Publisher, 2012.

An Introduction to Prolog Programming, Lecture Notes, King's College London and University of Amsterdam, 1999-2007. http://staff.science.uva.nl/~ulle/teaching/prolog/prolog.pdf

Objectives

1 • Familiarize yourself with the concept and foundations of AI 2 • Learn a
1
• Familiarize yourself with the concept
and foundations of AI
2
• Learn a bit of history of AI
3
• Understand what AI can and can’t do

Outline

What is AI? motivation and discussions

Why AI and More Examples of Applications

Foundations of AI

History of AI

Wrap-up

W HAT IS AI? ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 5

WHAT IS AI?

W ATCH V IDEOS & H AVE F UN ! ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

WATCH VIDEOS & HAVE FUN!

Towel-folding robot

Towel-folding robot J. Maitin-She p ard , M. Cusumano-Towner , J. Lei and P. Abbeel ,

RoboCup 2012

RoboCup 2012 Video ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 8

New Honda Robot ASIMO 2012

New Honda Robot ASIMO 2012 Video ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 9

Robot Riding Bicycle

Robot Riding Bicycle Video ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 10

Two chatbots talking to each other

Two chatbots talking to each other Video ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 11

Google self-driving cars

Google self-driving cars NY Times article

Some Others

Automatic speech recognition: Google voice search

Visual search: Google Goggles for Android

Translation: Google translator

Face detection/recognition: many consumer cameras (Apple iPhoto)

Vehicle safety systems: Mobileye

OCR: Optical Character Recognition

) • Vehicle safety systems: Mobileye • OCR: Optical Character Recognition ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012
) • Vehicle safety systems: Mobileye • OCR: Optical Character Recognition ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012
) • Vehicle safety systems: Mobileye • OCR: Optical Character Recognition ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

Discussion

Discussion • What is intelligence? What makes you think? • Can it be learned? Or born

What is intelligence? What makes you think?

Can it be learned? Or born with? Can it evolve?

Can it be measured?, e.g. IQ Test

How does it relate to: thinking, consciousness or

awareness?

Can machines be intelligent?

Intelligence: an operational meaning:

Nine Types of Intelligence:

Characteristics of being intelligent

Ability to perceive world knowledge

Ability to learn and acquire knowledge

Ability to apply knowledge

Ability to recognize and describe objects

Ability to communicate with others

Ability to argue and make decisions using incomplete/approximate knowledge

Ability to deal with unfamiliar situations

Ability to adapt to new yet related situations

Ability to solve problems to achieve a goal

Ability to memorize things

Ability to predict something in the future

Ability to show emotions

Ability to set goals and act autonomously

Ability to create and inventive

Ability to think abstractly (intelligence requires thinking)

Can range from simple naïve to very complex levels
Can range from simple naïve to very complex levels

Intelligence: Dictionary Definition

“(1) the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : reason; also: the skilled use

of reason” - Merriam Webster

“(2): the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests)” - Merriam Webster

“ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills” -

Intelligence: Another Definition

According to John McCarthy (the father of AI)

Intelligence is the computational

part of the ability to achieve goals in the world Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people

Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people [1927-2011] http://www.formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai

[1927-2011]

Pyramid of Intelligence

Wisdom + vision Knowledge Information Data
Wisdom
+ vision
Knowledge
Information
Data

+ experience

+ context

Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081

Computer vs. Brains

How complicated is our brain?

Computer vs. Brains • How complicated is our brain? – A neuron, or nerve cell, is

A neuron, or nerve cell, is the basic information processing unit

Estimated to be on the order of 10 12 neurons and 10 14 synapses (connections between neurons) in a human brain

Cycle time: 1 millisecond

How complex can we make computers?

10 6 or more transistors per CPU

Supercomputer: hundreds of CPUs, 10 9 bits of RAM

Cycle time: of order 10 -11 milliseconds

Conclusion

Can have computers with as many basic processing elements as our brain, but with

Far fewer interconnections (wires or synapses) than the brain

Much faster updates than the brain

But building hardware is very different from making a computer behave like a brain!

Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 20

Definitions of AI

Still no crisp complete agreed-upon definition.

Why?

Involves creativity (definition contradicts creativity)

broad multidisciplinary area (many perspectives, many applications, many technologies, etc.)

According to John McCarthy (the father of AI)

“… the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”

“related to the similar task of using computers to understand

human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to

methods that are biologically observable.”

AI: Another definition

a collection of hard problems, which can be solved by humans and other living things, but

for which we don’t have good algorithmic

solutions, e.g., understanding spoken natural

language, medical diagnosis, circuit design

Definitions from the textbook [R&N]

Acting humanly Thinking humanly
Acting humanly
Thinking humanly

AI

Acting rationally Thinking rationally
Acting rationally
Thinking rationally
Acting Humanly: Turing Test • Turing (1912-1954) • " Computing machinery and intelligence “ (1950)

Acting Humanly: Turing Test

Turing (1912-1954)

• " Computing machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI
• " Computing machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI

Imitation Game

machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI System “B”
machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI System “B”
machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI System “B”
machinery and intelligence “ (1950) Imitation Game Human Interrogator “C” Human “A” AI System “B”

Human Interrogator

“C”

Human

“A”

AI System “B”

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 25

Acting Humanly: Turing Test

What capabilities would a computer need to have to pass the Turing Test?

Natural language processing

Knowledge representation

Automated reasoning

Machine learning

Turing predicted that by the year 2000, machines

would be able to fool 30% of human judges for five minutes

Turing Test: Criticism

Some potential problems with the Test

Some human behavior is not intelligent

Some intelligent behavior may not be human

Human observers may be easy to fool

A lot depends on expectations

Anthropomorphic fallacy

Chatbots, e.g., ELIZA

• Anthropomorphic fallacy • Chatbots, e.g., ELIZA – One may simulate intelligence without havin g true

One may simulate intelligence without having true intelligence (more of a philosophical objection) [Chinese room argument]

of a philosophical objection) [ Chinese room argument ] • Is passing the Turing test a

Is passing the Turing test a good scientific goal?

Not a good way to solve practical problems

Can create intelligent agents without trying to imitate humans

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 28

Thinking Humanly: Cognitive Modeling

Brain as an information processing machine

How to understand cognition as a computational process?

Introspection: try to think about how we think

Predict and test behavior of human subjects

Image the brain, examine neurological data

Requires testable theories of the workings of the

human mind: cognitive science & neuroscience

Thinking Rationally: Laws of Thought

Aristotle was one of the first to attempt to formalize idealized or right way of thinking, i.e., provide precise notations and rules of

derivations of thoughts mechanization

Logic: patterns of argument that always yield correct conclusions when supplied with correct premises, e.g.

“Socrates is a man; all men are mortal; hence Socrates is mortal.”

Logicist approach to AI: describe problem in formal logical notation

and apply general deduction procedures to solve it

Problems with this approach

Computational complexity of finding the solution

Not always possible to describe real-world problems and

knowledge in logical notation

Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation

Acting Rationally: Rational Agent

A rational agent is one that acts to achieve the best expected outcome/goal

Goals are application-dependent and are expressed in terms of the utility of outcomes

Being rational means maximizing your expected utility

In practice, utility optimization is subject to the agent’s

computational constraints (bounded rationality or

bounded optimality)

Only concerns the decisions/actions that are made, not the cognitive process behind them

Acting Rationally: Rational Agent

Advantages of utility maximization” formulation

Generality: goes beyond explicit reasoning, and even human cognition altogether

Practicality: can be adapted to many real-world problems

Amenable to good scientific and engineering methodology

Avoids philosophy and psychology

Any disadvantages?

Does not necessarily involve thinking

What other people are saying?

