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Buddhist Ethics

Life of the Buddha (563-483 BCE) Born to royalty Destined to be either a great king or holy man Sheltered upbringing (designed to keep him from spiritual life) The "four sights" --old man --sick man --dead man --monk Became ascetic for a time but eventually achieved enlightenment in meditation ("middle path" between hedonism and asceticism) Basic ideas of Buddhism ) !ratityasamutpada (co-dependent origination" causality" dependent co-arising) --flower e#ample --all things dependent (conditioned by) other things --$%T&'$( is self-dependent" self-sustaining" eternal --$o eternal soul --$o deity )) *our noble truths + ,ife is suffering (duhkha) )+ Suffering has a cause -- desire (trsna) -+ Suffering can be ended by removing desire .+ *ollowing the /ightfold path will remove desire 0 end suffering + Duhkha ("out of 1oint") -- grief" frustration" sickness" dissatisfaction" unhappiness --all 1oys seem to be fleeting2 pleasures end and leave suffering )+ 3hy do we suffer4 Self-centered desire (craving" trsna) --we want things to last2 they can5t --we ignorantly cause pain in others --but all our actions have conse6uences (karma) --summed up in "three poisons"7 ) desire )) envy" anger" or hatred (aggression) -) ignorance about nature of reality -+ $ow" the good news -- trsna can be eliminated and so end duhkha --/nd of duhkha 8 $irvana (e#tinguishing) -- the trsna is e#tinguished (later" ego is e#tinguished)

.+ /ightfold path7 ) 9ight understanding )) 9ight thought -) 9ight speech .) 9ight action :) 9ight livelihood ;) 9ight effort <) 9ight mindfulness =) 9ight concentration Buddhist morality 9ight understanding7 >nderstand causality" and that trsna causes duhkha" and that the self is not eternal but conditioned" etc+ 9ight thought7 avoid the three poisons 9ight speech7 do not gossip" lie" or misrepresent reality in any way 9ight action (right conduct)7 follow the five precepts7 + Don5t harm or kill living creatures )+ Don5t take anything not given -+ Don5t misuse sensual pleasures .+ Don5t speak untruths :+ Don5t use drugs or alcohol 9ight livelihood7 Don5t follow a career that causes suffering or encourages trsna --don5t be a soldier" butcher" poisoner" drug dealer" prostitute" arms dealer" etc+ 9ight effort" mindfulness" 0 concentration7 guidelines for spiritual e#ercises and meditation Deontological or eleological! --Teleological+ 't is the karma of selfish action which makes it "wrong+" 'f an action has different conse6uences due to society5s norms" its rightness may differ too+ &ence p+ .) bottom7 "3hat is reckoned immoral at one time may be reckoned to be moral at another time+" ?onse6uences may be different+ @etaphysics (poisoned arrow) Arhat vs+ Bodhisattva