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Present Simple

We use Present Simple to talk about:

• Permanents Situations

e.g.: I work in Paris.


She lives in a flat.

• General truth or laws of nature



e.g.: Bees make honey.
Water bolts at 100º C.

• Routine or repeated habitual actions. We can use with adverbs of frequency like
always, often, sometimes, never, usually, rarely, in the afternoon/evening, at
night.

e.g.: She goes to the beach every summer.


I never get up before seven o’clock on Sunday.

• In spoken instructions, sports commentaries, jokes, formal letters, reviews,


dramatic narrative.

e.g.: First put the eggs in the recipient.


John runs towards the ball.
I enclose a copy of my curriculum vitae.
The police enter the bank and catch the thief.

• Timetables and programmes, with a future meaning.

e.g.: The plane arrives at 9.00 am.


Do the classes begin at the same time as last year?

• In exclamatory sentences

e.g.: Here comes the teacher!


It is terrible loud!

• In time clauses with a feature meaning after when, as soon as, if and until.

e.g.: I’ll write to her when /as soon as I get home.


Say “thanks” to Tom if he gives you the book.

Present Continuous

We use Present Continuous to talk about:


• Actions happening at or around the moment of speaking. We can use words like
now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, today, tonight, still.

e.g.: They are reading the book at the moment.


Luke is having lunch now.

• Temporary situations.

e.g.: I am working in my father’s restaurant this month.


Elizabeth is visiting her friend in Italy this week.

• For an action around the time of speaking, which has begun but is not finished.

e.g.: We are cooking a cake.


Margaret is reading a magazine. (She isn’t reading at this moment. She has
stopped to talk to her mother- but she plans to continue reading later).

• Plans and fixed arrangements in the near future.

e.g.: Emily and Peter are travelling to New York tonight.


Are you doing anything special this weekend?

• Changing or developing situations.

e.g.: The level of unemployment is getting worse.


The pollution in the city is getting worse all the time.

• With a word like always or continually, to express or to criticize someone.

e.g.: My younger brother is always leaving his shoes and socks around the house.
Richard is always loosing his keys.

Present perfect simple

We use present perfect simple to talk about

• Events that happened in the recent past. (Often with just).

e.g.: Carol has just gone to the supermarket. (She’s there now).
The train has just arrived.

• Complete past actions connected to the present. The time is unknown and/or
irrelevant.

e.g.: I’ve written a letter. (We do not know when).


I’ve bought my new car.

• Experiences or changes which have happened at some time in our life.


e.g.: I have learnt a lot this year.
We have been in Athens before.

• To emphasis on number.

e.g.: She has read three books this week.


He has interviewed seven students this morning.

• When we are describing repeated actions that have continue from some time in
the past until the present.

e.g.: You have played the piano every night (= until now, and you will probably to
continue to play every night).
Tom has gone to the gym every afternoon.

• We can use with this tense some time words such as: since, for, already, yet.

Since: It expresses a starting point.


e.g.: I have been in love with Bill since July.

For: It indicates the period of time that the activity has taken.
e.g.: Mike has lived in Japan for three years.

Already: It is used in mid or end position in statements or questions.


e.g.: She has already left.

Yet: It is used in negative sentences after the contracted auxiliary have or has or at the
end of the sentence.
e.g.: Caroline has not phoned yet.

In questions yet comes only at the end.


e.g.: Has Peter gone yet?