Patrick Winston: “… study of ideas which enable computers to do things which make people seem intelligent” -- AI, 1992

Winston: “… study of ideas which enable computers to do things which make people seem intelligent”

Steven Tanimoto: “Computational techniques for performing

tasks that apparently require intelligence when performed by

tasks that apparently require intelligence when performed by

humans” – Elements of AI, 1995

flowers as natural intelligence is to natural flowers ” • George Luger: “… branch of computer

George Luger: “… branch of computer science that is concerned with automation of intelligent behavior” – AI, 2008

Luger: “… branch of computer science that is concerned with automation of intelligent behavior” – AI,

Elaine Rich: “… study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better” -- AI, 1991

Elaine Rich: “… study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people

Scott Fahlman: “… study of intelligence using the ideas and methods of computation”

• Scott Fahlman: “… study of intelligence using the ideas and methods of computation”

Common Definition

AI is the science and engineering concerned with the theory and practice of developing systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with

intelligence in human behavior: e.g.

perception, natural language processing, reasoning, planning and problem solving,

learning and adaptation, etc.

Intelligent Entity

Intelligent Entity Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081 ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 35

Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081

WHY AI & MORE

EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

Why AI?

Promise for handling many complex problems, saving lives and efficiently utilizing resources, e.g.

Solving information overload problems (e.g. intelligent search engines)

Operating in risky and laborious environments (e.g. robots cleaning houses; assisting patients; working in nuclear plants, etc)

Distributing scarce commercial knowledge (e.g. data-mining

through massive databases, looking for patterns that would take a human years to spot)

Enhancing training through use of simulation.

Helping physicians to diagnose and treat patients

Provide more natural and friendly interfaces to software

users

Stock market analysis, weather forecasting, oil exploration, etc.

Main Domains of AI

Knowledge representation (including

formal logic)

Search, especially heuristic search (puzzles, games)

Planning

Reasoning under uncertainty (including

probabilistic reasoning)

Perception (vision and speech)

Learning

Agents

Robotics

Natural language processing: generation, understanding and translation

Expert systems: e.g. medical diagnosis, financial and scientific analysis, trouble shooting and fault finding, etc.

analysis, trouble shooting and fault finding, etc. Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081 ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM

Ref: Notes of ICS381, 081

Robotics • Mars rovers • Autonomous vehicles/planes – DARPA Grand Challenge – Google self-driving cars

Robotics

Mars rovers

Autonomous vehicles/planes

Google self-driving cars

Robot soccer

RoboCup

Personal robotics

Humanoid robots

Personal assistants?

Personal robotics – Humanoid robots – Robotic pets – Personal assistants? ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012
Personal robotics – Humanoid robots – Robotic pets – Personal assistants? ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012
Personal robotics – Humanoid robots – Robotic pets – Personal assistants? ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012
Personal robotics – Humanoid robots – Robotic pets – Personal assistants? ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

Honda Humanoids (Robots)

Honda Humanoids (Robots) ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 40

Sony AIBO Robot

Sony AIBO Robot ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 41
Natural Language Processing (NLP) • Speech technologies – Automatic speech recognition – Google voice search

Natural Language Processing

(NLP)

Speech technologies

Automatic speech recognition

Text-to-speech synthesis

Dialog systems

search – Text-to-speech synthesis – Dialog systems • Machine translation – translate.google.com –

Machine translation

translation – translate.google.com – Comparison of several translation systems ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 42

Information Agents &

Expert Systems

Information Agents & Expert Systems • Search engines • Recommendation systems • Spam filtering • Automated

Search engines

Recommendation systems

Spam filtering

Automated helpdesks

systems • Spam filtering • Automated helpdesks – automated online assistant providing customer service
systems • Spam filtering • Automated helpdesks – automated online assistant providing customer service

automated online assistant providing customer service on a web page

Medical diagnosis systems

Fraud detection

Automated trading

Intelligent tutors

diagnosis systems • Fraud detection • Automated trading • Intelligent tutors ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

IBM Watson: Question Answering

Machine

IBM Watson: Question Answering Machine • http://www.research.ibm.com/deepqa/ • NY Times article • Trivia demo •

Entertainment: Games and Puzzles

Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
Entertainment: Games and Puzzles ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 45
F OUNDATIONS OF AI ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 46

FOUNDATIONS OF AI

AI is Multidisciplinary

Many disciplines contribute to AI

CS&E Economics Mathematics Cognitive Biology AI Science Philosophy Linguistics Psychology
CS&E
Economics
Mathematics
Cognitive
Biology
AI
Science
Philosophy
Linguistics
Psychology

Foundations of AI

Philosophy

Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system, foundations of learning, language, rationality

Formal representation and proof, algorithms, computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability

Utility, decision theory

Mathematics

Economics

Biology, Neuroscience>> Physical substrate for mental activity

Psychology

Phenomena of perception and motor control,

experimental techniques, adaptation

Building fast computers

Computer

engineering

Control theory

Design systems that maximize an objective

function over time

Linguistics

Knowledge representation, grammar

B RIEF H ISTORY OF AI http://www.stottlerhenke.com/ai_general/history.htm ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 49

BRIEF HISTORY OF AI

Brief History of AI (1940s-1950s)

1943

McCulloch & Pitts neural model

1949

Hebb learning: a simple algorithm that modifies connection strengths between neurons (which is still influential till today)

1950

Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence“

Claude Shannon published a paper on chess playing showing large

 

number of moves involved and need for heuristics

1951

von Neumann helps Minsky and Edmonds (2 grads at Princeton) to build the first neural network computer

1950s

Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program, Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist, Gelernter's Geometry Engine

Reinforcement learning; genetic algorithms; evolutionary computation

1956

First AI workshop at Dartmouth sponsored by IBM & birth of AI; Checker program

1958

McCarthy paper on “Program with common sense”; Lisp

 

Programming

50

 

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

Brief History of AI (1960s-1970s)

1960s

Newell and Simon invented the General Problem Solver (GPS)

1962

New NN learning: Widrow adalines; Rosenblatt perceptrons

1965

Robinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning

Lotfy Zadeh introduced Fuzzy sets

1969

Logic applications included the Shakey robot (first general- purpose mobile robot able to reason about its own actions)

1966-73

AI discovers computational complexity

Neural network research almost disappears

1969-79

Early development of knowledge-based systems

Early

Shift from general purpose, knowledge-sparse, weak methods to domain-specific, knowledge-intensive techniques (ES)

1970s

Mid

First large expert system: (Mycin: rule-based expert system for

1970s

diagnosis of blood infections)

1972

Birth of Prolog by Colmerauer with Philippe Roussel; Natural Lang. understanding by Winograd

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

51

Brief History of AI (1980s-Present)

1980

First meeting of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence held in Stanford, California

Mid 80s

Rumelhart, Hinton, and McClelland studied neural net models

 

of memory; back-propagation learning algorithm

1980-

AI becomes an industry

1986-

Neural networks return to popularity machine learning

Generalization of single-layer network: Hopfield network, back-

 

propagation

 

Knowledge engineering: use of Fuzzy logic improves computational power, improves cognitive modeling, allows to represent multiple experts

1987-

AI becomes a science

1995

Emergence of intelligent agents

1997

IBM Deep Blue defeater chess world champion Kasparov

2011

IBM Watson wins on Jeopardy

ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012

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W RAP -U P ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 53

WRAP-UP

Summary

Define intelligence and its characteristics

Define artificial intelligence and identify its

foundations

Identify domains and applications for AI

Learn a bit of history of AI

Reading Assignment

Read Chapter 1 of the textbook by Russell & Norvig

Q UESTIONS & D ISCUSSIONS ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 56

QUESTIONS & DISCUSSIONS

W ATCH V IDEOS ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 57

WATCH VIDEOS

AI

AI Click the image to watch the video online ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 58

Click the image to watch the video online

John McCarthy (1927-2011): AI

John McCarthy (1927-2011): AI Click the image to watch the video online ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM

Click the image to watch the video online

The Challenge and Promise of AI

The Challenge and Promise of AI Click the image to watch the video online ICS381 by

Click the image to watch the video online

T HANKS ! ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 61

THANKS!

T HANKS ! ICS381 by Dr. El-Alf@KFUPM 2012 61